Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomy & Inventories
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Taxonomy & Inventories
An annotated nomenclatural checklist of endemic vascular plants distributed in the Ukrainian Carpathians
expand article info Andriy Novikov
‡ State Museum of Natural History of the NAS of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine
Open Access

Abstract

Background

The current paper presents a nomenclatural checklist for vascular plants validated being (sub)endemic to and present in the flora of the Ukrainian Carpathians. This checklist is a part of the work targeted on an inventory of endemic plants distributed in the Ukrainian Carpathians. It is mainly based on the analysis of primary sources (i.e. original protologues and monographic works), but also uses the data provided in the recent online taxonomic aggregators, such as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), Catalogue of Life (CoL), Plants of the World Online (POWO), Euro+Med PlantBase, World Flora Online (WFO) and others. Over 7,000 specimens deposited in the leading Ukrainian herbaria were also revised and used as a supporting data source during the work on the checklist.

New information

The checklist provides a revised nomenclature, including corrections on publication dates, rediscovered taxonomic protologues, corrected authorships and revised taxonomic status for (sub)endemic (sub)species of vascular plants occurring in the Ukrainian Carpathians. It contains 1,101 names, from which 78 species and subspecies have been accepted as valid and 1023 species and infraspecific taxa are provided as synonyms. It is completed with critical notes on the nomenclature of problematic taxa and brief annotations regarding their distribution in the Ukrainian Carpathians, indicating the endemicity range and sozological status for all analysed (sub)species.

The current checklist is linked with the GBIF taxonomic backbone, provides notes on detected issues and primarily focuses on its update and correction of the nomenclatural issues and taxonomic inconsistencies, but also aims at discussing issues in other popular taxonomic databases.

Sabulina pauciflora is proposed as a new combination to comply with a recent revision of the genus Sabulina.

Keywords

GBIF, IPNI, CoL, taxonomic databases, endemic flora, Ukrainian Carpathians, nomenclature, Sabulina pauciflora, comb. nov.

Introduction

The Ukrainian Carpathians are part of the Eastern Carpathians located on the territory of four western regions (i.e. Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, Zakarpattia and Chernivtsi) of Ukraine. These mountains stretch for over 280 km and cover about 24,000 km2 (Kondracki 1989, Tasenkevich 2004, Novikov 2021). The floristic diversity of the Ukrainian Carpathians consists of over 2500 species and subspecies of vascular plants. It comprises nearly 50% of the flora of the whole Carpathian Mountains range and almost 39% of the entire flora of Ukraine (Tasenkevich 2003, Chopyk and Fedoronchuk 2015). This is one of the most important centres of floristic diversity in Ukraine, having several confirmed glacial refugia and hosting many rare, relict and endemic plant species (Malynovskiy et al. 2002, Kricsfalusy and Budnikov 2007, Mitka et al. 2014). Amongst them, many species have minimal distribution. Some authors report 125 or even more endemic plant taxa from the region, including stenoendemics and microtaxa (Stojko and Tasenkevich 1993, Tasenkevich 2003, Chorney 2006, Chorney 2011).

During our initial analysis, 70 endemic and subendemic taxa (species and subspecies) of vascular plants were selected as those taxonomically non-ambiguous and confirmed as present in the flora of the Ukrainian Carpathians (Novikoff and Hurdu 2015). Since that, the initial list has been critically revised, based on newly-available published sources and routine elaboration of herbarium material. As a result, nine taxa (i.e. Aconitum firmum subsp. fussianum Starmühl., Leontodon kulczynskii Popov, Oxytropis carpatica R.Uechtr., Trisetum macrotrichum Hack., Carduus kerneri Simk. subsp. kerneri, Dactylorhiza maculata (L.) Soó subsp. schurii (Klinge) Soó, Dianthus carthusianorum subsp. tenuifolius (Schur) Hegi, Euphorbia carpatica Woł. and Festuca rupicola Heuffel. subsp. saxatilis (Schur) Rauschert) were excluded from the initial list because their distribution was not limited to the Carpathian region and/or due to problematic taxonomic interpretation and chorology. Some more taxa (e.g. Astragalus australis subsp. krajinae (Domin) Domin, Carduus kerneri Simk. subsp. kerneri, Erysimum wahlenbergii (Asch. & Engl.) Borbás, Festuca psammophila subsp. dominii (Krajina) P.Šmarda and Leucanthemopsis alpina subsp. tatrae (Vierh.) Holub,) were considered as potential candidates for the current list, but excluded from further processing due to their unclear taxonomy and/or chorology. Viola jooi Janka, which is a south-eastern Carpathian endemic, has also been excluded because it had been erroneously reported for the flora of the Ukrainian Carpathians (Sheliag-Sosonko et al. 1980, Chorney 2011). Scabiosa columbaria L. subsp. pseudobanatica (Schur) Jáv. & Csapody mentioned in the initial list (Novikoff and Hurdu 2015) was excluded from the current list due to unclear taxonomic status and chorology. Seventeen taxa and their verified synonyms were newly added, so the current list contains 78 accepted species from 51 genera, 29 families, 15 orders and two classes of vascular plants supported with 1023 synonyms (including the orthographical variants).

During the work with herbarium material, the need for a comprehensive taxonomic checklist became apparent because many specimens were deposited under different names and had different taxonomic interpretations depending on the identifier. Unfortunately, available online databases and published sources did not entirely fill the gap in nomenclature and synonymy and sometimes even provide controversial interpretations. To solve this issue, the checklist with complete nomenclatural citations was compiled, based on comprehensive data analysis. I believe that this checklist will be useful for other scientists conducting taxonomic revisions of certain plant groups and it will fulfil the missing data in existing checklists and databases, especially those focused on biodiversity and conservation.

Dedication

The work is dedicated to the bright memory of my teacher and friend, Prof. Dr. hab. Kazimierz Szczepanek from the Jagiellonian University in Kraków.

Materials and methods

The accepted taxa’s names are typefaced in bold italicised font. The synonyms are typefaced in italicised font. The identity sign (≡) indicates homotypic synonyms. The equality sign (=) indicates the heterotypic regular synonyms. The N-dash sign (–) indicates the names with the types which do not belong to the present taxon, i.e. partial heterotypic synonyms (synonyms pro parte), names in the interpretation of a certain author (synonyms sensu) or misapplied names. The names applied in the Ukrainian herbaria are marked by an asterisk. Additional information required to clarify or better understand the provided name is indicated in the square brackets [].

In some cases, the same name has been published twice in the same year by the same author(s), but in different works or it was published first as nomen nudum and soon supported with comments and/or protologue. In such cases, extended nomenclature citation is provided with an indication of both such works delimited by the term ‘et’. The term ‘et’ is applied to avoid confusion with an ampersand (&), which delimits different authors of the same taxon. In other words, in the nomenclature citation, ampersand delimits authors, while the term ‘et’ delimits publications. For example, Chrysanthemum rotundifolium has been published by two authors, Franz Waldstein and Pál Kitaibel. Therefore its nomenclature citation is ‘Chrysanthemum rotundifolium Waldst. & Kit., Descr. Icon. Pl. Rar. Hung. 3: 262, t. 236 (1812)’. The name Thlaspi dacicum subsp. dacicum has been published by János Heuffel twice in the same year, but in two different journals – in the Oesterreichische botanische Zeitschrift and in the Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Koniglichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien. Hence, the providded nomenclature citation is ‘Thlaspi dacicum subsp. dacicum Heuff., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 26 (1858) et Verh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 8 (Abh.): 61 (1858)’. The name Silene transsilvanica was first published by Philipp Schur in 1858 and later, in 1860, supported with details in the same journal Oesterreichische botanische Zeitschrift as nomen nudum. Hence, the provided nomenclature citation is ‘Silene transsilvanica Schur, Oesterr. Bot. Z. VIII: 22 (1858) [nom. nudum] et Oesterr. Bot. Z. 10: 181 (1860)’.

Recently, for the flora of Ukraine, the assessments following criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN 2022) were conducted and published by Onyshchenko et al. (2022); ascertained threat categories are indicated here for all analysed (sub)species. The national threat categories follow the last edition of the Red Book of Ukraine (Didukh 2009).

Data resources

The present checklist has been compiled in 2017–2022, based on the elaboration of such principal monographic works as Flora of USSR (Komarov 1934), Flora of UkrSSR (Bordzilovskiy 1938, Zerov 1950), Flora of the European Part of USSR (Fedorov 1974, Tzvelev 1989), Flora of the Ukrainian Carpathians (Chopyk and Fedoronchuk 2015), Flora of Poland (Szafer and Raciborski 1919, Szafer 1921, Szafer and Pawłowski 1955, Pawłowski 1963, Pawłowski and Jasiewicz 1971, Jasiewicz 1980, Jasiewicz 1985), Flora of Romania (Săvulescu 1952), Flora of Slovakia (Futák 1966, Michalko 1984, Feráková 1993), Synopses of the flora of the Czech Republic (Opiz 1852, Domin 1935); Flora of Hungary (Jávorka 1924), Flora of Bucovina (Herbich 1859), Conspects of the lora of Galicia (Zawadski 1835, Błocki 1883a, Błocki 1883b, Błocki 1883c, Błocki 1883d, Błocki 1883e, Błocki 1883f, Błocki 1883g, Błocki 1883h, Błocki 1883i, Błocki 1884a, Błocki 1884b, Błocki 1884c, Błocki 1884d, Błocki 1884e, Błocki 1884f, Zapałowicz 1906b), Synopses of the Central European flora (Ascherson and Graebner 1896, Soó 1972) and Conspects of the Flora of Transylvania (Baumgarten 1816b, Fuss 1866, Schur 1866, Simonkai 1886). Such checklists as Czerepanov (1995), Tasenkevich (1998), Mosyakin and Fedoronchuk (2015), Mirek et al. (2020) and other specific publications cited directly in the text were also applied. The Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL 2022), Biblioteca del Real Jardín Botánico (RJB-CSIC 2023), Repository of the Library and Information Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (REAL-J 2023), Google Books (Google 2023), Internet Archive (2022), Hungaricana (Országgyűlési Könyvtár 2023), E-Periodica (ETH Library 2023), Biblioteca Digitala BCU Cluj (Lucian Blaga Central University Library 2022), Elektronikus Periodika Archívum (Hungarian Electronic Library 2023), Digitální knihovna AV ČR (Akademie věd České republiky 2023), Wielkopolska Biblioteka Cyfrowa (WBC 2023) and Guide to the plant species descriptions published in seed lists from Botanic Gardens for the period 1800−1900 (Lut and Veldkamp 2023) have been used as a source of old printed materials containing the initial protologues of taxa.

Besides this, such databases as the International Plant Name Index (IPNI 2023), Catalogue of Life (Bánki et al. 2023), Euro+Med PlantBase (Euro+Med 2023), Plants of the World Online (POWO 2023), Worldplants (Hassler 2023), Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF 2023), Wikispecies (Wikimedia 2023), World Flora Online (WFO 2023), Florenliste von Deutschland (Gefäßpflanzen) (Hand et al. 2023) and Global Compositae Database (Compositae Working Group 2023) were also intensively used to construct the initial taxonomic backbone of the present checklist and to verify listed names.

The repositories JACQ (JACQ consortium 2023) and Global Plants (JSTOR 2023) were used to reveal existing type material for all analysed taxa, including those listed as synonyms. The TreatmentBank (Plazi 2023) was used to locate digitised taxonomic treatments for all valid taxa.

Finally, over 7,000 vouchers deposited in the leading Ukrainian herbaria (i.e. KW, KWHA, KWU, CHER, UU, LW, LWS and LWKS – see Thiers (2022) for abbreviations) were processed. Additional information gathered from KRA and KRAM Herbaria and Domin’s Card Index deposited at the Institute of Botany of the SAS in Bratislava was also integrated into the checklist. The dataset of processed specimens has been published in GBIF (Novikov and Sup-Novikova 2022a, Novikov and Sup-Novikova 2022b).

Below is the extended list of the analysed endemic species and subspecies of vascular plants distributed in the Ukrainian Carpathians, with some critical remarks and full nomenclature citations. The brief alphabetic list compiled for quick navigation and routine work with herbarium material is provided in Suppl. material 1. The hierarchically organised checklist with collapsed homotypic synonyms for easier nomenclatural work is provided in Suppl. material 2. The links and accession numbers for DNA sequences for all species revealed using the European Nucleotide Archive (EMBL-EBI 2023) facilities and cross-checked with Barcode of Life Data Systems (Ratnasingham and Hebert 2007, BOLD 2023) are provided in Suppl. material 3. The draft table version of this checklist (with some working Cyrillic annotations) used to create the current paper is deposited and freely available from Zenodo (Novikov 2023).

Endemic vascular plants distributed in the Ukrainian Carpathians

Class Liliopsida

Order Asparagales

Family Asparagaceae

Scilla kladnii Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 668 (1866)

Nomenclature: 

Scilla bifolia var. kladnii (Schur) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 730 (1882); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/2767528; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77291211-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000802907; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77291211-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11015874#page/741

= Scilla alpina Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 3: 90 (1852); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/2767537; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/540643-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000734709; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/540643-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11525300#page/961

= Scilla bifolia subsp. alpina (Schur) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 730 (1882); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/2767527; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77258410-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000772133; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77258410-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11015874#page/741

= Scilla bifolia var. alpina (Schur) C.Zahariadi in Nyár., Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 11: 314 (1966)

= Scilla bifolia β [unranked] gracillima Grecescu, Consp. Fl. Rom.: 565 (1898), non alior

= Scilla bifolia subsp. subtriphylla (Schur) Domin, Preslia 13–15: 19 (1936); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/6316610; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77258137-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000915343; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77258137-1

= Scilla bifolia var. subtriphylla (Schur) T.Simon, Ann. Biol. Univ. Debrecen. n.s., 1: 154 (1950); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5952322; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77291428-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000915344; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77291428-1

= Scilla subtriphylla Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 668 (1866) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/2767536; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/541057-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000741455; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/541057-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544719#page/690

= Scilla trifolia Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 668 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/2767525; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/541069-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000741409; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/541069-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544719#page/690

Scilla bifolia L., Sp. Pl. 1: 309 (1753) [p. p., tantum quod plantas ucrain. carpat.], non alior *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/2767506; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/540689-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000741049; POWO https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/540689-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/358328#page/321

Scilla bifolia var. nivalis auct. fl. carpat, non Baker

Scilla bifolia subsp. nivalis (Boiss.) K.Richt., Pl. Eur., 1: 220 (1890) sensu Fodor [non sensu orig.]

Scilla praecox auct. fl. carpat, non Willd.

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

Pancarpathian subendemic.

Notes: 

It was shown that Scilla bifolia L. is represented in the Ukrainian Carpathians by single subspecies – subsp. subtriphylla (Schur) Domin, which is a synonym to S. kladnii (Kricsfalusy and Vajnagi 1994, Kolesnyk 2001, Kolesnyk 2003).

Family Iridaceae

Crocus banaticus J.Gay, Bull. Sci. Nat. Géol. (Bull. Férussac), 25: 220, Nr. 178 (1831), non Heuff.

Nomenclature: 

= Crocus herbertianus Körn., Index Seminum (B, Berolinensis) 1854 (App.): 15 (1855); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/2747686; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/436554-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000788677; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/436554-1

= Crocus iridiflorus Heuff. ex Rchb., Ic. Fl. Germ. 9: 10, figs. 802, 803 (1847); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8465903; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/2747687; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/436571-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000788697; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/436571-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/28666#page/20; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.k000499176; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.k000499177

= Crocus nudiflorus Schult., Oestr. Fl., ed. 2, 1: 101 (1814) [nom. illeg.], non alior; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7380666; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/436632-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000788771; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/436632-1

= Crocus speciosus Baumg., Enum. Stirp. Transsilv. 1: 60 (1816), non alior

= Crocus speciosus (Baumg.) Host, Fl. Austr. 1: 43 (1827), non alior [nom. illeg.]

= Crocus speciosus var. transsylvanicus Hooker, Curt. Bot. Mag. 67: t. 3861 (1840–1841); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/2747724; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77271176-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000803365; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77271176-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/14345#page/205

= Crociris iridiflora (Heuff. ex Rchb.) Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 4: 73 (1853); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/2747450; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/436423-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000782650; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/436423-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11525300#page/959

= Crociris speciosa (Host) Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 4: 73 (1853); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/2747453; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/436424-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000782651; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/436424-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11525300#page/959

Crocus byzantinus Ker Gawl., Bot. Mag. 28: t. 1111 (1808) [p. p.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/2747452; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/11347665; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/436488-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000788579; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/436488-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/14316#page/152

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – NT (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian subendemic.

Notes: 

In Ukraine, this species occurs in Transcarpathia only and is listed in the Red Book of Ukraine as vulnerable (Mihály and Komendar 1993, Mygal 2009, MEPNR of Ukraine 2021). In his paper, Hooker (1840), in table 3861, indicated that C. speciosus var. transsylvanicus is a synonym of C. speciosus mentioned by Lindley (1839) in table 40. However, Lindley clearly stated that he considered C. speciosus sensu Baumg. (not sensu M.Bieb.) and also mentioned these plants under the name C. nudiflorus. Both taxa, C. speciosus sensu Baumg. and C. nudiflorus are known synonyms of C . banaticus . Consequently, C. speciosus var. transsylvanicus is also considered here as a synonym of C. banaticus. Danciu and Golban (2009) on page 131 also mentioned C. speciosus Rochel, non alior as a synonym of C. banaticus. However, in the original work of Rochel (1828), there is no evidence of its synonymy with C . banaticus.

GBIF (https://www.gbif.org/species/2747449, accessed on 05.06.2023), POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/436685-1, accessed on 05.06.2023), WFO (https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0000788843, accessed on 05.06.2023) and Euro+Med (https://europlusmed.org/cdm_dataportal/taxon/719bcaf0-a50e-4a66-86b9-fc4b2a73352f, accessed on 05.06.2023) mistakenly indicate Crociris iridiflora Schur and C. speciosa Schur as synonyms for Crocus salzmannii J.Gay occurring in Spain, Morocco and Algeria. Both Schur’s species were described from the Carpathian region (Schur 1853) and have no relation to C. salzmannii, which is sometimes recognised as a subspecies, C. serotinus subsp. salzmannii (J.Gay) B.Mathew). It was shown that C. banaticus, which, for a long time, was considered belonging to the independent subgenus Crociris Schur, is a morphological variant within section Crocus, but still distinct from C. salzmannii (Surányi et al. 2010, Harpke et al. 2013). This mistaken synonymisation has been resolved in the Worldplants database (https://www.worldplants.de/world-plants-complete-list/complete-plant-list?name=Crocus-salzmannii, accessed on 07.06.2023).

Family Orchidaceae

Gymnadenia carpatica (Zapał.) Teppner et E.Klein, Phyton (Horn) 38 (1): 221 (1998)

Nomenclature: 

Nigritella carpatica (Zapał.) Teppner, E.Klein & Zag., Phyton (Horn) 34: 171 (1994) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5323915; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/981684-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000976550; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/981684-1

Nigritella angustifolia var. carpatica Zapał., Consp. Fl. Gallic. Crit. 1: 215 (1906); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5323917; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/50989850-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000251887; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/50989850-1

Nigritella nigra subsp. carpatica (Zapał.) H.Baumann & R.Lorenz, J. Eur. Orch. 37: 717 (2005); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8213444; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77070561-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000806174; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77070561-1

Nigritella nigra var. carpatica (Zapał.) Pawł., Bull. Int. Acad. Polon. Sci., Cl. Sci. Math., Sér. B 1, Bot. 1947: 85, 96 (1947); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5323916; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000839712; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/377060-4

Nigritella rubra f. carpatica (Zapał.) Soó, Repert. Sp. Nov. Regni Veg. 24: 33 (1927); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5950762; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/376651-4

Gymnadenia nigra auct. fl. ucrain. carpat., non (L.) Rchb.f.

Nigritella nigra auct. fl. ucrain. carpat., non (L.) Rchb.f. *

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – EN (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 
SE Carpathian endemic
Notes: 

The Red Book of Ukraine lists this species as obsolescent (Chorney 2009c, MEPNR of Ukraine 2021).

Nigritella rubra f. carpatica (Zapał.) Soó is a homonym of Gymnadenia carpatica. However, GBIF (https://www.gbif.org/species/2840596, accessed on 05.06.2023), POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/636560-1, accessed on 05.06.2023) and WFO (https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0000976634, accessed on 07.06.2023) mistakenly provide Nigritella rubra f. carpatica amongst synonyms to G. miniata (Crantz) Hayek. Gymnadenia miniata (= Gymnadenia rubra Wettst.) as a distinct West-South-Central European red-flowered species of vanilla orchid (Baumann and Lorenz 2011) that does not occur in the Carpathians (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/636560-1, accessed on 07.07.2023).

Order Poales

Family Juncaceae

Luzula alpinopilosa subsp. obscura S.E.Fröhner, Preslia 40: 426 (1968)

Nomenclature: 

Luzula obscura (S.E.Fröhner) Novikov, Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol. 95(6): 66 (1990); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4204323; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/962193-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000778005; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/962193-1

= Luzula carpatica Kitt. ex Kanitz, Linnaea 32: 327 (1863); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/9058223; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7559197; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/443753-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000777735; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77242868-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/118417#page/330

= Luzula spadicea var. carpatica (Kitt. ex Kanitz) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur., Suppl. 2: 314 (1890); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7629382; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77282694-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000803768; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77282694-1

= Luzula spadicea [unranked] carpatica (Kitt. ex Kanitz) Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2(2): 513 (1904); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/9651841; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/25150622#page/523

= Luzula spadicea f. carpatica (Kitt. ex Kanitz) I.Grinț., Fl. Rep. Soc. Rom. 11: 594 (1966); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7942645; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000778119; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/316684-4

= Juncus spadiceus [unranked] β glabratus Wahlenb., Fl. Carp. Princip.: 102 (1814), non Hoppe nec Host

Juncus alpinopilosus Chaix, Hist. Pl. Dauphiné (Villars) 1: 318 (1786) [p. p., tantum quod plantas carpat.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/2700949; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/442659-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000775785; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/442659-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/50324360#page/416

Juncus spadiceus All., Fl. Pedem. 2: 216 (1785) [nom. invalid., p. p., tantum quod plantas carpat.], non alior; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7420868; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/443494-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000777249; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/443494-1

Luzula alpinopilosa (Chaix) Breistr., Bull. Soc. Sci. Dauph. 61: 609 (1947) [p. p., tantum quod plantas carpat.] *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/2700948; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/443701-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000777600; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/443701-1

Luzula spadicea (All.) Lam. & DC., Fl. Franc. [de Candolle & Lamarck], ed. 3. 3: 159 (1805) [p. p., tantum quod plantas carpat.] *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/9449570; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/443937-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000778114; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/443937-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/49712877#page/169

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

Pancarpathian endemic.

Notes: 

Following POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/443701-1, accessed on 05.06.2023), there are three subspecies of L. alpinopilosa (Chaix) Breistr – subsp. alpinopilosa (distributed in Western and Central Europe), subsp. deflexa (Kožuharov) Kirschner (native to South Europe) and subsp. obscura (the only subspecies occurring in the Carpathians). Chopyk and Fedoronchuk (2015), on page 544, considered L. spadicea (All.) DC. a synonym of L. alpinopilosa subsp. obscura and L. alpinopilosa. Similarly, Mirek et al. (2020), on page 112, considered L. spadicea a synonym of L. alpinopilosa without clarification of the subspecies. Considering the absence of other subspecies in the range, all plants from the Carpathian Mts. identified as L. alpinopilosa and L. spadicea should be regarded as belonging to L. alpinopilosa subsp. obscura.

Family Poaceae

Alopecurus pratensis subsp. laguriformis (Schur) Tzvelev, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 8: 19 (1971)

Nomenclature: 

Alopecurus laguriformis Schur, Verh. Siebenb. Ver. Naturw. 1: (1850) 182 [nom. nudum] et Schur ex Gris., Iter. Hung: 362 (1852) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5672208; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/387117-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000845668; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/387117-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11525300#page/190; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.w0025395

= Alopecurus laguriformis [unranked] a abbreviatus Schur, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 9: 13 (1859); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/36437#page/19

= Alopecurus laguriformis [unranked] b elongatus Schur, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 9: 13 (1859) et Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 727 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5943426; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77263212-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000845589; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77263212-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/36437#page/19

= Alopecurus transsilvanicus Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 727 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5671949; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/387210-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000845481; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/387210-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544778#page/749

Alopecurus brachystachyus auct. [e.g., Janka], non M.Bieb.

Colobachne gerardi Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 728 (1866), non Link.; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544778#page/750

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – DD (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Notes: 

Three (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/387176-1, accessed on 05.06.2023) to five (https://europlusmed.org/cdm_dataportal/taxon/1d82b70c-8685-4ea4-a6d2-296864770429, accessed on 05.06.2023) subspecies of A. pratensis L. are recognised viz. subsp. pratensis (cosmopolite), subsp. alpestris (Wahlenb.) Selander (occurs in Northern Eurasia), subsp. laguriformis (occurs in Romania and, probably, in Ukraine), subsp. songaricus (Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) N.V.Vlassova (questionable taxon declared for Asia) and subsp. pseudonigricans O.Schwarz. (dubious taxon mentioned for Germany and Czech republic). WFO (https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0000845656, accessed on 05.06.2023) also recognises A. pratensis var. aquaticus (Dumort.) Mathieu (≡ A. aquaticus Dumort.), which is, however, synonymised by the rest of the databases with the widely distributed A. arundinaceus Poir. Presence of A. pratensis subsp. laguriformis in the Ukrainian Carpathians is doubtful and requires confirmation (Chopyk and Fedoronchuk 2015).

GBIF (https://www.gbif.org/species/5672406, accessed on 05.06.2023) POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/387039-1, accessed on 05.06.2023), WFO (https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0000845481, accessed on 05.06.2023) and Worldplants (https://www.worldplants.de/world-plants-complete-list/complete-plant-list?name=Alopecurus-brachystachyus, accessed on 07.06.2023), mistakenly indicate A. laguriformis var. elongatus Schur and A. transsilvanicus Schur as synonyms of A. brachystachyus M.Bieb. Schur (1866), on page 727, indeed synonymised A. transsilvanicus with A. laguriformis var. elongatus distributed in Făgăraș (Schur 1859) and Rodna Mts. (Schur 1866). Schur (1866), on pages 727 and 728, also pointed out that Neilreich (1861) believed that A. transsilvanicus, A. colobachnoides Trin. and A. vlassovii Trin are synonyms of A. brachystachyus distributed in the Carpathians (Făgăraș, Rodna and Kronstadt [= Brașov]). However, Neilreich’s taxonomic interpretation of the mentioned taxa was mistaken because he relied on Janka (1858), who concluded that revised specimens of A. laguriformis are identical to the plants of A. vlassovii from the Altai and Baikal. In fact, this Janka’s conclusion led to the synonymisation of A. laguriformis with A. vlassovii and, consequently, with A. colobachnoides, which are morphologically different and geographically isolated taxa Tzvelev (1976). Such Janka’s misinterpretation of A. laguriformis was first outlined by Simonkai (1886). Later, Tzvelev (1971), in his revision of the genus Alopecurus distinguished A. brachystachyus and A. laguriformis and downgraded the last one to the rank of subspecies A. pratensis subsp. laguriformis Tzvelev (1974), Tzvelev (1976), Tzvelev (1978) and Tzvelev (1978) also pointed out that A. pratensis subsp. laguriformis is known exclusively from the Carpathians, while A. brachystachyus (≡ A. colobachnoides and = A. vlassovii) occurs out of Europe far to the east, in the Caucasus, Siberia, China and Mongolia.

Festuca amethystina subsp. orientalis Krajina, Acta Bot. Bohem. 9: 214 (1930), non alior

Nomenclature: 

= Festuca amethystina subsp. inarmata (Schur) Krajina, Veröff. Geobot. Inst. Rübel Zürich 10: 29 (1933); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7651353; WFO: https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0001097471

= Festuca amethystina subsp. amethystina var. amethystina f. marmarossica (Zapał.) Beldie, Fl. Rep. Pop. Soc. Rom. 12: 557 (1972)

= Festuca amethystina subsp. amethystina var. amethystina f. pauciflora (A.Nyár. & Nyár.) Beldie, Fl. Rep. Soc. Rom. 12: 557 (1972)

= Festuca amethystina [unranked] a marmarossica Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 1: 65 (1906) [ortho. var.] *

= Festuca amethystina [unranked] a marmarossiensis Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 230 (1911)

= Festuca amethystina [unranked] a marmarossiensis f. doamnensis Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 230 (1911)

= Festuca amethystina f. pauciflora A.Nyár. & Nyár., Studii Cercet. Biol. Ser. Bot. 16(2): 109 (1964)

= Festuca heterophylla var. inarmata Schur ex Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 792 (1866); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/7364#page/812

= Festuca heterophylla var. setifolia Schur ex Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 792 (1866); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/7364#page/812

= Festuca inarmata Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 10: 177 (1859) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4122548; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/402888-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000870754; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/402888-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11528081#page/421

Festuca amethystina L., Sp. Pl. 1: 74 (1753) [p. p., tantum quod plantas ucrain. carpat.] *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4113725; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/402336-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000869744; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/402336-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/358093#page/86

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Notes: 

Two (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/402336-1, accessed on 05.06.2023) to four (https://europlusmed.org/cdm_dataportal/taxon/4427a965-d232-4346-97dd-5275c9dbdb31, accessed on 05.06.2023) subspecies of Festuca amethystina L. are recognised – subsp. amethystina (distributed almost in the whole of Europe), subsp. orientalis (= subsp. inarmata, endemic to the south-eastern Carpathians; its presence in the Balkans doubted by Kliment et al. (2016)), subsp. kummeri (Beck) Markgr.-Dann. (sporadically represented in South and Central Europe) and subsp. ritschlii (Hack.) Markgr.-Dann. (occurs in Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Romania – see Jakubowska-Gabara (1994), Indreica (2007), Kiedrzyński et al. (2015), Łazarski (2016), Rewicz et al. (2018)). Euro+Med, based on personal communication with B. Valdés in 2004, but without any further confirmation, also declares the presence of F. amethystina subsp. ritschlii (https://europlusmed.org/cdm_dataportal/taxon/d2e8901d-25eb-420d-8c69-3b4b93a622d9, accessed on 05.06.2023), as well as subsp. orientalis (https://europlusmed.org/cdm_dataportal/taxon/aa72de8f-989c-48f8-b841-662e5460634b, accessed on 05.06.2023) in Ukraine. Roleček et al. (2019) also suggest the presence of F. amethystina subsp. orientalis in the Ukrainian Carpathians instead of F. amethystina subsp. A.ethystina. However, at the moment, there is no evidence confirming the presence of F. amethystina subsp. ritschlii or F. amethystina subsp. orientalis in the flora of the Ukrainian Carpathians. Only F. amethystina subsp. orientalis is mentioned by Chopyk and Fedoronchuk (2015) and other Ukrainian authors (e.g. Bednarska (2007)). On the other hand, Rewicz et al. (2018) recently stressed the applicability of morphological traits for the delimitation of infraspecific taxa within F. amethystina. They pointed out the need for a taxonomic revision of this species to clarify its biogeography.

Festuca carpatica F.Dietr., Nachtr. Vollst. Lex. Gärtn. 3: 333 (1817)

Nomenclature: 

Amphigenes carpathica (F.Dietr.) Janka, Linnaea 30(5): 619 (1859) & Janka ex Hack., Monogr. Fest. Eur.: 187 (1882); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7541275; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5671784; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/387285-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000870071; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/387285-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/117103#page/622; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/52923#page/205

Leucopoa carpatica (F.Dietr.) H.Scholz, Willdenowia 35: 242 (2005); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4136004; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77071608-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000870071; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77071608-1

= Amphigenes nutans (Wahlenb.) Janka, Linnaea 30(5): 619 (1859); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5671783; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/387286-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000870071; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/387286-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/117103#page/622

= Festuca carpatica var. bucegica (Krajina) Beldie, Fl. şi veg. Bucegi: 330 (1967)

= Festuca carpatica var. carpatica f. subflavescens (Zapał.) Beldie, Fl. Rep. Soc. Rom. 12: 484 (1972)

= Festuca carpatica var. carpatica f. umbrosa Beldie, Fl. şi veg. Bucegi: 329 (1967)

= Festuca carpatica f. elatior Krajina, Rozpr. Wydz. Mat.-Przyr. Akad. Umiejetn., Dzial B, Nauki Biol. 9: 219 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8335125; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/477638-4

= Festuca carpatica f. pseudolaxa (Schur) Jáv., Magyar Bot. Lapok 10: 266 (1911); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/201840#page/298

= Festuca carpatica f. subflavescens Zapał., Bull. Int. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, Cl. Sci. Math. 4B: 184. (1904); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7815522; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/477639-4

= Festuca dimorpha Janka, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 16: 101 (1866), non Guss.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8004377; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/402651-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000870071; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/402651-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/28749984#page/109

= Festuca laxa Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 10: 177 (1859), non Host; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/42663#page/421

= Festuca nutans Wahlenb., Fl. Carpat. Princ.: 28 (1814), non Host nec Moench; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/403175-1; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7994264

= Festuca pseudolaxa Schur, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 22 (1858); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4116805; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/403338-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000871712; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/403338-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/28724891#page/30

= Festuca pseudonutans Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 796 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4116775; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/403341-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000871740; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/403341-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544847#page/818

= Festuca pulchella subsp. scheuchzeriformis var. bucegica Krajina, Veröff. Geobot. Inst. ETH Stiftung Rübel Zürich 10: 52 (1933)

= Festuca scheuchzeriformis Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 796 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4145715; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/403491-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000871740; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/403491-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544847#page/818

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – NT (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

Pancarpathian endemic.

Notes: 

GBIF (https://www.gbif.org/species/4116614, accessed on 05.06.2023), POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/403363-1, accessed on 05.06.2023), Euro+Med (https://europlusmed.org/cdm_dataportal/taxon/e9bc861f-d097-45a6-bd73-706befdd5fc1, accessed on 05.06.2023) and Worldplants (https://www.worldplants.de/world-plants-complete-list/complete-plant-list?name=Leucopoa-pulchella, accessed on 07.06.2023) mistakenly consider F. pseudonutans Schur and F. scheuchzeriformis Schur as synonyms of F. pulchella Schrad. (≡ Leucopoa pulchella (Schrad.) H.Scholz & Foggi). Schur (1866), who described F. scheuchzeriformis and F. pseudonutans, later indicated them to be synonymic with F. carpatica and joined under the name F. scheuchzeriformis. Schur (1866) noted that this species occurs in the outskirts of Kronstadt (= Brașov). Merging of F. scheuchzeriformis with F. pulchella, perhaps, resulted from recombinations made by Krajina (1933) on page 51, who downgraded F. scheuchzeriformis to the rank of subspecies (i.e. F. pulchella subsp. scheuchzeriformis (Schur) Krajina) and delimited two varieties within this subspecies – var. bucegica Krajina (Muntii Bucegi, Transsylvania) and var. plicata (Huter. in Hackel) Krajina (south Austria and Yura, Switzerland). At the same time, Krajina (1933), on page 52, described the second subspecies within F. pulchellaF. pulchella subsp. eu-pulchella Krajina, distributed in Italy, Austria, Slovenia, Croatia and Germany. Hence, following Krajina (1933), only F. pulchella subsp. scheuchzeriformis var. bucegica occurs in the Carpathians. Therefore, only this variety corresponds to F. scheuchzeriformis in the sense of Schur (1866). Consequently, this variety corresponds to F. carpatica, endemic to the Carpathians (Kliment et al. 2016).

Festuca porcii Hack., Bot. Centralbl. 2(8): 407 (1881)

Nomenclature: 

= Festuca porcii f. hirsuta (A.Nyár.) Beldie, Fl. Rep. Soc. Rom. 12: 524 (1972); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4117144; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/882242-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000871667; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/882242-1

= Festuca porcii var. hirsuta A.Nyár., Not. Bot. Cluj 2: 83 (1966); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/6312934; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001098406; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000871668; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/416327-4

= Festuca porcii f. longiaristata Krajina, Veröff. Geobot. Inst. ETH Stiftung Rübel Zürich 10: 32 (1933)

= Festuca porcii f. vestita (Hack.) Krajina, Veröff. Geobot. Inst. ETH Stiftung Rübel Zürich 10: 31 (1933)

= Festuca porcii var. vestita Hack. ex Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 1: 67 (1906)

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – NT (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Notes: 

A vulnerable species listed by the Red Book of Ukraine (Bednarska and Kagalo 2009, MEPNR of Ukraine 2021).

Festuca versicolor subsp. versicolor Tausch, Flora 4(2): 559 (1821) et Tausch ex Kraj., Publ. Fac. Sc. Univ. Charles, Prague 106: 25 (1930), non J.Presl ex Kunth

Nomenclature: 

= Festuca minor Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 795 (1866), non St.-Lag.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8351667; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/403091-1; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/403091-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544846#page/817

= Festuca varia f. acuminata Sagorski & Schneider, Fl. Centralkarp. 2: 554 (1891), non (Gaudin) Bolzon

= Festuca varia [unranked] giewontica Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 1: 71 (1906)

= Festuca varia [unranked] flavescens Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 1: 70 (1906), non Gaudin

= Festuca varia subsp. pumila [unranked] spiculis flavescentibus Gaudin ex Hack. in Sagorski & Schneider, Fl. Centralkarp. 2: 554 (1891)

= Festuca varia var. scopariaeformis Kotula, Rozmieszczenie roślin naczyniowych w Tatrach: 456 (1890)

= Festuca versicolor subsp. eu-versicolor var. genuina subvar. rodnensis Krajina, Spisy Přír. Fak. Karlovy Univ. 106: 37 (1930)

= Festuca versicolor subsp. eu-versicolor var. genuina subvar. rodnensis f. minor Krajina, Spisy Přír. Fak. Karlovy Univ. 106: 38 (1930)

= Festuca versicolor subsp. eu-versicolor var. genuina subvar. rodnensis f. typica Krajina, Spisy Přír. Fak. Karlovy Univ. 106: 38 (1930)

= Festuca versicolor subsp. eu-versicolor var. genuina subvar. transsilvanica Krajina, Spisy Přír. Fak. Karlovy Univ. 106: 38 (1930); JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.w19160032081

= Festuca versicolor subsp. eu-versicolor var. genuina subvar. transsilvanica f. Kotschyi Krajina, Spisy Přír. Fak. Karlovy Univ. 106: 39 (1930)

= Festuca versicolor subsp. eu-versicolor var. genuina subvar. transsilvanica f. pallens Krajina, Spisy Přír. Fak. Karlovy Univ. 106: 39 (1930)

= Festuca versicolor subsp. eu-versicolor var. genuina subvar. transsilvanica f. typica Krajina, Spisy Přír. Fak. Karlovy Univ. 106: 39 (1930)

= Festuca versicolor subsp. eu-versicolor var. genuina subvar. vulgaris Krajina, Spisy Přír. Fak. Karlovy Univ. 106: 31 (1930)

= Festuca versicolor subsp. eu-versicolor var. genuina subvar. vulgaris f. chrysantha Krajina, Spisy Přír. Fak. Karlovy Univ. 106: 32 (1930)

= Festuca versicolor subsp. eu-versicolor var. genuina subvar. vulgaris f. curvala Krajina, Spisy Přír. Fak. Karlovy Univ. 106: 32 (1930)

= Festuca versicolor subsp. eu-versicolor var. genuina subvar. vulgaris f. debilis Krajina, Spisy Přír. Fak. Karlovy Univ. 106: 33 (1930)

= Festuca versicolor subsp. eu-versicolor var. genuina subvar. vulgaris f. giewontica (Zapał.) Krajina, Spisy Přír. Fak. Karlovy Univ. 106: 33 (1930)

= Festuca versicolor subsp. eu-versicolor var. genuina subvar. vulgaris f. glaucophylla Krajina, Spisy Přír. Fak. Karlovy Univ.: 33 (1930)

= Festuca versicolor subsp. eu-versicolor var. genuina subvar. vulgaris f. mutica Krajina, Spisy Přír. Fak. Karlovy Univ. 106: 33 (1930)

= Festuca versicolor subsp. eu-versicolor var. genuina subvar. vulgaris f. robustior Krajina, Spisy Přír. Fak. Karlovy Univ. 106: 32 (1930)

= Festuca versicolor subsp. eu-versicolor var. genuina subvar. vulgaris f. scopariaeformis (Kotula) Krajina, Spisy Přír. Fak. Karlovy Univ. 106: 32 (1930)

= Festuca versicolor subsp. eu-versicolor var. genuina subvar. vulgaris f. typica Krajina, Spisy Přír. Fak. Karlovy Univ. 106: 32 (1930)

= Festuca versicolor subsp. eu-versicolor var. genuina subvar. vulgaris f. zapalowiczii Krajina, Spisy Přír. Fak. Karlovy Univ. 106: 33 (1930); JACQ: https://w.jacq.org/W19160013707; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.w19160013707

= Festuca versicolor var. minor (Schur) Krajina, Veröff. Geobot. Inst. ETH Stiftung Rübel Zürich 10: 40 (1933)

= Festuca versicolor subsp. pseudosulcata Krajina, Spisy Přír. Fak. Karlovy Univ. 106: 43 (1930), non Drobow; JACQ: https://w.jacq.org/W19160038597; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.w19160038597

= Festuca versicolor var. versicolor f. chrysantha (Krajina) Beldie, Fl. Rep. Soc. Rom. 12: 491 (1972)

= Festuca versicolor var. versicolor f. debilis (Krajina) Beldie, Fl. Rep. Soc. Rom. 12: 491 (1972)

Festuca varia f. pallidula auct., non Hack.

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

Pancarpathian subendemic.

Notes: 

Two (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/403706-1, accessed on 05.06.2023) to four (https://europlusmed.org/cdm_dataportal/taxon/0c5f7c03-e2bc-42b0-8fd0-7dc8fcc48491, accessed on 05.06.2023) subspecies are recognised within F. versicolor Tausch, including subsp. versicolor (occurs in the Carparpathians and rarely in the Sudetes – Kliment (1999)), subsp. dominii Krajina (endemic of the Rodna Mts. – Kliment et al. (2016)), subsp. pallidula (Hack.) Markgr.-Dann. (endemic of the Austrian Alps occurring on the rocks and screes up to 1700 m a.s.l. – Šmarda (2008), Essl et al. (2009)) and subsp. brachystachys (Hack.) Markgr.-Dann. (another endemic of the Austrian Alps occurring in the alpine habitats up to 2200 m a.s.l. – Essl et al. (2009)).

Euro+Med (https://europlusmed.org/cdm_dataportal/taxon/0b134a8c-3aa4-4e34-bdd2-b82875b30957, accessed on 05.06.2023) indicates the presence of F. versicolor subsp. dominii in Ukraine, based on personal communication with B. Valdés in 2003. However, no confirmed evidence of its presence in Ukraine has appeared since then. In the original description of F. versicolor subsp. dominii, Krajina (1930) mentioned the existence of this subspecies only in Rodna Mts. Šmarda et al. (2007) revised this subspecies as belonging to the non-endemic F. psammophila subsp. dominii with distribution in Austria, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Poland. At the same time, Šmarda et al. (2007) considered specimens of F. dominii var. margittaii Krajina belonging to F. vaginata Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd., which is distributed in Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Croatia. Unfortunately, Šmarda et al. (2007) did not revise specimens from Ukraine. In Ukraine, the only discovered specimen of F. dominii var. margittaii from the Szomotor Village (Hungary) is deposited at the KW Herbarium. Therefore, the presence of F. versicolor subsp. dominii in Ukraine remains unclear.

Koeleria transsilvanica Schur, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 313 (1857), non Barth.

Nomenclature: 

Koeleria cristata [unranked] d) transsilvanica (Schur) K.Richt., Pl. Eur. 1: 75 (1890); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/9550970; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77260252-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-1200013144; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77260252-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10641492#page/81

Koeleria cristata subsp. ciliata var. transsilvanica (Schur) Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2(1): 358 (1900); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/9528021; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77280772-1; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77280772-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/25261416#page/370

Koeleria gracilis subsp. transsilvanica (Schur) Domin, Monographie d. Gattung Koeleria, Biblioth. Bot. 14(65): 239 (1907) et Flora Romaniae Exsiceatae; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7496966; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77260417-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001234481; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77260417-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/47145556#page/257

Koeleria gracilis var. transsilvanica (Schur) Jáv., Magyar Fl.: 87 (1925)

Koeleria macrantha subsp. transsilvanica (Schur) Beldie, Fl. Rom. Det.: 342 (1977) [nom. illeg.]

Koeleria macrantha subsp. transsilvanica (Schur) A.Nyár. (1965) [nom. nudum ?]; CoL: https://www.catalogueoflife.org/data/taxon/5J7J2; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/9358421; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77190062-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001428176; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77190062-1

= Koeleria gracilis var. rohlenae Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 65: 193 (1907); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5946130; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77280623-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000877079; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77280623-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/47145510#page/211

= Koeleria gracilis var. typica Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 65: 230 (1907); IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/290732-2; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001397716; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/47145510#page/248

= Koeleria tenuipes (Schur) Ujhelyi, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 57: 191 (1965); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4136561; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/406721-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000877153; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/406721-1

= Koeleria transsilvanica subsp. tenuipes (Schur) Soó, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 17(1–2): 122 (1972); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4136485; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/882519-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000877371; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/882519-1

= Koeleria transsilvanica var. tenuipes (Schur) Domin, Magyar Bot. Lapok 3: 259 (1904); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/6313425; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000877372; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/421794-4; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/202566#page/281

= Koeleria transsilvanica var. tenuipes f. discolor Degen ex Domin, Magyar. Bot. Lap. 3: 259 (1904) et Bibl. Bot. 14: 240 (1907); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/202566#page/281; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/181274#page/258

= Koeleria transsilvanica [unranked] a tenuipes alpestris Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 750 (1866); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/7364#page/770

= Koeleria transsilvanica [unranked] b tenuipes alpestris Schur, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 313 (1857); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/94863#page/314

Koeleria colorata (Heuff.) Nyár. ex Degen, Gramina Hungarica: nr 368 (1911) [p. p.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8083069; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001098441

Koeleria cristata var. colorata Heuff., Verh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 8: 228 (1858) [p. p.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5946095; IPNI https://www.ipni.org/n/77279977-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000876905; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77279977-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/137035#page/412

Koeleria cristata var. glabra Kotschy [ex herb., nom. nudum], non alior.

Koeleria cristata [unranked] foliis vaginisque glabris Andrä [ex herb., nom. nudum]

Koeleria gracilis Pers, Syn. Pl. [Persoon] 1: 97 (1805) [p. p., ex herb.], non Guss.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/2705920; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/406567-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000877004; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/406567-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/234882#page/109

Koeleria gracilis f. colorata (Heuff.) Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 65: 232 (1907) [p. p.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4137722; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/290733-2; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000877009; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/290733-2; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/47145549#page/250

Koeleria gracilis var. colorata (Heuff.) Domin, Magyar Bot. Lapok 3: 268 (1904) [p. p.], non alior; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/202566#page/290

Koeleria macrantha var. colorata (Heuff.) Ghisa, Fl. Rep. Soc. Rom. 12: 237 (1972) [p. p.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4137206; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/882504-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000877163; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/882504-1

Koeleria setacea DC. sensu Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 816 (1878–1882); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11015136#page/827

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – DD (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Notes: 

Deyl (1934) and Deyl (1940) indicated this species for Petros Mt. in the Ukrainian part of the Maramures Mts. However, there are neither recent field confirmations (Kricsfalusy and Budnikov 2007, Kobiv et al. 2017) nor herbarium vouchers discovered during my investigations. Therefore, the presence of this species in the flora of the Ukrainian Carpathians is questionable.

GBIF (https://www.gbif.org/species/7262109), POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77188152-1, accessed on 05.06.2023), Euro+Med (https://europlusmed.org/cdm_dataportal/taxon/5170b18f-e88e-413f-ae0e-8f146fd69611, accessed on 05.06.2023) and WFO (https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0000877153, accessed on 05.06.2023) consider K. tenuipes (Schur) Ujhelyi and its homotypic derivates as synonyms for K. macrantha subsp. macrantha. However, Ujhelyi (1965), on pages 191–193, indicated that this species occurs exclusively in Transylvania and South Carpathians (Făgăraș Mts.). Ujhelyi (1965) noted that K. tenuipes differs from K. transsilvanica by generally larger sizes, larger leaves, larger and loose panicles and larger spikelet parts, but similar by lack of stomata in the coastal zone of the juvenile leaves and ciliate auriculae of the sheaths. Moreover, the mentioned databases confuse the authorship of the epithet ‘tenuipes’. Ujhelyi (1965) pointed out that it was Schur who first applied this epithet in 1857, while Domin applied it only in 1903 when he described K. transsilvanica var. tenuipes f. hirsuta (Ujhelyi re-identified Domin’s plants as K. eriostachya Pancic).

Poa carpatica subsp. carpatica (V.Jirásek) Bernátová, Májovský, Kliment & Topercer, Biologia (Bratislava), Sect. Bot. 61(4): 389-390 (2006)

Nomenclature: 

Poa carpatica (V.Jirásek) Chopik, Visokogirna Fl. Ukrains’k. Karpat: 174 (1976); CoL: https://www.catalogueoflife.org/data/taxon/4KLGZ; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4137163; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77084794-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000908275; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77084794-1; JACQ: https://prc.jacq.org/PRC450819; JACQ: https://prc.jacq.org/PRC450820; JACQ: https://prc.jacq.org/PRC450821; JACQ: https://prc.jacq.org/PRC450822; JACQ: https://prc.jacq.org/PRC450823; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.prc450823; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.prc450822; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.prc450820

Poa nemoralis subsp. carpatica V.Jirásek, Veda Prir. 15: 207 (1934) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/6313736; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77084793-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000908275; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77084793-1

Poa nemoralis subsp. nemoralis var. carpatica (V.Jirásek) Soó, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 17(1–2): 118 (1972); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4116723; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/882819-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000908275; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/882819-1

= Poa balfourii f. carpatica Zapał., Spraw. Komis. Fizjogr. 39: 33 (1906)

= Poa nemoralis subsp. carpatica f. minoriformis V.Jirásek, Veda Prir. 15: 208 (1934); JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.prc450819; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.prc450821

Poa balfourii auct. fl. ucrain. carpat., non Parn. *

Poa janczewskii auct., non Zapał. [tantum quod plantas ucrain. carpat., alp. et subalp. altitud. solum]

Poa nemoralis subsp. montana auct., non (Gaudin) Chrtek & V.Jirásek

Poa nemoralis var. montana auct. fl. ucrain. carpat., non Gaudin *

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

Pancarpathian endemic.

Notes: 

Two subspecies of P. carpatica (V.Jirásek) Chopik are recognised: subsp. carpatica (endemic to the Western and Eastern Carpathians – Bernátová et al. (2006)) and subsp. supramontana Bernátová, Májovský, Kliment & Topercer (narrow endemic to the Veľká Fatra Mts and Krivánska Malá Fatra Mts – Bernátová et al. (2006)).

Chopyk and Fedoronchuk (2015), on page 567, mention P. janczewskii Zapał. for rocks and screes in subalpine and alpine belts of the Ukrainian Carpathians, with synonyms P. balfourii auct., non Parn. and P. nemoralis subsp. carpatica V.Jirásek. At the same time, POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/204398-2, accessed on 05.06.2023), WFO (https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0000893213, accessed on 05.06.2023) and Worldplants (https://www.worldplants.de/world-plants-complete-list/complete-plant-list?name=Poa-palustris, accessed on 07.06.2023), as well as Tzvelev (1974), Tzvelev (1976) and Tzvelev (1995) suggest that P. janczewskii is a synonym not for P. carpatica, but for P. palustris L. Chopyk and Fedoronchuk (2015), on page 568, also independently recognise P. palustris, but indicate that it is widely distributed in the forests (i.e. lower altitudes), flooded meadows and other wet habitats of the Ukrainian Carpathians. Hence, Chopyk and Fedoronchuk (2015) delimit P. janczewskii and P. palustris by morphology and habitat preferences. In the original protologue of P. janczewskii, Zapałowicz (1906a), on pages 34–35, wrote that it occurs in wet places at the beginning of the River Chorniy Cheremosh near Mt. Koman in Chyvchyny Mts. at 1700 m altitude together with P. nemoralis var. pocutica Zapał. Simultaneously, Zapałowicz (1906a), on page 33, delimited P. balfourii f. carpatica Zapał. from the alpine and subalpine habitats. Hence, Zapałowicz’s original description of P. janczewskii is close to P. palustris, while his consideration of P. balfourii is consistent with P. carpatica. Nevertheless, in the Ukrainian Carpathians, many specimens from the alpine and subalpine belts are identified as P. janczewskii, suggesting that this species can probably reach much higher altitudes and can be confused with P. carpatica. Therefore, I include P. janczewskii as a misapplied synonym of P. carpatica subsp. carpatica.

Poa granitica subsp. disparillis (Nyár.) Nyár., Rev. Roumaine Biol., Sér. Bot. 10: 355 (1965)

Nomenclature: 

Poa cenisia subsp. granitica var. disparillis (Nyár.) Nyár. & Borza, Consp. Fl. Roman. 1: 16 (1947); WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001284854

Poa granitica var. disparillis Nyár., Veröff. Geobot. Inst. Rübel Zürich 10: 173 (1933); WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001250690

= Poa breazensis Nyár., Veröff. Geobot. Inst. Rübel Zürich 10: 173 (1933); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4136051; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/416647-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000891305; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/416647-1

= Poa cenisia [unranked] b pietrosuana Zapał., Consp. Fl. Gallic. Crit. 6: 227 (1911) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5947644; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77288143-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000891923; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77288143-1

= Poa deylii Chrtek & V.Jirásek, Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 69: 177 (1964) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4124344; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/416895-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000892132; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/416895-1

= Poa deylii var. deylii f. breazensis (Nyár.) Ghișa & Beldie, Fl. Rep. Soc. Rom. 12: 399 (1972); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4124343; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/882798-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000892133; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/882798-1

= Poa deylii var. deylii f. pietrosuana (Zapał.) Ghișa & Beldie, Fl. Rep. Soc. Rom. 12: 399 (1972); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4139450; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/882799-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000892134; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/882799-1

= Poa deylii var. deylii f. subgranitica (Nyár.) Ghișa & Beldie, Fl. Rep. Soc. Rom. 12: 399 (1972); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4139468; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/882801-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000892135; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/882801-1

= Poa deylii subsp. retezatensis (A.Nyár.) Chrtek, Oesterr. Bot. Z., 115 (4–5): 424 (1968); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7826350

= Poa deylii var. retezatensis (A.Nyár.) Ghișa & Beldie, Fl. Rep. Soc. Rom. 12: 399 (1972); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4139461; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/882800-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000892136; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/882800-1

= Poa granitica var. disparillis f. pietrosuana (Zapał.) Nyár., Veröff. Geobot. Inst. Rübel Zürich 10: 173 (1933)

= Poa granitica subsp. disparillis var. subgranitica Nyár., Rev. Roumaine Biol., Sér. Bot. 10: 355 (1965); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5947643; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77288847-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000892475; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77288847-1

= Poa granitica subsp. retezatensis A.Nyár., Rev. Roumaine Biol., Sér. Bot. 10: 356 (1965); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5947642; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77260385-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000892474; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77260385-1

= Poa granitica subsp. subcarpatica (V.Jirásek) Fodor, Flora Zakarpattia: 182 (1974)

= Poa granitica var. subcarpatica V.Jirásek, Vest. Král. Ceské Spol. Náuk 1935: 11 (1936)

= Poa granitica var. typica Nyár., Veröff. Geobot. Inst. Rübel Zürich 10: 171–172 (1933)

= Poa granitica var. typica f. deminuta Nyár., Veröff. Geobot. Inst. Rübel Zürich 10: 172 (1933)

Poa cenisia All., Auct. Fl. Pedem.: 40 (1789) [p. p., tantum quod plantas ucrain. carpat.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4137228; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/30482705-2; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000891913; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/30482705-2; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/52551645#page/52

Poa granitica Braun-Blanq., Arch. Bot., Caen, Bull. 3: 46 (1929) [p. p., tantum quod plantas ucrain. carpat.] *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4121637; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/417145-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000892473; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/417145-1

Poa granitica subsp. granitica Braun-Blanq., Arch. Bot., Caen, Bull. 3: 46 (1929) sensu Tasenkevich [non sensu orig, ex herb. LWS] *

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022). Global – DD (Bilz 2011b).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Notes: 

Two (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/417145-1, accessed on 05.06.2023) to three (https://europlusmed.org/cdm_dataportal/taxon/b36321f1-3c80-4639-aa91-71b74301d317, accessed on 05.06.2023) subspecies are recognised within P. granitica Braun-Blanq. viz subsp. granitica (distributed in the Polish and Slovakian Carpathians), subsp. disparillis (= P. deylii Chrtek & V.Jirásek; distributed in the Polish, Ukrainian and Romanian Carpathians) and subsp. retezatensis Nyár. (distributed exclusively in the Romanian Carpathians and is sometimes considered a synonym of P. granitica subsp. disparillis).

POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/417145-1, accessed on 05.06.2023) indicates the presence of both subspecies (i.e. subsp. granitica and subsp. disparillis) in the Ukrainian Carpathians. These two subspecies seem to be phylogenetically close, but considered to be geographically isolated (Chrtek and Jirásek 1964, Filipaş et al. 2009, Băcilă et al. 2010). However, there are no confirmed occurrences of P. granitica subsp. granitica from the Ukrainian Carpathians yet. Only a few specimens in LWS were identified by Tasenkevich as P. granitica subsp. granitica (without further published mentions), but she also indicated on the specimens' labels that P. granitica subsp. granitica is a synonym of P. deylii.

Poa pannonica subsp. scabra (Asch.) Soó, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 5: 483 (1959)

Nomenclature: 

Poa pratensis var. scabra (Asch.) Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2(1): 414 (1900); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5947834; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77288290-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000893466; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77288290-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/25261472#page/426

Poa scabra Asch., Verh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 17: 568 (1867), non Ehrh.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7933600; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/86029#page/772

Poa scabra Kit. ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot. [Steudel], ed. 2. 2: 362 et Linnaea, 32: 311 (1863) [nom. nudum], non Ehrh. *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8481689; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8162992; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/417977-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000893691; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001250823; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/417977-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/392077#page/1218

Poa sterilis subsp. eu-sterilis var. scabra (Asch.) Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2(1): 414 (1900), non alior; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001250670

= Poa perscabra Holub, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 18(2): 204 (1983); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4114872; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/907580-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000893298; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/907580-1

= Poa sterilis Kerner, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 14: 85 (1864), non M.Bieb.; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/91290#page/92

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – NE (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

Pancarpathian subendemic.

Notes: 

Following POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/417674-1, accessed on 05.06.2023), there are two subspecies of P. pannonica A.Kern. – subsp. pannonica (distributed in Serbia, Moldova, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and, probably, Ukraine) and subsp. scabra (distributed in Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and, presumably, Ukraine). Both subspecies are mentioned for Ukraine in most online databases. However, reports of P. pannonica subsp. pannonica are, instead, related to P. podolica (Asch. & Graebn.) Błocki ex Zapał., the taxonomic status of which is unclear since it is considered a synonym of P. versicolor Bess. subsp. versicolor by Tzvelev (1976) on page 472 and Ghişa and Beldie (1972) on page 407. Regarding P. pannonica subsp. scabra, there is no recent evidence of its presence in the flora of the Ukrainian Carpathians (Chopyk and Fedoronchuk 2015, Kliment et al. 2016).

In online databases, the authorship of the epithet scabra is cited as Ascherson & Graebner (e.g. P. pannonica subsp. scabra (Asch. & Graebn.) Soó). This is incorrect because it was Ascherson (1867) who, on page 568, validly published the name P. scabra and, only later, it reappeared in the synopsis of Ascherson and Graebner (1896). Moreover, IPNI (https://www.ipni.org/n/77288290-1, accessed on 05.06.2023) gives an incorrect nomenclature citation P. pratensis var. scabra Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2(1): 414 (1900) that should be avoided. Ascherson and Graebner (1896) did not apply such a combination; instead, they used P. sterilis subsp. eu-sterilis var. scabra.

Poa rehmannii (Asch. et Graebn.) Woł., Fl. Polon. Exs., 10–11: Nr 1020 (1904)

Nomenclature: 

Poa caesia [unranked] d) rehmannii K.Richt., Pl. Eur. 1: 83 (1890); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/40428#page/89

Poa nemoralis subsp. rehmannii Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2(1): 412 (1900); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5947595; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77260518-1; WFO: https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0000893079; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77260518-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/25261470#page/424

Poa rehmannii (Asch. & Graebn.) K.Richt., Pl. Eur. 1: 83 (1889) [nom. nudum]; CoL: https://www.catalogueoflife.org/data/taxon/4KMN8; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4112622; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/417893-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000893588; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/417893-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/40428#page/89

= Poa anceps Rehmann, Spraw. Komis. Fizjogr. 7: 5 (1873), non G.Forst.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7789150; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/416483-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000891485; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/416483-1

Poa rehmannii Asch. & Gürke sensu Woł. [nom. confus., ex herb. LWS]

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – VU (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Notes: 

A rare species with only a few known occurrences in the Ukrainian Carpathians (Chorney et al. 2009, MEPNR of Ukraine 2021).

POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:417893-1, accessed on 05.06.2023), CoL (https://www.catalogueoflife.org/data/taxon/4KMN8, accessed on 05.06.2023) and GBIF (https://www.gbif.org/species/4112622, accessed on 05.06.2023) incorrectly provide the nomenclature citation P. rehmannii (Asch. & Graebn.) K.Richt., Pl. Europ. 1: 83 (1889). Richter (1889) did not apply such a name to the rank of species. Instead of this, he delimited unranked taxon (= variety) within P. caesia Sm. Therefore, the correct citation should be P. caesia [unranked] d) rehmanii K.Richt., Pl. Eur. 1: 83 (1890).

Sesleria bielzii Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 1: 109 (1850) et Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 4: 84 (1853)

Nomenclature: 

Sesleria coerulans subsp. bielzii (Schur) Gergely & Beldie, Fl. Rep. Soc. Rom. 12: 223 (1972) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4119544; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/883025-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000898813; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/883025-1

Sesleria rigida [unranked] β bielzii (Schur) Heuff., Enum. Pl. Banat.: 227 (1858); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/40084#page/195

= Sesleria caerulea Janka, Linnaea 30: 615 (1859), non Ard.

= Sesleria capitata (Schur) Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 743 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4119575; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/421326-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000898807; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/421326-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544794#page/765

= Sesleria coerulans var. borsae Deyl, Opera Bot. Čechina 3: 139 (1946); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5948416; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77291267-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000898814; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77291267-1

= Sesleria coerulans f. pseudorigida (Schur) Beldie, Bul. Şt. Acad. R.P.R. 2(5): 248 (1950)

= Sesleria haynaldiana [unanked] g pseudorigida Schur, Verh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 6: 209 (1856); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5948414; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77291730-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000898840; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77291730-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/openurlmultiple.aspx?id=p16414644|p42929929|p11712977

= Sesleria pseudorigida Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 745 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4118994; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/421386-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000898890; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/421386-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544796#page/767

= Sesleria rigida Griseb., Arch. Naturgesch. (Berlin) 18(1): 361 (1852), non Heuff. ex Rchb.; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/31352#page/369

= Sesleria rigida [unranked] a capitata Schur, Verh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 6: 201 (1856); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/137255#page/359

= Sesleria rigida [unranked] b ovoidea Schur, Verh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 6: 201 (1856); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/137255#page/359

Sesleria caerulea Scap. sensu Rehman [nom. confus. ex herb. LWS] *

Sesleria coerulans Friv., Flora 19(2): 438 (1836) [p. p., tantum quod plantas ucrain. carpat.] *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4119531; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/421329-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000898810; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/421329-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/34154#page/58

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Notes: 

A problematic taxon with unclear chorology and phylogeny. Ambiguous interpretation of S. bielzii has been pointed out in the Flora of Romania (Gergely and Beldie 1972), where two subspecies of S. coerulans Friv. are represented – subsp. coerulans and subsp. bielzii (Schur) Gergely & Beldie. For both subspecies, S. bielzii has been indicated as a synonym with the only difference being in its consideration by Shur – S. bielzii Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 1: 109 (1850) has been indicated as a synonym for S. coerulans subsp. bielzii, while S. bielzii Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 743 (1866) has been indicated as a synonym for S. coerulans subsp. coerulans Later, Chorney (2011) noted that S. bielzii, being, in fact, a Carpatho-Balcanic species, is erroneously considered endemic and referenced to Deyl (1980). Tzvelev (1976) and Chopyk and Fedoronchuk (2015) also considered S. bielzii a synonym of the non-endemic S. coerulans. On the other hand, Comănescu and Štefănuţ (2010) showed that these two species have similar distribution ranges; nevertheless, they treated these two species independently. Similarly, Lazarević et al. (2015), Kuzmanović et al. (2015) and Kuzmanović et al. (2017) conducted phylogenetic studies with S. bielzii considered an independent species within the Coerulans group.

Sesleria heufleriana subsp. heufleriana Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 4: 84 (1853) et Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 6: 203 (1856)

Nomenclature: 

Sesleria heufleriana Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 4: 84 (1853) et Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 6: 203 (1856); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4119290; IPNI http://ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:421353-1; IPNI: http://ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:421352-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000898845; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/421353-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/16414642#page/367; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11525300#page/970

Sesleria heufleriana Schur ex Błocki, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 39: 155 (1889) [nom. inval.] *; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/421354-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/openurlmultiple.aspx?id=p28750462|p8721928

= Sesleria caerulea [unranked] a interrupta Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 743 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5948424; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77291477-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000898788; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77291477-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544794#page/765

= Sesleria caerulea [unranked] b prorepens Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 743 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5948423; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77291959-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000898790; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77291959-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544794#page/765

= Sesleria caerulea [unranked] c praelonga Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 743 (1866); BHL: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77291959-1

= Sesleria caerulea var. transilvanica (Schur) Jáv., Magyar Fl. 1: 84 (1924)

= Sesleria heufleriana [unranked] b digitata Schur, Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 6: 204 (1856) et Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 744 (1866); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/137255#page/361; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/7364#page/764

= Sesleria heufleriana [unranked] c elongata Schur, Verh. Zool. -Bot. Ges. Wien 6: 204 (1856), non Host; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/137255#page/361

= Sesleria heufleriana var. insignis Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 4: 84 (1853); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/42660#page/970

= Sesleria heufleriana f. interrupta (Schur) Soó, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 17(1–2): 119 (1972); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/6312632; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/883029-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000898842; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/883029-1

= Sesleria heufleriana [unranked] a polydactyla Schur, Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 6: 204 (1856); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/137255#page/361

= Sesleria heufleriana [unranked] a praelonga Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 744 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5948422; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77291902-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000898848; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77291902-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544795#page/766

= Sesleria heufleriana f. praelonga (Schur) Gergely & Beldie, Fl. Rep. Soc. Rom. 12: 224 (1972); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/6312633; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4119322; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/883030-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000898843; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/883030-1

= Sesleria heufleriana f. prorepens (Schur) Soó, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 17(1–2): 119 (1972); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/6312631; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/883031-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000898844; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/883031-1

= Sesleria nitida Heldr. ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 4: 796 (1882) [nom. illeg.], non Ten.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8701233; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7576396; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/421373-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000898876; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/421373-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11015940#page/807

= Sesleria prorepens Schur ex Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 743 (1866); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544795#page/765

= Sesleria robusta Pávai, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 12: 214 (1862) [nom. nudum], non Schott et al.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7612267; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/421392-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000898904; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/421392-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/28679508#page/222

= Sesleria transilvanica Schur, Verh. Zool.-Bot. Vereins Wien 6: 205 (1856) et Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 745 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4118752; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/421414-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000898933; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/421414-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/openurlmultiple.aspx?id=p16414640|p42929925|p11712973; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/7364#page/767

Sesleria caerulea Baumg., Enum. Stirp. Transsilv. 3: 228, Nr 2013 (1816) [p. p.], non (L.) Ard.

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

Pancarpathian subendemic.

Notes: 

Following POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/421353-1, accessed on 05.06.2023), two subspecies of S. heufleriana Schur are delimited – subsp. heufleriana (occurs in Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine) and subsp. hungarica (Ujhelyi) Deyl (occurs in Hungary and Slovakia). In the Ukrainian Carpathians, only S. heufleriana subsp. heufleriana is present. Therefore, all reports of S. heufleriana from the Ukrainian Carpathians should be considered to belong to this subspecies.

In the Worldplants database (https://www.worldplants.de/world-plants-complete-list/complete-plant-list?name=Sesleria-sadleriana, accessed on 07.06.2023), S. transilvanica Schur is erroneously indicated amongst synonyms of S. sadleriana Janka. Janka (1882), on pages 309–310 and Janka (1884), on pages 28–29, pointed out that plants described as S. sadleriana differ from those occurring in Transylvania. Ascherson and Graebner (1898), on page 320, outlined peculiar Janka’s treatment of S. heufleriana and, at the same time, synonymised S. sadleriana Janka and S. heufleriana Janka non Schur under the name S. budensis (Borbás) Asch. & Graebn. Hence, S. sadleriana Janka and S. heufleriana Janka, non Schur are not synonyms of S. transilvanica.

Trisetum fuscum (Kit. ex Schult.) Schult. in Roem. et Schult., Syst. Veg. 2: 664 (1817)

Nomenclature: 

Avena fusca Kit. ex Schult., Oesterr. Fl. ed. 2, 1: 268 (1814), non Ard.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7744598; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/9231558; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/391464-1; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77236898-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000851919; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77236898-1; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.m0210842

Trisetum flavescens subsp. fuscum (Kit. ex Schult.) Hack., Magyar Bot. Lap. 2: 111 (1903); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/12096667; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77260262-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-1200013147; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77260262-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/50241353#page/141

Trisetaria fusca (Kit. ex Schult.) Banfi & Soldano, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. Mus. Civico Storia Nat. Milano 135(2): 383 (1996); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4114671; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77065416-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000904909; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77065416-1

= Avena ciliaris Kit. ex Schult., Oesterr. Fl. ed. 2, 1: 268 (1814); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4154500; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7470202; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/391393-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000851780; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/391393-1

= Trisetum ciliare (Kit. ex Schult.) Domin, Preslia 13-15: 41 (1935) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4113396; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/425167-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000905078; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/425167-1

= Trisetum flavescens [unranked] c carpaticum f. majus Zapał., Rozpr. Wydz. Mat.-Przyr. Akad. Umiejetn., Dzial B, Nauki Biol. 4: 108 (1904) et Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 1: 35 (1906), non Asch. & Graebn.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/12027006; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/528276-4

= Trisetum transylvanicum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1(3): 226 (1855), non Schur; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4109945; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/425412-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000905488; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/425412-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/44974147#page/240

= Trisetum varium var. violaceum Schur, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 10: 75 (1860); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7770879; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77294779-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-1200021275; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77294779-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/28597118#page/83

Trisetum tenue Baumg. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1(3): 226 (1854) [nom. illeg., pro syn. T. transylvanicum Steud.], non Leers; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8461326; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8061303; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/425400-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000905475; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/425400-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/44974147#page/240

Avena carpatica auct. [e.g., Błocki ex herb.], non Host

Trisetaria carpatica auct. fl. carpat., non (Host) Baumg

Trisetum carpathicum auct., non (Host) Roem. & Schult. *

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

Pancarpathian endemic.

Notes: 

Steudel (1855), on page 226, mentioned the name T. tenue twice, which may confuse. First, he mentioned it as an independent species in the sense of Roemer & Schultes. Trisetum tenue Roem. & Schult. (= Avena tenuis Moench) is currently recognised as a synonym for Ventenata dubia (Leers) Coss. & Durieu, which, following POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/426312-1, accessed on 13.06.2023), has pan-European distribution, reaches the north of Africa and is widely introduced in North America. The second time, Steudel (1855) mentioned T. tenue in the sense of Baumgarten (concerning herbarium material) as a synonym for a newly-described species T. transylvanicum Steud. Barberá et al. (2018) conducted the revision of Trisetum sect. Trisetum and synonymised T. transylvanicum with T. fuscum. Therefore, T. tenue Baumg. ex Steud. should be considered a synonym for T. fuscum.

Class Magnoliopsida

Order Apiales

Family Apiaceae

Heracleum carpaticum Porcius, Magyar Növénytani Lapok 2: 25 (1878) et Fl. Naséud.: 144 (1881)

Nomenclature: 

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. carpaticum (Porcius) Soó, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 23(3–4): 380 (1978); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3642778; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/892101-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001365022; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/892101-1

= Heracleum alpinum Baumg., Enum. Stirp. Transsilv. 1: 215 (1816), non alior

= Heracleum carpaticum f. alpinum (Baumg.) Borza, Consp. Fl. Rom. 2: 204 (1949)

= Heracleum carpaticum f. palmatifidum Jáv., Magyar Bot. Lapok 9: 162 (1910); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/201903#page/582

= Heracleum carpaticum f. porcii Pax, Grundz. Pfl. Karp. 2: 70 (1908)

= Heracleum carpaticum f. typicum Nyár & Todor, Fl. Rep. Pop. Roman. 6: 625, 660 (1958)

Heracleum carpaticum var. aconitifolium M.Pop. & Chrshan. [ex herb., nom. inval.], non Woronow

Heracleum pollinianum Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 2: 289 (1879) [p. p., tantum quod plantas ucrain. carpat.], non Bertol.; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/41446#page/300

Heracleum simplicifolium Herb. ex Nyman sensu Borza

Heracleum simplicifolium Herb., Fl. Bucov.: 302 (1859) et Herb. ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 2: 289 (1879) [p. p., tantum quod plantas ucrain. carpat.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8444536; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7724113; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/843167-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000720209; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/843167-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/41446#page/300

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – NT (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. transsilvanicum (Schur) Brummitt, Feddes Repert. 79: 65 (1968)

Nomenclature: 

Heracleum palmatum subsp. transsilvanicum (Schur) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 2: 289 (1879); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7497351; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77314722-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000745373; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/2898300-4; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11015433#page/300

Heracleum sphondylium subsp. transsilvanicum (Schur) Thellung, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 73: 211 (1924) [nom. invalid.]

Heracleum transsilvanicum Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 267 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3642249; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/843216-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000720253; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/843216-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544318#page/289

= Heracleum alpinum subsp. palmatum (Baumg.) Briquet, Candollea 2: 16 (1924), non Crantz nec Rchb.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8099962; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77314723-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000745374; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/2898301-4

= Heracleum palmatum Baumg., Enum. Stirp. Transsilv. 1: 215 (1816), non Crantz nec Rchb. *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3628887; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/843117-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000720157; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/843117-1

= Pastinaca palmata (Baumg.) Calest., Webbia 1: 245 (1905); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5538686; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/845748-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000391732; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/845748-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/51613911#page/265

Heracleum simplicifolium Herb., Fl. Bucov.: 302 (1859) et Herb. ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 2: 289 (1879) [p. p., tantum quod plantas ucrain. carpat.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8444536; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7724113; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/843167-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000720209; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/843167-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/41446#page/300

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – NT (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Notes: 

Following POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/843179-1, accessed on 05.06.2023), Heracleum sphondylium L. comprises 15 subspecies in the World's flora. However, only three subspecies (i.e. H. sphondylium subsp. sphondylium, H. sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonk. and H. sphondylium subsp. transsilvanicum) occurs in Ukraine and, in particular, are present in the flora of the Ukrainian Carpathians. From these three subspecies, only H. sphondylium subsp. transsilvanicum is endemic and the other two subspecies have narrow distribution ranges.

Order Asterales

Family Asteraceae

Achillea oxyloba subsp. schurii (Sch.Bip.) Heimerl, Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 48: 137 (1884)

Nomenclature: 

Achillea schurii Sch.Bip., Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 6: 300 (1856) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4214718; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/174249-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000103154; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/174249-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/9838510#page/320

Anthemis schurii Sch.Bip., Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 6: 300 (1856) et Sch.Bip. ex Heimerl, Denkschr. Acad. Wien 48: 137 (1884) [nom. nudum]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3120193; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/177603-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000000716; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/177603-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/37783#page/320; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/31429#page/225

Ptarmica schurii Sch.Bip., Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 6: 300 (1856); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/37783#page/320

Anthemis tenuifolia (Schur) Schur., Verh. Siebenb. Ver. Naturw. 2: 171 (1851) [nom. inval.], non Achillea tenuifolia Lam.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4240009; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/177647-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000091513; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/177647-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/42660#page/382

Ptarmica tenuifolia (Schur) Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 327 (1866), non Achillea tenuifolia Lam. *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4215545; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/240127-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000072630; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/240127-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544378#page/349

= Achillea atrata Baumg., Enum. Stirp. Transsilv. 3: 141 (1816), non L.

= Achillea dacica Simonk., Termesz. Füzet. 10: 181 (1886) et Enum. Fl. Transsilv.: 317 (1886); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3120195; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/173928-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000016766; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/173928-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97426#page/203

= Achillea schurii var. dacica (Simonk.) Prodan & Nyár., Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 369 (1964)

= Achillea schurii f. pleiocephala Bommüller, Mitt. Thüringischen Bot. Vereins 30: 56 (1913); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/14324023#page/422

= Achillea schurii var. polycephala (Schur) Prodan & Nyár., Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 369 (1964)

= Anthemis alpina Baumg., Enum. Stirp. Transsilv. 3: 145 (1816), non alior

= Anthemis caespitosa Herbich, Flora 40: 509 (1857); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4242092; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/177199-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000029120; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/177199-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/50749#page/510; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.je00010937

= Anthemis oxyloba Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 884 (1866), non Achillea oxyloba (DC.) Sch.Bip.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3120196; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/177490-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000079117; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/177490-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544378#page/906

= Anthemis pseudo-atrata Schur ex Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 327 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4240513; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/177530-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000124115; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/177530-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544378#page/349

= Anthemis tenuifolia [unranked] a simplex monocephala Schur., Verh. Siebenb. Ver. Naturw. 4: 40 (1851); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/42660#page/926

= Anthemis tenuifolia [unranked] b ramosa polycephala Schur., Verh. Siebenb. Ver. Naturw. 4: 40 (1851); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/42660#page/926

= Anthemis tenuifolia [unranked] c pilosa minima polaris Schur., Verh. Siebenb. Ver. Naturw. 4: 40 (1851); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/42660#page/926

= Ptarmica oxyloba Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 326 (1866), non DC., non Achillea oxyloba (DC.) Sch.Bip.; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544378#page/348/

= Ptarmica pseudo-atrata Schur ex Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 327 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4215659; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/240111-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000130464; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/240111-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544378#page/349

= Ptarmica tenuifolia [unranked] a macrocephala Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 327 (1866), non alior; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/7364#page/347; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.je00010939; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.je00010938

= Ptarmica tenuifolia [unranked] b polycephala (Schur) Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 327 (1866); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/7364#page/347

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Notes: 

Sometimes A. oxyloba subsp. schurii is confused with A. tenuifolia Schur, which is a separate species. Despite the LC status given to it by Onyshchenko et al. (2022), Ptarmica tenuifolia (= A. oxyloba subsp. schurii) is considered a rare species by Zyman and Chorney (2009) and was recently approved for inclusion in the new edition of the Red Book of Ukraine (MEPNR of Ukraine 2021).

CoL (https://www.catalogueoflife.org/data/taxon/5FD98, accessed on 08.06.2023), GBIF (https://www.gbif.org/species/3120193, accessed on 08.06.2023), IPNI (https://www.ipni.org/n/177603-1, accessed on 08.06.2023) and other databases designate the authorship of Anthemis schurii to Anton Heimerl and indicate the place of publication – Denkschr. Acad. Wien 48: 137 (1884). However, Heimerl is not the author of this name. In his paper, Heimerl (1884), on page 137, indicates that the correct author of this name is Carl Schultz Bipontius and references Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 6: 300 (1856). Schultz Bipontius (1856) applied even three names on the same page as an alternative – Achillea schurii, Anthemis schurii and Ptarmica schurii.

Antennaria carpatica subsp. carpatica (Wahlenb.) Hook. in Bluff et Fingerh., Comp. Fl. German. 2: 348 (1825)

Nomenclature: 

Antennaria carpatica (Wahlenb.) Hook., Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1(suppl.): 329 (1834); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8243354; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/1086760-2; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000003726; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/413406#page/340

Antennaria carpatica (Wahlenb.) Hook. in Bluff & Fingerh., Comp. Fl. German. 2: 348 (1825); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7847414; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77091531-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000005645; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77091531-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/6111900#page/370

Antennaria carpatica (Wahlenb.) R.Br., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 12: 123 (1818) [nom. inval.] *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8252547; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/176874-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000084027; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/openurlmultiple.aspx?id=p758681|p12904620

Antennaria carpatica (Wahlenb.) Trautv., Acta Horti Petropolitani 6(1): 24 (1879); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/53600#page/26

Chamaezelum carpaticum (Wahlenb.) Link, Handbuch Erkennung nutz. häufigsten vorkomm. Gewachse 1: 719 (1829); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3088158; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/192559-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000034028; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/192559-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/53335348#page/729

Gnaphalium carpathicum Wahlenb., Fl. Carpat. Princ.: 258, tab. 3, 260 (1814) et Fl. Suec., ed. 2, 2: 515 (1833); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5697227; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/209230-1; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/326707-2; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/60445618-2; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000037729; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/60445618-2; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/326707-2; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/97776#page/93

= Gnaphalium wahlenbergii Sieber ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2. 1: 696 (1841); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5385621; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/210219-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000042044; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/210219-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/391920#page/699

Antennaria alpina Ledeb., Fl. Ross. 2(2): 612 (1845–1846) [p. p., tantum quod plantas ucrain. carpat.], non (L.) Gaertn.; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/6104581#page/642

Antennaria alpina auct fl. carpat. [e.g., Baumg.; Schur], non (L.) Gaertn.

Gnaphalium alpinum Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4 3(3): 1883 (1803), non L. [p.p., tantum quod plantas ucrain. carpat.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7859021; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/209074-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000118765; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/209074-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/667272#page/409

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – EN (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

Pancarpathian endemic.

Notes: 

Antennaria carpatica subsp. carpatica is listed in the Red Book of Ukraine as a rare taxon (Zyman and Bulakh 2009). However, its threat status has recently been increased to an ‘obsolescent’ level (MEPNR of Ukraine 2021).

There are two commonly recognised subspecies of A. carpatica (Wahlenb.) Bluff & Fingerh. – subsp. carpatica and subsp. helvetica (Chrtek & Pouzar) Chrtek & Pouzar. Only A. carpatica subsp. carpatica occurs in Carpathians, while A. carpatica subsp. helvetica is present in the Alps. Chrtek and Pouzar (1985) also described A. carpatica subsp. amphilanata Chrtek & Pouzar occurring in the Alps and Pyrenees, but it was later synonymised with A. carpatica subsp. helvetica (Greuter 2006). It is worth noting that many collectors and authors out of Carpathians, under the name A. carpatica, considered it exactly as A. carpatica subsp. helvetica.

Moreover, there is a close species, A. lanata Greene (= A. carpatica var. lanata Hook., = A. carpatica var. laestadiana Trautv., = A. villifera Boris.) that occurs not only in Eurasia, but also in North America (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/14721-2, accessed on 07.07.2023; Greene (1898)). Another close species, A. lanatula Chrtek & Pouzar, occurs exclusively in the south-west of North America (Chrtek and Pouzar 1985).

Centaurea maramarosiensis (Jáv.) Czerep., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk SSSR. 20: 395 (1960)

Nomenclature: 

Centaurea mollis subsp. marmarosiensis (Jáv.) Soó, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 13: 309 (1967); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/6450873; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/10972838; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/6293888; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000102373

Centaurea mollis f. maramarosiensis Jáv., Magyar Fl. 3: 1170 (1925); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/6076144; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001403923; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/50909566-1

Centaurea montana subsp. maramarosiensis (Jáv.) Soják, Čas. Nár. Mus., Odd. Přír. 140(3–4): 131 (1972); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/9594652

Centaurea montana subsp. mollis var. typica f. maramarosiensis (Jáv.) Dostál, Acta Bot. Bohem. 10: 69 (1931)

Cyanus maramarosiensis (Jáv.) Dostál, Folia Mus. Rerum Nat. Bohemiae Occid., Bot. 21: 14 (1984); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/9145130

Cyanus montanus subsp. maramarosiensis (Jáv.) Soják, Čas. Nár. Mus., Odd. Přír. 140 (3–4): 131 (1972); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5701665; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/877128-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000059604; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/877128-1

Cyanus mollis subsp. marmarosiensis (Jáv.) Soó [nom. et. des. invalid]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/9700012

= Centaurea mollis f. ramosa Czakó in Jáv., Magyar Fl. 3: 1170 (1925), non Centaurea ramosa (Gugler) Hayek

= Centaurea montana subsp. mollis var. ramosa (Czakó) Dostál, Acta Bot. Bohem. 10: 69 (1931), non Centaurea ramosa (Gugler) Hayek

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Centaurea phrygia subsp. carpatica (Porcius) Dostál, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 71(3): 207 (1976)

Nomenclature: 

Centaurea carpatica (Porcius) Porcius, Magyar Növényt. Lapok 9: 128 (1885) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8237713; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/190150-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000007134; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/190150-1

Centaurea carpatica (Porcius) Wagner, Cent. Hung.: 157 (1910)

Centaurea carpatica (Porcius) Formánek, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 37: 153 (1887); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3097081; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/190151-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000001725; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/28752056#page/159

Centaurea plumosa var. carpatica Porcius, Enum. Pl. Phanerogam. Distr. Quondam Naszódiensis: 34 (1878) [nom. inval.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/6076567; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000107278; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/50921977-1

Centaurea pseudophrygia f. intercedens subf. carpatica (Porcius) Gugler, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Musei Nat. Hungarici 6: 92 (1908); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/256063#page/104

Jacea carpatica (Porcius) Soják, Čas. Nár. Mus., Odd. Přír. 140(3–4): 132 (1972); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5695987; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/226482-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000092877; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/226482-1

Jacea phrygia subsp. carpatica (Porcius) Dostál, Folia Mus. Rer. Nat. Bohem. Occid., Bot. 21: 14 (1984); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5695845; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/923452-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000108795; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/923452-1

= Centaurea plumosa β [unranked] polycephala Porcius, Enum. Pl. Phanerogam. Distr. Quondam Naszódiensis: 34 (1878)

= Centaurea rodnensis Simonk., Enum. Fl. Transsilv.: 620 (1886) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7223238; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000117428; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10524121#page/684

Centaurea montana subsp. mollis (Waldst. & Kit.) Gugler, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hung. 6: 104 (1907) sensu Katina

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Notes: 

Following POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/191259-1, accessed on 05.06.2023), Centaurea phrygia L. includes 14 subspecies. From this number, only three subspecies (i.e. subsp. phrygia, subsp. carpatica and subsp. melanocalathia (Borbás ex Czakó) Dostál) occur in the Ukrainian Carpathians (Chopyk and Fedoronchuk 2015). Even though the last subspecies has a limited distribution and is considered as a Pancarpathian endemic (Tasenkevich 2003), Carpathian subendemic (Kricsfalusy and Budnikov 2002) or Carpatho-Balcanic taxon (Dostál 1989, Malynovskiy et al. 2002), it has a hybridogenous origin (Koutecký et al. 2012, Kliment et al. 2016) and, therefore, is not considered here. Hence, the only endemic representative in the Ukrainian Carpathians from the C. phrygia complex is C. phrygia subsp. carpatica.

The Euro+Med PlantBase (Greuter 2006), amongst the homotypic synonyms of C. phrygia subsp. carpatica, provides C. plumosa var. carpatica Porcius that is supposed to be published on p. 34 of “Enumeratio plantarum phanerogamicarum districtus quondam naszódiensis” (Porcius 1878). Similarly, this combination is also mentioned by Prodan and Nyárády (1964) on page 890 and Czerepanov (1994) on page 276. However, in this publication, there is no such combination published. Instead, Porcius (1878) on page 34, published a new combination C. plumosa β polycephala Porcius and only indicated C. carpatica as its synonym. I was also unable to detect where C. plumosa var. carpatica had been published by Porcius. Most probably, the combination C. plumosa var. carpatica Porcius arose mistakenly due to misinterpretation of this name by other authors and has never been published by Porcius.

Doronicum carpaticum (Griseb. et Schenk) Nyman, Syll. Fl. Eur. suppl.: 1 (1865)

Nomenclature: 

Aronicum carpaticum (Griseb. & Schenk) Schur, Bot. Rundr.: 71 (1853) et Verh. Siebenb. Ver. Naturw. 10: 137 (1859) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3142986; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/1017626-2; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/1017626-2; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/42663#page/381

Aronicum carpathicum (Griseb. & Schenk) Schur, Bot. Rundr.: 71 (1853) et Verh. Siebenb. Ver. Naturw. 10: 137 (1859) [ortho. var.] *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3142986; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/1017626-2; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/1017626-2; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/42663#page/381

Aronicum carpathicum (Griseb. & Schenk) Fuss, Progr. Gymn. Hermannstadt: 12 (1854)

Aronicum scorpioides var. carpaticum Griseb. & Schenk in Wiegm., Arch. Naturgesch. 18(1): 342 (1852); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4232202; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/329148-2; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000027914; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/329148-2; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/13707751#page/350; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.goet011169

Doronicum columnae subsp. carpaticum (Griseb. & Schenk) Sóo, Scripta Bot. Mus. Transsilv. 3(3–5): 10 (1944); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/10954590; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/60459784-2; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001360332; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/60459784-2

Doronicum grandiflorum subsp. carpaticum (Griseb. & A. Schenk) Rouy, Rev. Bot. Syst. Geogr. Bot. 1: 53 (1903); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4231483; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/1162227-2; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000012446; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/1162227-2; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/14597664#page/81

= Aronicum barcense Simonk., Enum. Fl. Transsilv.: 322 (1886); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3142997; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/179115-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000106373; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/179115-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10524457#page/386

= Aronicum carpaticum [unranked] a polyphyllum Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 341 (1866); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/7364#page/361

= Aronicum latifolium Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 2: 171 (1851) [nom. nudum], non Rchb.; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/42660#page/382

= Doronicum carpaticum var. barcense (Simonk.) Borbás, Termr. Füz. 19: 219 (1896); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/96856#page/589

= Doronicum cordatum var. asperum Borbás, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 28: 311 (1878); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/91412#page/327

= Doronicum pardalianches Heuff., [Enum. Pl. Banat. Temes.] Verh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 8: 137 (1858), non alior; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/137035#page/321

= Doronicum orientale Kotschy, Verh. Zool.-Bot. Vereins Wien 3: 140 (1853) [nom. nudum], non alior; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/86007#page/394

Arnica scorpioides Baumg., Enum. Stirp. Transsilv. 3: 135 (1816), non alior

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Leucanthemum rotundifolium (Waldst. et Kit. in Willd.) DC., Prodr. 6: 46 (1838), non Opiz

Nomenclature: 

Leucanthemum rotundifolium (Waldst. & Kit. in Willd.) Baumg., Enum. Stirp. Transsilv. 3: 107 (1817)

Leucanthemum rotundifolium (Waldst. & Kit. in Willd.) Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 339 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8333000; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/230080-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000048186; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/230080-1; BHL: www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544390#page/361

Chrysanthemum rotundifolium Waldst. & Kit. in Willd., Sp. Pl. 3(3): 2144 (1803) *; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/14564#page/670

Chrysanthemum rotundifolium Waldst. & Kit., Descr. Icon. Pl. Rar. Hung. 3: 262, t. 236 (1812); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3134081; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/193725-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000096787; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/193725-1

Matricaria rotundifolia (Waldst. & Kit. in Willd.) Poir., Encycl. [J. Lamarck et al.] Suppl. 3.: 608 (1814); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4232595; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/231991-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000035953; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/231991-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/738767#page/611

Tanacetum rotundifolium (Waldst. & Kit. in Willd.) Simonk., Enum. Fl. Transsilv.: 313 (1886), non DC. *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8145981; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/252496-1; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/252496-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10524448#page/377

= Leucanthemum waldsteinii (Sch.Bip.) Pouzar, Preslia 47: 158 (1975); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5400957; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/230104-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000061727; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/230104-1

= Pyrethrum waldsteinii (Sch.Bip.) Janka, Bot. Jahresber. (Just) 4: 1062 (1878); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5692501; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/241003-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000073828; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/241003-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/2232018#page/366

= Tanacetum waldsteinii Sch.Bip., Tanaceteen: 35 (1844); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3134080; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/252569-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000076302; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/252569-1

= Tanacetum waldsteinii var. ramosum Ilse &. Fritze, Verh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 20: 488 (1870); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/137000#page/626

Chrysanthemum montanum Csató, Erd. Muz. [Az Erdélyi Múzeum-Egylet Évkönyveiben] 4: 82 (1868), non alior

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

Pancarpathian subendemic.

Saussurea porcii Degen, Magyar Bot. Lapok 3: 311 (1904)

Nomenclature: 

= Saussurea alata Porcius & Czetz, Transilvania 15–16: 118 (1881), non DC.

= Saussurea serrata Janka, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 200 (1858), non DC.; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/91263#page/208

Saussurea parviflora auct., non (Poir.) DC.

Saussurea serrata auct. Transsilv., non DC.

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – NT (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Notes: 

This species is listed as rare in the last edition and has been recently approved for the new edition of the Red Book of Ukraine (Chorney and Danylyk 2009, MEPNR of Ukraine 2021). IPNI, POWO,and WFO (see links above; accessed on 05.06.2023) incorrectly indicate the page of the protologue – it should be 311 instead of 811.

Scorzoneroides pseudotaraxaci (Schur) Holub, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 12: 307 (1977)

Nomenclature: 

Leontodon pseudotaraxaci Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 357 (1866) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3133496; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/229460-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000061097; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/229460-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544408#page/379

Leontodon montanus subsp. pseudotaraxaci (Schur) Finch & P.D.Sell, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 71: 242 (1976); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4253414; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/877573-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000110905; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/877573-1

Scorzoneroides montana (Lam.) J.Holub subsp. pseudotaraxaci [des. et nom. inval.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/6082260

= Leontodon clavatus Sagorski & Schneider, Fl. Centralkarpath. 2: 254 (1890–1891) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3133495; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/229281-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000123339; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/229281-1; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.je00017818; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.je00017819; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.je00017817

= Leontodon medius Simonk., Enum. Fl. Transsilv.: 352 (1886) et Bot. Centralbl. 49: 268 (1892), non Apargia media Host; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4253470; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/229408-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000095956; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/229408-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/2119961#page/278; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/40105#page/416

= Leontodon taraxaci var. tatricus Kotula, Distr. Pl. Vasc. Mont. Tatr.: 356 (1890)

= Leontodon tatricis (Kotula) Woł., Fl. Pol. Exs.: 545 (1897) [ortho. var.]

= Leontodon tatricus (Kotula) Woł., Fl. Pol. Exs.: 545 (1897)

Apargia aurea Baumg., Enum. Stirp. Transsilv. 3: 16 (1816), non (L.) F.W.Schmidt, non Leontodon aureum L., nec Ceracium aureum Schur.

Apargia taraxaci Wahlenb., Fl. Carpat. Princ.: 235 (1814), non Willd.

Leontodon taraxaci auct., non (L.) Loisel.

Leontodon taraxaci R.Uechtr., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 14: 386 (1864) [nom. illeg] , non Loisel.; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/36417#page/378

Leontodon pyrenaeus R.Uechtr., Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 370 (1857) [nom. illeg], non Gouan; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/94863#page/371

Leontodon pyrenaicus Hoborski, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 3: 19 (1853) [nom. illeg], non Gouan; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/91226#page/29

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – DD (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

Pancarpathian endemic.

Notes: 

All databases, except Euro+Med (https://europlusmed.org/cdm_dataportal/taxon/1a39d5e8-1034-4c66-aa01-25c0381eae52, accessed on 15.06.2023), indicate Leontodon clavatus Sagorsky & Schneider. as a synonym for Scorzoneroides hispidula (Delile) Greuter & Talavera. This confusion, perhaps, resulted from the fact that Sagorski and Schneider (1891), on page 254, supported the newly-described species with several controversial synonyms, i.e. Apargia taraxaci, Leontodon taraxaci and Leontodon pyrenaicus, which led to the further nomenclatural collapse of these names. Following POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77075521-1, accessed on 15.06.2023) and other databases, Apargia taraxaci Willd. and Leontodon taraxaci Loisel. are both synonyms for Scorzoneroides hispidula. In addition, following POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77180809-1, accessed on 15.06.2023), Leontodon pyrenaicus Gouan is a synonym for Scorzoneroides pyrenaica (Gouan) Holub subsp. pyrenaica. Neither Scorzoneroides hispidula nor S. pyrenaica occurs in the Carpathians. At the same time, Sagorski and Schneider (1891) clearly indicated that their species is described from the Carpathians and even included specimens from the Ukrainian part of the Carpathians (i.e. Volovets town). Sagorski and Schneider (1891), later in the text, indicated differences between newly-described L. clavatus from Apargia taraxaci Willd., Leontodon taraxaci Loisel. and Leontodon pyrenaicus Gouan that occurs out of the Carpathians. They also pointed out that they consider Apargia taraxaci, Leontodon taraxaci and Leontodon pyrenaicus as synonyms for L. clavatus exclusively in the meaning of authors from the Carpathian region. In particular, they mentioned Apargia taraxaci Wahlenb., Fl. Carpat. Princ.: 235 (1814), non Willd.; Leontodon taraxaci R.Uechtr., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 14: 386 (1864), non Loisel.; Leontodon pyrenaeus R.Uechtr., Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 370 (1857); and Leontodon pyrenaicus Hoborski, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 3: 19 (1853), non Gouan. Therefore, L. clavatus is not a synonym, neither for Scorzoneroides hispidula nor for S. pyrenaica; it is a synonym for S. pseudotaraxaci as indicated by Euro+Med.

Senecio hercynicus subsp. ucranicus (Hodálová) Greuter, Willdenowia 33: 247 (2003)

Nomenclature: 

Senecio ucranicus Hodálová, Folia Geobot. 34 (3): 334 (1999), non Besser. *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/4215062; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/1011450-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000135296; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/1011450-1

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – DD (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Notes: 

Senecio ucranicus Hodálová has been described from the montane and subalpine belts. In the Ukrainian Carpathians, it is mentioned for Chyvchyny and Chornohora Mts. (Hodálová 1999). Unfortunately, I found no specimen of S. ucranicus (≡ S. hercynicus subsp. ucranicus) in the Ukrainian herbaria.

Family Campanulaceae

Campanula carpatica Jacq., Hort. Bot. Vindob. 1: 22, tab. 57 (1770), non C. carpatha Halácsy

Nomenclature: 

Campanula cordifolia Vuk., Linnaea 26(3): 328 (1854), non K.Koch; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7407199; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/140151-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000826972; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/140151-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/113484#page/330

Neocodon carpaticus (Jacq.) Kolak. & Serdyuk, Zametki Sist. Geogr. Rast. 40: 28 (1984); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3163033; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/914284-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000816913; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/914284-1

= Campanula carpatica Baumg. ex Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 440 (1866) [nom. inval.]; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/7364#page/460

= Campanula carpatica L. ex Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 440 (1866) [nom. inval.]; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/7364#page/460

= Campanula carpatica [unranked] alba (Voss) J.R.Duncan & V.C.Davies, Nursery Cat. (Duncan & Davies) 1925: 17 (1925)

= Campanula carpatica var. brachyphylla Morariu, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 76, 960 (1964)

= Campanula carpatica var. dasycarpa Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 440 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410828; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000826759; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/364196-4; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/7364#page/460

= Campanula carpatica f. dasycarpa (Schur) Tacik, Fl. Polska 12: 84 (1971); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7665609; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/875483-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000826760; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/875483-1

= Campanula carpatica var. grandiflora Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 440 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410836; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77267465-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000826761; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77267465-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544491#page/462

= Campanula carpatica var. hemisphaerica Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 440 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410841; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77267638-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000826762; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77267638-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544491#page/462

= Campanula carpatica var. longifolia Morariu, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 79, 960 (1964)

= Campanula carpatica var. longifolia f. parviflora Săvul. ex Morariu & Nyár., Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 79, 960 (1964)

= Campanula carpatica var. oreophila Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 440 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410842; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77266926-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000826766; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77266926-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544491#page/462

= Campanula carpatica [unranked] pelviformis Froebel ex André, Rev. Hort. (Paris) 54: 509 (1882); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410840; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77267279-1; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77267279-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/49658684#page/559

= Campanula carpatica [unranked] riverslea J.R.Duncan & V.C.Davies, Nursery Cat. (Duncan & Davies) 1925: 17 (1925)

= Campanula carpatica var. porrecta Morariu, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 76, 959 (1964)

= Campanula carpatica var. porrecta f. minor Morariu, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 76, 959 (1964)

= Campanula carpatica var. schuriana Săvul. ex Morariu & Nyár., Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 76, 960 (1964)

= Campanula carpatica var. subdasycarpa Morariu & Nyár., Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 79, 960 (1964)

= Campanula carpatica [unranked] b subpilosa Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 440 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410838; WFO: https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0000826768; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/364203-4; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/7364#page/460

= Campanula carpatica f. subpilosa (Schur) Tacik, Fl. Polska 12: 84 (1971); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8353661; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/875484-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000826769; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/875484-1

= Campanula carpatica var. tomentosa Kotschy, Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 3: 140 (1853); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/86007#page/394

= Campanula carpatica var. transsilvanica Schur, Bot. Rundreise [unpublished work]: 108 (1853) [nom. illeg.] et Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 10: 174 (1859), non Campanula transsilvanica Schur ex Andrae; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/42663

= Campanula carpatica subsp. turbinata (Schott, Nyman & Kotschy) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 482 (1879); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410830; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77258441-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000826770; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77258441-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11015626#page/493

= Campanula carpatica var. turbinata (Schott, Nyman & Kotschy) Fuss, Fl. Transsilv. Exc.: 420 (1866)

= Campanula carpatica var. turbinata (Schott, Nyman & Kotschy) Nichols, Garden (London, 1871–1927) 45: 171 (1893); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/11989529; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/168085137; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77267254-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000826771; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77267254-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/25626743#page/207

= Campanula carpatica var. turbinata f. rotundata Morariu, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 79, 960 (1964)

= Campanula dasycarpa Schur ex Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 440 (1866) [nom. illeg.], non Kit. ex Schult.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7907817; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/140187-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827018; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/140187-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544491#page/462

= Campanula dasycarpa Fuss. ex Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 440 (1866), non Kit. ex Schult.; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/7364#page/460

= Campanula oreophila Schur ex Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 441 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410835; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/140769-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828027; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/140769-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544492#page/463

= Campanula pseudocarpatica Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 441 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5604956; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/140887-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828286; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/140887-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544492#page/463

= Campanula reniformis Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 440 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5604927; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/140968-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828484; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/140968-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544492#page/463

= Campanula turbinata Schott, Nyman & Kotschy, Analect. Bot.: 14 (1854); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410839; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/141258-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000829252; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/141258-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10488333#page/26

= Campanula turbinata f. alba Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3, 1: 570 (1894); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410827; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000829253; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/366618-4; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/134968#page/662

= Campanula turbinata f. lilacina Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3, 1: 570 (1894); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410832; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000829254; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/366619-4; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/134968#page/662

= Campanula turbinata f. pelviformis (Froebel ex André) Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3, 1: 570 (1894); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410833; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7407199; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000829256; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/366620-4; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/134968#page/662

Campanula carpatica var. hendersonii (C.Wolley Dod) W.T.Mill., Cycl. Amer. Hort. 231 (1900) [hort.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410837; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77267624-1; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77267624-1

Campanula fergusonii A.M.Ferguson, Rev. Hort. 76: 557 (1904) [pro hybr., hort]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/11265590; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/140301-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827170; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/140301-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/197157#page/607

Campanula hendersonii C.Wolley Dod, Gard. Chron. n.s., 18: 502 (1882) [hort.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/12053643; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/140413-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827394; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/140413-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/32986798#page/517

Campanula trans[s]ilvanica Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 10: 174 (1859), non C. transsilvanica Schur ex Andrae (1855) nec Schur (1866); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/42663#page/418

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – NT (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

Pancarpathian endemic.

Notes: 

This species is listed in the last edition (Kagalo and Sytschak 2009a) and has been approved for the new edition (MEPNR of Ukraine 2021) of the Red Book of Ukraine with a status ‘rare’.

Schur (1859b) described C. carpathica var. trans[s]ilvanica and indicated among its synonyms C. trans[s]ilvanica Schur. He also noted "affinis valde C. dasycarpae Kit." [very similar to C. dasycarpae Kit.]. However, later Schur (1866) delimited C. transilvanica (p. 436) as independent species from C. carpathica [unranked] c dasycarpa (p. 440). Amongst the synonyms of C. transilvanica, Schur (1866) indicated C. transsilvanica Schur ex Andrae. Amongst the synonyms of C. carpathica [unranked] c dasycarpa, Schur (1866) provided C. dasycarpae Schur and C. dasycarpa Fuss and pointed out that he considers this species not in the sense of Pál Kitaibel. Besides this, amongst the synonyms of C. carpathica [unranked] c dasycarpa, Schur (1866) also provided C. carpathica var. transsilvanica, but did not mention C. transsilvanica Schur in a rank of species anymore, as he did in 1859. Therefore, C. transsilvanica in sense of Schur (1859b) is not the same as C. transsilvanica in the sense of Schur ex Andrae (1855) and Schur (1866) and requires extra attention to avoid confusion.

Campanula kladniana (Schur) Witasek, Abh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 1: 39 (1902)

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – NT (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Notes: 

Campanula kladniana is a rare alpine species listed by the Red Book of Ukraine (Zyman et al. 2009, MEPNR of Ukraine 2021).

Campanula serrata (Kit. ex Schult.) Hendrych, Taxon 11: 123 (1962)

Nomenclature: 

Thesium serratum Kit. ex Schult., Oesterr. Fl. ed. 2, 1: 437 (1814); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7614045; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7390879; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/781116-1; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/781116-1

Thesium serratum Kit. ex D.Dietr., Syn. Pl. [D. Dietrich] 1: 878 (1839); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8101990; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/781115-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001290288; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/678847#page/897

= Campanula arcuata Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 10: 138 (1859); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411245; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/139919-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000826522; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/139919-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11528081#page/382

= Campanula hornungiana Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 442 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411233; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/140450-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827447; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/140450-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544493#page/464

= Campanula kitaibeliana Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 5: 90 (1819); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411255; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/140521-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827550; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/140521-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/714802#page/149

= Campanula lanceolata Neilr., Aufzählung Ungarn Slavonien Gefässpflanzen: 145 (1866), non alior; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/40087#page/293

= Campanula lanceolata subsp. arcuata (Schur) Simonk., Enum. Fl. Transsilv.: 385 (1887); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411228; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77258608-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827597; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77258608-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10524520#page/449

= Campanula lanceolata var. hornungiana (Schur) Simonk., Enum. Fl. Transsilv.: 385 (1887); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411242; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77267534-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827599; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77267534-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10524520#page/449

= Campanula microphylla Kit. ex Schult., Oesterr. Fl. ed. 2: 400 (1814), non Cav. [nom. illeg.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411213; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7654241; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/140679-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827871; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/140679-1

= Campanula napuligera Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 444 (1866) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411231; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/140729-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827943; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/140729-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544495#page/466

= Campanula napuligera f. albiflora Raclaru, Analele Univ. Bucureşti, Biol. Veg. 22: 125 (1973) [nom. nudum]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5604644; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/875497-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001325946

= Campanula napuligera var. alpiniformis Nyár. ex Morariu, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 96 (1964); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8554545; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411220; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77267043-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827944; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77267043-1

= Campanula napuligera f. angustifrons Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 217 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411211; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827945; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365333-4

= Campanula napuligera subf. angustifrons Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 217 (1930); POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365332-4

= Campanula napuligera f. arcuata (Schur) Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 217 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7645517; WFO: https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0000827946; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365334-4

= Campanula napuligera. var. arcuata (Schur) Morariu, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 93 (1964); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411239; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77267658-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827947; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77267658-1

= Campanula napuligera subf. brachyantha Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 220 (1930); POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365336-4

= Campanula napuligera var. elatior (Săvul.) Morariu, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 94 (1964); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411225; WFO: https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0000827948; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365337-4

= Campanula napuligera f. genuina Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 220 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411250; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/12125287; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365338-4; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365339-4

= Campanula napuligera f. glabrescens Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 218 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411229; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/12159969; WFO: https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0000827950; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365340-4; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365341-4

= Campanula napuligera var. hirsuta Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 220 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411217; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77267234-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827951; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77267234-1

= Campanula napuligera var. hornungiana (Schur) Morariu, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 97 (1964); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411209; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77266939-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827952; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77266939-1

= Campanula napuligera f. humilis Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 218 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411252; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827953; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365344-4

= Campanula napuligera f. intermedia Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 218 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411243; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827954; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365345-4

= Campanula napuligera f. latifrons Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok, 29: 216 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411221; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827955; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365347-4

= Campanula napuligera subf. latifrons Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 218 (1930); POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365346-4

= Campanula napuligera f. longisepala (Nyár.) Morariu, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 101 (1964); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8397712; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827957; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365349-4

= Campanula napuligera var. longisepala Nyár., Bul. Grad. Bot. Univ. Cluj 14: 95 (1934); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411212; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77267556-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827956; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77267556-1

= Campanula napuligera f. minima (Săvul.) Morariu, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 97 (1964); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411247; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827959; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365350-4

= Campanula napuligera f. parvula Morariu, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 96 (1964); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411240; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827960; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365351-4

= Campanula napuligera var. redux (Schott, Nyman & Kotschy) Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 219 (1930) [nom. inval.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7690740; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77267368-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827962; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77267368-1

= Campanula napuligera var. redux (Schott, Nyman & Kotschy) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 479 (1879); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411226; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77267203-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827961; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77267203-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11015623#page/490

= Campanula napuligera f. robusta Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 220 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411216; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827963; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365354-4

= Campanula napuligera f. savulescui Morariu, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 97 (1964); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411251; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827964; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365355-4

= Campanula napuligera var. savulescui Morariu, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 96 (1964); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7891049; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77267146-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827965; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77267146-1

= Campanula napuligera f. scheuzeriformis (Nyár.) Morariu, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 98. (1964); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411230; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827967; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365358-4

= Campanula napuligera var. scheuzeriformis Nyár., Bul. Grad. Bot. Univ. Cluj 14: 95 (1934); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7733859; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77267493-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827966; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77267493-1

= Campanula napuligera f. semiamplexicaulis (Vladescu & Săvul.) Morariu, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 98 (1964); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411218; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827968; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365359-4

= Campanula napuligera f. setulosa Morariu, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 97 (1964); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411254; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827970; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365360-4

= Campanula napuligera f. simplex Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 216 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411244; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827971; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365361-4

= Campanula napuligera f. stenophylloides Nyár., Bul. Grad. Bot. Univ. Cluj 14: 96 (1934); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411232; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827972; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365362-4

= Campanula napuligera var. stenophylloides (Nyár.) Morariu, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 98 (1964); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7996662; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827973; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365363-4

= Campanula napuligera var. stricta Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 216 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411222; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77267597-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827974; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77267597-1

= Campanula napuligera subf. tenella Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 220 (1930); POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365365-4

= Campanula napuligera var. transsilvanica (Săvul.) Morariu, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 9: 93 (1964); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411241; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827975; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365366-4

= Campanula napuligera var. umbrosa Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 218 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411236; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77267720-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827976; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77267720-1

= Campanula polymorpha f. pseudolanceolata (Pant.) Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 203 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411248; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828232; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365612-4

= Campanula pseudolanceolata Pant., Magyar Növényt. Lapok 6: 162 (1882) et Pant. ex A.Kern., Sched. Fl. Exs. Austro-Hung. [Kerner] 9: 37 (1902) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411219; IPNI https://www.ipni.org/n/140889-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828274; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/140889-1; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.kfta0001704; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.je00007049; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.kfta0001705

= Campanula pseudolanceolata f. albiflora Săvul., Stud. Sp. Campanula: 81 (1916); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411210; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828275; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365654-4

= Campanula pseudolanceolata var. arcuata (Schur) Porcius, Analele Acad. Romane ser. 2, 14: 196 (1893); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411256; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77268680-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828276; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77268680-1

= Campanula pseudolanceolata f. elatior Săvul., Stud. Sp. Campanula: 78 (1916); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411246; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828277; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365656-4

= Campanula pseudolanceolata var. hornungiana (Schur) Porcius, Anal. Acad. Rom., Ser. 2 14: 202 (1893); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411238; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77268124-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828278; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77268124-1

= Campanula pseudolanceolata f. minima Săvul., Stud. Sp. Campanula: 81 (1916); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411234; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828279; POWO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828279

= Campanula pseudolanceolata var. porcii Săvul., Stud. Sp. Campanula: 84 (1916); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411224; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77268764-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828280; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77268764-1

= Campanula pseudolanceolata subsp. semiamplexicaulis Vladescu & Săvul., Stud. Sp. Campanula: 86 (1916); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411257; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77258837-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828282; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77258837-1

= Campanula pseudolanceolata f. transsilvanica Săvul., Stud. Sp. Campanula: 78 (1916); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411249; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828283; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365661-4

= Campanula pseudolanceolata f. umbraticola Săvul., Stud. Sp. Campanula: 78 (1916); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411237; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828284; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365662-4

= Campanula redux Schott, Nyman & Kotschy, Analect. Bot.: 9 (1854); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411223; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/140961-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828474; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/140961-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10488366#page/21

= Campanula rhomboidalis var. angustifolia Neilr., Aufz. Ungarn Slavon. Gefässpfl.: 145 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411227; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77268806-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828500; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77268806-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/40087#page/293

= Campanula rhomboidalis subsp. pseudolanceolata (Pant.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. Suppl. 2: 208 (1889); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411215; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77258595-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828514; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77258595-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11015350#page/217

= Campanula rhomboidea [unranked] β foliis ovato-oblongis Wahlenberg, Fl. Carpat.: 60 (1814), non L.

= Campanula rotundifolia var. alpina Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 444 (1866) [nom. illeg.], non Tuck.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8234052; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365931-4; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/7364#page/464

= Campanula rotundifolia var. arcuata (Schur) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 479 (1879); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411253; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77267922-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828565; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77267922-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11015623#page/490

= Campanula rotundifolia var. dentata Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 444 (1866), non N.Coleman; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410676; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365967-4; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/7364#page/464

= Campanula rotundifolia var. grandiflora J.A.Knapp, Pfl. Galiz.: 173 (1872) [nom. illeg.], non alior; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7764236; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77268584-1; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77268584-1

Campanula serrata var. elatior (Săvul.) Tasenkevych [nom. provis. et inval., ex herb. LWS]

Campanula serrata var. elatior f. latifrons Hruby [comb. inval. ex herb. CHER] *

Campanula serrata var. hornungiana (Schur.) Tasenkevych [nom. provis. et inval., ex herb. LWS]

Campanula lancifolia Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 445 (1866) [nom. illeg.] sensu Błocki, non Witasek

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022). GLobal – LC (Bilz 2011a).

Distribution: 

Pancarpathian endemic.

Notes: 

This morphologically variable complex basically includes three hardly distinguishable species – C. serrata, C. napuligera and C. pseudolanceolata. CoL (https://www.catalogueoflife.org/data/taxon/QBXQ, accessed on 07.06.2023), GBIF (https://www.gbif.org/species/5411208, accessed on 07.06.2023), POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/141081-1, accessed on 05.06.2023), WFO (https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0000828909, accessed on 05.06.2023) and Worldplants (https://www.worldplants.de/world-plants-complete-list/complete-plant-list?name=Campanula-serrata, accessed on 07.06.2023) also include C. arcuata, C. hornungiana, C. kitaibeliana, C. microphylla, C. redux and some infraspecific taxa from C. rotundifolia to this complex, making it one of the most saturated by synonyms. POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/140550-1, accessed on 05.06.2023), WFO (https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0000828550, accessed on 05.06.2023) and Worldplants (https://www.worldplants.de/world-plants-complete-list/complete-plant-list?name=Campanula-rotundifolia, accessed on 07.06.2023) consider C. lancifolia Schur, non Witasek as a synonym of C. rotundifolia L. subsp. rotundifolia. However, Błocki in the original label on the specimen LWS 92206, probably mistakenly, indicated C. lancifolia Schur as a synonym of C. pseudolanceolata Pant.

Campanula serrata subsp. recta (Dulac) Podlech (≡ C. recta Dulac) is a confusing name applied for Pyreneinian plants that do not belong to C. serrata s.str., but rather to C. scheuchzeri subsp. lanceolata (Lapeyr.) J.-M.Tison.

Campanula tatrae subsp. tatrae Borbás, Magyar Bot. Lapok 1: 319 (1902)

Nomenclature: 

= Campanula kladniana subsp. polymorpha Witasek, Magyar Bot. Lapok 5: 239 (1906); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410038; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77255487-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827554; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77255487-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/50344447#page/645; JACQ: https://wu.jacq.org/WU0071526

= Campanula kladniana var. polymorpha (Witasek) Pawł., Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 1: 5 (1923); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8038018; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827555; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/364966-4

= Campanula kladniana subsp. stenophylla (Schur) Witasek, Magyar Bot. Lapok 5: 238 (1906); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410040; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77256020-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827556; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77256020-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/50344446#page/644

= Campanula polymorpha (Witasek) Prain, Index Kew. Suppl. 4: 35 (1913), non Banks & Sol. ex A.DC. *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410057; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77237988-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828219; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77237988-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/133932#page/47

= Campanula polymorpha var. intercedens Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 199 (1930), non C. witasekiana var. intercedens Hruby; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410061; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77266950-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828224; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77266950-1

= Campanula polymorpha var. intercedens f. angustifolia Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 200 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410043; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828220; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365601-4

= Campanula polymorpha var. intercedens f. exigua Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 200 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410058; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828222; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365603-4

= Campanula polymorpha var. intercedens f. latifolia Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 199 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410046; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828226; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365607-4

= Campanula polymorpha var. intercedens f. reflectans Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 200 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410039; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828233; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365614-4

= Campanula polymorpha var. intercedens f. umbrosa Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 200 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410036; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828236; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365619-4

= Campanula polymorpha var. lepida Nyár. ex Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 201 (1930)

= Campanula polymorpha var. pluriflora Nyár. ex Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 198 (1930)

= Campanula polymorpha var. praticola Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 198 (1930), non C. witasekiana var. praticola Hruby; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410053; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77268347-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828231; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77268347-1

= Campanula polymorpha var. praticola f. hirta (Nyár.) Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 199 (1930)

= Campanula polymorpha var. praticola f. pluriflora (Nyár.) Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 199 (1930)

= Campanula polymorpha var. stenophylla (Schur) Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 205 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410054; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828235; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365616-4

= Campanula polymorpha var. stenophylla f. brachyphylla Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 206 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410056; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828221; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365602-4

= Campanula polymorpha var. stenophylla f. genuina Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 206 (1930)

= Campanula polymorpha var. stenophylla f. gracilis Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 206 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410050; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828223; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365604-4

= Campanula polymorpha var. typica Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 198, 201 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410048; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365617-4

= Campanula polymorpha var. typica f. fasciculata Nyár. ex Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 202 (1930)

= Campanula polymorpha var. typica f. fasciculata subf. deltoidea Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 203 (1930)

= Campanula polymorpha var. typica f. kladnianioides Nyárady ex Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 201 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8517923; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410051; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828225; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365606-4

= Campanula polymorpha var. typica f. latifolia Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 201 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410046; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828226; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365607-4

= Campanula polymorpha var. typica f. latifolia subf. umbrosa Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 202 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410036; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365618-4

= Campanula polymorpha var. typica f. lepida (Nyár.) Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 202 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410037; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828227; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365608-4

= Campanula polymorpha var. typica f. lepida subf. reflectans Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 202 (1930); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410039; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365613-4

= Campanula polymorpha var. typica f. saxiphila Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 204 (1930)

= Campanula polymorpha var. typica f. saxiphila subf. reflectans Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 205 (1930)

= Campanula rotundifolia subsp. polymorpha (Witasek) Tacik in Jasiewicz, Monogr. Bot. 20: 254 (1965); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7685150; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77255879-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828685; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77255879-1

= Campanula scheuchzeri [unranked] β dacica Porcius, Enum. Pl. Phan. Naszód.: 37 (1878)

= Campanula scheuchzeri var. dacica Porcius, Fl. Naseud.: 98 (1885); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410055; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77268262-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828824; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77268262-1

= Campanula scheuchzeri var. stenophylla Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 443 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410059; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77268259-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828864; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77268259-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544494#page/465

= Campanula stenophylla (Schur) Prain, Index Kew. Suppl. 4: 35 (1913) [nom. inval.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410042; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77238117-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000829052; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77238117-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/133932#page/47

= Campanula stenophylla (Schur) Witasek, Magyar Bot. Lapok 5: 238 (1906), non Boiss. & Heldr.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7633288; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/141149-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/202161#page/644

Campanula carnica auct. fl. transsilv., non Schiede

Campanula consanguinea Simonk., Enum. Fl. Transsilv.: 385 (1886) [p. p.], non Schott; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/40105#page/449

Campanula kladniana (Schur) Witasek, Abh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 1: 39 (1902) [p. p. min., non sensu Schur orig.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5411315; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/140522-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000827551; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/140522-1

Campanula linifolia auct. [e.g., Wahlenb.], non Jacq.

Campanula polymorpha f. sciaphila Hruby, Magyar Bot. Lapok 29: 204 (1930) [nom. et des. inval.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410041; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828234; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/365615-4

Campanula rotundifolia L., Sp. Pl. 1: 163 (1753) [p. p. minor, tantum quod plantas ucrain. carpat.], non alior *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5410907; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/30036649-2; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000828550; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/30036649-2; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/358182#page/175

Campanula pusilla auct. fl. ucrain. carpat., non Haenke

Campanula scheuchzeri auct. [e.g., Reuss, Května Slov.: 278 (1853); Sagorski & Schneider, Fl. Centralkarp.: 369 (1891)], non Vill. *

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

Pancarpathian endemic.

Notes: 

In general, there are three subspecies of C. tatrae (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/141196-1, accessed on 05.06.2023) – subsp. tatrae, subsp. mentiens (Witasek) Kovanda and subsp. sudetica (Hruby) Kovanda. The last two subspecies occur exclusively in the Western Carpathians; therefore, only C. tatrae subsp. tatrae is represented in the flora of the Ukrainian Carpathians.

However, C. tatrae subsp. tatrae has a long and complex naming history. In the Ukrainian Carpathians, it combines two main taxa that are often distinguished as independent species (i.e. C. polymorpha (Witasek) Prain and C. rotundifolia L., p.p.) by certain authors (e.g. Dremliuga and Zyman (2012), Chopyk and Fedoronchuk (2015)). However, Kovanda (1975) conducted nomenclatural explorations and stressed the taxonomic concept that Witaseks applied to Schur's C. kladniana in her early publication (Witasek 1902). To avoid misinterpretation of plants from the Tatrae Mts. that were often incorrectly identified as C. kladniana (Schur) Witasek and synonymised with C. polymorha, Kovanda (1975) proposed using the name C. tatrae that has been published earlier by Borbás (1902) and had an unambiguous sense. Many infraspecific taxa from Campanula scheuchzeri auct., non Vill. seem to be a part of C. tatrae subsp. tatrae too (Geslot 1971). On the other hand, in the recent checklists (e.g. POWO, WFO and Euro+Med – https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77168970-1, https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0000838737, https://europlusmed.org/cdm_dataportal/taxon/c454d5af-c66c-4d0a-b009-a0e8754e9c9c, all databases being accessed on 05.06.2023), C. scheuchzeriformis Hayek and derived C. balcanica var. scheuchzeriformis (Hayek) Hruby are wrongly listed amongst synonyms of C. tatrae subsp. tatrae. Campanula scheuchzeriformis occurs in North Albania (Hayek 1921, Hruby 1930). Such synonymisation probably results from confusion because Hayek (1921), in the protologue of C. scheuchzeriformis, mentioned that it is similar to C. scheuchzeri. Another taxon, C. rotundifolia var. alpicola Hayek (≡ C. rotundifolia f. alpicola (Hayek) Hruby), is also mistakenly indicated as a synonym of C. tatrae subsp. tatrae in the Worldplants checklist (https://www.worldplants.de/world-plants-complete-list/complete-plant-list?name=Campanula-tatrae, accessed on 07.06.2023) and GBIF (https://www.gbif.org/species/7222073, accessed on 05.06.2023). Finally, Worldplants wrongly indicate the presence of C. carnica subsp. carnica Mert. & W.D.J.Koch for Ukraine. This species and subspecies do not occur in Ukraine. Such confusion of C. rotundifolia f. alpicola probably results from the mistaken synonymisation of C. kladniana with C. carnica subsp. carnica due to ambiguous interpretation of the taxonomic limits of C. kladniana (Podlech 1965, Kovanda 1975).

Phyteuma tetramerium Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 4: 47 (1853)

Nomenclature: 

Phyteuma tetramerum Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 4: 47 (1853) [ortho. var.]; IPNI: https://ipni.org/n/144500-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000816731; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/144500-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11525300#page/933

= Phyteuma spicatum Baumg., Enum. Stirp. Transsilv. 1: 158 (1816), non L. nec Lapeyr.

= Phyteuma spicatum Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 484 (1879) [nom. illeg.], non L. nec Lapeyr.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3166601; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/41446#page/495

Phyteuma spicatum var. tetramerum (Schur) Nyman sensu auct. multipl. [nom. nudum]; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77287349-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000821849; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77287349-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11015628#page/495

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Notes: 

This species has several nomenclatural issues. All databases (accessed on 05.06.2023), except for IPNI, as well as most of the publications (e.g. Tzvelev (1995), Tasenkevich (1998), Chorney (2011), Chopyk and Fedoronchuk (2015), Mosyakin and Fedoronchuk (2015), Kliment et al. (2016) and Kliment et al. (2016)) indicate the name P. tetramerum as introduced by Schur (1853). This orthographical variant is the most abundant and commonly applied by botanists. However, in the original protologue and further (Schur 1866), Schur applied a slightly different name – P. tetramerium. It is unclear why and when the specific epithet lost the letter 'i'. Another issue with this species is that GBIF (https://www.gbif.org/species/3166601, accessed on 05.06.2023), WFO (http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000821849, accessed on 05.06.2023), POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77287349-1, accessed on 05.06.2023) and Worldplants (https://www.worldplants.de/world-plants-complete-list/complete-plant-list?name=Phyteuma-tetramerum, accessed on 07.06.2023) provide the synonym P. spicatum var. tetramerum (Schur) Nyman. IPNI (https://www.ipni.org/n/77287349-1, accessed on 05.06.2023) even has a link to the 'protologue' of P. spicatum var. tetramerum on BHL (https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11015628#page/495, accessed on 05.06.2023). However, Nyman never made such a combination and, in the original publication, Nyman (1878) only indicated that P. tetramerium is a synonym for P. spicatum.

Phyteuma vagneri A.Kern in Vágner, Máram. Növ.: 192 (1875) et A.Kern., Sched. Fl. Exs. Austro-Hung. [Kerner] 3: 107 (1884)

Nomenclature: 

Phyteuma atropurpureum Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 3: 88 (1852) [nom. nudum], non Hoppe; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8164990; IPNI: https://ipni.org/n/77245178-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000821850; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77245178-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11526224#page/538

Phyteuma nigrum var. atropurpureum Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 430 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3166605; IPNI: https://ipni.org/n/77287825-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000821851; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77287825-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544481#page/452

Phyteuma spiciforme Rochel, Bot. Reise Banat: 69 (1838) [nom. nudum] et Rochel ex Domin & Podp., Klic Ulpne Kvet. Rep. Ceskoslov.: 542 (1928); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7536094; IPNI: https://ipni.org/n/144491-1; IPNI: https://ipni.org/n/77244339-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001351008; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77244339-1

= Phyteuma michelii Sternh., Fl. Sieb.: 20 (1846), non alior

= Phyteuma vagneri f. alpinum Rich. Schulz, Monogr. Phyteuma: 79 (1904); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3166606; WFO: https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0000821855; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/359508-4

= Phyteuma vagneri f. brevibracteatum Rich. Schulz, Monogr. Phyteuma: 78 (1904); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3166603; WFO: https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0000821852; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/359505-4

= Phyteuma vagneri f. grossidentatum Rich. Schulz, Monogr. Phyteuma: 78 (1904); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3166604; WFO: https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0000821853; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/359506-4

= Phyteuma vagneri f. latibracteatum Rich. Schulz, Monogr. Phyteuma: 78 (1904); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3166608; WFO: https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0000821854; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/359507-4

= Phyteuma vagneri var. pallida Porcius, Enum. Pl. Phanerogam. Distr. Quondam Naszódiensis: 37 (1878)

Phyteuma betonicaefolium Baumg., Mant.: 16 (1846) et auct. transsilv., non Vill. [nom. nudum ?]

Phyteuma halleri auct. transsilv., non All.

Phyteuma nigrum auct. [e.g., Baumg.], non Schmalh.

Phyteuma ovatum auct. [e.g., Baumg.], non Schmalh.

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Order Boraginales

Family Boraginaceae

Pulmonaria filarszkyana Jáv., Bot. Közlem. 15: 52 (1916)

Nomenclature: 

Pulmonaria rubra subsp. filarszkyana (Jáv.) Domin, Preslia 13-15: 175, in adnot. (1935); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7763716; IPNI: https://ipni.org/n/77252395-1; WFO: https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0001215862; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77252395-1

Pulmonaria rubra var. filarszkyana (Jáv.) Guşul., Bul. Fac. St. Cern. 3: 330 (1929) *

Pulmonaria angustifolia Kern., Monogr. Pulm.: 9 (1878) [p. p., quoad plantas marmaros. et rodn.], non L.

Pulmonaria dacica (Simonk.) Simonk., Enum. Fl. Transsilv.: 406 (1886) [p. p.] *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8393929; IPNI: https://ipni.org/n/120357-1; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/120357-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10524541#page/470

Pulmonaria dacica (Simonk.) Porcius [p. p., nom et des. invalid]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5660545; IPNI: https://ipni.org/n/120358-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000397437

Pulmonaria rubra var. dacica Simonk., Math. Termeszettud. Közlem. 15: 583 (1878) [p. p.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7372640; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/3234704-4

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Symphytum cordatum Waldst. et Kit. ex Willd., Neue Schriften Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin 2: 121 (1799), non M.Bieb.

Nomenclature: 
Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

Pancarpathian subendemic.

Notes: 

This species is closely and primarily associated with the Carpathian Mts. (Novikoff and Hurdu 2015); however, it also rarely occurs in the Ukrainian lowland areas in Volhyn (Chopyk 1976) and Podillia (Kobiv 2007, Chorney 2011) going far from the mountain range. As a result, Malynovskiy et al. (2002) considered it Carpathian-Volhynia-Podolian species and Chorney (2011) treated it as a non-endemic taxon with a Central European distribution range. Nevertheless, numerous authors (e.g. Pawłowski (1961), Tasenkevich (2003), Kobiv (2007), Piękoś-Mirkowa and Mirek (2011), Hurdu et al. (2012), Negrean et al. (2015), Novikoff and Hurdu (2015), Mráz et al. (2016) and Kliment et al. (2016)) treated S. cordatum as a Carpathian endemic or subendemic species. Considering the extension of S. cordatum's distribution range to the lowlands, it cannot be considered endemic and, therefore, it is listed here as a subendemic. However, further phylogeographical studies of this species are of great interest and would clarify its disjunctive distribution pattern.

Order Brassicales

Family Brassicaceae

Arabidopsis neglecta (Schult.) O'Kane et Al-Shehbaz, Novon 7(3): 326 (1997)

Nomenclature: 

Arabis neglecta Schult., Oesterr. Fl., ed. 2: 248 (1814) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5377122; IPNI: https://ipni.org/n/278429-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000542551; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/278429-1

Cardaminopsis neglecta (Schult.) Hayek, Fl. Steiermark 1: 480 (1908) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3052532; IPNI: https://ipni.org/n/280774-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000587713; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/280774-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10560532#page/516

Erysimum neglectum (Schult.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 933 (1891); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3692864; IPNI: https://ipni.org/n/284014-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000678999; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/284014-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/4355#page/559

= Arabis transsilvanica Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 43 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5377124; IPNI: https://ipni.org/n/278696-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000542956; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/278696-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544094#page/65

= Arabis floribunda Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 44 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5377121; IPNI: https://ipni.org/n/278219-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000542213; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/278219-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544095#page/66

= Arabis glareosa Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 1: 106 (1850) et Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 4: 59 (1853); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/5377123; IPNI: https://ipni.org/n/278235-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000542238; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/278235-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11525300#page/116; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11525300#page/711; JACQ: https://gzu.jacq.org/GZU000054862; JACQ: https://gzu.jacq.org/GZU000276989; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.gzu000054862; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.gzu000276989

= Cardaminopsis neglecta subsp. glareosa (Schur) Soó, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16 (3–4): 371 (1971); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3689071; IPNI: https://ipni.org/n/879116-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000587714; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/879116-1

Cardamine enneaphyllos Turcz. [nom. inval., ex herb. KW], non (L.) Crantz ex Crantz

Dentaria enneaphyllos auct. flora ucrain. carpat., non L. [ex herb. LWS] *

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – NT (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

Pancarpathian endemic.

Notes: 

The distribution of A. neglecta in the Ukrainian Carpathians remains unclear due to frequent confusion with A. arenosa (L.) Lawalrée, which is widely spread both in mountains and lowlands (Pachschwöll and Pachschwöll 2019). Schmickl et al. (2012) recognised two cytotypes of A. neglecta subsp. neglecta (diploid from the alpine habitats) and subsp. robusta Schmickl et al. [nom. illeg.] (tetraploid occurring in different vegetation belts, including montane and submontane). Contrary to Schmickl et al. (2012), Knotek et al. (2020) reported that tetraploids are more successful in colonising alpine habitats, but, in general, both cytotypes can be present at different elevations. For Ukraine, Kolář et al. (2016) used only three diploid samples of A. arenosa subsp. arenosa sampled in lowermost altitudes near road and railway banks in the Lviv region (Ciscarpathia and Beskyds). Similarly, Knotek et al. (2020) used only two tetraploid alpine samples from the only mesoregion of the Ukrainian Carpathians, Svydovets Mts. Therefore, the ploidy level and diversity of Arenosa group in the Ukrainian Carpathians remain unclear, but it seems that A. neglecta is associated here with subalpine and alpine habitats only (Chopyk and Fedoronchuk 2015).

Cardamine glanduligera O.Schwarz, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 46: 188 (1939)

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – LC (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

Pancarpathian subendemic.

Erysimum witmanni subsp. transsilvanicum (Schur) P.W.Ball, Feddes Repert. 69: 151 (1964)

Nomenclature: 

Erysimum transsilvanicum Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 57 (1866) *; CoL: https://www.catalogueoflife.org/data/taxon/3BBTL; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3048278; IPNI: https://ipni.org/n/284236-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000679281; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/284236-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544108#page/79; JACQ: https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=365438; JACQ: https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=365584; JACQ: https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=365589; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.lw00206088; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.lw00206058; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.lw00206087

= Erysimum baumgartenianum Jáv., Magyar Bot. Lapok 11: 30 (1912), non Schur

= Erysimum czetzianum Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 57 (1866); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3048279; IPNI: https://ipni.org/n/283752-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000678651; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/283752-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544108#page/79

= Erysimum czetzianum Schur ex Jáv., Magyar Bot. Lapok 11: 29 (1912); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/201840#page/553

= Erysimum pannonicum f. viridis Simonk., Termesz. Fuzet. 5: 55 (1881); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/96887#page/63

= Erysimum pumilum var. transilvanica Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenburg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 10: 143 (1859); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/42663#page/387

= Erysimum transsilvanicum f. czetzianum (Schur) Nyár., Fl. Rep. Pop. Roman. 3: 177 (1955)

= Erysimum transsilvanicum f. luxurians Nyár., Fl. Rep. Pop. Roman. 3: 177, 640 (1955)

= Erysimum transsilvanicum f. rarifolium Nyár., Fl. Rep. Pop. Roman. 3: 177, 640 (1955)

= Erysimum witmannii subsp. czetzianum (Schur) Zapał. [ex herb. Mądalski, nom. inval. ?]

= Erysimum witmannii var. czetzianum (Schur) Borza, Bul. Grăd. Bot. Cluj 26: (1946)

= Erysimum witmannii var. czetziano Nyár., Fl. Rep. Pop. Roman. 3: 174 (1955)

Erysimum cheiranthus Herbich, Fl. Bucovina: 354 (1859), non alior

Erysimum odoratum Baumg., Enum. Stirp. Transsilv. 2: 262 (1816) [p. p.], non Ehr.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7699439; IPNI: https://ipni.org/n/284036-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000679040; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/284036-1

Erysimum pannonicum auct. carpat., non Crantz

Erysimum wahlenbergii Simonk., Enum. Fl. Transsilv.: 85 (1886), non Asch. & Engl.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7583006; IPNI: https://ipni.org/n/284262-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001034410; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10524220#page/149

Erysimum witmannii auct. flora ucrain. carpat. et Grec., Consp. Fl. Rom.: 61 (1891) [p. p.], non Zaw. *

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – DD (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Notes: 

Kliment et al. (2016) recognise three subspecies within E. witmanni subsp. witmanni (Pancarpathian endemic), subsp. pallidiflorum (Szepligeti ex Jav.) Soó (Western Carpathian endemic) and subsp. transsilvanicum (south-eastern Carpathian endemic). In the Ukrainian Carpathians, only E. witmanni subsp. transsilvanicum is very narrowly present in the Chorniy Dil mountain range (Chopyk and Fedoronchuk 2015). During my explorations, I have found in KW herbarium a few specimens collected by Ilyinska from lowlands (Brody and Zolochiv Districts of Lviv region and Tlumach District of Ivano-Frankivsk region) that were mistakenly identified as E. witmanni.

Noccaea dacica subsp. dacica (Heuff.) F.K.Mey, Feddes Repert. 84(5-6): 464 (1973)

Nomenclature: 

Noccaea dacica (Heuff.) F.K.Mey., Feddes Repert. 84(5-6): 464 (1973); CoL: https://www.catalogueoflife.org/data/taxon/47KQH; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8622945; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/287746-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001217939; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/287746-1

Thlaspi dacicum Heuff., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 8: 26 (1858) et Verh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 8 (Abh.): 61 (1858) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3045405; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/290543-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000407340; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/290543-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12053912#page/257

= Thlaspi dacicum [unranked] β rodnense Porcius, Enum. Pl. Phanerogam. Distr. Quondam Naszódiensis: 7 (1878)

= Thlaspi dacicum [unranked] β transsilvanicum Porcius, Fl. Năsăud: 169 (1881)

= Thlaspi commutatum Rochel, Bot. Reise Banat: 83 (1838), non Reiche; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3045398; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/290525-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001037431; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/290525-1

= Thlaspi corongianum Czetz ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 63 (1878) [ortho. var.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8492602; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3692457; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/290531-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000407352; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/290531-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11015205#page/72

= Thlaspi korongianum Czetz ex Nyman, Syll. Suppl.: 37 (1865); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8601316; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3045399; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/290605-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000407324; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/290605-1; JACQ: https://wu.jacq.org/WU0034620

= Thlaspi trojagense Zapał., Rozprawy Wydziału Mat.-Przyrod. Akad. Um., Dział B. Nauki Biol. 13: 316, 317 (1913); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3045402; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/290749-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001037439; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/290749-1

= Thlaspi trojagense f. abbreviatum Zapał., Rozprawy Wydziału Mat.-Przyrod. Akad. Um., Dział B. Nauki Biol. 13: 317 (1913)

Thlaspi alpestre auct. [e.g., Schur, Fuss., Baumg.], non L.

Thlaspi rotundifolium auct. fl. transsilv., non Gaud

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – DD (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Notes: 

Following POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/287746-1, accessed on 05.06.2023), there are two subspecies of N. dacica subsp. dacica (occurs in Romania and Ukraine) and subsp. montenegrina F.K.Mey. (the distribution is limited to Montenegro – Meyer (1973)). The close species, N. banatica (R.Uechtr.) F.K.Mey. (≡ Thlaspi dacicum subsp. banaticum (R.Uechtr.) Nyár.), is sometimes included in N. dacica subsp. dacica (e.g. in the Worldplants database – https://www.worldplants.de/world-plants-complete-list/complete-plant-list?name=Noccaea-dacica, accessed on 07.06.2023). However, Al-Shehbaz (2014) distinguished N. banatica as an independent species, while Kliment et al. (2016) outlined it as a South Carpathian endemic taxon. Therefore, only N. dacica subsp. dacica occurs in the Ukrainian Carpathians.

Order Caryophyllales

Family Caryophyllaceae

Dianthus spiculifolius Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 98 (1866), non Borbás

Nomenclature: 

Dianthus kitaibelii subsp. spiculifolius (Schur) Novák, Sborník Klubu Přírodověd. v Praze. Sv. 4. 1914–1920, Č. 4: 23(1) (1922) et Věst. Král. české spol. nauk. Tř. mat.-přírod. 1923(11): 30 (1924)

Dianthus petraeus subsp. spiculifolius (Schur) Ciocârlan, Illustr. Fl. Rom.: 217-223 (2000); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7886591

Dianthus plumarius subsp. spiculifolius (Schur) Baksay, Symposia Biol. Hung. 12: 153 (1972)

= Dianthus acicularis Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 98 (1866), non Fisch. ex Ledeb.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3815472; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/153009-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544149#page/120

= Dianthus brachyanthus Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 96 (1866), non Boiss.; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7371609; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/153147-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000643176; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/153147-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10544147#page/118; JACQ: https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=366863; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.lw00203891

= Dianthus carpathicus Borbás, Termesz. Fuzet. 12: 44 (1889), non Woł. [nom. inval.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3813900; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/153199-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/31106623#page/620

= Dianthus hungaricus (Andrae) Simonk., Enum. Fl. Transsilv.: 121 (1886), non alior; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/40105#page/185

= Dianthus microche[i]lus B.S.Williams, Pinks Centr. Eur.: 37 (1890) et B.S.Williams ex Wettst., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 41: 176 (1891); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3810687; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/153597-1; WFO: https://list.worldfloraonline.org/wfo-0000643859; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/153597-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/28710681#page/182

= Dianthus petraeus Janka, Bot. Közlem. 12: 187 (1913), non Waldst. & Kit. nec M.Bieb.

= Dianthus petraeus Kerner, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 18: 18, 126 (1868) [nom. nudum], non Waldst. & Kit. nec M.Bieb.; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/91216#page/26

= Dianthus plumarius Baumg., Enum. Stirp. Transsilv. 1: 390 (1816) et auct. transsilv., non L. nec Gunnerus

= Dianthus plumarius var. erythrocalyx Schott ex Simonk., Enum. Fl. Transsilv.: 121 (1886); BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/40105#page/185

= Dianthus plumarius var. hungaricus Andrae, Bot. Zeitung 11: 436 (1853), non alior; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/105829#page/230

= Dianthus serotinus Barth, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 19: 144 (1868) [nom. nudum], non Waldst. & Kit.; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/110590#page/442

= Dianthus serotinus Salzer, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 15: 50 (1864) [nom. nudum], non Waldst. & Kit.; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/105000#page/546

= Dianthus spiculifolius f. petraeiformis Novák, Sborník Klubu Přírodověd. v Praze. Sv. 4. 1914–1920, Č. 4: 25(3) (1922)

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – DD (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Notes: 

This species is probably absent in the recent flora of the Ukrainian Carpathians since no new finding confirms its presence. It was mentioned for Chyvchyny Mts. (south Bukovina), based on old herbarium specimens by Fedoronchuk and Chorney (2005). However, it is not listed for the flora of the Ukrainian Carpathians by Chopyk and Fedoronchuk (2015). While working in the Ukrainian herbaria, I could not locate any specimen of D. spiculifolius Probably such specimens could be refined in the Schur’s collection hosted at LW, but, unfortunately, this collection has remained permanently unavailable for the last few years.

Borbás (1889), on page 44, indicated that D. carpathicus Borbás (D. callizonus × D. tenuifolius) is a synonym of D. brachyanthus Schur, non Boiss. and indicated it in the protologue “in rupibus calcareis alp. Kyrálikő (i.e. Piatra Craiului Mts. in Hungarian), circa 2000 mt. s.m. Aug. 1858 (Schur !)”. Schur (1866), on page 96, as the protologue to D. brachyanthus wrote “Auf Kalkfelsen des Königstein (i.e. Piatra Craiului Mts. in German) bei Kronstadt (i.e. Brașov). 6000–7000'. Aug.” Williams (1890), on page 37 and Williams (1893), on page 415, synonymised D. brachyanthus with D. microchelus Williams, and also cited it for Kronstadt in Transylvania.

It is unclear why CoL (https://www.catalogueoflife.org/data/taxon/6CQ3R, accessed on 07.06.2023), GBIF (https://www.gbif.org/species/7267406, accessed on 07.06.2023), WFO (http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000643860, accessed on 05.06.2023), POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:153598-1, accessed on 05.06.2023) and Worldplants (https://www.worldplants.de/world-plants-complete-list/complete-plant-list?name=Dianthus-microlepis, accessed on 05.06.2023), as well as Fassou et al. (2022), provide D. brachyanthus Schur amongst synonyms for D. microlepis Boiss., because Boissier (1843), on page 22, described D. microlepis out of the Carpathian region, i.e. from Rumelia, Balkans. The current known distribution of D. microlepis is limited to Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia and Kosovo (Marhold 2022). Perhaps, the synonymisation of the Carpathian D. brachyanthus Schur with Balcanian D. microlepis is a result of a confusion of D. brachyanthus in the sense of Schur (1866) [= D. microchelus Williams] with D. brachyanthus in the sense of earlier Boissier's publication (Boissier 1837: p. 85). Therefore, D. brachyanthus Schur, non Boiss. should be considered a synonym of D. microchelus Williams and D. carpathicus Borbás, non Woł. and, consequently, a synonym of D. spiculifolius Schur.

Interestingly, in all mentioned databases, including IPNI (https://www.ipni.org/n/153597-1, accessed on 05.06.2023), D. microchelus is misspelled as D. microche[i]lus and the incorrect place of publication of this name is indicated. It is wrongly stated that Williams published this species in 1891 in Oesterreichische Botanische Zeitschrift. Instead, Williams published it a year before, in 1890, in his monography “The pinks of Central Europe” (Williams 1890: p. 37), while later, in Oesterreichische Botanische Zeitschrift, the editor of this journal, Richard R. von Wettstein, published a brief review on Williams' book with the indication of newly-proposed taxa (Wettstein 1891: p. 176). Thus, Williams never personally published this name in Oesterreichische Botanische Zeitschrift.

Sabulina oxypetala (Woł.) Mosyakin & Fedor., Phytotaxa 231(1): 96 (2015)

Nomenclature: 

Alsine oxypetala Woł., Spraw. Komis. Fizjograf. 22(2): 214 (1888); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7758064; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/150666-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001291954; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/2630520-4; JACQ: https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=392011; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.lw00059883

Alsine verna [unranked] oxypetala Zapał. [nom. inval. ?]

Alsine zarencznyi var. oxypetala Woł., Sprawozd. Kom. Fizjograf. 21(2): 111–139 (1887) [?]

Minuartia oxypetala (Woł.) Kulczyński, Fl. Polska 2: 231 (1921) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7504529; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001292114; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/3007630-4

Minuartia verna subsp. oxypetala (Woł.) G.Halliday, Feddes Repert. 69: 13 (1964); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8333640; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001292121; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000734418; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/2869879-4

Minuartia verna var. oxypetala (Woł.) Prodan, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 2: 86 (1953)

Minuartia verna [unranked] B attica [unranked] oxypetala Graebn. in Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 5(1): 745 (1918)

Sabulina verna subsp. oxypetala (Woł.) Dillenb. & Kadereit, Taxon 63(1): 88 (2014); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7684653; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/77137604-1; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77137604-1

= Alsine zarencznyi var. neglecta Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 26 (1911)

= Alsine zarencznyi var. neglecta f. ramificans Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 27 (1911)

= Alsine zarencznyi var. neglecta f. subcaespitosa Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 27 (1911)

= Alsine zarencznyi var. neglecta f. subcolorata Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 27 (1911)

= Alsine zarencznyi [unranked] c oxypetala f. acutissima Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 27 (1911)

= Alsine zarencznyi [unranked] c oxypetala f. micropetala Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 28 (1911)

= Minuartia verna var. oxypetala f. micropetala (Zapał.) Prodan, Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 2: 86 (1953)

Minuartia zarencznii auct. [i.e., Chopyk 1976], non (Zapał.) Klokov

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – EN (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

SE Carpathian endemic.

Notes: 

A rare stenoendemic, which occurs in the Ukrainian Carpathians only in the Chyvchyny Mts. (Fedoronchuk and Chorney 2009, Chorney 2011).

Sabulina pauciflora (Kit.) A.Novikov, comb. nov.

Nomenclature: 

Alsine pauciflora Kit. ex Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 1: 119 (1878); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8455786; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3807842; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/150674-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000527884; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/150674-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/11015261#page/128

Arenaria pauciflora Kit., Linnaea 32(4–5): 510 (1864), non Prodan; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7644104; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/151539-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000546400; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/151539-1; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/118601#page/513

Minuartia pauciflora (Kit.) Dvořaková, Preslia 75(4): 350 (2003) *; CoL: https://www.catalogueoflife.org/data/taxon/43KDB; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3811893; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/60435605-2; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000378331; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/60435605-2

= Alsine verna [unranked] δ carpatica Porcius, Enum. Pl. Phanerogam. Distr. Quondam Naszódiensis: 11 (1878) et Anal. Acad. Rom.: 54 (1893)

= Alsine verna [unranked] a. zarencnyi (Zapał.) Hermann, Fl. Deutschl. Fennoskand.: 185 (1912)

= Alsine zarencznyi Zapał., Bull. Int. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, Cl. Sci. Math. 1910(3B): 168 (1910) et Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 25 (1911) [excl. var. c]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3817114; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/150829-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001291956; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/150828-1

= Alsine zarencznyi var. divestita Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 27 (1911); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8108754; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/11110050; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/3298158-4

= Alsine zarencznyi var. pseudogerardiana Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 28 (1911)

= Alsine zarencznyi var. zarencznyi f. bryophila Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 26 (1911)

= Alsine zarencznyi var. zarencznyi f. minima Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 26 (1911)

= Alsine zarencznyi var. zarencznyi f. paucicaulis Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 26 (1911)

= Alsine zarencznyi var. zarencznyi f. subpurpuea Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 26 (1911)

= Alsine zarencznyi var. zarencznyi f. supraglandulosa Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 26 (1911)

= Minuartia verna subsp. gerardii [unranked] b. carpatica (Porcius) Graebn. in Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 5(1): 749 (1918) *

= Minuartia zarecznyi (Zapał.) Klokov, Fl. UkrSSR 4: 480 (1952) *; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7267413; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/155697-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001292126; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/155697-1

= Minuartia zarencznii (Zapał.) Klokov, Fl. UkrSSR 4: 480 (1952) [ortho. var.]; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7267413; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/155697-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0001292126; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/155697-1

= Minuartia zarecznyi var. divestita (Zapał.) Tzvelev, Bot. Zhurn. 87(3): 125 (2002); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/3810712; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/20006371-1; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/20006371-1

Alsine gerardii auct. flora carpat., non Willd.

Arenaria gerardii auct. fl. carpat., non Willd.

Alsine verna auct. fl. carpat., non (L.) Wahlenb. nec Bartl

Alsine verna Knapp, Pfl. Galic. u. Bukov.: 331 (1872) [p. p.], non Wahlenb. s. str. *

Minuartia gerardii auct. fl. carpat., non (Willd.) Hayek *

Minuartia verna auct. flora carpat., non (L.) Hiern *

Minuartia verna Kulczyński, Fl. Polska 2: 230 (1921), non (L.) Hiern.

Minuartia verna [unranked] α caespitosa (Ehrn.) Graebn. in Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 5(1): 742 (1918) sensu Tovt [ex herb. UU] *

Minuartia verna subsp. gerardii (Willd.) Graebn. in Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 5(1): 747 (1918) [p. p., tantum quod plantas carpat.], non Sabulina verna subsp. gerardii (Willd.) Dillenb. s. str. *

Minuartia verna var. gerardi Kulczyński, Fl. Polska 2: 230 (1921), non Schinz. & Keller

Sabulina gerardii auct. fl. carpat., non (Willd.) Rchb.

Sabulina verna subsp. gerardii auct. fl. carpat., non (Willd.) Dillenb.

Tryphane gerardi auct. fl. carpat., non (Willd.) Rchb.

Conservation status: 

In Ukraine – VU (Onyshchenko et al. 2022).

Distribution: 

Pancarpathian endemic.

Notes: 

A rare species mentioned (as M. pauciflora) only for three regions of the Ukrainian Carpathians – Chornohora, Maramures and Svydovets (Chorney and Fedoronchuk 2009, MEPNR of Ukraine 2021).

In general, Sabulina verna (L.) Rchb. (= Minuartia verna (L.) Hiern) has a wide distribution and branched infraspecific subdivision with variable acceptance by different authors. In particular, M. verna auct. fl. carpat., together with M. zarecznyi (Zapał.) Klokov, is considered a synonym of M. pauciflora (Mirek et al. 2020). Moreover, M. pauciflora is often wrongly reported from the Carpathians as M. gerardii (Willd.) Hayek, which is a species from the Alps (Chorney 2011, Kliment et al. 2016, Nunvářová Kabátová et al. 2019). Inconsistency in the taxonomic interpretation and unclear chorology of M. gerardii led to its consideration, including Carpathian plants, as a synonym of M. verna s. str. (i.e. M. verna subsp. verna or Sabulina verna subsp. verna) (Fedoronchuk and Mosyakin 2016). However, recent investigations showed that M. pauciflora is clearly distinguished from M. verna s. str. Nunvářová Kabátová et al. (2019) also confirmed the belonging of Carpathian plants identified as M. gerardii to M. pauciflora.

CoL (https://www.catalogueoflife.org/data/taxon/43KDB, accessed on 07.06.2023), GBIF (https://www.gbif.org/species/3811893, accessed on 05.06.2023), POWO (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/60435605-2, accessed on 07.06.2023) and Worldplants (https://www.worldplants.de/world-plants-complete-list/complete-plant-list?name=Minuartia-pauciflora, accessed on 07.06.2023) still provide M. pauciflora as an independent species from the genus Minuartia, while M. verna was reconsidered as belonging to the genus Sabulina Rchb. as S. verna (Fedoronchuk and Mosyakin 2016). To keep the nomenclatural consistency within S. verna group, the new combination Sabulina pauciflora (Kit.) A. Novikov, comb. nov. is proposed here.

Only two taxa from the Sabulina verna group are present in the Ukrainian Carpathians (Chopyk and Fedoronchuk 2015) viz. S. pauciflora, comb. nov. (≡ M. pauciflora) and S. oxypetala (Woł.) Mosyakin & Fedor. (≡ M. oxypetala (Woł.) Kulczyński). Both species were previously interpreted as belonging to Alsine L. and were recently reconsidered within the genus Sabulina Rchb. (Mosyakin and Fedoronchuk 2015, Fedoronchuk and Mosyakin 2016, Nunvářová Kabátová et al. 2019).

Silene nutans subsp. dubia (Herbich) Zapał., Bull. Int. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, Cl. Sci. Math., Sér. B, Sci. Nat. 11: 151 (1911)

Nomenclature: 

Silene dubia Herbich, Fl. Bucovina: 388 (1859), non alior; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/7592009; POWO: https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/2488403-4; JACQ: https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=442588; JACQ: https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=442591; JACQ: https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=442592; JACQ: https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=442595; JACQ: https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=442597; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.cher0200022; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.cher0200023; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.cher0200019; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.cher0200020; JSTOR Global Plants: https://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.specimen.cher0200021

Silene dubia Herbich ex Rohrb., Monogr. Silene: 217 (1869), non alior; GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/8297181; IPNI: https://www.ipni.org/n/157265-1; WFO: http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000440631; BHL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/15321329#page/229

Silene nutans var. dubia (Herbich) Zapał., Sprawozd. Kom. Fizjograf. 24: 111 (1889)

= Silene dubia var. glabriuscula (Zapał.) Guşul., Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 2: 179 (1953)

= Silene dubia var. hormuzakii Guşul., Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 2: 179 (1953)

= Silene dubia var. hormuzakii f. acaulis Guşul., Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 2: 179, 665 (1953) [monster forma]

= Silene dubia var. hormuzakii f. apricorum (Zapał.) Graebn. in Asch. & Graebn. emend. Guşul., Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 2: 179 (1953)

= Silene dubia var. hormuzakii f. herbichii (Zapał.) Graebn. in Asch. & Graebn. emend. Guşul., Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 2: 179 (1953)

= Silene dubia var. hormuzakii f. kelemenensis (Zapał.) Graebn. in Asch. & Graebn. emend. Guşul., Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 2: 179 (1953)

= Silene dubia var. hormuzakii f. lilacina (Zapał.) Guşul., Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 2: 179 (1953)

= Silene dubia var. hormuzakii f. robustior (Schur) Graebn. in Asch. & Graebn. emend. Guşul., Fl. Rep. Pop. Rom. 2: 179 (1953)

= Silene nutans subsp. dubia var. dubia f. apricorum Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 195 (1911)

= Silene nutans subsp. dubia [unranked] b herbichii Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 195 (1911)

= Silene nutans subsp. dubia [unranked] a kelemenensis Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 195 (1911)

= Silene nutans subsp. dubia [unranked] a kelemenensis f. lilacina Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 195 (1911)

= Silene nutans subsp. dubia var. dubia f. luxuriosa Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 195 (1911)

= Silene nutans subsp. dubia var. dubia f. tenuis Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 195 (1911)

= Silene nutans [unranked] c. glabriuscula Zapał., Consp. Fl. Galic. Crit. 3: 192 (1911); GBIF: https://www.gbif.org/species/11954760

= Silene nutans [unanked] β