Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic paper
An updated checklist of aquatic plants of Myanmar and Thailand
Corresponding author: Yu Ito (email@example.com)
Academic editor: Quentin Groom
Received: 04 Nov 2013 | Accepted: 29 Dec 2013 | Published: 06 Jan 2014
© 2014 Yu Ito, Anders S. Barfod.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Citation: Ito Y, Barfod A (2014) An updated checklist of aquatic plants of Myanmar and Thailand. Biodiversity Data Journal 2: e1019. doi: 10.3897/BDJ.2.e1019
The flora of Tropical Asia is among the richest in the world, yet the actual diversity is estimated to be much higher than previously reported. Myanmar and Thailand are adjacent countries that together occupy more than the half the area of continental Tropical Asia. This geographic area is diverse ecologically, ranging from cool-temperate to tropical climates, and includes from coast, rainforests and high mountain elevations. An updated checklist of aquatic plants, which includes 78 species in 44 genera from 24 families, are presented based on floristic works. This number includes seven species, that have never been listed in the previous floras and checklists. The species (excluding non-indigenous taxa) were categorized by five geographic groups with the exception of to reflect the rich diversity of the countries' floras.
Aquatic plants, flora, Myanmar, Thailand
Myanmar and Thailand, adjacent countries, comprise more than half of the tropical region for continental Asia. Situated within the Indo-Myanmar (Burma) hot-spot, this area is among the richest in biodiversity in the World (
The aquatic floras of Myanmar and Thailand have been separately investigated. The Flora of Thailand project was launched in the 70’s, led by European and Thai herbaria and institutions. The aquatic species were treated in separated volumes (
Aquatic plant families treated in volumes of Flora of Thailand.
|Volume 5 part 2||Scrophulariaceae|
|Volume 7 part 2||Callitrichaceae|
|Volume 7 part 3||Alismataceae|
|Volume 7 part 3||Aponogetonaceae|
|Volume 7 part 3||Cymodoceaceae|
|Volume 7 part 3||Hydrocharitaceae|
|Volume 7 part 3||Lemnaceae|
|Volume 7 part 3||Limnocharitaceae|
|Volume 7 part 3||Potamogetonaceae|
|Volume 9 part 1||Pontederiaceae|
|Volume 9 part 2||Typhaceae|
|Volume 11 part 2||Acoraceae|
|Volume 11 part 2||Araceae|
|Volume 12 part 2||Ruppiaceae|
The aquatic plant specimens treated in this study come from field works carried out in 2006 (Myanmar), 2008 (Myanmar), and 2012 (Thailand). Plants were hand-collected from aquatic environments e.g. ponds and lakes. Occasionally collections were made by boat (
?Cambodia, India (north), Japan, Korea, ?Laos, Myanmar, ?Philippines, Thailand, ?Vietnam.
Bangladesh, ?Cambodia, India (nationwide), ?Indonesia, Japan, ?Laos, ?Malaysia, ?Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, ?Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, ?Vietnam; introduced in Americas.
Native to North America.
Bangladesh, India (Western [Orissa, West Bengal]), Myanmar, Thailand; Australia.
The 78 species were classified into six geographic categories: Widespread; Eurasian cool-temperate; Asia – Australia; Tropical Asia; Pan-Tropics; invasive (
A classification of aquatic plants in Myanmar and Thailand in distribution.
|Widespread||Eurasian cool-temperate||Asia – Australia||Asian tropics||Pan-Tropics||Invasive|
|Acorus calamus||Alisma plantago-aquatica||Acorus gramineus||Aponogeton lakhonensis||Hydrilla verticillata||Cabomba caroliniana|
|Caldesia parnassifolia||Potamogeton lucens||Blyxa aubertii||Barclaya longifolia||Ipomoea aquatica||Egeria densa|
|Callitriche stagnalis||Vallisneria spiralis||Blyxa echinosperma||Blyxa quadricostata||Lemna aequinoctialis||Eichhornia crassipes|
|Ceratophyllum demersum||Blyxa japonica||Crinum thaianum||Ludwigia adscendens||Elodea nutallii|
|Landoltia punctata||Hydrocharis dubia||Cryptocoryne albida||Neptunia oleracea||Limnocharis flava|
|Lemna trisulca||Limnophila indica||Cryptocoryne cordata||Nymphoides indica||Myriophyllum brasiliense|
|Najas marina||Limnophila sessiliflora||Cryptocoryne crispatula||Pistia stratiotes||Myriophyllum spicatum|
|Potamogeton crispus||Monochoria vaginalis||Cryptocoryne cruddasiana||Utricularia gibba||Nelumbo nucifera|
|Potamogeton nodosus||Mimulus orbicularis||Eriocaulon setaceum||Sagittaria guayanensis|
|Ruppia maritima||Nymphoides aurantiaca||Limnophila heterophylla|
|Spirodela polyrrhiza||Najas graminea||Monochoria elata|
|Stuckenia pectinata||Ottelia alismoides||Monochoria hastata|
|Typha angustifolia||Persicaria attenuata subsp. pulchra||Myriophyllum tetrandrum|
|Potamogeton distinctus||Myriophyllum tuberculatum|
|Potamogeton maackianus||Najas indica|
|Potamogeton octandrus||Najas tenuis|
|Potamogeton wrightii||Nechamandra alternifolia|
|Sagittaria trifolia||Nymphaea nouchali|
|Utricularia aurea||Nymphaea pubescens|
|Utricularia australis||Nymphoides cambodiana|
Altogether, we identified 380 specimens, excluding 31 duplicates, belonging to 75 species of 41 genera from 23 plant families; the remaining 3 species belonging to 3 genera of 3 families were listed with no voucher specimens. Geographically the species distribution pattern can be classified into six categories: Widespread; Eurasian cool-temperate; Asia – Australia; Tropical Asia; Pan-Tropics; and Invasive.
This category is mostly congruent with 'Widespread Species' of
The species clustered in this category are distributed mainly in cool-temperate region of Eurasia, thus limiting the distribution to a small portion of Southeast Asia (Myanmar: Shan state; Thailand: Northern states).
The species included in this category have a distribution in either Australia or East Asia or both, e.g., Australia: Mimulus orbicularis and Nymphoides aurantiaca; East Asia: Acorus gramineus, Blyxa japonica, Limnophila sessiliflora, Potamogeton distinctus, P. maackianus, P. wrightii, and Sagittaria trifolia; Australia and East Asia: Blyxa aubertii, B. echinosperma, Hydrocharis dubia, Limnophila indica, Monochoria vaginalis, Najas graminea, Ottelia alismoides, Persicaria attenuata subsp. pulchra, Potamogeton octandrus, Utricularia aurea, and U. australis.
This category comprises the largest number of species for the aquatic floras of Myanmar and Thailand. Some of the species included are endemic or narrowly distributed e.g., Cryptocoryne is endemic to tropical Asia. The monotypic genus Nechamandra occurs predominantly in India but also scattered in other parts of tropical Asia (also reported from one locality of Africa). Another monotypic genus Barclaya is among the tropical Asian endemics. The genera Aponogeton (Aponogetonaceae), Blyxa, Najas, (Hydrocharitaceae), Myriophyllum (Haloragaceae), Nymphoides (Menyanthaceae), Monochoria (Pontederiaceae), Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) have their center of diversity in tropical Asia.
On a species level, the distribution is further classified into three groups: 1) Indo-China, 2) Southeast Asian, and 3) endemic to Myanmar and Thailand. The first group includes Cryptocoryne crispatula, Eriocaulon setaceum, Limnophila heterophylla, Monochoria hastata, Myriophyllum tetrandrum, M. tuberculatum, Najas indica, N. graminea, Nechamandra alternifolia, Nymphaea nouchali, N. pubescens, Nymphoides hydrophylla, and Utricularia stellaris (also known from Africa). The second group includes Barclaya longifolia, Cryptocoryne albida, C. cordata, Monochoria elata, and Ottelia cordata. The last group includes Blyxa quadricostata, Crinum thaianum, Cryptocoryne cruddasiana, and Utricularia punctata.
This category with eight species is mostly congruent with 'Pan-tropical Species' of
The aquatic floras of Myanmar and Thailand have well known invasive aquatic species including Elodea densa (Hydrocharitaceae) and Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae).
The authors would like to thank R. Pooma, S. Saengrit, N. Suphuntee (BKF), T. Koyama, Nb. Tanaka (MBK), J. Murata, T. Ohi-Toma, A. Shimizu (TI), Nr. Tanaka (TNS), A. Naiki (RYU), T. Sugawara (MAK), U. Htun Paw Oo, and U. Soe Win Hlaing (Myanmar).