Biodiversity Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
Data Paper (Biosciences)
Insect fauna including unrecorded species in Ulleungdo, South Korea
expand article infoMin Hyeok Won‡,§, Jae Won Choi‡,§, WooJun Bang|, DongYeol Lee, Min Ki Moon, Young-Kun Kim, Donguk Kim, Dooyoung Kim, Sang Jae Suh¶,#, Kwang Shik Choi‡,§,¤
‡ School of Life Science, BK21 FOUR KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea
§ Research Institute for Dok-do and Ulleung-do Island, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea
| School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
¶ School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea
# Institute of Plant Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea
¤ Research Institute for Phylogenomics and Evolution, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea
Open Access



Ulleungdo harbours a unique ecosystem owing to its isolation from the mainland alongside its maritime climate. The island, formed via volcanic activity, is the largest island in the East Sea of Korea and retains a primeval forest. The ecosystems are being destroyed owing to increasing human activity on the island. Therefore, through the investigation of the insect fauna of Ulleungdo, we tried to provide information that can be the basis for understanding the island ecology of Ulleungdo. This survey was conducted four times between April and October in 2020 at Seonginbong.

New information

The findings of the survey regarding insect fauna at Seonginbong, Ulleungdo included 10 orders, 105 families, 216 genera and 212 species, of which 12 families, two subfamilies, 13 genera and 74 species were previously unrecorded. The data have been registered in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF;


Insecta, island, diversity, database, new records, Palearctic


In general, island ecosystems are isolated and have limited resources, which consequently results in simpler food chains than those in inland ecosystems (Polis et al. 1997). Therefore, the interrelationship between predators and prey in island ecosystems can be compared more clearly than in inland where the relationship is complex (Simberloff 1974). In addition, the biota of island regions is expectedly distinct from inland biota as the former is affected by oceanic climates, unlike inland ecosystems, which are affected by continental climates. However, islands surrounded by oceans are vulnerable to the effects of climate change, such as rising sea levels due to global warming, changes in temperature and precipitation, increasing incidences of unpredictable tropical cyclones and El Nino (Ahn 2011). In case such climate change continues in Korea, boreal plants in temperate regions in the Northern Hemisphere are expected to become extinct, whereas the distribution of temperate plants is expected to expand rapidly (Kim et al. 2022). Furthermore, human activities, such as island development and the influx of foreign species have added to the threat of biodiversity reduction in island ecosystems (Veron et al. 2019). For this reason, island ecosystems require constant monitoring.

Ulleungdo and its subsidiary islands are the sole island areas located in the East Sea of Korea, thereby representing the only island ecosystem in the East Sea. Ulleungdo is located in the southwest of the East Sea (37°30'N, 130°52'E) and at a distance of 130 km from the Korean Peninsula. The island was formed via volcanic activity and is an ocean island that has never been connected to land. Seonginbong (984 m) is located at the centre of Ulleungdo. The primeval forest of Seonginbong is an ecologically stable climax forest and includes plants that are unique to Ulleungdo (Cho et al. 1993).

An investigation about the insect fauna of Ulleungdo was first conducted by Cho, who reported four families and 16 species of butterflies (Cho 1929). Subsequent studies have identified various taxa, including 95 families and 345 species (Kim 1971), 125 families and 574 species (Lee and Kwon 1981), 141 families and 691 species (Kwon et al. 1996), 154 families and 828 species (Lee and Jung 2001), 153 families and 841 species (Lee et al. 2006), 81 families and 242 species (Lim and Lee 2012) and 96 families and 433 species (Lim et al. 2013). According to Lim et al. (2013), a total of 18 orders, 179 families and 1,177 species of insects were recorded on Ulleungdo during the survey period from 1929 to 2013. In addition, a recent survey by the National Institute of Biological Resources (National Institute of Biological Resources 2021b) involving aquatic insects in Ulleungdo identified 32 species of aquatic insects, including Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Given its distinct geography as an island region, Ulleungdo has poor accessibility. In addition, owing to severe weather disturbances, such as typhoons and high waves, periodic insect fauna surveys have been difficult to conduct. Although there have been several surveys in the past, the overall insect fauna survey has not been carried out since the study of Lim et al. (2013) and the most recent survey (National Institute of Biological Resources 2021b) was not a general survey of insect fauna, but the aquatic environment. Therefore, there is a need to update the insect fauna data and it is possible that there are still many unrecorded insect species on Ulleungdo. Herein, a comprehensive survey of the insect fauna inhabiting Seonginbong in Ulleungdo was conducted using different collection methods and a species list, including that of previously unrecorded species, was prepared.

Sampling methods


Throughout 2020 (April, July, August and October) four expeditions were carried out to collect data at Seonginbong (37°29'52.81''N, 130°52'03.72''E) in Ulleungdo (Fig. 1). Fifteen collection points were designated along the altitude of Seonginbong and four collection methods were used: light trap, molasses traps, pit-fall traps and sweeping.

Figure 1.  

Location of Ulleungdo, Korea.

Sampling description: 

Light trap was conducted at collection point 1 (lowland), collection point 6 (midland) and collection point 15 (highland). After fixing a tripod (height: 1 m) inside a tent (height: 1.7 m), a 400 W high-voltage mercury lamp was connected with a tripod. Samples attracted by ultra-violet light from a mercury lamp were collected by a hand-collecting method. Light trap was operated after 20:00 h when the sun had completely set and it was operated for about 1 hour at each point.

Molasses traps were conducted at all 15 collection points. The distance between each collection point is about 50 m. Tissue soaked in attractant was put in a mesh net and hung on a tree. The attracted samples were collected by a hand-collecting method. Molasses, made by mixing sugar, glacial acetic acid and grape juice, was used as an attractant (Scheller 1984, Singh et al. 2013, Dar et al. 2020). Molasses traps were installed at 15 points by altitude and maintained for 24 hours. Insects attached to the traps were collected one day after traps installation.

Pit-fall traps were also conducted in all 15 collection points. A plastic cup (diameter: 9.2 cm; height: 13.5 cm; volume: about 475 cm3) containing an attractant was buried at the same level as the ground. Molasses, pork and octopus were used as attractant and, in the case of molasses, the same molasses as the molasses trap were used. Each attractant was separately put into a plastic cup and three types of pit-fall traps were installed at regular intervals of 3 m. Three pit-fall traps were installed for each attractant at one point and a total of 45 traps were installed at 15 points. Pit-fall traps, like molasses traps, installed at 15 points by altitude, were maintained for 24 hours from the time of installation and then the insects in the traps were collected next day.

Sweeping was conducted continuously while going up from collection site 1 to 15 and samples were collected by sweeping an insect net (pole: 2.5 m; net diameter: 50 cm; net length: 110 cm). Sweeps were performed at least 50 times for each point. The samples collected in the insect net were transferred into the conical tube using an insect aspirator. Sweeping was carried out while climbing the Seounginbong during the daytime.

Collected samples were stored in conical tubes containing 70% ethanol. Large insects, such as some Lepidoptera species, were stored in glassine paper and frozen to prevent damage. Afterwards, the collected samples were moved to the Animal Systematics & Taxonomy Laboratory at Kyungpook National University. The species were identified by referring to various references (Hardy and Takahashi 1960, Shin 2001, Park et al. 2012, An 2013, Cho 2015a, Cho 2015b, Cho 2015c, Jang et al. 2015, Baek 2016, Dong 2017, National Institute of Biological Resources 2021a). In order to confirm that the identified species are unrecorded species of Ulleungdo, they were checked through the references which including a list of insect species previously investigated on Ulleungdo (Kim 1971, Lee and Kwon 1981, Lee et al. 2006, Lim and Lee 2012, Lim et al. 2013).

Database update: A list of 212 insect species collected from Ulleungdo in 2020 was prepared and the data were registered in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

Geographic coverage


This survey was conducted at Seonginbong, Ulleungdo.


37°29'10'' and 37°29'54''N Latitude; 130°52'03'' and 130°53'39''E Longitude.

Taxonomic coverage

Taxa included:
Rank Scientific Name Common Name
kingdom Animalia Animals
phylum Arthropoda Arthropods
class Insecta Insects
order Blattodea
order Coleoptera
order Dermaptera
order Diptera
order Hemiptera
order Hymenoptera
order Lepidoptera
order Mantodea
order Orthoptera
order Trichoptera

Usage licence

Usage licence: 
Creative Commons Public Domain Waiver (CC-Zero)

Data resources

Data package title: 
Number of data sets: 
Data set name: 
Data format: 

The dataset (Kyungpook National University Animal Systematics & Taxonomy Laboratory 2023) included 10 orders, 105 families, 216 genera and 212 species of insects. This survey was prepared four times (28/04/2020-03/05/2020, 05/07/2020-08/07/2020, 28/08/2020-31/08/2020, 01/10/2020-04/10/2020) at Seonginbong of Ulleungdo. The collection methods used include sweeping, light trap, pit-fall trap and molasses trap.

Column label Column description
taxonID An identifier for the set of taxon information (data associated with the Taxon class).
scientificName Full scientific name.
taxonRank The taxonomic rank of the most specific name in the scientificName.
kingdom The full scientific name of the kingdom in which the taxon is classified.
phylum The full scientific name of the phylum or division in which the taxon is classified.
class The full scientific name of the class in which the taxon is classified.
order The full scientific name of the order in which the taxon is classified.
family The full scientific name of the family in which the taxon is classified.
genus The full scientific name of the genus in which the taxon is classified.
specificEpithet The name of the first or species epithet of the scientificName.
infraspecificEpithet The name of the lowest or terminal infraspecific epithet of the scientificName, excluding any rank designation.
vernacularName Common or vernacular name in Korea.
occurrenceID Unique identifier of the occurrence.
basisOfRecord State of the recorded specimen.
countryCode Country code.
stateProvince Province in which the specimen was collected.
county County in which the specimen was collected.
locality Locality in which the specimen was collected.
decimalLatitude Geographic latitude of the collection site.
decimalLongitude Geographic longitude of the collection site.
geodeticDatum The ellipsoid, geodetic datum or spatial reference system (SRS) upon which the geographic coordinates given in decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude are based.
coordinateUncertaintyInMetres The horizontal distance (in metres) from the given decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude describing the smallest circle containing the whole of the Location.
eventDate Date of sampling period.
identifiedBy Identifier for the specimen.
recordedBy A list (concatenated and separated) of names of people, groups or organisations responsible for recording the original Occurrence.
identificationRemarks Comments or notes about the Identification.

Additional information

Results and Discussion

This survey identified 10 orders, 105 families, 216 genera and 212 species of insects (Table 1, Fig. 2). This list includes 12 families, two subfamilies, 13 genera and 74 species that have not been previously recorded on Ulleungdo.

Table 1.

Ulleungdo insect list in 2020.

Order Family Subfamily Scientific name Newly-recorded
Family Subfamily Genus Species
Blattella nipponica
Anthribidae sp.
Saprosites japonicus O
Bostrichidae sp. O
Apioninae sp. O
Agrilus sp.
Agrilus chujoi
Parena sp.
Synuchus sp.
Anisodactylus (Pseudanisodactylus) signatus
Amara (Curtonotus) giganteus
Amara (Amara) ussuriensis
Gyrochaetostylus atricomes O
Harpalus (Harpalus) chalcentus
Harpalus (Zangoharpalus) tinctulus luteicornoides O
Lesticus (Triplogenius) magnus
Metacolpodes buchannani
Nipponoharpalus discrepans O
Acalolepta sejuncta sejuncta O
Anaglyptus (Aglaophis) colobotheoides
Arhopaloscelis bifasciata
Arhopalus rusticus rusticus
Egesina (Niigimaia) bifasciana bifasciana
Mimectatina divaricata divaricata
Saperda octomaculata O
Blitopertha orientalis O
Protaetia lugubris O
Sericania sp.
Sericania fuscolineata
Sophrops striata O
Chrysomelidae sp.
Cryptocephalus sp.
Altica oleracea oleracea O
Argopistes tsekooni
Bruchidius japonicus O
Demotina modesta O
Gallerucida bifasciata
Pagria signata
Paridea (Paridea) angulicollis O
Syneta adamsi O
Calvia muiri
Epilachna quadricollis O
Harmonia axyridis
Illeis (Illeis) koebelei koebelei
Curculionidae sp. O
Bradybatus sp.
Orchestes sp. O
Entiminae sp.
Pseudocneorhinus sp. O
Pseudoedophrys hilleri
Elateridae sp.
Melanotus sp.
Drasterius agnatus
Pectocera fortunei
Ancylopus pictus asiaticus
Spaeridiinae sp.
Leiodidae sp. O
Catops sp. O
Dorcus rectus rectus
Meloidae sp.
Meloe (Meloe) proscarabaeus proscarabaeus
Mordellidae sp.
Nitidulidae sp.
Epuraea (Epuraea) oblonga O
Glischrochilus (Librodor) rufiventris O
Ipidia (Ipidia) variolosa variolosa O
Meligethes flavicollis O
Neopallodes omogonis O
Omosita discoidea O
Aspidobyctiscus (Aspidobyctiscus) lacunipennis O
Salpingus depressifrons O
Scraptiidae sp.
Necrophila (Eusilpha) jakowlewi jakowlewi
Uleiota arboreus O
Staphylinidae sp.
Aleochara (Aleochara) curtula
Tachyporinae sp.
Allecula (Upinella) melanaria O
Gonocephalum (Gonocephalum) pubens
Lagria (Lagria) nigricollis O
Lagria (Lagria) rufipennis O
Luprops orientalis
Mycetochara (Ernocharis) orientalis O
Euborellia annulata O
Anechura japonica
Anisolabella marginalis
Agromyzidae sp. O
Sylvicola japonicus
Anthomyiidae sp.
Delia platura
Fucellia apicalis
Ommatiinae sp.
Bibio sp.1 O
Bibio sp.2 O
Bibio tenebrosus O
Calliphoridae sp.
Lucilia sp.
Cecidomyiidae sp. O
Chloropidae sp. O
Coelopa frigida O
Condylostylus nebulosus O
Dolichopodinae sp. O
Drosophilidae sp.
Drosophila sp.
Scaptomyza sp.
Ephydridae sp. O
Fannia sp.
Heleomyzidae sp. O
Suillia sp. O
Suillia brunneipennis O
Suillia lineitergum O
Suillia nartshukella
Lauxaniidae sp.
Homoneura sp. O
Homoneura filiola O
Homoneura haejuana O
Sciasmomyia supraorientalis O
Lonchoptera sp. O
Atherigona sp. O
Muscinae sp.
Lispe sp.
Phaoniinae sp.
Dichaetomyia bibax O
Mycetophilidae sp. O
Phoridae sp.1 O
Phoridae sp.2 O
Euprosopia grahami O
Rivellia alini
Rivellia nigroapicalis
Psila sp. O
Psychodidae sp.
Sarcophagidae sp.
Sarcophaginae sp.
Scathophaga sp.
Scathophaga mellipes O
Scathophaga Stercoraria
Sciaridae sp. O
Simulium sp.
Sphaeroceridae sp 1. O
Sphaeroceridae sp 2. O
Allognosta vagans O
Syrphidae sp.
Tachinidae sp.
Tachina sp.
Tephritidae sp.
Campiglossa sp.
Acanthonevra trigona O
Anomoia purmunda
Acanthosomatidae sp.
Acanthosoma crassicaudum
Acanthosoma denticaudum
Acanthosoma forficula
Elasmostethus nubilus
Sastragala scutellata
Errada nawae
Alydus calcaratus O
Paraplesius unicolor O
Riptortus clavatus
Aphididae sp.
Obiphora intermedia
Cicadellidae sp.
Cicadella viridis
Drabescus nigrifemoratus O
Drabescus nitobei O
Idiocerus (Bicenarus) ishiyamae
Neotituria kongosana
Phlogotettix cyclops
Meimuna opalifera
Homoeocerus (Tliponius) dilatatus
Macroscytus japonensis
Delphacidae sp.
Stenocranus sp.
Sogatella furcifera
Lygaeidae sp.
Neolethaeus dallasi
Nysius plebejus
Miridae sp.
Castanopsides sp. O
Charagochilus (Charagochilus) angusticollis O
Bryocoris montanus O
Monalocoris filicis
Nabis (Milu) apicalis O
Nabis (Nabis) stenoferus
Aelia fieberi
Aelia klugii
Glaucias subpunctatus
Lelia decempunctata
Menida scotti
Plautia stali
Zicrona caerulea
Psyllidae sp.
Reduviidae sp.
Gardena brevicollis O
Orosanga japonica
Physatocheila fieberi O
Andrenidae sp.
Apidae sp.
Apis mellifera
Bombus (Pyrobombus) ardens ardens
Bombus speciosus
Braconidae sp.
Camponotus sp.
Camponotus itoi
Camponotus japonicus
Camponotus kiusiuensis O
Formica lemani O
Lasius alienus
Lasius hayashi O
Lasius spathepus
Nylanderia flavipes
Stigmatomma silvestrii
Technomyrmex gibbosus O
Myrmicinae sp.
Temnothorax sp. O
Pheidole fervida
Pristomyrmex punctatus
Stenamma owstoni O
Temnothorax spinosior O
Tetramorium tsushimae
Ponerinae sp.
Cryptopone sauteri O
Ichneumonidae sp.
Coelichneumon (Coelichneumon) cyaniventris O
Vespa simillima simillima
Vespula flaviceps flaviceps
Pterodecta felderi
Glyphodes pryeri
Glyphodes quadrimaculalis
Haritalodes derogata
Herpetogramma luctuosalis
Paliga auratalis
Palpita nigropunctalis
Patania chlorophanta O
Nordstromia japonica
Thyatira batis batis
Erebidae sp. O
Barsine striata
Catocala lara O
Catocala nubila
Chionarctia nivea
Hypena amica
Hypocala subsatura O
Manulea japonica O
Miltochrista miniata O
Spilarctia seriatopunctata
Thyas juno O
Geometridae sp.
Abraxas fulvobasalis
Biston robustum O
Cabera griseolimbata
Deileptenia ribeata
Dysstroma japonica
Epirrhoe supergressa
Gandaritis fixseni
Lobogonodes erectaria
Lomographa bimaculata
Lomographa temerata
Odontopera arida
Orthocabera tinagmaria
Ourapteryx koreana
Pachyligia dolosa O
Phthonosema tendinosaria
Problepsis discophora O
Cupido argiades
Pseudozizeeria maha
Noctuidae sp.
Amyna sp. O
Amphipyra livida
Antoculeora locuples
Athetis lineosa
Callopistria repleta
Chasminodes albonitens
Chrysodeixis eriosoma
Ctenoplusia albostriata
Diarsia canescens
Diarsia deparca O
Dictyestra dissecta O
Dimorphicosmia variegata O
Dypterygia caliginosa
Euplexia lucipara O
Orthosia askoldensis O
Orthosia carnipennis
Sineugraphe oceanica
Xestia c-nigrum
Xestia efflorescens
Epodonta lineata
Euhampsonia cristata
Spatalia plusiotis
Kaniska canace
Minois dryas
Anthocharis scolymus
Pieris rapae
Pyralidae sp.
Samia cynthia
Acosmeryx naga
Ambulyx japonica koreana
Callambulyx tatarinovii
Tortricidae sp.
Tenodera sinensis
Shirakiacris shirakii
Trilophidia annulata
Gryllidae sp.
Oecanthus longicauda
Teleogryllus (Brachyteleogryllus) emma O
Paratachycines (Paratachycines) ussuriensis
Tachycines (Tachycines) coreanus
Tetrix japonica
Tettigoniidae sp.
Ducetia japonica
Hexacentrus japonicus
Phaneroptera falcata
Phaneroptera nigroantennata
Trichoptera sp.
Figure 2.  

Newly-recorded insect species from Seonginbong, Ulleungdo in 2020. Aa. Bostrichidae sp.; Ab. Apioninae sp.; Ac. Colpodes (Gyrochaetostylus) atricomes; Ad. Nipponoharpalus discrepans; Ae. Harpalus (Zangoharpalus) tinctulus luteicornoides; Af. Saperda octomaculata; Ba. Acalolepta sejuncta sejuncta; Bb. Protaetia lugubris; Bc. Paridea (Paridea) angulicollis; Bd. Meligethes flavicollis; Be. Bruchidius japonicus; Bf. Demotina modesta; Ca. Altica oleracea oleracea; Cb. Syneta adamsi; Cc. Epilachna quadricollis; Cd. Orchestes sp.; Ce. Pseudocneorhinus sp.; Cf. Bradybatus sp.; Da. Leiodidae sp.; Db. Catops sp.; Dc. Sophrops striata; Dd. Omosita discoidea; De. Epuraea (Epuraea) oblonga; Df. Neopallodes omogonis; Ea. Glischrochilus (Librodor) rufiventris; Eb. Ipidia (Ipidia) variolosa variolosa; Ec. Aspidobyctiscus (Aspidobyctiscus) lacunipennis; Ed. Blitopertha orientalis; Ee. Salpingus depressifrons; Ef. Uleiota arboreus; Fa. Allecula (Upinella) melanaria; Fb. Lagria nigricollis; Fc. Mycetochara (Ernocharis) orientalis; Fd. Lagria rufipennis; Fe. Euborellia annulata; Ff. Agromyzidae sp.; Ga. Bibio sp.1; Gb. Bibio sp.2; Gc. Bibio tenebrosus; Gd. Cecidomyiidae sp.; Ge. Chloropidae sp; Gf. Coelopa frigida; Ha. Condylostylus nebulosus; Hb. Dolichopodinae sp.; Hc. Ephydridae sp.; Hd. Suillia brunneipennis; He. Suillia lineitergum; Hf. Heleomyzidae sp.; Ia. Suillia sp.; Ib. Homoneura filiola; Ic. Homoneura haejuana; Id. Sciasmomyia supraorientalis; Ie. Homoneura sp.; If. Lonchoptera sp.; Ja. Dichaetomyia bibax; Jb. Atherigona sp.; Jc. Mycetophilidae sp.; Jd. Phoridae sp.1; Je. Phoridae sp.2; Jf. Euprosopia graham; Ka. Psila sp.; Kb. Scathophaga mellipes; Kc. Sciaridae sp.; Kd. Sphaeroceridae sp. 1; Ke. Sphaeroceridae sp. 2; Kf. Allognosta vagans; La. Acanthonevra trigona; Lb. Alydus calcaratus; Lc. Paraplesius unicolor; Ld. Drabescus nigrifemoratus; Le. Drabescus nitobei; Lf. Charagochilus (Charagochilus) angusticollis; Ma. Bryocoris montanus; Mb. Castanopsides sp.; Mc. Nabis (Milu) apicalis; Md. Gardena brevicollis; Me. Physatocheila fieberi; Mf. Technomyrmex gibbosus; Na. Lasius hayashi; Nb. Camponotus kiusiuensis; Nc. Formica lemani; Nd. Stenamma owstoni; Ne. Cryptopone sauteri; Nf. Temnothorax spinosior; Oa. Temnothorax sp.; Pa. Coelichneumon (Coelichneumon) cyaniventris; Pb. Patania chlorophanta; Pc. Manulea japonica; Pd. Thyas juno; Pe. Catocala lara; Pf. Miltochrista miniata; Qa. Hypocala subsatura; Qb. Erebidae sp.; Qc. Problepsis discophora; Qd. Pachyligia dolosa; Qe. Biston robustum; Qf. Orthosia askoldensis; Ra. Diarsia deparca; Rb. Dictyestra dissecta; Rc. Euplexia lucipara; Rd. Dimorphicosmia variegate; Re. Amyna sp.; Rf. Teleogryllus (Brachyteleogryllus) emma. Scale bars: Aa-Af, Bc-Mc, Me-Oa = 1.0 mm; Ba, Bb, Md, Pa-Rf = 1.0 cm.

The largest number of unrecorded species belonged to Coleoptera (28 species), followed by Lepidoptera (14 species), Diptera (13 species), Hemiptera (9 species) and Hymenoptera (8 species). Additionally, one previously unrecorded species each of Dermaptera and Orthoptera were found. In Diptera, 11 families, one subfamily and seven genera that have not been classified to the species level were identified. If all of these were to be identified at the species level, at least 32 unrecorded species would be recorded. Furthermore, Diptera appears to be the taxon with the highest possibility of unrecorded species being discovered. In the Braconidae family of Hymenoptera, Pyralidae family of Lepidoptera and Trichoptera, identification to the species level was difficult owing to the lack of experts. If accurate identification could be achieved, further previously unrecorded species would be identified.

The unrecorded species identified in this survey include pests, such as Aspidobyctiscus lacunipennis and Euplexia lucipara, which infest crops, such as grapes and beans and Biston robustum, Pachyligia dolosa and Patania chlorophanta, which infest forests, such as oak, camellia and persimmon (Lim et al. 2013, National Institute of Biological Resources 2022, Korea Forest Service 2022). The results of this survey highlight the necessity of obtaining the latest insect fauna data in Ulleungdo, updating the insect fauna through continuous monitoring, preventing the introduction of pests and implementing efforts to minimise damage to crops and forest resources.

Conflicts of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.


This research was supported by a Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2016R1A6A1A05011910).

Author contributions

MHW, JWC, WJB, DYL and MKM conducted sample collection. MHW, JWC, DUK and DYK identified Coleoptera, SJS and Y-KK identified Diptera, MHW and JWC identified other Orders. KSC helped to analyse the data and improved the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


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