Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomy & Inventories
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Taxonomy & Inventories
Revision of Belvosia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tachinidae) and 33 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica with a key to known North and Mesoamerican species
expand article infoAJ Fleming, Norman Woodley§, M. Alex Smith|, Winnie Hallwachs, Daniel H Janzen
‡ Agriculture Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Canada
§ ARS USDA, Arizona, United States of America
| University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada
¶ Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

Background

This revision is part of a continuing series of taxonomic work aimed at the description of new taxa and the redescription of known taxa of the Tachinidae of Area de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica. Here we describe 33 new species in the genus Belvosia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera: Tachinidae). All species described here were reared from this ongoing inventory of wild-caught caterpillars spanning a variety of families (Lepidoptera: Erebidae, Eupterotidae, Noctuidae, Notodontidae, Saturniidae, and Sphingidae). We provide a morphological description of each species with limited information on life history, molecular data, and photographic documentation. In addition to the new species, the authors provide a redescription of the genus Belvosia, as well as provide a key to the identification of the species present in the Meso- and North-American fauna.

New information

The following 33 new species of Belvosia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, all authored by Fleming & Woodley, are described: Belvosia adrianguadamuzi Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia anacarballoae Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia angelhernandezi Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia brigittevilchezae Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia alixtomoragai Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia carolinacanoae Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia ciriloumanai Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia diniamartinezae Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia duniagarciae Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia duvalierbricenoi Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia eldaarayae Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia eliethcantillanoae Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia freddyquesadai Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia gloriasihezarae Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia guillermopereirai Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia harryramirezi Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia hazelcambroneroae Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia jorgehernandezi Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia josecortezi Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia joseperezi Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia keinoraragoni Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia luciariosae Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia manuelpereirai Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia manuelriosi Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia minorcarmonai Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia osvaldoespinozai Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia pabloumanai Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia petronariosae Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia ricardocaleroi Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia robertoespinozai Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia rostermoragai Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia ruthfrancoae Fleming & Woodley sp. n., Belvosia sergioriosi Fleming & Woodley sp. n.

Belvosia canalis Aldrich, 1928 is reared and recorded from the inventory; new information relative to host is provided and the species is rediscribed.

The following are proposed by Fleming & Woodley as new synonyms of Belvosia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: Brachybelvosia Townsend, 1927 syn. n., Belvosiomimops Townsend, 1935 syn. n.

The following three new combinations are proposed as a result of the new synonymies: Belvosia brasilensis (Townsend, 1927), comb. n.; and Belvosia barbiellinii (Townsend, 1935), comb. n.

The authors also propose the following new synonymies: Belvosia brasilensis (Townsend, 1927) = Belvosia aurulenta (Bigot, 1888), syn. n.; Belvosia pollinosa Rowe, 1933 = Belvosia borealis Aldrich, 1928 syn. n.; Belvosia weyenberghiana (Wulp, 1883) = Belvosia fuliginosa (Walker, 1853) syn. n.; Belvosia brasiliensis Townsend, 1927 = Belvosia fuliginosa (Walker, 1853) syn. n.; Belvosia luteola Coquillett, 1900 = Belvosia ochriventris (Wulp, 1890) syn. n.; Belvosia socia (Walker, 1853) = Belvosia proxima (Walker, 1853) syn. n.; Belvosia chrysopyga (Bigot, 1887) = Belvosia unifasciata (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) syn. n.; Belvosia chrysopygata (Bigot, 1888) = Belvosia unifasciata (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) syn. n.

Keywords

Caterpillar, tropical, Goniini, parasitoid, fly, rain forest, dry forest, cloud forest, Area de Conservación Guanacaste, ACG

Introduction

The tribe Goniini is widely considered to be monophyletic by tachinid workers (O’Hara and Cooper 1992) based on the apomorphic "microtype" eggs that females of this tribe lay on foliage. The tiny eggs are laid in large quantities on the leaves of the food plant of the tachinid’s insect host, where they may be fortuitously ingested by a host larva. If an egg is ingested, the larva hatches and burrows through the gut wall to develop elsewhere in the host’s body. Multiple eggs can be ingested by a single host larva. In the case of Belvosia, the lepidopteran larval host begins the process of pupation, whereupon it is killed and the Belvosia larva(e) then pupate within the host's pupal case.

The genus Belvosia Robineau-Desvoidy 1830, is an exclusively New World genus in the tribe Goniini of the subfamily Exoristinae (sensu Herting 1984). Belvosia (Exoristinae, Goniini) was erected by Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 with the description of the type species, Belvosia bicincta (Robineau-Desvoidy 1830), dedicating the generic name to the French naturalist Palisot de Beauvois. The original description of B. bicincta was based on multiple syntypes from Antilles and Carolina [sic]; Townsend (1931) fixed a lectotype for the species at which point the type locality for B. bicincta was determined as West Indies. The genus has been constantly tinkered with since its inception. However the most comprehensive work to date on the genus was Aldrich (1928) revision of the genus Belvosia, which proposed seven new synonymies and described 19 new species bringing the total number of Belvosia to 36.

According to the most recent catalogs, there have been 15 species recognized as valid in the Nearctic Region (O'Hara and Wood 2004) and 64 species in America south of the United States (Guimarães 1977, Guimarães 1971; placed in several genera). Seven of these were recorded from both regions, so a total of 72 species have been described in the genus that are considered valid. The Neotropical species are particularly poorly known. Within, Area de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica, 20 morphospecies have been sorted from reared material from an extensive inventory of Lepidoptera, their parasitoids and their hosts (http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu). DNA barcoding of extensive samples of each of these species revealed that three of them contained additional cryptic species, for a total of 33 species (Smith et al. 2006). Thus, we consider the species richness in Belvosia to be considerably greater than what has been formally described in the Neotropical Region.

All of the new species of Belvosia reared from ACG described in this paper are based on differences in external morphology, male terminalia, CO1 (DNA barcodes, cox1 or cytochrome oxidase 1) gene sequences, and on comparison by AJF and NW with other named species of Belvosia from other regions. It is important to note however, that these new species are not to be taken as an indication of the total number of species of Belvosia even in such a small country as Costa Rica. Comparisons of tachinids collected during the ACG inventory with those present in the national collection in the Museo Nacional de Costa Rica (formerly the INBIO collection) show minimal overlap in species, suggesting that the tachinid fauna in other parts of the country is quite different from that of ACG and requires much additional study. Our study provides descriptions of these 33 new species of Belvosia Townsend, we also synonymize two genera, adding 3 new combinations, thereby bringing the total number of species in the genus from 72 to 107. There may also be a small number of apparent species of Belvosia that have been reared by the ACG inventory that at present can either only be distinguished only by their gene sequences (henceforth referred to as DNA barcodes) and host records, or have insufficient material to make an accurate diagnosis; AJF and NEW have elected to leave such cases for later description when additional material is available.

Materials and methods

Project aims and rearing intensity

The rearing information and flies presented herein were collected by the ongoing ACG inventory of the caterpillars, their food plants, and their parasitoids (Janzen et al. 2009, Janzen et al. 2011, Janzen and Hallwachs 2011, Janzen and Hallwachs 2016, Janzen et al. 2020). The rearing methods used are described in detail at http://janzen.bio.upenn.edu/caterpillars/methodology/how/parasitoid_husbandry.htm.

Since its inception, this inventory has reared more than 750,000+ wild-caught caterpillars collected throughout the major ACG terrestrial ecosystems (Janzen et al. 2009, Janzen et al. 2020). This effort continues to provide an unprecedented amount of data (available at http://janzen.bio.upenn.edu/), providing an invaluable tri-trophic database image of parasitoid biology, including parasitoids, their hosts, and food plants. All frequencies of parasitism reported here must be considered against this background inventory, which will be analyzed in detail in future works by DHJ, WH and multiple co-authors.

The scope of our treatment of the genus is limited to those species found in the North and Mesoamerican regions, ranging from Canada to Panama's southern border with Colombia. While we included all known species in our comparisons and determinations of new species, only those species distributed within this region are included in our key.

The present study is part of a larger group of studies to document the tachinid species living within Area de Conservación Guanacaste (http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr) (ACG) and provides names to new species as they are described (Fleming et al. 2014a, Fleming et al. 2014b, Fleming et al. 2015c, Fleming et al. 2015d, Fleming et al. 2015a, Fleming et al. 2015b, Fleming et al. 2016a, Fleming et al. 2016b, Fleming et al. 2017b, Fleming et al. 2017a, Fleming et al. 2019, Fleming et al. 2020). This series of taxonomic papers will represent a baseline for later, detailed ecological and behavioral accounts and studies extending across ACG ecological groups, whole ecosystems, and taxonomic assemblages much larger than a genus.

Imaging and Dissections

The species accounts and descriptions presented in this paper are deliberately concise and complemented with a series of color photos, used to illustrate the morphological differences and similarities among them. The morphological terminology used follows the most recent anatomical terminology outlined in Cumming and Wood (2009), and mentioned subsequently in Cumming and Wood (2017). The characters in our descriptions are presented in order of appearance on the body from anterior to posterior and arranged by the headings Head, Thorax, Abdomen and Male terminalia. All dissections and photography were carried out following the methods detailed by (Fleming et al. 2014). Measurements and examples of anatomical landmarks discussed herein are illustrated in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2. Whenever possible males were selected preferentially as the holotype, since they often bear the most differences in external morphology and are thus better for morphologically-based species recognition. The authors note that in those cases where only one male was available, this was designated the holotype and not subjected to dissection.

Figure 1.

Landmarks and salient features of Belvosia external morphology; a–b: measurments of head frontal view; c–d: color of basicosta

ameasured areas from front of head of female paratype of Belvosia ciriloumanai sp. n., adtitionally of note is the contrasting dark setulae on the gena. Abbreviations: vrt, vertex; hw, head width.  
b3/4 view of the head of male Belvosia angelhernandezi sp. n., note the light colored setulae of the gena  
clateral habitus of male holotype Belvosia adrianguadamuzi sp. n., inset detailing the orange basicosta  
dlateral habitus of male holotype Belvosia ciriloumanai sp. n., inset detailing the black basicosta  
Figure 2.

Landmarks and salient features of Belvosia male terminalia; a: lateral view of terminalia of Belvosia eliethcantillanoae sp. n.; b: caudal view of terminalia of B. anacarballoae sp. n.; c: ventral view of sternite 5 B. calixtomoragai sp. n.

aabbreviations: acroph = acrophallus; basiph = basiphallus; cerc = cercus; distph = distiphallus; epand = epandrium; hypd = hypandrium; phapod = phalloapodeme; pgt = postgonite; pregt = pregonite; sur = surstylus.  
babbreviations: anus = anal operculum; distph = distiphallus; epand = epandrium; shoulder = shoulder point on cercus; pregt = pregonite; sur = surstylus.  
cabbreviations: ae = anterior edge; ap = anterior plate; mc = median cleft; shld = shoulder of posterior lobes; pe = posterior edge; pl = posterior lobes.  

Voucher specimen management

The management of voucher specimens has been detailed in previous papers in this series (Fleming et al. 2014). In brief, caterpillars reared from the ACG inventory receive a unique voucher code in the format yy–SRNP–xxxxx. Parasitoids emerging from a caterpillar receive the same voucher code; when/if they are later individually processed for DNA barcoding, each specimen receives a second, unique voucher code in the format DHJPARxxxxxxx. The associated data for each voucher code are available at: http://janzen.bio.upenn.edu/caterpillars/database.lasso. All associated data and successful barcodes are permanently and publicly deposited in the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD) (Ratnasingham and Hebert 2007). All inventoried specimens discussed herein were collected under Costa Rican government research permits issued to DHJ, and the Tachinidae samples were exported under permit by DHJ from Costa Rica to their final depository in the CNC. Tachinid identifications for the inventory are done by DHJ in coordination with a) visual inspection of morphology by AJF and NEW, b) DNA barcoding by MAS and BIO, and c) databasing and association with host caterpillars by DHJ and WH through the inventory itself.

The date of capture cited for each specimen is the date of eclosion of the fly and not the date of capture of the caterpillar. Eclosion date is much more representative of the time when that fly species is on the wing and therefore caught by net or Malaise trap, than is the time of capture of the parasitized caterpillar. The “collector” is the parataxonomist who found the caterpillar, rather than the person who later retrieved the newly eclosed fly and processed it by freezing, pinning, labelling and oven-drying. The primary type material of the newly-described species are housed in the Diptera collection of the Canadian National Collection (CNC).

Due to the overwhelming size the cumulative dataset, the paratype records collected for the present work were published separately through GBIF (DOI), and have also been included here as supplementary material (Suppl. material 1). Only data pertaining to the holotype and any imaged paratypes were included in the main text, all remaining specimens subsequently published as paratypes are housed at the CNC. In some cases, where the rearings were exceedingly numerous, we have elected to truncate the number of paratypes to 50, as reflected in the supplementary material.

Acronyms for Depositories

  • AMNH American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York, USA
  • CAS California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, USA
  • CEA Estación Experimental Agronómica, Maipú, Maipú, Chile
  • CNC Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, Ottawa, Canada
  • IFML Instituto y Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, Argentina
  • MCZ Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  • MACN Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • MLPA Museo de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina
  • MNHN Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France
  • MZUT Museo di Zoologia, Instituto di Zoologia e Anatomia Comparata Universita di Torino
  • NHMUK Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom (formerly British Museum of Natural History)
  • NHMW Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • SEMK Snow Entomological Museum, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA
  • UMNH Utah Museum of Natural History, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
  • USNM National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. (formerly United States National Museum)
  • ZMUC Zoologisk Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark

Interim names for undescribed host species

As in the other papers in this series, our convention for naming undescribed host species follows a standardized, interim naming system used for taxonomic units considered as distinct species and identified by DNA barcodes. Interim names are given in the format "Eois Janzen52" or "Caviria reginaDHJ01", where the "species epithet" is either composed of the name of the taxonomist who identified the species and a number or the name of a species-group followed by a code. This prevents confusion with already described species while maintaining traceability of each undescribed species and specimen within the ACG inventory project.

DNA barcoding

We generated the standard DNA barcode region (5’ cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene) for all specimens of ACG Belvosia; these being made of DNA extracts from single legs using a standard glass fiber protocol (Ivanova et al. 2006). We amplified the DNA barcodes (658 bp near the 5’ terminus of the COI gene) using general insect primers and using standard protocols for production and quality control (Smith et al. 2006, Smith et al. 2007, Smith et al. 2008, Smith et al. 2009, Smith 2012). All DNA sequences, trace files and accessions have been deposited on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD) (Ratnasingham and Hebert 2007). BOLD can be consulted for metadata (including GenBank accession codes) associated with each sequence, by using the persistent DOI doi.org/10.5883/DS-ASBELVOS.

Belvosia freddyquesadai species complex

For the purposes of our morphological key, the authors have chosen to designate a new species complex. Despite being easily distinguishable at the molecular level, this group poses some difficulty when examined externally. The Belvosia freddyquesadai species complex is distinguished from the other species of Belvosia using a combination of character states: (1) presence of dark brown/black basicosta (), (2) presence of a discernible sex patch, and (3) anterodorsal setae on hind tibia regular and comblike, typically at most 1.25X as long as width of supporting tibia (Fig. 3), with each seta separated from the other with regular spacing no more than the width of the base of the preceding seta, and the barcode. Included in this group are the following new species: Belvosia freddyquesadai sp. n., Belvosia gloriasihezarae sp. n., Belvosia guillermopereirai sp. n., Belvosia harryramirezi sp. n., Belvosia hazelcambroneroae sp. n., Belvosia jorgehernandezi sp. n., Belvosia josecortezi sp. n., and Belvosia joseperezi sp. n. Dissection of male terminalia, in addition to the barcode data remain the only clear way to distinguish the many of the species included in this complex.

Figure 3.  

Detail of tibial comb stereotypical to the freddyquesadai species group, on male holotype of Belvosia hazelcambroneroae sp. n.

Taxon treatments

Belvosia  Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

Nomenclature

Belvosia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 – Robineau-Desvoidy 1830: 103. Type species: Belvosia bicincta Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, by monotypy.

Latreillia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 – Robineau-Desvoidy 1830: 104. Type species: Musca bifasciata Fabricius, 1775 - Fabricius 1775, by subsequent designation of Coquillett 1910: 558. Junior homonym of Latreillia Roux, 1830. Synonymy by action of Aldrich 1928: 1.

Willistonia Brauer and Von Bergenstamm, 1889 – Brauer and Von Bergenstamm 1889: 97. Type species: Musca esuriens Fabricius, 1805, – Fabricius 1805 [misidentified by Brauer and Von Bergenstamm, 1889 = Willistonia aldrichi Townsend, 1931], by monotypy. Synonymy by action of Aldrich 1928: 1.

Latreillimyia Townsend, 1908 – Townsend 1908: 105, replacement name for Latreillia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. Synonymy by action of Aldrich 1928: 1.

Triachora Townsend, 1908 – Townsend 1908: 105. Type species: Latreillia unifasciata Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, by monotypy. Synonymy by action of Aldrich 1928: 1.

Goniomima Townsend, 1908 – Townsend 1908: 105. Type species: Belvosia luteola Coquillett, 1900, by monotypy. Synonymy by action of Aldrich, 1928: 1.

Belvosiomima Townsend, 1915 – Townsend 1915: 413. Type species: Belvosiomima fosteri Townsend, 1915, by original designation. Synonymy by action of Aldrich 1928: 1.

Belvoisia Loew, 1862 – Loew 1862: 35. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Belvosia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830.

Belvosiopsis Townsend, 1927 – Townsend 1927: 248. Type species: Belvosiopsis brasiliensis Townsend, 1927 [=Belvosia fuliginosa Walker, 1853], by original designation. Synonymy by action of Aldrich 1928: 1.

Pseudobelvosia Blanchard, 1954 – Blanchard 1954: 8. Type species: Pseuodobelvosia lugubris Blanchard, 1954, by original designation. Synonymy by action of Guimarães 1971: 181.

Neobelvosiopsis Blanchard, 1954 – Blanchard 1954: 20. Type species: Neobelvosiopsis bosqi Blanchard, 1954, by original designation. Synonymy by action of Guimarães 1971: 181.

Parabelvosia Blanchard, 1954 – Blanchard 1954: 12. Type species: Parabelvosia tibialis Blanchard, 1954, by original designation. Synonymy by action of Guimarães 1971: 181.

Eubelvosiopsis Blanchard, 1954 – Blanchard 1954: 15. Type species: Eubelvosiopsis formosana Blanchard, 1954, by original designation. Synonymy by action of Guimarães 1971: 181.

Conspectus of species currently included in Belvosia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

aldrichi Townsend, 1931 – Townsend 1931: 468 (Willistonia). Holotype male (NHMW) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Brazil [misidentified as Musca esuriens sensu Brauer & Bergenstamm, and Aldrich, not Fabricius or Wiedemann]

analis Macquart, 1846 – Macquart 1846: 288 (Belvosia). Holotype male (depository unknown) [not examined, specimen not located in MNHN or NHMUK]. Type locality: Brazil. Nomen dubium

ansata Reinhard, 1951 – Reinhard 1951: 2 (Belvosia). Holotype male (CNC) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: Mexico, Jalisco [as Michoacan, in error], Guadalajara.

argentifrons Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 32 (Belvosia). Holotype male (USNM) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: USA, Virginia, Falls Church.

atrata Walker, 1853 – Walker 1853: 284 (Tachina). Holotype male (NHMUK) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Brazil.

auratilis Reinhard, 1951 – Reinhard 1951: 1 (Belvosia). Holotype male (CNC) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: Mexico, Jalisco [as Michoacan, in error], Guadalajara.

auripilosa Blanchard, 1954 – Blanchard 1954: 39 (Willistonia) Holotype male (MACN) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Argentina.

aurulenta Bigot, 1888 – Bigot 1888: 84 (Frontina). Holotype male published as female (NHMUK) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Brazil.

brasilensis Townsend, 1927 – Townsend 1927: 291 (Brachybelvosia). Correct original spelling by present revision. Lectotype male (USNM), Townsend's statement "Ht male” in Manual of Myiology IX (Townsend, 1941: 62) constitutes a lectotype designation [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Itaquaquecetuba. Comb. n. & Syn. n.

brasiliensis Townsend 1927 – Townsend 1927: 248 (Brachybelvosia). Incorrect original spelling.

australis Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 8 (Belvosia). Holotype female (MCZ) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul.

barbiellinii Townsend, 1935 – Townsend 1935: 229 (Belvosiomimops). Holotype male (USNM or lost). Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, São Vicente. Comb. n.

barbosai Cortés and Campos, 1971 – Cortés and Campos 1971: 98 (Triachora). Holotype female (CEA) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Chile, Tarapaca, Codpa.

basalis Walker, 1853 – Walker 1853: 285 (Tachina). One male syntype (NHMUK) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: South America.

bicincta Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 – Robineau-Desvoidy 1830: 103 (Belvosia). Lectotype female (MNHN), by fixation of Townsend, 1931a: 176 (mention of “Ht” is regarded as a lectotype fixation) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: West Indies.

biezankoi Blanchard in Biezanko, 1961 – Biezanko 1961: 5 (Willistonia). Holotype male (MACN) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Brazil, Parana, Curitiba [Type locality published as Argentina, Buenos Aires by Guimarães in error, as Blanchard did not cite the type locality in the original publication, type locality appears handwritten on the specimen labeled holotype in MACN (Mulieri et al. 2013)].

bifasciata Fabricius, 1775 – Fabricius 1775: 777 (Musca). Holotype unknown destroyed (ZMUC). Type locality: America (St. Croix). [The literature on this species is difficult to tease apart, it is likely that the current concept of Belvosia bifasciata R.D. is actually a complex of at least two separate species. Townsend 1941: 67 interpreted the locality of the Fabricius holotype as likely originating from Cuba, however based on the original collector cited by Fabricius it is more likely that the locality is St. Croix in what was then the Danish West Indies (Papavero 1973, Thompson 1981)]

borealis Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 28 (Belvosia). Holotype male (USNM) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: USA, Pensylvania, Harrisburg.

orion Brimley, 1928 – Brimley 1928: 205 (Belvosia). Holotype male (USNM) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: USA, North Carolina, Raleigh.

pollinosa Rowe, 1933 – Rowe 1933: 123 (Belvosia). Holotype male (UMNH) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: USA, Illinois, Alto Pass. Syn. n.

bosqi Blanchard, 1954 – Blanchard 1954: 20 (Neobelvosiopsis). Holotype female, published as male (MACN). Type locality: Argentina, Misiones, Loreto.

bruchi Blanchard, 1954 – Blanchard 1954: 34 (Belvosiomima). Holotype male (MACN) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Argentina, Córdoba, Alta Gracia.

canadensis Curran, 1927b – Curran 1927b: 152 (Belvosia). Holotype male (CNC) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: Canada, Saskatchewan, Piapot Reserve.

canalis Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 44 (Belvosia). Holotype male (USNM) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: Panama, Canal Zone, Barro Colorado Island.

catamarcensis Blanchard, 1954 – Blanchard 1954: 37 (Belvosiomima). Holotype male (MACN) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Argentina, Catamarca, Pomansillo.

chaetosa Blanchard, 1954 – Blanchard 1954: 28 (Latreillimyia). Holotype male (MACN) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Argentina, Tucumán.

chiesai Blanchard, 1954 – Blanchard 1954: 42 (Willistonia). Two male syntypes (MACN) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Argentina, Córdoba.

ciliata Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 22 (Belvosia). Holotype male (AMNH) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Mexico.

contermina Walker, 1853 – Walker 1853: 285 (Tachina). Holotype male (NHMUK) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: South America.

desita Walker, 1861 – Walker 1861: 299 (Eurigaster). Holotype male (NHMUK) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Mexico.

elusa Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 25 (Belvosia). Holotype female (AMNH) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso, Santa Anna da Chapada.

equinoctalis Townsend, 1912 – Townsend 1912: 348 (Triachora). Holotype male (USNM) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: Peru, Piura.

insularis Curran, 1927a – Curran 1927a: 4 (Belvoisia). Holotype female (AMNH) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Puerto Rico, Barros [as Porto Rico, Barros].

antilliana Curran, 1927b – Curran 1927b: 151 (Belvosia). Type status not given, described in key only, from an unspecified number and unknown depository. Type locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro. Syn. n.

ferruginosa Townsend, 1895 – Townsend 1895: 71 (Belvosia). Holotype male (NHMUK) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Jamaica, Bath.

formosa Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 23 (Belvosia). Holotype male (USNM) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: West Indies, St. Clair. [originally published as Belvosia ciliata var. formosa Aldrich, 1928: 33]

formosana Blanchard, 1954 – Blanchard 1954: 15 (Eubelvosiopsis). Six female syntypes (MACN) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Argentina, Formosa.

fosteri Townsend, 1915 – Townsend 1915: 414 (Belvosiomima). Holotype female (USNM) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: Paraguay, Sapucay.

frontalis Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 24 (Belvosia). Lectotype male (AMNH), designated by Arnaud, 1963: [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso, Santa Anna da Chapada.

fuscisquamula Blanchard, 1954 – Blanchard 1954: 44 (Willistonia). Unspecified number of syntypes (only 1 male syntype remaining in MACN, remainder of type series presumably deposited in IFML) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Argentina, Catamarca, Belen, Hualfin.

fuliginosa Walker, 1853 – Walker 1853: 286 (Tachina). Holotype male (NHMUK) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: unknown, presumed South America according to label on holotype.

weyenberghiana Wulp, 1883 – Wulp 1883: 26 (Belvosia). Depository and type status unknown. Type locality: Argentina. Syn. n.

brasiliensis Townsend, 1927 – Townsend 1927: 289 (Belvosiopsis). Holotype female (unknown). Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Itaquaquecetuba. Syn. n.

lata Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 39 (Belvosia). Holotype female (USNM) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Guatemala, Puerto Barrios.

leucopyga Wulp, 1882 – Wulp 1882: 84 (Belvosia). Holotype female (NHMW) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Brazil.

lilloi Blanchard, 1954 – Blanchard 1954: 47 (Willistonia). Holotype male (IFML). Type locality: Argentina, Tucuman.

lugubris Blanchard, 1954 – Blanchard 1954: 10 (Pseudobelvosia). Holotype female (MACN) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Argentina, Misiones.

manni Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 7 (Belvosia) Holotype female (USNM) [Examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: Bolivia, Ixiamas.

matamorosa Reinhard, 1951 – Reinhard 1951: 3 (Belvosia). Holotype male (CNC) Type locality: Mexico, Puebla, Matamoros.

mira Reinhard, 1958 – Reinhard 1958: 232 (Belvosia). Holotype female (CAS) [examined by AJF]. Type locality: Mexico, Oaxaca, Tehuantepec.

naccina Reinhard, 1974 – Reinhard 1974: 1158 (Belvosia). Holotype male (CNC) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: Mexico, Veracruz, Jalapa.

nigrifrons Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 38 (Belvosia). Holotype female (USNM) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: El Salvador, Mirasol.

obesula Wulp, 1890 – Wulp 1890: 46 (Cnephalia). Holotype female (NHMUK) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Mexico, Tabasco, Teapa.

ochriventris Wulp, 1890 – Wulp 1890: 47 (Cnephalia). Lectotype, female by present designation of NEW (NHMUK) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Mexico, Guerrero, Tierra Colorada, 2000ft. The paralectotype female from Mexico, Guerrero, Amula, 6000 feet is not conspecific with the lectotype.

luteola Coquillett, 1900 – Coquillett 1900: 253 (Belvosia). Holotype male, published as female (USNM) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: Puerto Rico, Vieques Island. Syn. n.

omissa Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 21 (Belvosia). Holotype male (USNM) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: USA, Virginia, Falls Church.

piurana Townsend, 1911 – Townsend 1911: 143 (Belvosia). Holotype female (USNM) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: Peru, [Piura], Sullana.

potens Wiedemann, 1830 – Wiedemann 1830: 312 (Tachina). Three male syntypes (NHMW) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro. One syntype was apparently dissected by Townsend or Aldrich, as the male terminalia are glued to a label, and the abdomen is missing. This specimen bears a label “T. potens m/Rio Janeiro”, apparently in Wiedemann's hadwriting.

proxima Walker, 1853 – Walker 1853: 287 (Tachina). Holotype male (NHMUK) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Brazil, Para.

socia Walker, 1853 – Walker 1853: 286 (Tachina). Holotype male (NHMUK) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Brazil. Syn. n.

recticornis Macquart, 1855 – Macquart 1855: 118 (Gonia). Lectotype male (BMNH) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: unknown. [Lectotype label reads as follows: "LECTO-TYPE/Gonia recticornis ♀. Macq. [verso reads]Brauer WIEN. CVI[???]. (No 94)/Gonia recticornis Macq. SYNTYPE ♂ NO LOCALITY ex.Bigot Coll: B.M.1960-539./C. Recticornis. ♂ Gonia. id. Macq. J. Bigot." However the specimen labeled lectotype is in fact a male and the paralectotype is a female.] [This species was redescribed by Aldrich (1928) based on 34 specimens reared from Lepidoptera larvae collected in Panama, Mexico and Ecuador. We could not ascertain who may have published a lectotype designation.]

bella Giglio-Tos, 1893 – Giglio-Tos 1893: 3 (Belvosia). Holotype female (MZUT) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Mexico. Synonymy by Aldrich 1928.

mexicana Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 11 (Belvosia). Holotype male (USNM) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Mexico, Ciudad de Mexico D.F.

ruficornis Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 16 (Belvosia). Lectotype male (AMNH), designated by Arnaud, 1963 [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso, Santa Anna da Chapada. [Originally published as Belvosia recticornis var. ruficornis Aldrich, 1928: 16].

rufifrons Blanchard, 1954 – Blanchard 1954: 23 (Belvosia). Holotype male (MLPA) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Argentina, Cordoba.

semiflava Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 11 (Belvosia). Holotype male (USNM) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: USA, New Mexico, White Mts., Rio Ruidoso.

slossonae Coquillett, 1895 – Coquillett 1895: 312 (Belvosia). Holotype female (AMNH) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: USA, Florida, Charlotte Harbor.

smithi Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 40 (Belvosia). Lectotype male (AMNH), designated by Arnaud, 1963 [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso, Santa Anna da Chapada.

spinicoxa Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 41 (Belvosia). Holotype male (USNM) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: Paraguay, Sapucay.

splendens Curran, 1927b – Curran 1927b: 153 (Belvosia). Holotype male (CNC) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: Canada, Saskatchewan, Piapot First Nation.

tibialis Blanchard, 1954 – Blanchard 1954: 13 (Parabelvosia). Holotype male (MACN) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Argentina, Misiones.

townsendi Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 33 (Belvosia). Holotype male (USNM) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: USA, Virginia, Oak Grove.

unifasciata Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 – Robineau-Desvoidy 1830: 105 (Latreillia). Holotype unspecified sex (MNHN, lost according to Townsend 1941: 74). Type locality: USA, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

chrysopyga Bigot, 1887 – Bigot 1887: cxli (Frontina). Holotype female (NHMUK) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Mexico. Syn. n.

chrysopygata Bigot, 1888 – Bigot 1888: 84. (Frontina). Unjustified emmendation of Frontina chrysopyga Bigot, 1887. Syn. n.

flavicauda Riley, 1870 – Riley 1870: 51 (Exorista). Lectotype male by present designation of D.M. Wood (USNM). Type locality: USA, Missouri.

vanderwulpi Williston, 1886 – Williston 1886: 303 (Belvoisia). Holotype female (SEMK) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Hispaniola [as "San Domingo"]. [Originally published as Belvoisia v. d. Wulpi Williston, 1886: 303].

villaricana Reinhard, 1951 – Reinhard 1951: 4 (Belvosia). Holotype female (CNC) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: Paraguay, Villarica.

vittata Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 41 (Belvosia). Holotype male (USNM) [examined by NEW & AJF]. Type locality: Paraguay, Sapucay.

wiedemanni Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 19 (Belvosia). Holotype male (NHMW). Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catarina, Blumenau. [Aldrich noted that all 13 specimens in the type series had identical labels, and that the "type" was returned to NHMW along with 8 paratypes, 4 being retained at USNM. The holotype has a typical USNM "Type" label, and all paratypes bear typical USNM "Paratype" labels prepared by Aldrich]

williamsi Aldrich, 1928 – Aldrich 1928: 43 (Belvosia). Holotype male (USNM) [examined by NEW]. Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Campinas.

willinki Blanchard, 1954 – Blanchard 1954: 18 (Eubelvosiopsis). Holotype female (IFML). Type locality: Argentina, Misiones, Iguazú.

Type species

Belvosia bicincta Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

Description

Male, Head: head wide ranging from as wide as thorax to slightly wider; vertex 1/4–1/3 head width; gena 1/3 of head height, approximately 1/2 of eye height; with 1–3 rows of frontal setae; 1–3 of reclinate orbital setae (some species males with proclinate orbital setae present); ocellar setae most often absent, reduced to hair-like in some species; eye bare in all species; parafacial bare and wide, subequal to eye width; fronto-orbital plate ranging from shining silver or gold to brownish with a silver sheen, and displaying varying degrees of hirsuteness, with setulae not typically extending below lowest frontal seta; lower margin of face lower than vibrissa; facial ridge setulose, degree of hirsuteness ranging from halfway along facial ridge to 2/3 of its length; pedicel ranging from orange to black; postpedicel black to black with orange, 2–3X as long as pedicel; arista bare, usually distinctly-thickened on basal 4/5 almost to tip. Thorax: ranging from gold to black, sometimes with light gray to gold tomentum dorsally; four dorsal vittae, these can be thick and unbroken to thin and only scarcely present under certain angles of light; prosternum setose; postpronotum bearing three setae, middle basal seta in line with outer and inner basal setae; anterior margin of anepisternum setulose with long hair-like setulae either ranging from black to yellow or golden brown; chaetotaxy: acrostichal setae 3:3–4; dorsocentral setae 3:4; intra-alar setae 2:3; supra-alar setae 2:3; 3–6 katepisternal setae; scutellum ranging from black to gold tomentose, with 4–6 pairs of long flat marginal setae of subequal length; apical setae when present short often crossed and erect, at a slight upward angle from the plane of the rest of the scutellar marginal setae. Legs: most often black, many examples bearing yellow or reddish ground color, with yellow pulvilli of varying length; hind coxae bare. Anterodorsal row of setae on hind tibia either regular and comblike or irregular and not fringelike. Wing: ranging from pale translucent, to strongly infuscate, to dark gray (almost black); wing vein R4+5 setose, bearing only 2–3 setulae at base; calypters raging from dark gray infuscate to yellowish white. Abdomen: color ranging from grayish–brown to black; abdominal tomentosity ranging from strikingly yellow, often forming conspicuous bands to brilliant white or dull colored, and not forming distinct bands; in some species a narrow median black stripe is present; middorsal depression on syntergite 1+2 (ST1+2) ranging from halfway across tergite to almost reaching to hind margin; median marginal setae present on ST1+2–T5; median discal setae absent on all species; underside of abdomen with sex patch present in some species. Male terminalia: sternite 5 with a deeply excavated median cleft along posterior edge, smoothly U-shaped, margins covered in dense tomentum; posterior lobes rounded apically, either bare, with multiple fine hair-like setulae or with 2–3 strong setae surrounded by many shorter weaker setulae. Anterior plate of sternite 5 subequal to or longer than length of posterior lobes; unsclerotized "window" on anterior plate of sternite 5 ranging from absent to almost entirely transparent directly basal to posterior lobes, the shape of the window as well as its presence varies between species. Epandrium ranging from orange to black and variably hirsute. Cerci in posterior view variable between species ranging between rectangular, digitiform, to triangular, either longer than or only slightly shorter than surstyli; blunt and rounded at apex to apically pointed, either completely separate medially to fused basally along most of their length. Cerci in lateral view, often with a strong anterior curve on apex, giving it a clubbed appearance; cerci densely setose along basal 2/3rds, underside of cerci setose along entire length (visible in lateral profile). Surstylus in lateral view, almost equilateral along its length sometimes ending in a slightly downcurved apex making the structure appear bladelike; surstylus appearing to be separate and not fused with epandrium; when viewed posteriorly surstyli range from slightly divergent, to slightly convergent or bearing inward curved apices but not strongly convergent. Pregonite usually broad, well-developed, apically squared off or rounded, usually blunt, typically devoid of setulae. Postgonite, slightly narrowed, up to 1/3 as wide as pregonite, sharply pointed and curved at apex, typically short and scythelike, with few exceptions where postgonite is subequal in length to pregonite. Distiphallus broadly cone-shaped (in some species this cone or flare is much more pronounced, in others appearing square or barrel shaped), with a slender median longitudinal sclerotized reinforcement on its posterior surface and a broad, anterolateral, sclerotized acrophallus, on anterior surface near apex, ~1.3 times as long as basiphallus.

Female as in male differing in the following traits: Head: bearing two pairs of proclinate orbital setae. Abdomen: often slightly more globose than males; T5 folded over into a narrow slit a trait which is stereotypical of the tribe Goniini. In those cases where sexual dimorphism is observed the differing character states are mentioned in the species description. Sex patch absent in all female specimens.

Diagnosis

Belvosia, as in all other Goniini, are difficult to characterize to tribe based on morphological character states but can be reliably ascribed to the tribe (sensu Herting 1984) based on their microtype ovipary. Belvosia are a large, heavy-bodied tachinid, often with brilliant hymenoptera-like abdominal banding in brilliant white or gold. They can be diagnosed based on the following gestalt or combination of traits which can be considered as stereotypical to the group: prosternum setose; males of many species have two pairs of well-developed reclinate fronto-orbital setae (sometimes absent, proclinate in: B. luteola, B. unifasciata, B. fosteri, B. ochriventris, B. slossonae, B. equinoctialis), proclinate in all females; ocellar setae most frequently absent, however can appear reduced and hair-like in some species; eyes bare; facial ridge setose at least over 1/3–1/2 its height; frons distinctively wide in both sexes; parafacial bare; the three major setae of the postpronotum are arranged more or less in a line; usually 4 well developed katepisternals, but numbers can vary between 3–6; three stout postsutural supra-alar setae; abdominal discal setae absent in all species. Previous descriptions of the genus also made mention of the absence of any discernible sex patch in males, however, present evidence suggests that sex patches are in fact present in some species of Belvosia (B. bicincta, B. ciriloumanai, B. duvalierbricenoi, B. freddyquesadai, B. gloriasihezarae, B. guillermopereirai, B. harryramirezi, B. hazelcambroneroae, B. jorgehernandezi, B. josecortezi, B. joseperezi, B. robertoespinozai, B. sergioriosi). Distance between eye and subcranial margin often 1/3 the height of the head. As can be seen in the key to the Tachinidae in Wood and Zumbado 2010, Belvosia can be distinguished from Lespesia Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 which bears the following differences: eye bearing ommatrichia, well developed ocellar setae, and the facial margin arising level with vibrissa. Distinguished from Atacta Schiner by its robust size in addition to Belvosia's presence setulae on facial ridge.

Distribution

Ubiquitous throughout the New World, inhabiting a wide variety of ecosystems, from southeastern Canada and northeastern USA west to California and south to Argentina and Brazil.

Ecology

Within the ACG inventory, Belvosia has been reared from the following Lepidoptera hosts throughout the diverse ecosystems of the research area: Erebidae, Eupterotidae, Noctuidae, Notodontidae, Saturniidae, and Sphingidae. Ecological and natural history analysis of the thousands of rearing records will be provided later by the same authors of this work.

Taxon discussion

Latreillia Robineau-Desvoidy 1830, was proposed concurrently with Belvosia (Robineau-Desvoidy 1830), and originally included 10 species. Eight of the species were from the Old World; four of these are now recognized and are considered synonyms in four different genera (Crosskey 1980, Herting and Dely-Draskovits 1993), and the remaining four are unrecognized Palaearctic species (Herting and Dely-Draskovits 1993). Because Coquillett (1910) designated Musca bifasciata Fabricius, a typical species of Belvosia as now recognized, as type species, Latreillia became a synonym of that name. As Belvosia is restricted to the New World, none of the eight Old World species, including those that are unrecognized, belong to the genus. The tenth included species, Latreillia unifasciata Robineau-Desvoidy, is another species of Belvosia. Latreillimyia Townsend, a replacement name for Latreillia, automatically becomes a synonym of Belvosia. Triachora Townsend, was proposed by Townsend to include only Latreillia unifasciata Robineau-Desvoidy. It has been considered as a valid genus distinct from Belvosia by past authors (Sabrosky and Arnaud 1965, Guimarães 1971) for a group of about seven species. It was recently synonymized with Belvosia by Wood (Wood 1987, O’Hara and Wood 1998). Members of this species group are generally smaller than more typical Belvosia, and are not primarily black with yellow-gold abdominal bands, and males have proclinate orbital setae. However, the species exhibit the characters used to define Belvosia above. Goniomima Townsend, was proposed to include only Belvosia luteola Coquillett, and no additional species have ever been placed in the genus. Although it exhibits some apomorphic character states, such as the long setae on the male cerci and the narrowed abdomen similar to that found in some species of Gonia, B. luteola has the character states found in Belvosia and shows features that place it with the species formerly included in Triachora, such as the proclinate orbital setae found in males. Goniomima was synonymized with Triachora by Sabrosky and Arnaud (1965).

The previously described species Belvosia antillana (Curran 1927b) was only included in a key without any reference to type material and no specimens have been located. We believe Curran was probably referring to Belvosa insularis, described from Puerto Rico in the same year (Curran 1927a), but inadvertantly used a different name. We therefore regard B. antillana as a synonym of B. insularis.

Aldrich (1928) treated Belvosia analis (Macquart 1846) as unrecognized within Belvosia; this paper cites the original type material used by Macquart (1846) as originating from Brazil, and presumably destroyed. Aldrich's treatment of this species was based on Macquart's original description where the abdomen was described as "caeruleo-nigro" which Aldrich took to mean as blue, thereby excluding it from the genus Belvosia. The type of Belvosia analis sensu Macquart is no longer present in the Paris Museum type list, having since been lost or destroyed. Coquillett later identified material from Mexico as belonging to B. analis. It was on the basis of these specimens that Aldrich conducted his diagnosis and erected the name Belvosia ciliata to include those specimens Coquillet had described. Since the original type material has been lost, the basis for B. analis Macquart cannot be ascertained, we are hereby are treating this species as a nomen dubium.

It is somewhat surprising that the synonymy of B. pollinosa with B. borealis has gone undetected before now. Rowe (1933) clearly noted the multiple median marginal setae on tergites 1+2 and three (i.e., more than a single pair on each segment), a character state only found in B. borealis in the North American fauna. Curran’s "n. sp." label on the holotype of B. pollinosa was presumably added around the time he was working on the genus, before the Aldrich (1928) revision. Rowe was apparently unaware of Aldrich’s paper, as the holotype of B. pollinosa keys easily to B. borealis in Aldrich’s key.

During his long and prolific career D. Monty Wood had occasion to examine Belvosia flavicauda Riley, at the USNM. The original description cited 5 female syntypes in error, one captured and 4 reared from Mamestra configurata Walker, 1856. Careful examination by Dr. Wood, revealed the original captured specimen to be a male, along with 4 reared females. Prior to his passing in 2020, Monty was assisting AJ Fleming in the preparation of this paper where he suggested the inclusion of this male syntype as lectotype. We hereby propose the male syntype as the lectotype of Belvosia flavicauda by present designation of D. Monty Wood.

After careful examination of the two syntypes of Belvosia ochriventris Wulp, it was determined that they are in fact not conspecific. In his Biologia Centrali Americana, Wulp described the similar characters within the syntypes and then makes mention of additional information pertaining to the syntype originating from Tierra Colorada; further describing the ground coloration of the abdomen and the presence of a dark stripe along its midline. Given the fact that more information was shared about this specimen, we have elected to designate it the lectotype of the species. We consider that the herein designated lectotype of Belvosia ochriventris is in fact conspecific with Belvosia luteola Coquillett and therefore must sink B. luteola as a synonym of the former based on the morphological similarities between the two. The second syntype from Mexico, Guerrero, Amula 6000ft, we hereby designate as a paralectotype. We are not currently able to make a determination on this specimen which at the present time we have chosen to leave as unresolved.

Belvosia adrianguadamuzi Fleming & Woodley sp. nov.

Materials   Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia adrianguadamuzi
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    adrianguadamuzi
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Mundo Nuevo
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Porton Rivas
    ; verbatimElevation:
    570
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.7586
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.3727
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.7586
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.3727
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larva of the Saturniidae, Periphoba arcaei
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    23-Sep-2005
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0003566
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0003566
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Mariano Pereira
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC670-05, 05-SRNP-58598, BOLD:AAA8366
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
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    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
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    ; occurrenceID:
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Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia adrianguadamuzi
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    adrianguadamuzi
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Del Oro
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Quebrada Ayotal
    ; verbatimElevation:
    326
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    11.0095
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.5113
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    11.0095
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.5113
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larva of the Saturniidae, Periphoba arcaei
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    03-Nov-2008
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0029520
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0029520
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Roster Moraga
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
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    ; identifiedBy:
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    ; dateIdentified:
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    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    FB8C2BE1-E0DE-5507-B39F-A9B952A4D053
  2. scientificName:
    Belvosia adrianguadamuzi
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    adrianguadamuzi
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Del Oro
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Quebrada Salazar
    ; verbatimElevation:
    560
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    11.0022
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.4634
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    11.0022
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.4634
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larva of the Saturniidae, Periphoba arcaei
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    17-Jun-2009
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0036478
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0036478
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Lucia Rios
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    ASHYE1389-09, 08-SRNP-24223, BOLD:AAA8366
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
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    en
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    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
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    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    B79B64BC-07CC-5631-A592-BCFDA27465F2

Description

Male (Fig. 4), length: 11–14mm. Head: head slightly wider than thorax; vertex 2/5 head width; gena 1/4 of head height, approximately 1/3 of eye height. Fronto-orbital plate dark ground color apically transitioning to lighter towards parafacial, entirely covered with silver tomentum giving the whole plate a shining character; ocellar setae weak and hair-like almost appearing absent, these arising lateral to anterior ocellus; one reclinate orbital seta outside of frontal rows; 2–3 irregular rows of frontal setae, with shorter black setulae interspersed throughout, these short black setulae extending beyond lowest frontal seta. Parafacial light yellow in ground color, densely covered in silver tomentum making the entire surface reflective and brilliant silver in appearance; bare overall, except for a small number of setulae extending just below lowest frontal setae; wide, approximately 2/3 of eye width when viewed laterally; facial ridge setose along 2/3 of its length, with a few sparse hair-like setulae emerging along outer edge of row; gena covered in light yellow yellow to reddish yellow setulae, sometimes with black setulae intermingled. Antenna, pedicel ranging from dark brownish orange, to distinctly lighter than postpedicel; postpedicel dark brownish black, 5X as long as pedicel. Palps, yellow-orange throughout and densely covered in short black setulae; slightly club shaped, but tapering to a slight point apically. Thorax: dark brown-black ground color throughout, with light gray tomentum dorsally, scutellum bearing a brassy-brown tomentum sometimes appearing black on some specimens; five distinct dorsal vittae, outer, inner, and one dorsocentral, these at times only becoming evident under certain angles of light. Lateral surfaces of thorax primarily covered in the same silver tomentum as on the dorsal surfaces; anterior margin of anepisternum densely hirsute with long reddish brown setulae becoming long black setulae along posterior margin; both katepisternum and anepimeron bearing the same long reddish setulae as on anepisternum; chaetotaxy: 3–4 strong setae on postpronotum arranged in a line; acrostichal setae 3:4; dorsocentral setae 3:4; intra-alar setae 3:3; supra-alar setae 2:3; 4–5 katepisternal setae (5th katepisternal sometimes weakly present below row of stronger katepisternals); scutellum, with four pairs of long flat marginal setae of subequal length, and up to two rows of median discal scutellar setae; apical setae present short crossed and erect, at a slight upward angle from the plane of the rest of the scutellar marginal setae. Wing: strongly infuscate, with a brilliant orange basicosta; both upper and lower calypters strongly infuscate, concolorous with the remainder of wing; wing vein R4+5, bearing 3–3 setulae at base; halteres orange stalk with dark black/brown capitulum. Legs: black, with yellow pulvilli; anterodorsal row of setae on hind tibia irregular and not fringelike, with several median setulae that are distinctly longer and stronger than others. Abdomen: flattened globose, black ground color; strikingly yellow abdominal tomentosity along anterior margin of T3, 50% of surface of T4 and 95% of surface of T5 which transitions to black along posterior apex; T4 bearing a narrow median black stripe bisecting the yellow band. Middorsal depression on ST1+2 reaching to hind margin of tergite. Median marginal setae present on ST1+2 and T3, and complete rows of setae on T4 and T5.

Figure 4.

Belvosia adrianguadamuzi sp. n. habitus images a–d: male, holotype n. DHJPAR0003566

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Male terminalia (Fig. 5): sternite 5 with a deeply excavated median cleft along posterior edge, smoothly and narrow with a small shoulder midway, margins covered in dense tomentum; posterior lobes rounded apically, with multiple fine hair-like setulae surrounded by many shorter weaker setulae. Anterior plate of sternite 5, 1/3 as long as posterior lobes; unsclerotized "window" on anterior plate of sternite 5 almost transparent directly basal to posterior lobes, shaped like two adjacent crescents. Cerci in posterior view broadly triangular, slightly shorter than surstyli; blunt and rounded at apex, completely separate medially to fused along basal 1/2. Cerci in lateral view, with a slight bend at apex, giving it a vaguely clubbed appearance; cerci densely setose along basal 2/3rds. Surstylus in lateral view, broad and bladelike, with a straight anterior edge and curved posterior edge; surstylus appearing to be separate and not fused with epandrium; when viewed posteriorly surstyli parallel and straight. Pregonite broad, well-developed, apically rounded, blunt, marginally setose. Postgonite, slightly narrowed, 1/3 as wide as pregonite, bluntly rounded with a slight curve at apex, short. Distiphallus narrow cone-shaped, with a slender median longitudinal sclerotized reinforcement on its posterior surface and a broad, anterolateral, sclerotized acrophallus, on anterior surface near apex, 1.5X as long as basiphallus; epiphallus, short and rounded, appearing as a small hump on dorsal surface of basiphallus.

Figure 5.

Belvosia adrianguadamuzi sp. n. terminalia images a–c: male, paratype n. DHJPAR0036478

acaudal view  
blateral view  
csternite 5, ventral view  

Female (Fig. 6) length: 10–15mm, overall morphology as in male differing in the following traits: Head: bearing two pairs of proclinate orbital setae in addition to single pair of reclinate orbital seta. Thorax: scutellum with up to 6 pairs marginal scutellar setae although most often similar to males. Abdomen: slightly more globose than males.

Figure 6.

Belvosia adrianguadamuzi sp. n. habitus images a–d: female, paratype n. DHJPAR0029520

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Diagnosis

Belvosia adrianguadamuzi sp. n. can be distinguished from all other Belvosia by the following combination of traits: dark setulae below lowest frontal setae, along with light setulae on parafacial, orange basicosta, four postsutural acrostichals, and T4 with gold tomentum over 50% of tergite.

Etymology

Belvosia adrianguadamuzi sp. n, is named in honor of Sr. Adrian Guadamuz in recognition of his decades of being part of the Parataxonomist Program of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr) in northwestern Costa Rica (Janzen and Hallwachs 2011). Interim species-specific name included in previously circulating databases and publications, Belvosia Woodley01.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG (Guanacaste Province), 10–640 m elevation.

Ecology

Belvosia adrianguadamuzi sp. n. has been reared 214 times from two species of Lepidoptera in the family Saturniidae, Periphoba arcaei Druce, 1886 (N=212), and Automeris banus (Boisduval, 1875) (N= 2), in dry forest, dry-rain lowland intergrade, with only seven rearing events from rain forest.

Belvosia anacarballoae Fleming & Woodley sp. nov.

Materials   Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia anacarballoae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    anacarballoae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Horizontes
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Torre Esperanza
    ; verbatimElevation:
    85
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.7894
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.551
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.7894
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.551
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larva of the Saturniidae, Automeris zozimanaguana
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    24-Jun-2006
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0015214
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0015214
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Guillermo Pereira
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    ASBE371-06, 05-SRNP-63685, BOLD:AAA2299
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    83D585DE-17E6-522B-8C5F-106FF215A9F0
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia anacarballoae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    anacarballoae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Santa Rosa
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Bosque Humedo
    ; verbatimElevation:
    290
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.8514
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.608
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.8514
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.608
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larva of the Sphingidae, Manduca lanuginosa
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    16-Aug-1984
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0003591
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0003591
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Daniel H. Janzen
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC695-05, 84-SRNP-1199, BOLD:AAA2299
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    4249A67C-20F7-58DA-ABF1-452BC663149C
  2. scientificName:
    Belvosia anacarballoae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    anacarballoae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Potrerillos
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Rio Azufrado
    ; verbatimElevation:
    95
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.8122
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.5444
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.8122
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.5444
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larva of the Saturniidae, Automeris zozimanaguana
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    28-Aug-2010
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0040103
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0040103
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Guillermo Pereira
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    ASHYE2271-11, 10-SRNP-13666, BOLD:AAA2299
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    D6D35CCE-A99C-5B5A-962C-2A2697DA0997

Description

Male (Fig. 7), length: 11–13mm. Head: head slightly wider than thorax; vertex 1/3 head width; gena 1/4 of head height, approximately 1/3 of eye height. Fronto-orbital plate dark ground color, entirely covered with silver tomentum giving the whole plate a shining silver character; ocellar setae absent; reclinate orbital seta absent; 2–3 irregular rows of frontal setae, with shorter black setulae interspersed throughout, these short black setulae extending beyond lowest frontal seta. Parafacial light yellow in ground color, densely covered in silver tomentum making the entire surface reflective and brilliant silver in appearance; bare overall, except for a small number of setulae extending just below lowest frontal setae; facial ridge setose along 1/2 of its length, with a few sparse hair-like setulae emerging along outer edge of row; gena covered in black setulae. Antenna, pedicel dark brownish black, to concolorous with postpedicel; postpedicel, 3X as long as pedicel. Palps, yellow-orange throughout and densely covered in short black setulae; slightly clubbed, but gradually tapering to a slight point apically. Thorax: dark brown-black ground color throughout, with dark gray tomentum dorsally, scutellum light brown to dark yellow ground color bearing a brassy-brown tomentum; four distinct dorsal vittae, 2 outer, and 2 inner, these broken along suture. Lateral surfaces of thorax primarily covered in the same silver tomentum as on the dorsal surfaces; all pleura with densely hirsute areas populated with long black setulae becoming long black setulae along posterior margins; chaetotaxy: 3 strong setae on postpronotum arranged in a line; acrostichal setae 3:3; dorsocentral setae 3:4; intra-alar setae 2:3; supra-alar setae 2:3; 4 katepisternal setae; scutellum, with four pairs of long flat marginal setae of subequal length, and one rows of median discal scutellar setae; apical setae present short parallell and erect, at a slight upward angle from the plane of the rest of the scutellar marginal setae. Wing, strongly infuscate, with a brilliant orange basicosta; both upper and lower calypters strongly infuscate concolorous with remainder of wing; wing vein R4+5, bearing 3–3 setulae at base; halteres orange stalk and capitulum. Legs: black, with yellow pulvilli; Anterodorsal row of setae on hind tibia fringelike, formed by a very regular row of uniformly sized setae separated from each other by less than the width of their sockets. Abdomen: slightly flattened globose, brown ground color; bronze abdominal tomentosity along anterior margin of T3, and strikingly yellow on >50% of surface of T4 and all of T5 which; T4 bearing a narrow median black stripe bisecting the yellow band. Middorsal depression on ST1+2 reaching to hind margin of tergite. Median marginal setae present on ST1+2 and T3, and complete rows of setae on T4 and T5.

Figure 7.

Belvosia anacarballoae sp. n. habitus images a–d: male, holotype n. DHJPAR0015214

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Male terminalia (Fig. 8): sternite 5 with a deeply excavated median cleft along posterior edge, smoothly U-shaped, margins covered in dense tomentum; posterior lobes coming to a rounded point apically, with strong bristle-like setulae surrounded by many shorter weaker setulae. Anterior plate of sternite 5 approximately 1/2 length of posterior lobes; unsclerotized "window" on anterior plate of sternite 5 ranging translucent directly basal to posterior lobes, elongate spanning the entire width of the posterior lobes. Cerci in posterior view triangular/blade-like in appearance, subequal to length of surstyli; completely separate medially. Cerci in lateral view. wide and appearing rounded apically, straight along lower margin with only a very slight anterior projection, not appearing clubbed apically; cerci setose along basal 2/3rds, underside of cerci setose along entire length (visible in lateral profile). Surstylus in lateral view, broadly rounded along its posterior edge giving the structure a leaf or oarlike appearance; surstylus appearing fused with epandrium; when viewed posteriorly surstyli appearing slightly convergent or bearing inward curved apices but not strongly convergent. Pregonite broad, well-developed, apically rounded, somewhat blunt, devoid of setulae. Postgonite, slightly narrowed, 1/3 as wide as pregonite, bluntly rounded with a slight curve at apex, short. Distiphallus broadly cone-shaped (in some species this cone or flare is much more pronounced, in others appearing square or barrel shaped), with a slender median longitudinal sclerotized reinforcement on its posterior surface and a broad, anterolateral, sclerotized acrophallus, on anterior surface near apex, 1.75X as long as basiphallus; epiphallus, short and rounded, appearing as a small hump on dorsal surface of basiphallus.

Figure 8.

Belvosia anacarballoae sp. n. terminalia images a–c: male, paratype n. DHJPAR0003591

acaudal view  
blateral view  
csternite 5, ventral view  

Female (Fig. 9) length: 11–14mm, overall morphology as in male differing in the following traits: Head: bearing 2–3 pairs of proclinate orbital setae in addition to single pair of reclinate orbital seta; gena 2/5 of eye height, inner row of 5-10 post-ocular setae; palps follow same general morphology of males, but are apically devoid of black setulae. Thorax: katepisternum with 4–5 strong setae; anterodorsal fringe on hind tibia with 3–4 interspersed much longer setae approximately 2x as long as setae of fringe. Abdomen: slightly more globose than males.

Figure 9.

Belvosia anacarballoae sp. n. habitus images a–d: female, paratype n. DHJPAR0040103

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Diagnosis

Belvosia anacarballoae can be distinguished from all other Belvosia by the following combination of traits: males without proclinate orbital setae, pilosity of gena, anepisternum, katepisternum black, basicosta brilliant orange, abdomen with dark ground color, median marginal setae present on syntergite 1+2, anterior margin of T3 bearing some minor gold tomentum <10%; gold tomentum on T4 ranging from 20–40% coverage of tergite, gold tomentum of tergites bissected medially by a middorsal stripe of dark tomentum.

Etymology

Belvosia anacarballoae sp. n., is named in honor of Sra. Ana Carballo in recognition of her decades of being part of the Parataxonomist Program of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr) in northwestern Costa Rica. Interim species-specific name included in previously circulating databases and publications, Belvosia Woodley02.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG (Provinces of Alajuela and Guanacaste), 10–1060 m elevation.

Ecology

Within the ACG inventory, Belvosia anacarballoae has been reared 468 times from two families of Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, Automeris banus (Boisduval, 1875) (N=11), A. belti Druce, 1886 (N=1), A. celata Lemaire, 1969 (N=7), A. dagmarae Brechlin & Meister, 2011 (N=33), A. exigua Lemaire, 1977 (N=12), A. hamata Schaus, 1906 (N=4), A. ioDHJ01 (N=11), A. pallidior Draudt, 1929 (N=5), A. tridens Herrich-Schäffer, 1855 (N=32), A. zozimanaguana Brechlin & Meister, 2011 (N=334), A. zugana Druce, 1886 (N=1), A. zuganaDHJ01 (N=1), Hylesia continua (Walker, 1865) (N=3), Molippa nibasa Maassen & Weyding, 1885 (N=10), M. similima Jones, 1907 (N=1), Periphoba arcaei (Druce, 1886) (N=1); and Sphingidae, Manduca languinosa (Edwards, 1887) (N=1); from cloud forest, dry forest, rain forest and dry-rain lowland intergrade.

Belvosia angelhernandezi Fleming & Woodley sp. nov.

Materials   Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia angelhernandezi
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    angelhernandezi
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector El Hacha
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Estacion Los Almendros
    ; verbatimElevation:
    290
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    11.0323
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.5278
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    11.0323
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.5278
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Saturniidae, Hylesia umbrata
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    29-Oct-1999
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0001781
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0001781
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs &Roster Moraga
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC297-05, 99-SRNP-3906, BOLD:AAB8626
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    5BD73A00-E2A1-5BD8-AC6E-F3E10BA5E93E
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia angelhernandezi
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    angelhernandezi
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector El Hacha
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Estacion Los Almendros
    ; verbatimElevation:
    290
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    11.0323
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.5278
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    11.0323
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.5278
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Saturniidae, Hylesia umbrata
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    12-Nov-1999
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0001694
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0001694
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs &Roster Moraga
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC212-05, 99-SRNP-3997, BOLD:AAB8626
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    01958B1F-4CD8-5ACB-9201-59AE18AD3BD1
  2. scientificName:
    Belvosia angelhernandezi
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    angelhernandezi
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector El Hacha
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Estacion Los Almendros
    ; verbatimElevation:
    290
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    11.0323
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.5278
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    11.0323
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.5278
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Saturniidae, Hylesia umbrata
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    03-Nov-1999
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0001782
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0001782
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs &Roster Moraga
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC298-05, 99-SRNP-3848, BOLD:AAB8626
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    B134E37D-9324-5553-B8E3-41141C891E39

Description

Male (Fig. 10), length: 11–12mm. Head: head slightly wider than thorax; vertex 1/3 head width; gena 1/3 of head height, 2/5 of eye height. Fronto-orbital plate light brown–dark yellow in ground color, entirely covered with silver tomentum giving the whole plate a gold sheen transitioning to silver character; ocellar setae absent at most several hair-like setulae present on ocellar triangle; one reclinate orbital seta outside of frontal row; 1–3 small setae anterio to post-ocular setae; two rows of frontal setae, black setulae intermingled with setae, a few light colored yellow setulae extending below lowest frontal seta. Parafacial light yellow in ground color, densely covered in silver tomentum making the entire surface reflective and brilliant gold appearance; bare overall, except for a small number of setulae extending just below lowest frontal setae; facial ridge setose along 1/2–2/3 of its length, with a few sparse hair-like setulae emerging along outer edge of row; gena covered in yellow to reddish yellow setulae. Antenna, pedicel ranging from light brown to dark burnt orange, concolorous with postpedicel; postpedicel burnt orange, 4X as long as pedicel; arista bare distinctly-thickened on basal 4/5 almost to tip. Palps, yellow-orange throughout and densely covered in short black setulae; slightly clubbed, but gradually tapering to a slight point apically. Thorax: black ground color, with light gray tomentum throughout, when viewed dorsally tomentum appears thinner postsuturally; scutellum appearing reddish-black to the naked eye, under microscope reddish tomentum becomes apparent when view on an oblique caudal angle; scutum with four dorsal vittae, becoming more evident under certain angles of light, these broken at suture; lateral surface of thorax densely covered in long hair-like setulae, these setulae mostly black on proepimeron, and dorsal half of katepisternum with a few intermingled reddish-yellow hair-like setulae, these turning to mostly reddish yellow on anterior and caudal margin of anepisternum, katepimeron and anepimeron bearing mostly yellow setulae sometimes with a few black setulae; meron with a few yellow setulae intermingled with upper meral setae; chaetotaxy: 3–4 strong setae on postpronotum arranged in a line, acrostichal setae 3:3; dorsocentral setae 3–4:4; intra-alar setae 3:3; supra-alar setae 2:3; 4–5 katepisternal setae; scutellum, with 4–5 pairs of long flat marginal setae of subequal length; apical setae present, short straight and erect, at a slight upward angle from the plane of the rest of the scutellar marginal setae; complete row of scutellar discal setae just posterior to marginal setae. Wing: strongly infuscate, slightly orange at wing base, with a brilliant orange basicosta; both upper and lower calypters also infuscate concolorous with remainder of wing; wing vein R4+5 setose, bearing only 2–3 setulae at base; halteres orange stalk with dark black/brown capitulum. Legs: black overall, coxa on midleg and hindleg with a few reddish-yellow setulae; tarsal claws yellow with black tips, with yellow pulvilli 2/3 length of tarsal claws; anterodorsal row of setae on hind tibia irregularly sized not fringelike. Abdomen: globose, with black ground color; abdominal tomentosity dark bronze and sparse on T3 confined to lateral areas, just under resting wings, sparse bronze-gold tomentum along at most 30% of surface of T4 bisected medially by an area devoid of tomentum, densely gold tomentose on 95% of surface of T5 bisected medially by a dorsomedial narrow darkened strip; middorsal depression on ST1+2 reaching to hind margin of tergite, ventrobasally ST1+2 bearing a few light yellow setulae similar to those on thorax; median marginal setae present on ST1+2 and T3, and complete rows of setae on T4 and T5.

Figure 10.

Belvosia angelhernandezi sp. n. habitus images a–d: male, holotype n. DHJPAR0001781

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Male terminalia (Fig. 11) : sternite 5 with a deeply excavated median cleft along posterior edge, smoothly U-shaped, margins covered in dense tomentum; posterior lobes coming to a rounded point apically, with strong bristle-like setulae surrounded by many shorter weaker setulae. Anterior plate of sternite 5 approximately 1/2 length of posterior lobes; unsclerotized "window" on anterior plate of sternite 5 ranging translucent directly basal to posterior lobes, elongate spanning the entire width of the posterior lobes. Cerci in posterior view triangular/blade-like in appearance, subequal to length of surstyli; completely separate medially. Cerci in lateral view. wide and appearing rounded apically, straight along lower margin with only a very slight anterior projection, not appearing clubbed apically; cerci setose along basal 2/3rds, underside of cerci setose along entire length (visible in lateral profile). Surstylus in lateral view, broadly rounded along its posterior edge giving the structure a leaf or oarlike appearance; surstylus appearing fused with epandrium; when viewed posteriorly surstyli appearing slightly convergent or bearing inward curved apices but not strongly convergent. Pregonite broad, well-developed, apically rounded, somewhat blunt, devoid of setulae. Postgonite, slightly narrowed, 1/3 as wide as pregonite, bluntly rounded with a slight curve at apex, short. Distiphallus broadly cone-shaped (in some species this cone or flare is much more pronounced, in others appearing square or barrel shaped), with a slender median longitudinal sclerotized reinforcement on its posterior surface and a broad, anterolateral, sclerotized acrophallus, on anterior surface near apex, ~1.6X as long as basiphallus; epiphallus, short and rounded, appearing as a small hump on dorsal surface of basiphallus.

Figure 11.

Belvosia angelhernandezi sp. n. terminalia images a–c: male, paratype n. 99-SRNP-3848 male sibling to DHJPAR0001782

acaudal view  
blateral view  
csternite 5, ventral view  

Female (Fig. 12) length: 11–12mm, overall morphology as in male differing in the following traits: Head: bearing 3–5 pairs of proclinate orbital setae in addition to single pair of reclinate orbital seta; gena 1/4 of eye height. Thorax: scutellum with up to 4–5 pairs marginal scutellar setae although most often similar to males. Abdomen: similar to males, differing only in terminalia.

Figure 12.

Belvosia angelhernandezi sp. n. habitus images a–d: female, paratype n. DHJPAR0001694

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Diagnosis

Belvosia angelhernandezi sp. n. can be distinguished from all other Belvosia by the following combination of traits: fronto-orbital plate and parafacial silver tomentose, pilosity of gena, and lowest frontal setulae reddish-yellow, basicosta brilliant orange, abdomen with dark ground color, median marginal setae present on syntergite 1+2, anterior margin of T3 bearing some no gold tomentum <10%; gold tomentum on T4 ranging from 20–40% coverage of tergite, T5 entirely gold tomentose, gold tomentum of tergites bissected medially by a middorsal stripe of dark tomentum.

Etymology

Belvosia angelhernandezi sp. n., is named in honor of Sr. Angel Hernandez in recognition of his decades of being part of the Parataxonomist Program of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr) in northwestern Costa Rica. Interim species-specific name included in previously circulating databases and publications, Belvosia Woodley03A.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG (Guanacaste Province), 290 m elevation.

Ecology

Belvosia angelhernandezi sp. n. has been reared 75 times from one species of Lepidoptera in the family Saturniidae, Hylesia umbrata (Schaus, 1911), in dry forest, dry-rain lowland intergrade.

Belvosia brigittevilchezae Fleming & Woodley sp. nov.

Materials   Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia brigittevilchezae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    brigittevilchezae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Pitilla
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Manguera
    ; verbatimElevation:
    470
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.9959
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.3984
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.9959
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.3984
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Saturniidae, Hylesia dalina
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    02-Jun-2008
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0024435
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0024435
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.J. Janzen, W. Hallachs & Leonel Siezar
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    ASTAW545-08, 08-SRNP-70056, BOLD:ABY9051
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    405F09D9-27BF-5E9D-A371-A450B12B0CF4
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia brigittevilchezae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    brigittevilchezae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Del Oro
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Quebrada Trigal
    ; verbatimElevation:
    290
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    11.0268
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.4955
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    11.0268
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.4955
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Saturniidae, Hylesia continua
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    24-Sep-2003
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0001130
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0001130
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.J. Janzen, W. Hallachs & Elieth Cantillano
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC097-05, 03-SRNP-18486, BOLD:ABY9051
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    72F3A4EE-729C-5E90-A9BF-635F40BC8769
  2. scientificName:
    Belvosia brigittevilchezae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    brigittevilchezae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Santa Rosa
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Cafetal
    ; verbatimElevation:
    280
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.8583
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.6109
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.8583
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.6109
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Saturniidae, Hylesia lineata
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    01-Sep-2001
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0001687
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0001687
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.J. Janzen, W. Hallachs & gusaneros
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC205-05, 01-SRNP-15600, BOLD:ABY9051
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    D6C03F96-0A62-5E9A-B1FE-225F3BA1456A

Description

Male (Fig. 13), length: 9–12mm. Head: head slightly wider than thorax; vertex 1/3 head width; gena 1/4 of head height, 1/3 of eye height. Fronto-orbital plate light brilliant yellow-gold in ground color, entirely covered with gold tomentum; ocellar setae absent at most several hair-like setulae present on ocellar triangle; one slightly inwardly lateroclinate–reclinate orbital seta outside of frontal row; two rows of frontal setae, black setulae intermingled with setae, a few light colored yellow setulae extending below lowest frontal seta. Parafacial light yellow in ground color, some gold tomentosity up to 50% extending down from fronto-orbital plate, remainder densely covered in silver tomentum making the entire surface reflective and brilliant appearance; setulose along parafacial outside facial ridge, a small number of setulae extending just below lowest frontal setae; facial ridge setose along 2/3 of its length, with numerous yellow-blonde hair-like setulae emerging along outer edge of row; gena covered in yellow setulae. Antenna, pedicel ranging from light brown to dark burnt orange, contrasting with postpedicel; postpedicel black, 4X as long as pedicel; arista bare parallel sided only tapering to a point at tip. Palps, yellow-orange throughout and densely covered in short black setulae; slightly clubbed, but distinctly so, tapering to a slight point apically. Thorax: black ground color, with sparse light gray tomentum throughout, when viewed dorsally tomentum appears thinner postsuturally, almost glabrous; scutellum appearing dark brown-black to the naked eye, under microscope bronze tomentum becomes apparent when view on an oblique caudal angle; scutum with five dorsal vittae, one outer pair, one inner pair and one single dorsocentral postsutural becoming more evident under certain angles of light; lateral surface of thorax densely covered in long hair-like setulae, these setulae all reddish yellow but often reddish often with dense long black setulae only on proepimeron, proepisternum and anepisternum; meron with a few yellow setulae intermingled with upper meral setae; chaetotaxy: 3 strong setae on postpronotum arranged in a line, acrostichal setae 3:3; dorsocentral setae 3–4:4; intra-alar setae 2:3; supra-alar setae 2:3; 4–5 katepisternal setae; scutellum, with 4–5 pairs of long flat marginal setae of subequal length; apical setae present, short straight and erect, at a slight upward angle from the plane of the rest of the scutellar marginal setae; 1–2 complete rows of scutellar discal setae just posterior to marginal setae. Wing: strongly infuscate, slightly darkened but not orange at wing base, with a brilliant orange basicosta; both upper and lower calypters also infuscate concolorous with remainder of wing; wing vein R4+5 setose, bearing only 2–3 setulae at base; halteres orange stalk with dark black/brown capitulum. Legs: black overall, coxa on midleg and hindleg with a few reddish-yellow setulae; tarsal claws yellow with black tips, with yellow pulvilli subequal to length of tarsal claws; anterodorsal row of setae on hind tibia irregularly sized not fringelike. Abdomen: globose, with black ground color; abdominal tomentosity gold and sparse on T3 confined to anterior 10% of tergite, bronze-gold tomentum along at most 40% of surface of T4 bisected medially by an area devoid of tomentum, densely gold tomentose on 95% of surface of T5 bisected medially by a dorsomedial narrow darkened strip; sparse silver tomentum present ventrally, along tergal margins; middorsal depression on ST1+2 reaching to hind margin of tergite, ventrobasally ST1+2 bearing a few light yellow setulae similar to those on thorax; median marginal setae present on ST1+2 and T3, and complete rows of setae on T4 and T5.

Figure 13.

Belvosia brigittevilchezae sp. n. habitus images a–d: male, holotype n. DHJPAR0024435

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Male terminalia (Fig. 14): sternite 5 with a deeply excavated median cleft along posterior edge, vaguely Y-shaped with a distinct shoulder, marginally tomentose; posterior lobes somewhat rounded apically, with multiple strong setulae. Anterior plate of sternite 5 1/2 as longer as posterior lobes; unsclerotized "window" on anterior plate of sternite 5 ranging from translucent directly basal to posterior lobes, sinusoidal in shape almost as a flat rounded "W". Cerci in posterior view triangular, subequal in length to surstyli; slightly rounded at apex, used along basal half separating apically; in lateral view, with a slight arc at apex; densely setose along basal 2/3rds, underside of cerci bare along anterior 1/2. Surstylus in lateral view, slightly arcuate, tapering apically to a sharp point ending in a slightly downcurved apex making the structure appear somewhat scythelike; surstylus appearing to be fused with epandrium; when viewed posteriorly surstyli slightly divergent. Pregonite usually broad, well-developed, apically squared off, blunt, devoid of setulae. Postgonite, slightly narrowed, 1/3 as wide as pregonite, rounded apically, subequal in length to pregonite. Distiphallus flared broadly cone-shaped, with a slender median longitudinal sclerotized reinforcement on its posterior surface and a broad, anterolateral, sclerotized acrophallus, on anterior surface near apex, ~1.5X as long as basiphallus.

Figure 14.

Belvosia brigittevilchezae sp. n. terminalia images a–c: male, paratype n. DHJPAR0001687

acaudal view  
bventral view  
csternite 5, ventral view  

Female (Fig. 15) length: 9–13mm, overall morphology as in male differing in the following traits: Head: bearing 3–4 pairs of proclinate orbital setae in addition to single pair of reclinate orbital setal; lacking any setae in front of post-ocular setae; fronto-orbital plate lacking any gold tomentum with only sparse gray tomentum present, tomentosity so sparse that when viewed from above the fronto-orbital plate can appear glabrous. Thorax: dark gray tomentose throughout, brighter on lateral edges of scutum surrounding supraalar setae. Wing: wing surface dark smokey gray, strongly infuscate, lighter than males. Abdomen: middorsal stripe on T5 gold often incomplete, in terminalia.

Figure 15.

Belvosia brigittevilchezae sp. n. habitus images a–d: female, paratype n. DHJPAR0001130

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Diagnosis

Belvosia brigittevilchezae sp. n. can be distinguished from all other Belvosia by the following combination of traits: fronto-orbital plate gold tomentose (dull gray in females) with a silver parafacial, pilosity of gena, and lowest frontal setulae yellow; basicosta brilliant orange; pilosity of katepisternum, meron and anepimeron, long and pale; abdomen with dark ground color, median marginal setae present on syntergite 1+2.

Etymology

Belvosia brigittevilchezae sp. n, is named in honor of Sra. Brigitte Vilchez in recognition of her decades of being part of the Parataxonomist Program of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr) in northwestern Costa Rica (Janzen and Hallwachs 2011). Interim species-specific name included in previously circulating databases and publications, Belvosia Woodley03B.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG (Guanacaste Province), 10–1150 m elevation.

Ecology

Belvosia brigittevilchezae sp. n. has been reared 180 times from four species of Lepidoptera in the family Saturniidae, Automeris zozimanaguana Brechlin & Mesiter, 2011 (N=1), Hylesia continua (Walker, 1865) (N=64), H. dalinaDHJ02 (N=2), H. lineata Schaus, 1911 (N=115), in rain forest, dry forest, and dry-rain lowland intergrade.

Belvosia calixtomoragai Fleming & Woodley sp. nov.

Materials   Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia calixtomoragai
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    calixtomoragai
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Del Oro
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Quebrada Lajosa
    ; verbatimElevation:
    400
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    11.0331
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.4288
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    11.0331
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.4288
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Saturniidae, Hylesia continua
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    30-Apr-2007
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0019489
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0019489
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Roberto Espinoza
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    ASTAB037-07, 07-SRNP-21030, BOLD:AAA2582
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    D2CAA1A4-9AFF-5933-B70E-C07E708E4E4D
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia calixtomoragai
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    calixtomoragai
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Santa Rosa
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Bosque San Emilio
    ; verbatimElevation:
    300
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.8439
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.6138
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.8439
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.6138
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Saturniidae, Hylesia lineata
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    15-Jun-1979
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0003866
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0003866
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Daniel H. Janzen
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    ASBE209-06, 79-SRNP-55C.1,
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    1ED6F1EE-1321-5DD7-8AAD-CBA9C10C8877
  2. scientificName:
    Belvosia calixtomoragai
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    calixtomoragai
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Del Oro
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Quebrada Lajosa
    ; verbatimElevation:
    400
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    11.0331
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.4288
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    11.0331
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.4288
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Saturniidae, Hylesia continua
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    14-May-2007
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0019472
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0019472
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Roberto Espinoza
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    ASTAB020-07, 07-SRNP-21042, BOLD:AAA2582
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    79632DFB-E225-5ED3-BE44-7069348B91AE

Description

Male (Fig. 16), length: 9–12mm. Head: head slightly wider than thorax; vertex 1/3 head width; gena 1/5 of head height, 1/4 of eye height. Fronto-orbital plate ranging from dull silver or pale gray to less often slightly greenish gold with gold tomentum at most on upper 2/3, with three rows of frontal setae, black hair-like setulae intermingled with setae, with a few light colored yellow setulae extending below lowest frontal seta; ocellar setae absent at most several hair-like setulae present on ocellar triangle; row of 2–10 short strong setae directly anterior to post-ocular row; one slightly inwardly lateroclinate–reclinate orbital seta outside of frontal row; 2–3 rows of frontal setae, black setulae intermingled with setae, and a few light colored yellow setulae extending below lowest frontal seta. Parafacial light yellow in ground color, densely covered in silver tomentum making the entire surface reflective and brilliant appearance; setulose along parafacial outside facial ridge, a small number of setulae extending just below lowest frontal setae; facial ridge setose along 2/3–4/5 of its length, with numerous yellow-yellow hair-like setulae emerging along outer edge of row; gena covered in yellow setulae. Antenna, pedicel burnt orange, contrasting with postpedicel; postpedicel black, 3X as long as pedicel; arista bare gradually tapering to a point at tip. Palps, yellow-orange throughout and densely covered in short black setulae; only slightly clubbed, tapering to a slight point apically, devoid of setulae apically. Thorax: black ground color, with light gray tomentum throughout, when viewed dorsally tomentum appears dense and silver postsuturally; scutellum appearing dark brown-black to the naked eye, under microscope dense bronze tomentum becomes apparent when view on an oblique caudal angle; scutum with four dorsal vittae, one outer pair, one inner pair broken at suture; lateral surface of thorax densely covered in long hair-like setulae, these setulae mostly reddish, caudal half of anepimeron densely covered in long black setulae, these turning to mostly reddish yellow on anterior and caudal margin of anepisternum, remainder of surfaces with dense long reddish-yellow setuale and with a few yellow setulae intermingled with upper meral setae; chaetotaxy: 3 strong setae on postpronotum arranged in a line, acrostichal setae 3:3; dorsocentral setae 3–4:4; intra-alar setae 3:3; supra-alar setae 2:3; 4–5 katepisternal setae; scutellum, with 4–5 pairs of long flat marginal setae of subequal length; apical setae present, short straight and erect, at a slight upward angle from the plane of the rest of the scutellar marginal setae; 1 complete row of scutellar discal setae just posterior to marginal setae. Wing: strongly infuscate, slightly darkened but not orange at wing base, with a brilliant orange basicosta; both upper and lower calypters also infuscate concolorous with remainder of wing; wing vein R4+5 setose, bearing only 2–3 setulae at base; halteres orange stalk with dark black/brown capitulum. Legs: black overall, coxa on midleg and hindleg with a few reddish-yellow setulae; tarsal claws yellow with black tips, with orange pulvilli subequal to length of tarsal claws; anterodorsal row of setae on hind tibia irregularly sized not fringelike. Abdomen: globose, with black ground color, orange lateroventrally on ST1+2–T4; bronze to gold tomentosity along anterior 10% of T3, gold tomentum along anterior 80% of surface of T4 bisected medially by an area devoid of tomentum, densely gold tomentose throughout T5 reaching to hind margin of tergite; sparse silver tomentum present ventrally, along tergal margins; middorsal depression on ST1+2 reaching to hind margin of tergite, ventrobasally ST1+2 bearing a few light yellow setulae similar to those on thorax; median marginal setae present on ST1+2 and T3, and complete rows of setae on T4 and T5.

Figure 16.

Belvosia calixtomoragai sp. n. habitus images a–d: male, holotype n. DHJPAR0019489

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Male terminalia (Fig. 17): sternite 5 with a deeply excavated median cleft along posterior edge, deep and Y-shaped, margins covered in dense tomentum; posterior lobes, bare and rounded apically, tapering and becoming hirsute with tomentum basally, with multiple bristle-like setulae. Anterior plate of sternite 5, 1/2 length of posterior lobes; unsclerotized "window" on anterior plate of sternite 5, directly basal to posterior lobes, elongate and sinuous, vaguely "w" shaped, spanning almost the entire width of the sternite. Cerci in posterior view triangular, slightly shorter than surstyli; rounded at apex yet slightly pointed, fused along most of their length, only separating along anterior 1/4. Cerci rounded/blunt in lateral view with a very slight anterior curve on apex, giving it a slightly clubbed appearance; cerci densely setose along basal 2/3rds, underside of cerci setose along entire length. Surstylus in lateral view, scythelike ending in a slightly downcurved and tapered apex making the structure appear bladelike; surstylus appearing fused with epandrium; when viewed posteriorly surstyli slightly divergent or with a slight outward curved at apices. Pregonite broad, well-developed, apically squared off or rounded, blunt, devoid of setulae, marginally thickened, heavily sclerotized. Postgonite, slightly narrowed, 1/3 as wide as pregonite, blunt and curved at apex, subequal in length to pregonite. Epiphallus well developed and apically hooked. Distiphallus apically flared, broadly cone-shaped, with a slender median longitudinal sclerotized reinforcement on its posterior surface and a broad, anterolateral, sclerotized acrophallus, on anterior surface near apex, ~1.7X as long as basiphallus.

Figure 17.

Belvosia calixtomoragai sp. n. terminalia images a–c: male, paratype n. 79-SRNP-55C, male sibling of DHJPAR0003866

acaudal view  
blateral view  
csternite 5, ventral view  

Female (Fig. 18) length: 9–13mm, overall morphology as in male differing in the following traits: Head: fronto-orbital plate only dull gray, sometimes appearing devoid of tomentum, bearing 3 pairs of proclinate orbital setae in addition to single pair of reclinate orbital seta. Thorax: hair-like setulae of anepisternum entirely black. Abdomen: as in the males differing only in terminalia.

Figure 18.

Belvosia calixtomoragai sp. n. habitus images a–d: female, paratype n. DHJPAR0019472

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Diagnosis

Belvosia calixtomoragai sp. n. can be distinguished from all other Belvosia by the following combination of traits: fronto-orbital with dull gray or silver tomentum (sometimes tomentosity can be sparse as to make the fronto-orbital plate appear yellow, but distinctly not gold) and silver parafacial, pilosity of gena, and lowest frontal setulae yellow, setulae below lowest frontal seta pale yellow, basicosta brilliant orange; pilosity of katepisternum, meron and anepimeron, with mostly black setulae, thorax with only three postsutural acrostichals; abdomen with dark ground color, median marginal setae present on syntergite 1+2, gold tomentum on T4 ranging from covering more than 50% of tergite.

Etymology

Belvosia calixtomoragai sp. n, is named in honor of Sr. Calixto Moraga in recognition of his decades of being part of the Parataxonomist Program of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr) in northwestern Costa Rica (Janzen and Hallwachs 2011). Interim species-specific name included in previously circulating databases and publications, Belvosia Woodley03C.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG (Provinces of Alajuela and Guanacaste), 95–1150m elevation.

Ecology

Belvosia calixtomoragai sp. n. has been reared 33 times from five species of Lepidoptera in the family Saturniidae, Hylesia continua (Walker, 1865) (N=24), H. dalina Schaus, 1911 (N=1), H. Janzen22 (N=4), H. lineata Schaus, 1911 (N=3), H. rubrifrons Druce, 1886 (N=2), in rain forest, dry forest, and dry-rain lowland intergrade.

Belvosia canalis Aldrich, 1928

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia canalis
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    canalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Aldrich, 1928
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Cacao
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Sendero Palmas
    ; verbatimElevation:
    675
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.8964
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.4737
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.8964
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.4737
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Saturniidae, Automeris anikmeisterae
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    21-Nov-2006
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0016446
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0016446
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Harry Ramirez
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    ASTAP650-07, 06-SRNP-47724, BOLD:AAA6542
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    550A34C4-A02E-5FF7-ADBF-5FD752220CD1
  2. scientificName:
    Belvosia canalis
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    canalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Aldrich, 1928
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Alajuela
    ; county:
    Sector San Cristobal
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Sendero Vivero
    ; verbatimElevation:
    730
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.8674
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.3874
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.8674
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.3874
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Saturniidae, Automeris postalbida
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    22-Aug-2007
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0019929
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0019929
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Carolina Cano
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    ASTA1212-07, 07-SRNP-1594, BOLD:AAA6542
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    995575AA-252E-5F2A-8899-092F46D1873C
  3. scientificName:
    Belvosia canalis
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    canalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Aldrich, 1928
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Pitilla
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Estacion Pitilla
    ; verbatimElevation:
    675
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.989310
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.425810
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.98931
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.42581
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Saturniidae, Automeris anikmeisteraeDHJ01
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-07-1989
    ; individualID:
    89-SRNP-141
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    89-SRNP-141
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Carolina Cano
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    89-SRNP-141
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    0BF1DEA9-2046-5872-BCDB-143196D27FD5

Description

Male (Fig. 19), length: 10–11mm. Head: head slightly wider than thorax; vertex 1/4 head width; gena 1/4 of head height, 1/3 of eye height. Fronto-orbital plate gold with slight greenish tinge, can often appear devoid of tomentum around vertex, with two rows of frontal setae, populated with short black hair-like setulae intermingled with setae, with a few dark colored setulae extending below lowest frontal seta; ocellar setae present weak and lateroclinate, somewhat hair-like adjacent to anterior ocellus; orbital setae absent. Parafacial light yellow in ground color, densely covered in silver tomentum but often with a gold sheen, particularly around facial carina, entire surface reflective and brilliant appearance; almost bare along parafacial outside facial ridge, with only a small number of setulae extending just below lowest frontal setae; facial ridge setose along 3/4 of its length, with few reddish yellow hair-like setulae emerging along outer edge of row; gena covered in reddish yellow setulae. Antenna, pedicel black, concolorous with postpedicel; postpedicel black, 4X as long as pedicel; arista bare gradually tapering to a point at tip. Palps, orange throughout and densely covered in short black setulae; only slightly clubbed, tapering to a slight point apically, devoid of setulae apically. Vibrissa approximately 1 pedicel length from facial margin. Thorax: black ground color, with light gray tomentum throughout; scutellum ground color light brown almost yellow, distinctly lighter than scutum, under microscope glabrous throughout with bronze tomentum only along margins; scutum with five dorsal vittae, one outer pair, one inner pair broken at suture, and one dorsocentrally appearing postsuturally; lateral surface of thorax densely covered in long hair-like setulae, these setulae all black; chaetotaxy: 3 strong setae on postpronotum arranged in a line, acrostichal setae 3:3; dorsocentral setae 3:4; intra-alar setae 3:3; supra-alar setae 2:3; 4–5 katepisternal setae; scutellum, with 4–5 pairs of long marginal setae of subequal length; apical scutellar setae short, weak and erect, inserted above the plane of the marginal setae; 1 complete row of scutellar discal setae just posterior to marginal setae. Wing: strongly infuscate, slightly darkened but not orange at wing base, basicosta black to dark brown with slight accent of orange along caudal edge; both upper and lower calypters also infuscate concolorous with remainder of wing; wing vein R4+5 setose, bearing only 2–3 setulae at base; halteres orange stalk with dark black/brown capitulum. Legs: black overall, lightly covered in shimmering silver tomentum, coxa on midleg and hindleg covered in black setulae; tarsal claws yellow-orange with black tips, with orange pulvilli subequal to length of tarsal claws; anterodorsal row of setae on hind tibia regularly sized almost fringelike, but with 3–4 longer stronger setae at least 2X as long as others. Abdomen: large, flattened globose, with black ground color; tomentum absent from T1+2 and T3, gold tomentum along anterior 40% of surface of T4 becoming more apparent under different angles, bisected medially by an area devoid of tomentum, densely gold tomentose throughout T5 not reaching to hind margin of tergite, black along caudal 10% of tergite, where it is devoid of gold; ventral surfaces of T3–T5 densely hirsute, but no distinct sex-patches present; middorsal depression on ST1+2 reaching to hind margin of tergite; one pair of median marginal setae present on ST1+2 and T3, and complete rows of setae on T4 and T5; T5 devoid of any setulae in the area of gold tomentosity.

Figure 19.

Belvosia canalis Aldrich, 1928, habitus images a–d: male, n. DHJPAR0016446

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Male terminalia (Fig. 20): sternite 5 with a deeply excavated median cleft along posterior edge, smoothly Y-shaped, margins covered in dense tomentum; posterior lobes rounded apically, with multiple setulae surrounded by many shorter weaker setulae. Anterior plate of sternite 5, 1/2X length of posterior lobes; unsclerotized "window" on anterior plate of sternite 5, elongate translucent, strongly arcuate convex. Cerci in posterior view triangular, with a sharp shoulder at apex; apically pointed, fused along 2/3 of length. Cerci in lateral view, straight with a mild hook at tip, densely setose along basal 2/3rds. Surstylus in lateral view, oar shaped and rounded pinched basally; surstylus appearing fused with epandrium; when viewed posteriorly surstyli slightly convergent and thickened, reminiscent of a kukri-type knife. Pregonite broad, well-developed, apically squared off, with 3–5 marginal setulae. Postgonite, narrow 1/3 as wide as pregonite, sharply blunt at apex, subequal in length to pregonite. Distiphallus elongate and barrel shaped, median longitudinal sclerotized reinforcement short, appearing as a small process, anterolateral, sclerotized acrophallus, on anterior surface near apex, ~1.7X as long as basiphallus.

Figure 20.

Belvosia canalis Aldrich, 1928, terminalia images a–d: male, n. 89-SRNP-141

acaudal view  
blateral view  
csternite 5, ventral view  

Female (Fig. 21) length: 11–13mm, overall morphology as in male differing in the following traits: Head: fronto-orbital plate dull gray, sometimes appearing devoid of tomentum along vertex, bearing 3–4 pairs of proclinate orbital setae in addition to 1–2 pairs of reclinate orbital seta; profile of head not rounded as in males; vertex 1/3 of head width; palps slightly more clubbed than males Thorax: Thoracic chaetotaxy, and tomentum as in males. Abdomen: more globose than males, lacking the flattened character, setulae on abdomen not as dense appearing far less hirsute than male abdomen; differing in terminalia, and the gold tomentosity on T4 extending over 40-50% of tergal surface.

Figure 21.

Belvosia canalis Aldrich, 1928, habitus images a–d: female, n. DHJPAR0019929

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Diagnosis

Belvosia canalis Aldrich 1928 can be distinguished from all other Belvosia by the following combination of traits: fronto-orbital plate with a pale gold bronze tomentum, basicosta partly black/dark brown, gold tomentum on T4 covering at most 50% of tergite, bisected medially by a dark strip so that two distinct tomentose patches on T4 appear separated from T5, T5 entirely gold with a slight blackening around median pair of marginal setae (gold tomentum resumes so that the underside is gold), abdomen slightly flattened with T5 slightly open vaguely exposing the genital capsule.

Distribution

From Costa Rica south to Brazil; Costa Rica, ACG (Provinces of Alajuela and Guanacaste), 95–1220 m elevation.

Taxon Statement: 

Interim species-specific name included in previously circulating databases and publications, Belvosia Woodley08.

Ecology

Within the ACG inventory, Belvosia canalis has been reared 152 times from two families of Lepidoptera Saturniidae: Automeris anikmeisterae Brechlin & Meister, 2011 (N=30), A. banus (Boisduval, 1875) (N=30), A. niepelti Draudt, 1929 (N=9), A. postalbida Schaus, 1900 (N=82), and one record Erebidae, Dysschema jansonis (Butler, 1870) (N=1); from cloud forest, dry forest, rain forest and dry-rain lowland intergrade.

Belvosia carolinacanoae Fleming & Woodley sp. nov.

Materials   Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia carolinacanoae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    carolinacanoae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Pitilla
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Medrano
    ; verbatimElevation:
    380
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    11.016
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.3805
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    11.016
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.3805
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Saturniidae, Hylesia dalina
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    20-Mar-2020
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0065397
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0065397
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Dinia Martinez
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    ACGBA11837-21, 20-SRNP-70318, BOLD:AAB8626
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    8B74B807-F957-5A57-A4E1-DEE9C5EFF0F7
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia carolinacanoae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    carolinacanoae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Pitilla
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Medrano
    ; verbatimElevation:
    380
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    11.016
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.3805
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    11.016
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.3805
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Saturniidae, Hylesia dalina
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    18-Mar-2020
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0065381
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0065381
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Ricardo Calero
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    ACGBA11821-21, 20-SRNP-70216, BOLD:AAB8626
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    29278A7B-C6AC-58F4-88D7-AB2C27B0C8E3
  2. scientificName:
    Belvosia carolinacanoae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    carolinacanoae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Del Oro
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Puente Mena
    ; verbatimElevation:
    280
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    11.0456
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.4574
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    11.0456
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.4574
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Saturniidae, Hylesia continua
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    18-May-2007
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0019474
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0019474
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Roster Moraga
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    ASTAB022-07, 07-SRNP-21164, BOLD:AAB8626
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    E53A2649-064A-51C1-85E8-C54D3A597C0D

Description

Male (Fig. 22), length: 9–10mm. Head: head slightly wider than thorax; vertex 1/3 head width; gena 1/4 of head height, 1/3 of eye height. Fronto-orbital plate dull silver to pale gray can appear glabrous, can have hints of greenish gold around frontal setae. with two rows of frontal setae, black hair-like setulae intermingled with setae, with a few black colored setulae extending below lowest frontal seta; ocellar setae absent at most several hair-like setulae present on ocellar triangle; three proclinate orbital setae and one reclinate orbital seta outside of frontal row. Parafacial light yellow in ground color, densely covered in silver tomentum making the entire surface reflective and brilliant appearance; slightly setulose with yellow setulae along parafacial outside facial ridge (lower half), a small number of setulae extending just below lowest frontal setae, these mostly black; facial ridge setose along 3/4 of its length; gena covered in black setulae. Antenna, pedicel burnt orange, contrasting with postpedicel; postpedicel black, 3X as long as pedicel; arista bare gradually tapering to a point at tip. Palps, yellow-orange throughout and densely covered in short black setulae; gradually tapering to a slight point apically, devoid of setulae apically. Thorax: black ground color, with light gray tomentum throughout, when viewed dorsally tomentum appears dense and silver postsuturally; scutellum appearing dark brown-black to the naked eye, under microscope light bronze tomentum becomes apparent when view on an oblique caudal angle; scutum with four dorsal vittae, one outer pair, one inner pair broken at suture; lateral surface of thorax densely covered in long hair-like setulae, these setulae all black with the exception of the lowest portion of the katepisternum where the setulae turn to a reddish-brown, katepimeron with a small tuft of yellow yellow setulae; chaetotaxy: 3 strong setae on postpronotum arranged in a line, acrostichal setae 3:4; dorsocentral setae 3:4; intra-alar setae 3:3; supra-alar setae 2:3; 4 katepisternal setae, outer pair extremely strong, more than double the thickness of inner pairscutellum, with 4–5 pairs of long flat marginal setae of subequal length; apical setae present, short straight and erect, at a slight upward angle from the plane of the rest of the scutellar marginal setae; 1 complete row of scutellar discal setae just posterior to marginal setae. Wing: strongly infuscate, slightly darkened but not orange at wing base, with a brilliant orange basicosta; both upper and lower calypters also infuscate concolorous with remainder of wing; wing vein R4+5 setose, bearing only 2–3 setulae at base; halteres orange stalk with dark black/brown capitulum. Legs: black overall, coxa on midleg and hindleg with a few reddish-yellow setulae; tarsal claws yellow with black tips, with orange pulvilli subequal to length of tarsal claws; anterodorsal row of setae on hind tibia regularly sized and fringelike with 2–3 longer setae protruding. Abdomen: globose, with dark maroon ground color; bronze to gold tomentosity absent on T3, gold tomentum along anterior 50% of surface of T4 bisected medially by an area devoid of tomentum (only visible on some angles of light), densely gold tomentose throughout T5 reaching to hind margin of tergite, black around insertions of marginal setae; middorsal depression on ST1+2 reaching to hind margin of tergite, ventrobasally ST1+2 bearing a few light yellow setulae similar to those on thorax, no sex patch present; median marginal setae weak almost hair-like on ST1+2, strong on T3, and complete rows of setae on T4 and T5.

Figure 22.

Belvosia carolinacanoae sp. n. habitus images a–d: male, holotype n. DHJPAR0065397

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Male terminalia (Fig. 23) : sternite 5 with a deeply excavated median cleft along posterior edge, widely Y-shaped with a slight shoulder, marginally tomentose; posterior lobes rounded apically, with multiple strong setulae, surrounded by shorter hair-like setulae. Anterior plate of sternite 5, 1/2 as long as posterior lobes; unsclerotized "window" on anterior plate of sternite 5 translucent directly basal to posterior lobes, rectangular in shape, curving slightly upward at tips. Cerci in posterior view triangular, subequal to slightly shorter than surstyli; pointed at apex, fused along basal half, separating apically; in lateral view, with a slight arc at apex; densely setose along basal 3/4ths, underside of cerci bare along anterior 1/2. Surstylus in lateral view, slightly straight, strongly tapering apically to a sharp point ending in a slightly downcurved apex; surstylus appearing to be fused with epandrium; when viewed posteriorly surstyli slightly divergent apically. Pregonite broad, well-developed, apically squared off, blunt, devoid of setulae. Postgonite, slightly narrowed, 1/3 as wide as pregonite, rounded apically, curved, shorter than pregonite. Distiphallus slightly flared, more barrel shaped than cone-shaped, with a short and slender median longitudinal sclerotized reinforcement on its posterior surface and a broad, anterolateral, sclerotized acrophallus, on anterior surface near apex, ~1.6X as long as basiphallus, slight club apically.

Figure 23.

Belvosia carolinacanoae sp. n. terminalia images a–c: male, paratype n. DHJPAR0065381

acaudal view  
blateral view  
csternite 5, ventral view  

Female (Fig. 24) length: 10–11mm, overall morphology as in males except in the following character states: three proclinate orbital setae and one reclinate orbital seta outside of frontal row; chaetotaxy: acrostichal setae 4:3–4. Abdomen, slightyl more globose, with dark maroon ground color.

Figure 24.

Belvosia carolinacanoae sp. n. habitus images a–d: female, paratype n. DHJPAR0019474

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Diagnosis

Belvosia carolinacanoae sp. n. can be distinguished from all other Belvosia by the following combination of traits: fronto-orbital gray tomentose with a silver parafacial, pilosity of gena, and lowest frontal setulae dark, basicosta brilliant orange, abdomen with dark ground color, median marginal setae on syntergite 1+2 weak and hair-like almost absent, T4 bearing gold tomentum at least 10% coverage.

Etymology

Belvosia carolinacanoae sp. n, is named in honor of Sra. Carolina Cano in recognition of her decades of being part of the Parataxonomist Program of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr) in northwestern Costa Rica (Janzen and Hallwachs 2011). Interim species-specific name included in previously circulating databases and publications, Belvosia Woodley03D.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG, Guanacaste Province, 280–400 m elevation.

Ecology

Belvosia carolinacanoae sp. n. has been reared seven times from two species of Lepidoptera in the family Saturniidae, Hylesia continua (Walker, 1865) (N=2), and Hylesia dalina Schaus, 1911 (N=5) dry forest, and dry-rain lowland intergrade.

Belvosia ciriloumanai Fleming & Woodley sp. nov.

Materials   Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia ciriloumanai
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    ciriloumanai
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2022
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Del Oro
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Puente Mena
    ; verbatimElevation:
    280
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    11.0456
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.4574
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    11.0456
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.4574
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Enyo ocypete
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    30-Aug-2002
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0001805
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0001805
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Manuel Pereira
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC321-05, 03-SRNP-16753, BOLD:AAA1520
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    84CC3820-75C3-53B7-A86D-80A6CDA807B2
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia ciriloumanai
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    ciriloumanai
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2022
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Del Oro
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Quebrada Trigal
    ; verbatimElevation:
    290
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    11.0268
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.4955
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    11.0268
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.4955
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Enyo ocypete
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    08-Jul-2003
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0002055
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0002055
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Lucia Rios
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC571-05, 03-SRNP-2804, BOLD:AAA1520
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    E7BFABBA-419B-517A-BB7E-43322157DD73
  2. scientificName:
    Belvosia ciriloumanai
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    ciriloumanai
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2022
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Santa Rosa
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Bosque San Emilio
    ; verbatimElevation:
    300
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.8439
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.6138
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.8439
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.6138
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Enyo ocypete
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    20-Jul-1984
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0003666
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0003666
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Daniel H. Janzen
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    ASBE009-06, 84-SRNP-490, BOLD:AAA1520
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    332F9858-C1B6-5D9F-9FC8-0A35CFDAF5B6

Description

Male (Fig. 25), length: 12–14mm. Head: head slightly wider than thorax; vertex 1/3 head width; gena 1/4 of head height, 2/5 of eye height. Fronto-orbital plate ranging from dull silver to pale gray often with slight hints of gold, with two rows of frontal setae, black hair-like setulae intermingled with setae, with a few dark colored setulae extending below lowest frontal seta; ocellar setae absent at most several hair-like setulae present on ocellar triangle; orbital setae absent; inner row of 5-10 post-ocular setae. Parafacial light yellow in ground color, densely covered in silver tomentum making the entire surface reflective and brilliant appearance; setulose along parafacial outside facial ridge, a small number of setulae extending just below lowest frontal setae; facial ridge setose along 2/3 of its length, with numerous black hair-like setulae emerging along outer edge of row; gena covered in black setulae. Antenna, pedicel black, concolorous with postpedicel; postpedicel black, 4X as long as pedicel; arista bare gradually tapering to a point at tip. Palps, yellow-orange throughout and densely covered in short black setulae; slightly clubbed, tapering to a slight point apically, devoid of setulae apically. Thorax: black ground color, with light gray tomentum throughout presuturally, thinning centrally postsuturally, and transitioning to brown-bronze laterally when viewed from a caudal angle; scutellum appearing dark brown-black to the naked eye, under microscope glabrous adjacent to scutum, abruptly transitioning to dense bronze tomentum which becomes apparent when view on an oblique caudal angle; scutum with four dorsal vittae, one outer pair, one inner pair broken at suture; lateral surface of thorax densely covered in long hair-like setulae, these setulae all black; chaetotaxy: 3–4 strong setae on postpronotum arranged in a line, acrostichal setae 3:3–5; dorsocentral setae 3–4:4; intra-alar setae 3:3; supra-alar setae 2:3; 4–5 katepisternal setae; scutellum, with 5–6 pairs of long flat marginal setae of subequal length; apical setae absent; 1 complete row of scutellar discal setae just posterior to marginal setae. Wing: strongly infuscate, slightly darkened but not orange at wing base, basicosta black with slight accent of orange along caudal edge; both upper and lower calypters also infuscate concolorous with remainder of wing; wing vein R4+5 setose, bearing only 2–3 setulae at base; halteres orange stalk with dark black/brown capitulum. Legs: black overall, covered in shimmering bronze tomentum, coxa on midleg and hindleg covered in black setulae; tarsal claws yellow-orange with black tips, with orange pulvilli subequal to length of tarsal claws; anterodorsal row of setae on hind tibia irregularly sized not fringelike. Abdomen: large, flattened globose, with black ground color, brown lateroventrally on ST1+2–T4; bronze to gold tomentosity along anterior 5% of T3 almost not visibly so, only when viewed from a very strong caudal angle, gold tomentum along anterior 40-50% of surface of T4 becoming more apparent under different angles, bisected medially by an area devoid of tomentum, densely gold tomentose throughout T5 not reaching to hind margin of tergite, black along caudal 10% of tergite, where it is devoid of gold; ventral surfaces of T3–T5 densely hirsute, reminiscent of sex-patches present in other Goniini, but lacking any definitive shape or form; middorsal depression on ST1+2 reaching to hind margin of tergite; one pair of median marginal setae present on ST1+2 and T3, and complete rows of setae on T4 and T5; T5 devoid of any setulae in the area of gold tomentosity.

Figure 25.

Belvosia ciriloumanai sp. n. habitus images a–d: male, holotype n. DHJPAR0001805

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Male terminalia (Fig. 26): sternite 5 with a deeply excavated median cleft along posterior edge, roughly Y-shaped, margins covered in dense tomentum; posterior lobes rounded apically, densely covered in multiple long, fine hair-like setulae. Anterior plate of sternite 5, 1/2 length of posterior lobes; unsclerotized "window" on anterior plate of sternite 5 rectangular, nearly transparent directly basal to posterior lobes. Cerci in posterior view variable, with two distinctive shoulders each tapering down by 1/2 previous width, overall triangular, lenght subequal to that of surstyli; blunted triangular at apex, medially to fused along 1/3 of their length. Cerci in lateral view, with a strong anterior curve on apex, giving it a pinched- slightly clubbed appearance; densely setose along most of its length, only bare at apex. Surstylus in lateral view, almost equilateral along its length with a slight curve; surstylus appearing to be separate and not fused with epandrium; when viewed posteriorly surstyli straight, not convergent. Pregonite broad and well developed, apically squared off, blunt, devoid of setulae. Postgonite, slightly narrowed, 1/3 as wide as pregonite, curved at apex, short and scythelike. Distiphallus broadly cone-shaped with a pronounced flare, with a slender median longitudinal sclerotized reinforcement on its posterior surface not reaching apex and a broad, anterolateral, sclerotized acrophallus, thickened apically appearing clubbed, only slightly ~1.8X as long as basiphallus.

Figure 26.

Belvosia ciriloumanai sp. n. terminalia images a–d: male, paratype n. DHJPAR0003666

acaudal view  
blateral view  
csternite 5, ventral view  

Female (Fig. 27) length: 12–15mm, overall morphology as in male differing in the following traits: Head: fronto-orbital plate dull gray, sometimes appearing devoid of tomentum, bearing 3–4 pairs of proclinate orbital setae in addition to single pair of reclinate orbital seta; postpedicel 2–3X as long as pedicel; gena 1/3 of head height, 1/2 of eye height. Thorax: chaetotaxy as in males. Abdomen: as in the males differing only in terminalia, overall abdomen not as hirsute as in males, particularly apparent on the underside.

Figure 27.

Belvosia ciriloumanai sp. n. habitus images a–d: female, paratype n. DHJPAR0002055

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Diagnosis

Belvosia ciriloumanai sp. n. can be distinguished from all other Belvosia by the following combination of traits: fronto-orbital plate gray tomentose with a silver parafacial, pilosity of gena, and lowest frontal setulae black, basicosta black-dark brown, both calypters dark infuscate, median marginal setae present on syntergite 1+2, anterior margin of T3 at most with gold tomentum along anterior 5% and T4 with gold tomentum over 10% of tergite, gold tomentum on T5 ending before last marginal setae making the apex of the tergite black, gold tomentum of tergites bissected medially by a middorsal stripe of dark tomentum.

Etymology

Belvosia ciriloumanai sp. n, is named in honor of Sr. Cirilo Umaña in recognition of his decades of being part of the Parataxonomist Program of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr) in northwestern Costa Rica (Janzen and Hallwachs 2011). Interim species-specific name included in previously circulating databases and publications, Belvosia Woodley04A.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG (Provinces of Alajuela and Guanacaste), 50–740 m elevation.

Ecology

Belvosia Woodley04A sp. n. has been reared 420 times from five species of Lepidoptera in the family Sphingidae, Aleuron iphis (Walker, 1856) (N=3), Enyo cavifer (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903) (N=1), Enyo ocypete (Linnaeus, 1758) (N=390), Unzela japix (Cramer, 1776) (N=22), U. pronoe Druce, 1894 (N=3), in rain forest, dry forest, and dry-rain lowland intergrade.

Belvosia diniamartinezae Fleming & Woodley sp. nov.

Materials   Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia diniamartinezae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    diniamartinezae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector El Hacha
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Estacion Los Almendros
    ; verbatimElevation:
    290
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    11.0323
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.5278
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    11.0323
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.5278
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Enyo ocypete
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    10-Jul-2000
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0003654
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0003654
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Lucia Rios
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC758-05, 00-SRNP-2670, BOLD:AAA1520
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    3428C3F5-63F4-5603-90D4-2DE37E6E9CF8
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia diniamartinezae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    diniamartinezae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector El Hacha
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Estacion Los Almendros
    ; verbatimElevation:
    290
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    11.0323
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.5278
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    11.0323
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.5278
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Enyo ocypete
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    14-Jul-2000
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0003648
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0003648
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Lucia Rios
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC752-05, 00-SRNP-2624, BOLD:AAA1520
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    34EDD49A-7843-56A6-9918-DA6E54D163D7
  2. scientificName:
    Belvosia diniamartinezae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    diniamartinezae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Santa Rosa
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Bosque Humedo
    ; verbatimElevation:
    290
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.8514
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.608
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.8514
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.608
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Enyo ocypete
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    06-Jul-1988
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0003671
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0003671
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & gusaneros
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    ASBE014-06, 88-SRNP-134, BOLD:AAA1520
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    17834835-29BF-58BF-9DB2-BE3C627AF4E6

Description

Male (Fig. 28), length: 13–14mm. Head: head slightly wider than thorax; vertex 1/3 head width; gena 1/4 of head height, 2/5 of eye height. Fronto-orbital plate ranging dull silver to pale gold, with two distinct rows of frontal setae, densely popuplated with black hair-like setulae intermingled, a few dark colored setulae extending below lowest frontal seta; ocellar setae absent, at most several hair-like setulae present on ocellar triangle; row of 1–3 short strong setae directly anterior to post-ocular row; orbital setae absent. Parafacial light yellow in ground color, densely covered in silver tomentum making the entire surface reflective and brilliant appearance; setulose along parafacial outside facial ridge; facial ridge setose along 3/4 of its length, with numerous black hair-like setulae emerging along outer edge; gena covered in strong black setulae. Antenna, pedicel black, concolorous with postpedicel; postpedicel black, 4X as long as pedicel; arista bare gradually tapering to a point at tip. Palps, yellow-orange throughout and densely covered in short black setulae; slender and near equilateral, only slightly curved at apex but not clubbed, tapering to a slight point apically, devoid of setulae basally. Thorax: black ground color, with light gray tomentum throughout presuturally, thinning centrally postsuturally, and transitioning to brown-bronze laterally when viewed from a caudal angle; scutellum appearing dark brown-black to the naked eye, under microscope glabrous adjacent to scutum, abruptly transitioning to dense bronze tomentum which becomes apparent when view on an oblique caudal angle; scutum with four dorsal vittae, one outer pair, one inner pair broken at suture; lateral surface of thorax densely covered in long hair-like setulae, these setulae all black; chaetotaxy: 3–4 strong setae on postpronotum arranged in a line, acrostichal setae 3:3–5; dorsocentral setae 3–4:4; intra-alar setae 3:3; supra-alar setae 2:3; 4–5 katepisternal setae; scutellum, with 5–6 pairs of long flat marginal setae of subequal length; apical setae absent; 1 complete row of scutellar discal setae just posterior to marginal setae. Wing: strongly infuscate, slightly darkened but not orange at wing base, basicosta black with slight accent of orange along caudal edge; both upper and lower calypters also infuscate concolorous with remainder of wing; wing vein R4+5 setose, bearing only 2–3 setulae at base; halteres orange stalk with dark black/brown capitulum. Legs: black overall, covered in shimmering bronze tomentum, coxa on midleg and hindleg covered in black setulae; tarsal claws yellow-orange with black tips, and orange pulvilli subequal to length of tarsal claws; anterodorsal row of setae on hind tibia irregularly sized not fringelike. Abdomen: large, flattened globose, with black ground color, brown lateroventrally on ST1+2–T4; bronze to gold tomentosity along anterior 5% of T3 almost not visibly so, only when viewed from a very strong caudal angle, gold tomentum along anterior 40-50% of surface of T4 becoming more apparent under different angles, bisected medially by an area devoid of tomentum, densely gold tomentose throughout T5 not reaching to hind margin of tergite, black along caudal 10% of tergite, where it is devoid of gold; "sex patch" present on ventral surfaces of T3–T5 which are densely hirsute, but lacking any definitive shape or form; one pair of median marginal setae present on ST1+2 and T3, and complete rows of setae on T4 and T5; T5 devoid of any setulae in the area of gold tomentosity.

Figure 28.

Belvosia diniamartinezae sp. n. habitus images a–d: male, holotype n. DHJPAR0003654

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Male terminalia (Fig. 29): sternite 5 with a deeply excavated median cleft along posterior edge, roughly Y-shaped, however shoulders lack definition making almost V-shaped, margins covered in dense tomentum; posterior lobes rounded apically, densely covered in multiple long, fine hair-like setulae. Anterior plate of sternite 5 1/2 length of posterior lobes; unsclerotized "window" on anterior plate of sternite 5 rectangular, nearly transparent directly basal to posterior lobes. Cerci in posterior view, overall triangular, slightly longer than surstyli; blunted triangular at apex, medially fused, separating only along anterior 1/3 of their length. Cerci in lateral view, with a strong anterior curve on apex, giving it a pinched- slightly clubbed appearance; densely setose along almost its length, only bare at apex. Surstylus in lateral view, equilateral along its length straight, only slightly curved digitiform; surstylus appearing to be separate and not fused with epandrium; when viewed posteriorly surstyli straight, not convergent. Pregonite broad and well developed, apically squared off, blunt, with a spars margin of 3–5 setulae. Postgonite, slightly narrowed, 1/3 as wide as pregonite, curved at apex, short and scythelike. Distiphallus broadly cone-shaped with a pronounced flare, with a slender median longitudinal sclerotized reinforcement on its posterior surface not reaching apex and a broad, anterolateral, sclerotized acrophallus, thickened apically appearing clubbed, ~1.8X as long as basiphallus.

Figure 29.

Belvosia diniamartinezae sp. n. terminalia images a–c: male, paratype n. DHJPAR0003671

acaudal view  
blateral view  
csternite 5, ventral view  

Female (Fig. 30) length: 13–15mm, overall morphology as in male differing in the following traits: Head: fronto-orbital plate dull gray, sometimes appearing devoid of tomentum, bearing 3–4 pairs of proclinate orbital setae in addition to single pair of reclinate orbital seta; postpedicel 2–3X as long as pedicel; gena 1/4 head height, and 1/3 of eye height. Thorax: chaetotaxy as in males. Abdomen: no apparent sex patch present, remainder as in the males differing only in terminalia, overall abdomen not as hirsute as in males, particularly apparent on the underside.

Figure 30.

Belvosia diniamartinezae sp. n. habitus images a–d: female, paratype n. DHJPAR0003648

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Diagnosis

Belvosia diniamartinezae sp. n. can be distinguished from all other Belvosia by the following combination of traits: gena with black setae, male fronto-orbital plate with traces of gold, males with 1–2 small setulae directly anterior to postocular row, 3–5 in females, wings with black basicosta, base of scutum with a regular row of strong of marginal setae, abdomen T3 with traces of gold tomentum directly adjacent to ST1+2.

Etymology

Belvosia diniamartinezae sp. n, is named in honor of Sra. Dinia Martinez in recognition of her decades of being part of the Parataxonomist Program of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr) in northwestern Costa Rica (Janzen and Hallwachs 2011). Interim species-specific name included in previously circulating databases and publications, Belvosia Woodley04B.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG (Provinces of Alajuela and Guanacaste), 7–675 m elevation.

Ecology

Belvosia diniamartinezae sp. n. has been reared 107 times from three species of Lepidoptera in the family Sphingidae, Enyo lugubris (Linnaeus, 1771) (N=3), Enyo ocypete (Linnaeus, 1758) (N=99), Unzela japix (Cramer, 1776) (N=6), in rain forest, dry forest, and dry-rain lowland intergrade.

Belvosia duniagarciae Fleming & Woodley sp. nov.

Materials   Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia duniagarciae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    duniagarciae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Alajuela
    ; county:
    Sector San Cristobal
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Potrero Argentina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    520
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.8902
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.388
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.8902
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.388
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Unzela japix
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    17-Jan-2003
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0002009
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0002009
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Carolina Cano
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC525-05, 02-SRNP-20277, BOLD:AAA1520
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    27E463FF-0B63-535D-BE7F-E4D56C3E848A
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia duniagarciae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    duniagarciae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Orosi
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Maderos
    ; verbatimElevation:
    510
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    11.0049
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.4749
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    11.0049
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.4749
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Unzela japix
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    01-Mar-1999
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0002026
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0002026
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Lucia Rios
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC542-05, 99-SRNP-2090.01, BOLD:AAA1520
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    7846E08A-2B45-59F2-B255-996357DD00FD
  2. scientificName:
    Belvosia duniagarciae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    duniagarciae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector El Hacha
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Finca Araya
    ; verbatimElevation:
    295
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    11.0154
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.5113
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    11.0154
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.5113
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Enyo ocypete
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    04-Aug-2002
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0001819
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0001819
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Elieth Cantillano
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC335-05, 02-SRNP-16709, BOLD:AAA1520
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    75D4D5EE-754F-54C2-AB5A-5F8080046165

Description

Male (Fig. 31), length: 11–14mm. Head: head slightly wider than thorax; vertex 1/3 head width; gena 1/4 of head height, 1/3 of eye height; ocellar setae absent at most several hair-like setulae present on ocellar triangle; row of 2–10 short strong setae directly anterior to post-ocular row; fronto-orbital plate ranging from dull silver or pale gray to slightly greenish gold on upper 2/3, with 2–3 rows of irregular frontal setae, black hair-like setulae intermingled with setae, with a few dark setulae extending below lowest frontal seta; one reclinate orbital seta outside of frontal row; parafacial bare and silver, nearly 1/2 of eye width when viewed laterally; facial ridge setulose along 2/3–4/5 of its length, with a few sparse black hair-like setulae along outer edge of row; gena covered in yellow to reddish black setulae; pedicel black concolorous with postpedicel; postpedicel dark brown to black, 2X as long as pedicel; arista bare distinctly-thickened on basal 4/5 almost to tip. Palps, yellow-orange throughout and densely covered in short black setulae; slender and near equilateral, only slightly curved at apex but not clubbed, tapering to a slight point apically, devoid of setulae basally. Thorax: black ground color, with light gray tomentum throughout presuturally, thinning centrally postsuturally, and transitioning to brown-bronze laterally when viewed from a caudal angle; scutellum appearing dark brown-black to the naked eye, under microscope glabrous adjacent to scutum, abruptly transitioning to dense bronze tomentum which becomes apparent when view on an oblique caudal angle; scutum with four dorsal vittae, one outer pair, one inner pair broken at suture; lateral surface of thorax densely covered in long hair-like setulae, these setulae all black; chaetotaxy: 3–4 strong setae on postpronotum arranged in a line, acrostichal setae 3:3–5; dorsocentral setae 3–4:4; intra-alar setae 3:3; supra-alar setae 2:3; 4–5 katepisternal setae; scutellum, with 5–6 pairs of long flat marginal setae of subequal length; apical setae absent; 1 complete row of scutellar discal setae just posterior to marginal setae. Wing: strongly infuscate, slightly darkened but not orange at wing base, basicosta black with slight accent of orange along caudal edge; both upper and lower calypters also infuscate concolorous with remainder of wing; wing vein R4+5 setose, bearing only 2–3 setulae at base; halteres orange stalk with dark black/brown capitulum. Legs: black overall, covered in shimmering bronze tomentum, coxa on midleg and hindleg covered in black setulae; tarsal claws yellow-orange with black tips, and orange pulvilli subequal to length of tarsal claws; anterodorsal row of setae on hind tibia irregularly sized not fringelike. Abdomen: large, flattened globose, with black ground color, brown–black lateroventrally on ST1+2–T4; gold tomentum only present along anterior 80–90% of surface of T5, bisected medially by an area devoid of tomentum, densely gold tomentose throughout T5 not reaching to hind margin of tergite, black along caudal 10% of tergite, where it is devoid of gold; "sex patch" present on ventral surfaces of T3–T5 which are densely hirsute, but lacking any definitive shape or form; one pair of median marginal setae present on ST1+2; 1–2 pairs present on T3, and complete rows of setae on T4 and T5; T5 devoid of any setulae in the area of gold tomentosity.

Figure 31.

Belvosia duniagarciae sp. n. habitus images a–d: male, holotype n. DHJPAR0002009

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Male terminalia (Fig. 32): sternite 5 with a deeply excavated median cleft along posterior edge, roughly V-shaped, margins covered in dense tomentum; posterior lobes rounded apically, densely covered in multiple long, fine hair-like setulae. Anterior plate of sternite 5, 1/2 length of posterior lobes; unsclerotized "window" on anterior plate of sternite 5 shaped like a flattened "w", nearly transparent directly basal to posterior lobes. Cerci in posterior view, elongated triangular, slightly longer than surstyli, pointed at apex with only a slight shoulder, medially fused, separating only along anterior 1/3 of their length. Cerci in lateral view, over all anteriorly curved, more acutely at apex, making them appear almost like an incomplete hook; densely setose along almost 2/3 of its length, only bare at apex. Surstylus in lateral view, equilateral along its length with soft but continuous curve, vaguely digitiform; surstylus appearing to be fused with epandrium; when viewed posteriorly surstyli straight, tips slightly divergent. Pregonite broad and well developed, apically squared off, blunt, devoid of setulae. Postgonite, slightly narrowed, 1/3 as wide as pregonite, curved at apex, short and scythelike. Distiphallus broadly cone-shaped with a pronounced flare, with a slender median longitudinal sclerotized reinforcement on its posterior surface not reaching apex and a broad, anterolateral, sclerotized acrophallus, thickened apically appearing clubbed, ~1.3X as long as basiphallus.

Figure 32.

Belvosia duniagarciae sp. n. terminalia images a–d: male, paratype n. DHJPAR0002026

acaudal view  
blateral view  
csternite 5, ventral view  

Female (Fig. 33) length: 11–14mm, overall morphology as in male differing in the following traits: Head: fronto-orbital plate dull gray, sometimes appearing devoid of tomentum, bearing 3 pairs of proclinate orbital setae in addition to single pair of reclinate orbital seta; row of setae directly anterior to post-ocular row absent. Palps, slender and only slightly curved at apex but not clubbed, tapering apically, devoid of setulae basally. Thorax: chaetotaxy as in males. Abdomen: as in the males differing only in terminalia.

Figure 33.

Belvosia duniagarciae sp. n. habitus images a–d: female, paratype n. DHJPAR0001819

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Diagnosis

Belvosia duniagarciae sp. n. can be distinguished from all other Belvosia by the following combination of traits: fronto-orbital plate pale silver gray, gena 1/3 of eye height, with a row of 5–10 small setulae directly anterior to postocular row, post sutural scutum mostly silver, both calypters dark, black basicosta, and apex of T5 black tomentose.

Etymology

Belvosia duniagarciae sp. n, is named in honor of Sr. Adrian Guadamuz in recognition of his decades of being part of the Parataxonomist Program of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr) in northwestern Costa Rica (Janzen and Hallwachs 2011). Interim species-specific name included in previously circulating databases and publications, Belvosia Woodley04C.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG (Provinces of Alajuela and Guanacaste), 90–710 m elevation.

Ecology

Belvosia duniagarciae sp. n. has been reared 126 times from four species of Lepidoptera in the family Sphingidae, Aleuron iphis (Walker, 1856) (N=1), Enyo ocypete (Linnaeus, 1758) (N=32), Unzela japix (Cramer, 1776) (N=91), U. pronoe Druce, 1894 (N=2), in rain forest, dry forest, and dry-rain lowland intergrade.

Belvosia duvalierbricenoi Fleming & Woodley sp. nov.

Materials   Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia duvalierbricenoi
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    duvalierbricenoi
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Santa Rosa
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Cuesta Canyon Tigre
    ; verbatimElevation:
    270
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.817
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.6437
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.817
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.6437
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Eumorpha satellitia
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    24-Jul-2000
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0001725
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0001725
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & gusaneros
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC243-05, 00-SRNP-8878, BOLD:ABZ6042
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    26A7F525-B361-5D60-8E9E-8DE0833B2508
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia duvalierbricenoi
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    duvalierbricenoi
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Alajuela
    ; county:
    Sector Rincon Rain Forest
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Camino Rio Francia
    ; verbatimElevation:
    410
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.9043
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.2865
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.9043
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.2865
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Pachygonidia drucei
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    12-Jun-2004
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0001716
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0001716
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Minor Carmona
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC234-05, 04-SRNP-40980, BOLD:ABZ6042
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    8E864A45-64E7-555E-8DBA-574A20B91D0F
  2. scientificName:
    Belvosia duvalierbricenoi
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    duvalierbricenoi
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Santa Rosa
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Cortafuegos Naranjo
    ; verbatimElevation:
    285
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.8352
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.6248
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.8352
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.6248
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Eumorpha satellitia
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    28-Jul-1984
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0002044
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0002044
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Daniel H. Janzen
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC560-05, 84-SRNP-776, BOLD:ABZ6042
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    C5006322-8F95-5B02-8DAF-D10B78559A21

Description

Male (Fig. 34), length: 12–15mm. Head: head slightly wider than thorax; vertex 1/3 head width; gena 1/4 of head height, 2/5 of eye height; ocellar setae absent at most several hair-like setulae present on ocellar triangle; fronto-orbital plate ranging from dull silver or pale gray to slightly greenish gold, with 2–3 rows of irregular frontal setae, black hair-like setulae intermingled with setae, with a few dark setulae extending below lowest frontal seta; one reclinate orbital seta outside of frontal row; parafacial bare and silver, nearly 1/2 of eye width when viewed laterally; facial ridge setulose along 2/3–4/5 of its length, with a few sparse black hair-like setulae along outer edge of row; gena covered in reddish-black; pedicel black concolorous with postpedicel; postpedicel dark brown to black, almost 3X as long as pedicel; arista bare distinctly-thickened on basal 4/5 almost to tip. Palps, yellow-orange throughout and densely covered in short black setulae; slender at base teardrop shaped at apex but not clubbed, tapering to a slight point apically, devoid of setulae basally. Thorax: black ground color, with light gray tomentum throughout presuturally, thinning centrally postsuturally, and transitioning to brown-bronze laterally when viewed from a caudal angle; scutellum appearing dark brown-black to the naked eye, under microscope glabrous adjacent to scutum, abruptly transitioning to dense bronze tomentum which becomes apparent when view on an oblique caudal angle; scutum with four dorsal vittae, one outer pair, one inner pair broken at suture; lateral surface of thorax densely covered in long hair-like setulae, these setulae all black; chaetotaxy: 3–4 strong setae on postpronotum arranged in a line, acrostichal setae 3:3–5; dorsocentral setae 3–4:4; intra-alar setae 3:3; supra-alar setae 2:3; 4–5 katepisternal setae; scutellum, with 5–6 pairs of long flat marginal setae of subequal length; apical setae absent; 1 complete row of scutellar discal setae just posterior to marginal setae. Wing: strongly infuscate, slightly darkened but not orange at wing base, basicosta black with slight accent of orange along caudal edge; both upper and lower calypters also infuscate concolorous with remainder of wing; wing vein R4+5 setose, bearing only 2–3 setulae at base; halteres orange stalk with dark black/brown capitulum. Legs: black overall, covered in shimmering bronze tomentum, coxa on midleg and hindleg covered in black setulae; tarsal claws yellow-orange with black tips, and orange pulvilli subequal to length of tarsal claws; anterodorsal row of setae on hind tibia irregularly sized not fringelike. Abdomen: large, flattened globose, with black ground color, brown–black lateroventrally on ST1+2–T4; gold tomentum along anterior 10% of T4, and anterior 60–70% of surface of T5, bisected medially by an area devoid of tomentum, T5 black along caudal 30% of tergite, where it is devoid of gold; "sex patch" present on ventral surfaces of T3–T4 which are densely hirsute, but lacking any definitive shape or form; one pair of median marginal setae present on ST1+2, 1–2 pairs present on T3, and complete rows of setae on T4 and T5; T5 devoid of any setulae in the area of gold tomentosity.

Figure 34.

Belvosia duvalierbricenoi sp. n. habitus images a–d: male, holotype n. DHJPAR0001725

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Male terminalia (Fig. 35) : sternite 5 with a deeply excavated median cleft along posterior edge, roughly V-shaped, margins covered in dense tomentum; posterior lobes rounded apically, densely covered in multiple long, strong setae, surrounded by shorter hair-like setulae. Anterior plate of sternite 5, 1/2 length of posterior lobes; unsclerotized "window" on anterior plate of sternite 5 shaped like a flattened "w", nearly transparent directly basal to posterior lobes. Cerci in posterior view, elongated triangular 2X as long as wide, slightly longer than surstyli, pointed at apex with only a slight shoulder, medially fused, separating only along anterior 1/3 of their length. Cerci in lateral view, over all anteriorly curved, more acutely at apex, making them appear almost like an incomplete hook; densely setose along almost 2/3 of its length, only bare at apex. Surstylus in lateral view, equilateral along its length with soft but continuous curve, vaguely digitform; surstylus appearing to be fused with epandrium; when viewed posteriorly surstyli straight, tips slightly divergent. Pregonite broad and well developed, apically squared off, blunt, devoid of setulae. Postgonite, slightly narrowed, 1/3 as wide as pregonite, curved at apex, short and scythelike. Distiphallus broadly cone-shaped with a pronounced flare, with a slender median longitudinal sclerotized reinforcement on its posterior surface not reaching apex and a broad, anterolateral, sclerotized acrophallus, thickened apically appearing clubbed, ~1.4X as long as basiphallus.

Figure 35.

Belvosia duvalierbricenoi sp. n. terminalia images a–c: male, paratype n. 84-SRNP-776, male sibling of (DHJPAR0002044)

acaudal view  
blateral view  
csternite 5, ventral view  

Female (Fig. 36) length: 13–15mm, overall morphology as in male differing in the following traits: Head: fronto-orbital plate dull gray, sometimes appearing devoid of tomentum, bearing 3–4 pairs of proclinate orbital setae in addition to single pair of reclinate orbital seta; row of setae directly anterior to post-ocular row absent. Thorax: chaetotaxy as in males. Abdomen: as in the males differing only in terminalia.

Figure 36.

Belvosia duvalierbricenoi sp. n. habitus images a–d: female, paratype n. DHJPAR0001716

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Diagnosis

Belvosia duvalierbricenoi sp. n. can be distinguished from all other Belvosia by the following combination of traits: fronto-orbital plate pale silver gray, genal setulae dark reddish colored, devoid of setulae anterior to postocular row, post sutural scutum mostly silver, both calypters dark, black basicosta, and apex of T5 black tomentose.

Etymology

Belvosia duvalierbricenoi sp. n, is named in honor of Sr. Duvalie Briceño in recognition of his decades of being part of the Parataxonomist Program of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr) in northwestern Costa Rica (Janzen and Hallwachs 2011). Interim species-specific name included in previously circulating databases and publications, Belvosia Woodley04D.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG (Provinces of Alajuela and Guanacaste), 90–710 m elevation.

Ecology

Belvosia duvalierbricenoi sp. n. has been reared 99 times from nine species of Lepidoptera in the family Sphingidae, Aellopos fadus (Cramer, 1776) (N=1), Enyo lugubris (Linnaeus, 1771) (N=1), Enyo ocypete (Linnaeus, 1758) (N=8), Eumorpha labruscae (Linnaeus, 1758) (N=2), E. satellitia (Linnaeus, 1771) (N=62), E. triangulum (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903) (N=1), Pachygonidia drucei (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903) (N=17), P. subhamata (Walker, 1856) (N=2), Unzela japix (Cramer, 1776) (N=5) in rain forest, dry forest, and dry-rain lowland intergrade.

Belvosia eldaarayae Fleming & Woodley sp. nov.

Materials   Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia eldaarayae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    eldaarayae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Santa Rosa
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Bosque San Emilio
    ; verbatimElevation:
    300
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.8439
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.6138
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.8439
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.6138
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Saturniidae, Rothschildia erycina
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    20-Apr-1997
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0001158
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0001158
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & gusaneros
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC038-05, 96-SRNP-7260.13, BOLD:AAC0626
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    39907FCC-A4CC-5643-919A-741F81F6F7CD
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia eldaarayae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    eldaarayae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Santa Rosa
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Cortafuegos Naranjo
    ; verbatimElevation:
    285
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.8352
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.6248
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.8352
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.6248
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Saturniidae, Rothschildia lebeau
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    19-May-2001
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0001155
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0001155
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC014-05, 01-SRNP-12402
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    F2E567EE-9EDD-5EFA-8EBB-77A44CACF9AC
  2. scientificName:
    Belvosia eldaarayae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    eldaarayae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Santa Rosa
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Area Administrativa
    ; verbatimElevation:
    295
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.837640
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.618710
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.83764
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.61871
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Saturniidae, Rothschildia lebeau
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    25-Jun-1982
    ; individualID:
    82-SRNP-313
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    82-SRNP-313
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Lucia Rios
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    82-SRNP-313
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    56118CC4-18BB-565E-B112-11D7FB3B530E

Description

Male (Fig. 37), length: 12–14mm. Head: head slightly wider than thorax; vertex 1/3 head width; gena 1/4 of head height, 1/3 of eye height. Fronto-orbital plate brilliant silver with three distinct rows of frontal setae, sparsely populated with short black hair-like setulae intermingled with setae, with a few dark colored setulae extending below lowest frontal seta; ocellar setae absent at most several hair-like setulae present on ocellar triangle; orbital setae absent. Parafacial light yellow in ground color, densely covered in silver tomentum making the entire surface reflective and brilliant appearance; almost bare along parafacial outside facial ridge, with only a small number of setulae extending just below lowest frontal setae; facial ridge setose along 3/4 of its length, with few black hair-like setulae emerging along outer edge of row; gena covered in black setulae. Antenna, pedicel black, concolorous with postpedicel; postpedicel black, 5X as long as pedicel; arista bare gradually tapering to a point at tip. Palps, orange apically darkening to a brown color basally and densely covered in short black setulae; only slightly clubbed, tapering to a slight point apically, devoid of setulae apically. Profile distinctly pointed at antennal insertion point giving the head a conical appearance when viewed laterally. Thorax: black ground color, with light gray tomentum throughout presuturally, postsuturally transitioning to brown-bronze when viewed from a caudal angle; scutellum appearing dark brown-black to the naked eye, under microscope glabrous adjacent to scutum, abruptly transitioning to dense bronze tomentum which becomes apparent when view on an oblique caudal angle; scutum with four dorsal vittae, one outer pair, one inner pair broken at suture; lateral surface of thorax densely covered in long hair-like setulae, these setulae all black, anepimeron covered bearing the same brown-bronze tomentum present on the scutum, remainder of pleural surfaces gray tomentose; chaetotaxy: 5–6 strong setae on postpronotum arranged in a line, acrostichal setae 3:3–4; dorsocentral setae 3:4; intra-alar setae 3:3; supra-alar setae 2:3; 4–5 katepisternal setae; scutellum, with 5–6 pairs of long flat marginal setae of subequal length; apical often absent but when present these are short, weak and erect, inserted above the plane of the marginal setae; 1 complete row of scutellar discal setae just posterior to marginal setae. Wing: strongly infuscate, slightly darkened but not orange at wing base, basicosta black with slight accent of orange along caudal edge; both upper and lower calypters also infuscate concolorous with remainder of wing; wing vein R4+5 setose, bearing only 2–3 setulae at base; halteres orange stalk with dark black/brown capitulum. Legs: black overall, covered in shimmering bronze tomentum, coxa on midleg and hindleg covered in black setulae; tarsal claws yellow-orange with black tips, with orange pulvilli subequal to length of tarsal claws; anterodorsal row of setae on hind tibia irregularly sized not fringelike. Abdomen: large, flattened globose, with black ground color, brown lateroventrally on ST1+2–T4; tomentum absent from T3, gold tomentum along anterior 10-15% of surface of T4 becoming more apparent under different angles, bisected medially by an area devoid of tomentum, densely gold tomentose throughout T5 not reaching to hind margin of tergite, black along caudal 10% of tergite, where it is devoid of gold; ventral surfaces of T3–T5 densely hirsute, reminiscent of sex-patches present in other Goniini, but lacking any definitive shape or form; middorsal depression on ST1+2 reaching to hind margin of tergite; one pair of median marginal setae present on ST1+2 and T3, and complete rows of setae on T4 and T5; T5 devoid of any setulae in the area of gold tomentosity.

Figure 37.

Belvosia eldaarayae sp. n. habitus images a–d: male, holotype n. DHJPAR0001158

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Male terminalia (Fig. 38): sternite 5 with a deeply excavated median cleft along posterior edge, roughly V-shaped, margins covered in dense tomentum; posterior lobes rounded apically, densely covered in multiple long, fine hair-like setulae. Anterior plate of sternite 5, subequal to length of posterior lobes; unsclerotized "window" on anterior plate of sternite 5 rectangular, translucent. Cerci in posterior view, short, stubby triangular, marginally longer than wide, slightly longer than surstyli, pointed at apex, medially fused, separating only along anterior 2/5 of their length. Cerci in lateral view, over all slightly anteriorly curved, more acutely at apex; densely setose along almost 2/3 of its length, only bare at apex. Surstylus in lateral view, rounded along posterior edge and flat along anterior edge making the process look like a cleaver-type blade; surstylus appearing to be fused with epandrium; when viewed posteriorly surstyli straight. Pregonite broad and well developed, apically squared off, blunt, devoid of setulae. Postgonite, slightly narrowed, 1/3 as wide as pregonite, curved at apex, longer than pregonite, scythelike. Distiphallus broadly cone-shaped with a pronounced flare, with a slender median longitudinal sclerotized reinforcement on its posterior surface not reaching apex and a broad, anterolateral, sclerotized acrophallus, thickened apically appearing clubbed, ~1.6X as long as basiphallus.

Figure 38.

Belvosia eldaarayae sp. n. terminalia images a–c: male, paratype n. 82-SRNP-313

acaudal view  
blateral view  
csternite 5, ventral view  

Female (Fig. 39) length: 10–14mm, overall morphology as in male differing in the following traits: Head: fronto-orbital plate dull gray, sometimes appearing devoid of tomentum along vertex, bearing 4–6 pairs of proclinate orbital setae in addition to 1–2 pairs of reclinate orbital seta; profile of head not rounded as in males. Thorax: Thoracic chaetotaxy: acrostichal setae 3:4; dorsocentral setae 3:4; intra-alar setae 2:3; supra-alar setae 2:3. Abdomen: more globose than males, lacking the flattened character, setulae on abdomen not as dense appearing far less hirsute than male abdomen; differing in terminalia, and the gold tomentosity on T4 extending over 40-50% of tergal surface.

Figure 39.

Belvosia eldaarayae sp. n. habitus images a–d: female, paratype n. DHJPAR0001155

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Diagnosis

Belvosia eldaarayae sp. n. can be distinguished from all other Belvosia by the following combination of traits: fronto-orbital plate pale silver gray, gena covered in black setulae, post sutural scutum mostly brassy-brown tomentose, both calypters dark, black basicosta, and apex of T5 black tomentose.

Etymology

Belvosia eldaarayae sp. n, is named in honor of Sra. Elda Araya in recognition of her decades of being part of the Parataxonomist Program of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr) in northwestern Costa Rica (Janzen and Hallwachs 2011). Interim species-specific name included in previously circulating databases and publications, Belvosia Woodley05.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG (Provinces of Alajuela and Guanacaste), 96–690 m elevation.

Ecology

Belvosia eldaarayae sp. n. has been reared 64 times from three species of Lepidoptera in the family Saturniidae, Rothschildia erycina (Shaw, 1796) (N=5), R. lebeau (Guerin-Meneville, 1868) (N=58), R. triloba Rothschild, 1907 (N=1) in rain forest, dry forest, and dry-rain lowland intergrade.

Belvosia eliethcantillanoae Fleming & Woodley, 2019 sp. nov.

Materials   Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia eliethcantillanoae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    eliethcantillanoae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    La Esperanza
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Acosta
    ; verbatimElevation:
    500
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Manduca Janzen01
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    05-Aug-1995
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0001161
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0001161
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Juan Acosta
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC062-05,95-SRNP-4739, BOLD:ABZ6041
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    80083D31-E6BF-547E-A9E2-27EA4DBB2934
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia eliethcantillanoae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    eliethcantillanoae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Santa Rosa
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Bosque Humedo
    ; verbatimElevation:
    290
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.851450
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.608010
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.85145
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.60801
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Manduca dilucida
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Aug-26-1984
    ; individualID:
    84-SRNP-408A
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    84-SRNP-408A
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & gusaneros
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    84-SRNP-408A
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    ACCE6874-5DD6-520C-9B96-A809A971F4C0
  2. scientificName:
    Belvosia eliethcantillanoae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    eliethcantillanoae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Santa Rosa
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Bosque Humedo
    ; verbatimElevation:
    290
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.8514
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.608
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.8514
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.608
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Amphonyx duponchel
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    08-Aug-1984
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0001874
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0001874
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Daniel H. Janzen
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC390-05,84-SRNP-1642, BOLD:ABZ6041
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    7FB189D1-2547-501A-BE61-FC615B199105

Description

Male (Fig. 40), length: 14–17mm. Head: head slightly wider than thorax; vertex 1/3 head width; gena 1/4 of head height, 1/3 of eye height. Fronto-orbital plate dull gray to brilliant silver with three distinct rows of frontal setae, with short black hair-like setulae intermingled with setae, with a few dark colored setulae extending below lowest frontal seta; ocellar setae absent at most several hair-like setulae present on ocellar triangle; one pair of reclinate orbital setae. Parafacial light yellow in ground color, densely covered in silver tomentum making the entire surface reflective and brilliant silver with a light gold sheen; almost bare along parafacial outside facial ridge, with only a small number of setulae extending just below lowest frontal setae; facial ridge setose along 3/4 of its length, with shorth black hair-like setulae emerging along outer edge of row; gena covered in black setulae. Antenna, pedicel black, concolorous with postpedicel; postpedicel black, 4–5X as long as pedicel; arista bare gradually tapering to a point at tip. Vibrissa arising above oral margin by length of 1 pedicel. Palps, yellow orange throughout and densely covered in short black setulae; only slightly clubbed, tapering to a slight point apically, devoid of setulae apically. Thorax: darkened orange ground color, with light gray tomentum throughout pre- and post- suturally, this tomentum tapering off adjacent to scutellum, sometimes bronze brown tomentosity visible confined to postalar callosity; scutellum appearing light yellow-orange to the naked eye, under microscope glabrous adjacent to scutum, abruptly transitioning to dense bronze tomentum which becomes apparent when view on an oblique caudal angle; scutum with four dorsal vittae, one outer pair, one inner pair broken at suture; lateral surface of thorax densely covered in long hair-like setulae, these setulae all black, anepimeron covered bearing the same brown-bronze tomentum present on the scutellum, remainder of pleural surfaces gray tomentose; chaetotaxy: 3–4 strong setae on postpronotum arranged in a line, acrostichal setae 3:3–4; dorsocentral setae 3:4; intra-alar setae 2:3; supra-alar setae 2:3; 4–5 katepisternal setae; scutellum, with 4–5 pairs of long flat marginal setae of subequal length; apical often absent but when present these are short, weak and erect, inserted above the plane of the marginal setae; 2 pairs of median discal scutellar setae. Wing: strongly infuscate, slightly darkened but not orange at wing base, basicosta black with slight accent of orange along caudal edge; both upper and lower calypters also infuscate concolorous with remainder of wing; wing vein R4+5 setose, bearing only 2–3 setulae at base; halteres orange stalk with dark black/brown capitulum. Legs: black overall, covered in shimmering bronze tomentum, coxa on midleg and hindleg covered in black setulae; tarsal claws yellow-orange with black tips, with orange pulvilli subequal to length of tarsal claws; anterodorsal row of setae on hind tibia irregularly sized not fringelike. Abdomen: large, flattened globose, with black ground color, brown lateroventrally on ST1+2–T4; tomentum absent from ST1+2–T3, gold tomentum along anterior >60% of surface of T4 apparent under all lighting angles, not bisected medially by an area devoid of tomentum, densely gold tomentose throughout T5 not reaching to hind margin of tergite, black along caudal 10% of tergite, where it is devoid of gold; ventral surfaces of T3–T5 lightly hirsute; middorsal depression on ST1+2 reaching to hind margin of tergite; one pair of median marginal setae present on ST1+2 and T3, and complete rows of setae on T4 and T5; T5 devoid of any setulae in the area of gold tomentosity.

Figure 40.

Belvosia eliethcantillanoae sp. n. habitus images a–d: male, holotype n. DHJPAR0001161

adorsal view  
bhead view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Male terminalia (Fig. 41): sternite 5 with a deeply excavated median cleft along posterior edge, smoothly Y-shaped, margins covered in dense tomentum; posterior lobes rounded apically, with multiple strong setae surrounded by many shorter weaker setulae. Anterior plate of sternite 5, 1/2 length of posterior lobes; unsclerotized "window" on anterior plate of sternite 5 translucent directly basal to posterior lobes, flattened rectangular with a slight upward arc at extremities. Cerci in posterior view like an isosceles triangle, narrow and parallel sided, slightly longer than surstyli; slightly rounded at apex, medially to fused along most of its length only separate on anterior 1/4. Cerci in lateral view, obclavate with a moderate anterior curve at apex; cerci densely setose along basal 4/5ths. Surstylus in lateral view, wide almost equilateral along its length broadly downcurved, appearing digitiform; surstylus appearing to be fused with epandrium; when viewed posteriorly surstyli slightly convergent, not angled inwards so as to not be clearly visible under cerci when viewed from a caudal angle. Pregonite usually broad, well-developed, apically squared off appearing subrectangular, with 2–3 strong setulae along inner margin. Postgonite, slightly narrowed, 1/3 as wide as pregonite, rounded clublike at apex. Distiphallus broadly cone-shaped with a pronounced flare, with a slender median longitudinal sclerotized reinforcement on its posterior surface not reaching apex and a broad, anterolateral, sclerotized acrophallus, thickened apically appearing clubbed, 1.4X longer than basiphallus.

Figure 41.

Belvosia eliethcantillanoae sp. n. terminalia images a–d: male, paratype n. 84-SRNP-408A

acaudal view  
blateral view  
csternite 5, ventral view  

Female (Fig. 42) length: 15–17mm, overall morphology as in male differing in the following traits: Head: fronto-orbital plate dull gray, sometimes appearing devoid of tomentum along vertex, bearing 4–6 pairs of proclinate orbital setae in addition to 1–2 pairs of reclinate orbital seta; profile of head not rounded as in males; gena 1/3 of head height, and 1/2 of eye height. Thorax: Thoracic chaetotaxy: acrostichal setae 3:4; dorsocentral setae 3:4; intra-alar setae 2:3; supra-alar setae 2:3. Abdomen: more globose than males, lacking the flattened character, setulae on abdomen not as dense appearing far less hirsute than male abdomen; differing in terminalia, and T3 bearing goldish tomentum on ventral surface.

Figure 42.

Belvosia eliethcantillanoae sp. n. habitus images a–d: female, paratype n. DHJPAR0001874

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Diagnosis

Belvosia eliethcantillanoae sp. n. can be distinguished from all other Belvosia by the following combination of traits: genal setulae dark, basicosta black, female with palps rounded apically, postpedicel more than 2X longer than pedicel, both calypters dark infuscate, T4 over 60% gold tomentose, cercus narrow and triangular, surstylus narrow and digitiform.

Etymology

Belvosia eliethcantillanoae sp. n, is named in honor of Sra. Elieth Cantillano in recognition of her decades of being part of the Parataxonomist Program of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr) in northwestern Costa Rica (Janzen and Hallwachs 2011). Interim species-specific name included in previously circulating databases and publications, Belvosia Woodley06.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG, Guanacaste Province, 105–550 m elevation.

Ecology

Belvosia eliethcantillanoae sp. n. has been reared 97 times from 14 species of Lepidoptera in two families Saturniidae: Periphoba arcaei (Druce, 1886) (N=1) and Sphingidae, Aellopos fadus (N=1), Agrius cingulata (Fabricius, 1775) (N=4), Amphonyx duponchel Poey, 1832 (N=2), Cocytius anteus (Drury, 1773) (N=1), Lintneria merops (Boisduval, 1870) (N=3), Manduca dilucida (Edwards, 1887) (N=67), M. florestan (Stoll, 1772) (N=2), M. Janzen01 (N=1), M. muscosa (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903) (N=6), M. occulta (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903) (N=1), M. rustica (Fabricius, 1775) (N=4), M. sextaDHJ03 (N=1), Neococytius cluentius (Cramer, 1776) (N=2) in rain forest, dry forest, and dry-rain lowland intergrade.

Belvosia freddyquesadai Fleming & Woodley sp. nov.

Materials   Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia freddyquesadai
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    freddyquesadai
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Pitilla
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Estacion Pitilla
    ; verbatimElevation:
    675
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.9893
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.4258
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.9893
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.4258
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Xylophanes chiron
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    25-Feb-2014
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0054965
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0054965
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Manuel Rios
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    ASHYH1512-14, 14-SRNP-30020, BOLD:AAA8475
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    E643BC2A-6A3F-593E-9E1F-D3B0614B4EFD
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia freddyquesadai
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    freddyquesadai
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Alajuela
    ; county:
    Brasilia
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Camino Ensayo
    ; verbatimElevation:
    500
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.9515
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.3739
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.9515
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.3739
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Xylophanes chiron
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    19-Dec-2007
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0023250
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0023250
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Calixto Moraga
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    ASTAW411-08, 07-SRNP-65788, BOLD:AAA8475
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    25A053DC-7D91-5730-8456-5B5C9D934FEC
  2. scientificName:
    Belvosia freddyquesadai
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    freddyquesadai
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Pitilla
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Sendero Laguna
    ; verbatimElevation:
    680
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.9888
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.4234
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.9888
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.4234
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Xylophanes chiron
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    14-Sep-2016
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0059786
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0059786
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Freddy Quesada
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    ACGBA6207-16, 16-SRNP-31290, BOLD:AAA8475
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    C72A52C8-63A9-5E08-BD2F-2668A275DD9A

Description

Male (Fig. 43), length: 14–17mm. Head: head slightly wider than thorax; vertex 1/4 head width; gena 1/3 of head height, 2/5 of eye height. Fronto-orbital plate light black in ground color, lightly covered with gray tomentum giving majority of the plate a glabrous dark gray sheen transitioning to silver; ocellar setae absent at most several hair-like setulae present on ocellar triangle; inner row of 5-10 post-ocular setae; reclinate orbital seta absent; two rows of frontal setae, black setulae intermingled with setae, several black setulae present below lowest frontal setae. Parafacial dark yellow in ground color, densely covered in silver tomentum making the entire surface reflective brilliant silver appearance; bare overall, except for a small number of setulae extending just below lowest frontal setae; facial ridge setose along 1/3–1/2 of its length, with a few sparse hair-like setulae emerging along outer edge of row; gena covered in black setulae. Antenna, pedicel black, concolorous with postpedicel; postpedicel, 1.5X as long as pedicel; arista bare, with a regular taper along most of its length only thickened on basal 1/5 almost to tip. Palps, yellow-orange throughout and densely covered in short black setulae; slightly clubbed, but gradually tapering to a slight point apically. Thorax: black ground color, with light gray tomentum throughout, when viewed dorsally tomentum appears thinner postsuturally, some bronze tomentum on the postalar callosity; scutellum appearing reddish-black in ground color, under microscope bronze tomentum becomes apparent when view on an oblique caudal angle; scutum with four dorsal vittae, becoming more evident under certain angles of light, these broken at suture; lateral surface of thorax densely covered in long black hair-like setulae; chaetotaxy: 3–4 strong setae on postpronotum arranged in a line, acrostichal setae 3:4–6 often with 2 extra setae appearing just adjacent to acrostichal setae; dorsocentral setae 3:4; intra-alar setae 3:3; supra-alar setae 2:3; 4–6 katepisternal setae; scutellum, with 5–6 pairs of long flat marginal setae of subequal length; apical setae absent; complete row of scutellar discal setae just posterior to marginal setae, approximately 1/3 as long as scutellar marginals. Wing: strongly infuscate, slightly orange at wing base, black basicosta, with some orange along posterior margin; both upper and lower calypters also infuscate concolorous with remainder of wing; wing vein R4+5 setose, bearing only 2–3 setulae at base; halteres orange stalk with dark black/brown capitulum. Legs: black overall, coxa on midleg and hindleg with a few reddish-yellow setulae; tarsal claws yellow with black tips, with yellow pulvilli 2/3 length of tarsal claws; Anterodorsal row of setae on hind tibia fringelike, formed by a very regular row of uniformly sized setae separated from each other by less than the width of their socket. Abdomen: globose, with dark burgundy-black ground color; abdominal tomentosity on T3-T4 bronze confined to the anterior margin of the tergite, at most anterior 10% of surface, T5 densely gold tomentose on 95% of surface absent along posterior 5%, which appears as glabrous black; middorsal depression on ST1+2 reaching to hind margin of tergite, median marginal setae present on ST1+2 wide set, stout but short, approximately 1/2 as long as median marginals on T3, T3 also with 1 pair of median marginal setae, and complete rows of marginal setae on T4 and T5; ventral surfaces of T3–T4 with clearly defined sex-patches extending from underside of tergite to lateral surface.

Figure 43.

Belvosia freddyquesadai sp. n. habitus images a–d: male, holotype n. DHJPAR0054965

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Male terminalia (Fig. 44): sternite 5 with a deeply excavated median cleft along posterior edge, roughly V-shaped, margins covered in dense tomentum; posterior lobes rounded apically, with multiple fine setae surrounded by many shorter weaker setulae. Anterior plate of sternite 5, 1/2 length of posterior lobes; unsclerotized "window" on anterior plate of sternite 5 translucent directly basal to posterior lobes, flattened rectangular with a slight upward arc at extremities. Cerci in posterior view like an isosceles triangle, 2x as long as wide, narrow and parallel sided, slightly longer than surstyli; pointed at apex, medially to fused along most of its length only separate on anterior 1/2. Cerci in lateral view, obclavate with a moderate anterior curve at apex; cerci densely setose along basal 4/5ths. Surstylus in lateral view, wide almost equilateral along its length broadly downcurved, appearing digitiform; surstylus appearing to be fused with epandrium; when viewed posteriorly surstyli straight. Pregonite broad, well-developed, apically rounded, with 2–3 strong setulae along inner margin. Postgonite, slightly narrowed, 1/3 as wide as pregonite, short and sharp at apex. Distiphallus broadly cone-shaped with a pronounced flare, with a slender median longitudinal sclerotized reinforcement on its posterior surface not reaching apex and a broad, anterolateral, sclerotized acrophallus, thickened apically appearing clubbed, 1.5X longer than basiphallus.

Figure 44.

Belvosia freddyquesadai sp. n. terminalia images a–c: male, paratype n. DHJPAR0059786

adorsal  
blateral  
cST5  

Female (Fig. 45) length: 14–17mm, overall morphology as in male differing in the following traits: Head: fronto-orbital plate dull gray, sometimes appearing devoid of tomentum along vertex, bearing 4–6 pairs of proclinate orbital setae in addition to 1–2 pairs of reclinate orbital seta; profile of head not rounded as in males. Thorax: Thoracic chaetotaxy: acrostichal setae 3–4:4; dorsocentral setae 3–4:4; intra-alar setae 2–3:3; supra-alar setae 2:3. Abdomen: more globose than males, lacking the flattened character, setulae on abdomen not as dense appearing far less hirsute than male abdomen; differing in terminalia, and T3 bearing goldish tomentum on ventral surface.

Figure 45.

Belvosia freddyquesadai sp. n. habitus images a–d: female, paratype n. DHJPAR0023250

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  
cthree quarters view  
dlateral view  

Diagnosis

Belvosia freddyquesadai sp. n. can be distinguished from all other Belvosia by the following combination of traits: gena covered in black setulae, inner row of 5-10 post-ocular setae, black basicosta, both calypters infuscate, anterodorsal setae on hind tibia comblike and regular, median marginal setae on ST1+2 reduced to absent, and T5 black apically.

Etymology

Belvosia freddyquesadai sp. n, is named in honor of Sr. Freddy Quesada in recognition of his decades of being part of the Parataxonomist Program of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr) in northwestern Costa Rica (Janzen and Hallwachs 2011). Interim species-specific name included in previously circulating databases and publications, Belvosia Woodley07A.

Distribution

Costa Rica, ACG (Provinces of Alajuela and Guanacaste), 95–1020m elevation

Ecology

Belvosia freddyquesadai sp. n. has been reared 30 times from eight species of Lepidoptera in the family Sphingidae, Erynnyis ello (Linnaeus, 1758) (N=1), Xylophanes adalia (Druce, 1881) (N=3), X. ceratomioides (Grote & Robinson, 1867) (N=1), X. chiron (Drury, 1773) (N=19), X. germen (Schaus, 1890) (N=1), X. hannemanni (Closs, 1917) (N=1), X. maculator (Boisduval, 1875) (N=1), X. zurcheri (Druce, 1894) (N=4) in cloud forest, dry foresrt, rain forest, and dry-rain lowaland intergrade.

Belvosia gloriasihezarae Fleming & Woodley sp. nov.

Materials   Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia gloriasihezarae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    gloriasihezarae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Santa Rosa
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Tanquetas
    ; verbatimElevation:
    295
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.8708
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.6053
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.8708
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.6053
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Aellopos fadus
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    02-Jul-1994
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0001985
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0001985
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & gusaneros
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC501-05, 94-SRNP-3273, BOLD:AAA8475
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    B785C126-B5C5-5B43-AD9A-AC83AFB08EAB
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Belvosia gloriasihezarae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    gloriasihezarae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Orosi
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Estacion Maritza
    ; verbatimElevation:
    570
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.9592
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.4951
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.9592
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.4951
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Erinnyis ello
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    22-Jul-1988
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0001864
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0001864
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & gusaneros
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    HCIC380-05, 88-SRNP-482, BOLD:AAA8475
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    E3F37F5E-7098-57DD-8C68-444763D7DDCC
  2. scientificName:
    Belvosia gloriasihezarae
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Tachinidae
    ; genus:
    Belvosia
    ; specificEpithet:
    gloriasihezarae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fleming & Woodley, 2023
    ; continent:
    Central America
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; countryCode:
    CR
    ; stateProvince:
    Guanacaste
    ; county:
    Sector Santa Rosa
    ; locality:
    Area de Conservacion Guanacaste
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Sendero Natural
    ; verbatimElevation:
    290
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    10.8357
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -85.6125
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    Decimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    10.8357
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -85.6125
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Reared from the larvae of the Sphingidae, Aellopos titan
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    12-Jul-2013
    ; individualID:
    DHJPAR0052415
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    Female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    pinned
    ; catalogNumber:
    DHJPAR0052415
    ; occurrenceDetails:
    http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Janzen, W. Hallwachs & Guillermo Pereira
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    ASHYM1769-13, 13-SRNP-15205, BOLD:AAA8475
    ; identifiedBy:
    AJ Fleming
    ; dateIdentified:
    2022
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    CNC
    ; collectionCode:
    Insects
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Pinned Specimen
    ; occurrenceID:
    BDE05808-AD4F-57B4-897D-F581DB200AE6

Description

Male (Fig. 46), length: 14–15mm. Head: head slightly wider than thorax; vertex 1/3 head width; gena 1/5 of head height, 1/4 of eye height. Fronto-orbital plate light black in ground color, lightly covered with gray tomentum giving majority of the plate a glabrous dark gray sheen transitioning to silver; ocellar setae absent at most several hair-like setulae present on ocellar triangle; inner row of 5-10 post-ocular setae; reclinate orbital seta absent; two rows of frontal setae, black setulae intermingled with setae, several black setulae present below lowest frontal setae. Parafacial dark yellow in ground color, densely covered in silver tomentum making the entire surface reflective brilliant silver appearance; bare overall, except for a small number of setulae extending just below lowest frontal setae; facial ridge setose along 1/3–1/2 of its length, with a few sparse hair-like setulae emerging along outer edge of row; gena covered in black setulae. Antenna, pedicel black, concolorous with postpedicel; postpedicel, 1.5X as long as pedicel; arista bare, with a regular taper along most of its length only thickened on basal 1/5 almost to tip. Palps, yellow-orange throughout and densely covered in short black setulae; slightly clubbed, but gradually tapering to a slight point apically. Thorax: black ground color, with light gray tomentum throughout, when viewed dorsally tomentum appears thinner postsuturally, some bronze tomentum on the postalar callosity and posterior edge of scutum; scutellum appearing reddish-yellow in ground color, anterior edge darker than posterior, under microscope bronze tomentum becomes apparent when view on an oblique caudal angle; scutum with four dorsal vittae, becoming more evident under certain angles of light, these broken at suture; lateral surface of thorax densely covered in long black hair-like setulae; chaetotaxy: 3–4 strong setae on postpronotum arranged in a line, acrostichal setae 3:4–6 often with 2 extra setae appearing just adjacent to acrostichal setae; dorsocentral setae 3:4; intra-alar setae 3:3; supra-alar setae 2:3; 4–6 katepisternal setae; small tuft of yellow hair-like setulae at the base of the postalar callosity; scutellum, with 5–6 pairs of long flat marginal setae of subequal length; apical setae absent; complete row of scutellar discal setae just posterior to marginal setae, these setae 1/3 as long as scutelar marginals. Wing: strongly infuscate, slightly orange at wing base, black basicosta, with some orange along posterior margin; both upper and lower calypters whitish with a fringe of pale setulae; wing vein R4+5 setose, bearing only 2–3 setulae at base; halteres orange stalk with dark black/brown capitulum. Legs: black overall, coxa on midleg and hindleg with a few reddish-yellow setulae; tarsal claws yellow with black tips, with yellow pulvilli 2/3 length of tarsal claws; Anterodorsal row of setae on hind tibia fringelike, formed by a very regular row of uniformly sized setae separated from each other by less than the width of their socket. Abdomen: globose, with dark burgundy-black ground color; gold tomentum at most on anterior 10% of T3, T4 with gold tomentum over anterior 50% tergite, T5 densely gold tomentose on 95% of surface absent along posterior 50%, which appears as glabrous black; middorsal depression on ST1+2 reaching to hind margin of tergite, median marginal setae absent on ST1+2, T3 also with 1 pair of reduced median marginal setae these approximately 1/2 as long as marginals on T4, and complete rows of marginal setae on T4 and T5; ventral surfaces of T3–T4 with clearly defined sex-patches extending from underside of tergite to lateral surface.