Biodiversity Data Journal : Species inventory
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Species inventory

Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae)

expand article infoLuís C. Crespo, Mário Boieiro, Pedro Cardoso, Carlos A.S. Aguiar, Isabel R. Amorim§, Carla Barrinha, Paulo A.V. Borges§, Dília Menezes|, Fernando Pereira§, Carla Rego§, Sérvio Ribeiro, Israel F. Silva, Artur R.M. Serrano
† Centro de Biologia Ambiental/PEERS Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Ed. C2, 2º Piso, Campo Grande, Lisboa, Portugal
‡ Finnish Museum of Natural History, Helsinki, Finland
§ Grupo de Biodiversidade dos Açores, (CITA-A)/PEERS Departamento de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade dos Açores, Pico da Urze, Angra do Heroísmo, Portugal
| Parque Natural da Madeira, Qta. do Bom Sucesso, Caminho do Meio, Funchal, Portugal
¶ Lab. Evolutionary Ecology of Canopy Insects, Department of Biodiversity, Evolution and Environment, Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Brazil
Open Access

Abstract

Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841) and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island.

Keywords

Macaronesia, terrestrial arthropods, island endemics, laurel forest, biodiversity hotspot

Introduction

Interest on Madeira spider fauna started almost two centuries ago (Blackwall 1859, Blackwall 1862, Bösenberg 1895, Bristowe 1925, Denis 1962, Denis 1963, Denis 1964, Johnson 1863, Kulczynski 1899, Kulczynski 1905, Lowe 1832, Schenkel 1938, Schmitz 1895, Warburton 1892) and has continued until recently, with the description of several new species (Wunderlich 1987, Wunderlich 1992, Wunderlich 1995). Despite the major relevance for the knowledge of Madeiran spider biodiversity, these taxonomic studies are based on traditional ad-hoc manner, without a standardized methodology, which renders them inappropriated to explore species distribution patterns. In other words, although the ad-hoc approach may be useful in targeting specific localities or ecological niches by experienced collectors (Cardoso et al. 2009), it does not capture the real distribution of species. The lack of knowledge on species distribution is now referred to as the Wallacean shortfall (Lomolino 2004; see Cardoso et al. 2011), and the main objective of this contribution is to help to overcome this shortfall for Madeiran spiders associated with the native laurel forest – Laurisilva.

Laurisilva is a relict evergreen forest that covered part of the Mediterranean Basin during the Tertiary, being restricted nowadays to a few locations in the Macaronesian archipelagoes of the Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands, and in some secluded sites of North Africa (Neves et al. 1996). In the archipelago of Madeira, Laurisilva is restricted to the main island (Madeira), covering about 16000 ha and harbouring a large number of endemic fungi, plants and animals (Uva 2008; Borges et al. 2008). Taking in consideration the high natural value of this forest type, now internationally recognized (IUCN 1999, Myers et al. 2000), local entities created the Natural Park of Madeira with the aim of valuing, studying and protecting this unique ecosystem.

The latest spider checklist (Cardoso and Crespo 2008) reports the occurrence of 164 species for Madeira island. Among these species, 40 are considered single-island endemics (SIE) and some belong to genera that radiated in Madeira archipelago (e.g. Dysdera Latreille, 1804, Hogna Simon, 1885, Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805). Approximatelly 63% of the SIEs were collected exclusively from Laurisilva sites, strongly suggesting an intimate association between these species and this type of habitat. Although the Natural Park of Madeira has developed major efforts to protect and restore Laurisilva patches from human activities and invasive species, conservation measures specifically targeting endemic terrestrial arthropod fauna are yet to be put forward. Preliminary conservation priorities for the endemic invertebrate fauna have already been identified using taxonomically unbiased criteria (Martín et al. 2010, Martín et al. 2008), but there is still a lack of baseline information for most species. The collection of species distribution and abundance data using standardized sampling is paramount to assess species conservation status. The aim of our study is therefore to provide information on the distribution of spiders endemic to the Laurisilva of Madeira island based on a large-scale assessment using standardized sampling.

Material and methods

Spiders were sampled using two standardized complementary techniques: pitfall trapping and direct sampling. Pitfall sampling was performed both in May-June 2006 (sites 1 to 28) and June 2007 (sites 29 to 36). A linear transect with 30 pitfall traps, 5 m apart, was set in each study site. Each trap consisted of a plastic cup (4.2 cm diameter by 7.8 cm height) protected with a plastic cover (15 cm diameter) attached ~3 cm aboveground to prevent flooding and loss of specimens. Ethyleneglicol (10%) and Turquin solution were used as preservatives in alternate traps along the linear transect (BALA protocol, Borges et al. 2006, Borges et al. 2005). The traps were active during a two-week period.

Direct sampling was performed in June 2007 for most sampling sites. The sampling design was semi-quantitative with a sampling unit defined as 30 minute/person of effective fieldwork. Direct sampling included the search of spiders in three microhabitats (under bark of dead tree trunks, mosses and lichens, on living tree trunks and under stones/leaf litter) with the collection of six replicates/microhabitat/site (total 18 samples per site).

For each spider species collected, we recorded information on sampling technique used, site location code (Table 1), number of captured specimens and gender whenever possible. Information on species distribution follows the World Spider Catalog (Platnick 2013), updated with records from regional checklists of the Macaronesian archipelagoes (Cardoso and Crespo 2008, Cardoso et al. 2010, Macías 2009). Furthermore, distribution maps are provided for each endemic species found in the Laurisilva of Madeira island (Figs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). The specimens collected are deposited in the entomological collection of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon (Portugal).

Study sites, sampling date/period and collecting method. Geographic coordinates in decimal degrees.

Study sites Sampling
Code Site Lat. (N) Long. (W) Altitude (m) Pitfall trapping period Direct sampling period
1 Funduras 32.7493 -16.8114 500 22.V-05.VI.2006 04.VI.2007
2 Funduras 32.7540 -16.8099 552 22.V-05.VI.2006 04.VI.2007
3 Fajã da Nogueira – Levada Pte. Roquete 32.7391 -16.9156 1074 23.V-06.VI.2006 -
4 Fajã da Nogueira – Mtdo. do Leacoque 32.7415 -16.9161 630 23.V-06.VI.2006 06.VI.2007
5 Fajã da Nogueira – Casa do Levadeiro 32.7406 -16.9136 989 23.V-06.VI.2006 -
6 Fajã da Nogueira – Mtdo. do Leacoque 32.7418 -16.9177 614 23.V-06.VI.2006 06.VI.2007
7 Fajã da Nogueira – Tanque 32.7425 -16.9168 845 23.V-06.VI.2006 06.VI.2007
8 Fajã da Nogueira – Til Gigante 32.7457 -16.9150 841 23.V-06.VI.2006 06.VI.2007
9 Queimadas 32.7873 -16.9047 841 24.V-07.VI.2006 05.VI.2007
10 Pico das Pedras 32.7841 -16.9055 883 24.V-07.VI.2006 05.VI.2007
11 Achada do Teixeira 32.7733 -16.9081 1211 24.V-07.VI.2006 05.VI.2007
12 Achada do Teixeira 32.7762 -16.9022 1103 24.V-07.VI.2006 05.VI.2007
13 Ribeiro Frio – Viveiro 32.7354 -16.8864 906 24.V-06.VI.2006 05.VI.2007
14 Ribeiro Frio – Cottages 32.7319 -16.8861 994 24.V-07.VI.2006 06.VI.2007
15 Pico do Areeiro 32.7231 -16.9109 1533 24.V-07.VI.2006 -
16 Pico do Areeiro 32.7287 -16.9202 1594 24.V-07.VI.2006 -
17 Chão da Ribeira 32.7933 -17.1122 519 25.V-08.VI.2006 07.VI.2007
18 Chão da Ribeira 32.7957 -17.1117 491 25.V-08.VI.2006 07.VI.2007
19 Chão dos Louros 32.7636 -17.0190 748 25.V-08.VI.2006 07.VI.2007
20 Encumeada 32.7558 -17.0143 999 25.V-08.VI.2006 -
21 Ribeiro Bonito – Levada 32.8047 -16.9346 568 25.V-08.VI.2006 09.VI.2007
22 Ribeiro Bonito – Ribeiro 32.7985 -16.9360 560 25.V-08.VI.2006 09.VI.2007
23 Fanal 32.8302 -17.1585 755 26.V-09.VI.2006 -
24 Fanal – Levada dos Cedros 32.8259 -17.1580 820 26.V-09.VI.2006 09.VI.2007
25 Fanal 32.8236 -17.1560 890 26.V-09.VI.2006 09.VI.2007
26 Fanal 32.8226 -17.1539 889 26.V-09.VI.2006 09.VI.2007
27 Fanal 32.8182 -17.1521 1023 26.V-09.VI.2006 09.VI.2007
28 Fanal 32.8062 -17.1409 1134 26.V-09.VI.2006 10.VI.2007
29 Ginjas 32.7758 -17.0534 869 08-22.VI.2007 23.VI.2007
30 Caramujo 32.7722 -17.0529 981 08-22.VI.2007 -
31 Caramujo 32.7746 -17.0559 1001 08-22.VI.2007 -
32 Rabaças 32.7413 -17.0783 993 10-24.VI.2007 -
33 Rabaçal 32.7647 -17.1341 930 10-24.VI.2007 25.VI.2007
34 Risco 32.7608 -17.1256 1048 10-24.VI.2007 25.VI.2007
35 Casa do Elias 32.8268 -17.1883 814 26.VI-10.VII.2007 -
36 Galhano 32.7971 -17.1729 975 27.VI-11.VII.2007 -
Figure 1.

Sampling sites and distribution of endemic spider species in Madeira island. See Table 1 for detailed information on site location. Circles: present records; rhombuses: records from Schenkel (1938); squares: records from Denis (1962); triangles: records from Wunderlich (1987).

asampling sites in Madeira island. Laurisilva cover shaded grey. Sites 15 and 16 are not in Laurisilva;
bdistribution of Macarophaeus cultior;
cdistribution of Hahnia insulana;
ddistribution of Centromerus variegatus.
Figure 2.

Distribution of endemic spider species in Madeira island. Circles: present records; rhombuses: records from Schenkel (1938); squares: records from Denis (1962); triangles: records from Wunderlich (1987).

aCeratinopsis acripes
bCeratinopsis infuscata
cCeratinopsis n. sp.
dFrontinellina dearmata
Figure 3.

Distribution of endemic spider species in Madeira island. Circles: present records; rhombuses: records from Schenkel (1938); squares: records from Denis (1962); triangles: records from Wunderlich (1987); stars: records from Wunderlich (1992).

aFrontiphantes fulgurenotatus;
bLepthyphantes impudicus;
cLepthyphantes mauli;
dTurinyphia maderiana.
Figure 4.

Distribution of endemic spider species in Madeira island. Circles: present records; rhombuses: records from Schenkel (1938); squares: records from Denis (1962); triangles: records from Wunderlich (1987); stars: records from Wunderlich (1992).

aTrogloneta madeirensis;
bMeta stridulans;
cDipoenata longitarsis;
dEpisinus maderianus.
Figure 5.

Distribution of endemic spider species in Madeira island. Circles: present records; triangles: records from Wunderlich (1987).

aRugathodes madeirensis;
bTheridion n. sp.

Faunistic results

Laurisilva of Madeira

Natura 2000 code:  PTMAD0001, PTMAD0002
Description: 

The study took place in Madeira island located in the Atlantic Ocean, approximately 1000 km from the Iberian Peninsula. Sampling was conducted in thirty-six sites (Table 1), mostly in Laurisilva patches, the only exceptions being two sites on an alpine meadow near Pico do Areeiro, one of the highest mountains on the island. Laurisilva sites were mostly located in pristine or near pristine forest patches (Figs 1a, 6) where the dominant tree species included some of the following Madeiran or Macaronesian endemics: Clethra arborea, Erica platycodon maderincola, Laurus novocanariensis, Ocotea foetens and Persea indica. Additional information on plant species composition and conservation status of sampling sites can be found in Neves et al. 1996.

Figure 6.

Photos of some sampling sites in Laurisilva areas in Madeira.

apanoramic view of Fajã da Nogueira;
bsampling site in Chão da Ribeira;
csampling site in Rabaçal;
dsampling site in Galhano.

Zygiella minima Schmidt, 1968

Material   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 33; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Rabaçal; verbatimElevation: 930; decimalLatitude: 32.7647; decimalLongitude: -17.1341; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
macaronesian endemic
Distribution: 
Canary Islands, Deserta Grande island, Madeira island
Notes: 

This species was recently found for the first time in Madeira archipelago in an erosion cave of Deserta Grande island (Crespo et al. 2013), and its distribution has been now extended by this study to Madeira island.

Clubiona decora Blackwall, 1859

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 1; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 500; decimalLatitude: 32.7493; decimalLongitude: -16.8114; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  2. locationID: 6; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 614; decimalLatitude: 32.7418; decimalLongitude: -16.9177; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  3. locationID: 7; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Tanque; verbatimElevation: 845; decimalLatitude: 32.7425; decimalLongitude: -16.9168; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  4. locationID: 11; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1211; decimalLatitude: 32.7733; decimalLongitude: -16.9081; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  5. locationID: 18; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 491; decimalLatitude: 32.7957; decimalLongitude: -17.1117; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 2 females
  6. locationID: 24; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal - Levada dos Cedros; verbatimElevation: 820; decimalLatitude: 32.8259; decimalLongitude: -17.158; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  7. locationID: 25; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 890; decimalLatitude: 32.8236; decimalLongitude: -17.156; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  8. locationID: 32; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Calheta; locality: Rabaças; verbatimElevation: 993; decimalLatitude: 32.7413; decimalLongitude: -17.0783; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  9. locationID: 33; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Rabaçal; verbatimElevation: 930; decimalLatitude: 32.7647; decimalLongitude: -17.1341; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
native
Distribution: 
Madeira archipelago, Azores, Balkans
Notes: 

Its presence in laurel forest suggests being a native species and its occurence in the Balkans needs to be confirmed. In the Azores the species is very common in the laurel forest and in the canopies of low altitude orchards and exotic trees.

Lathys affinis (Blackwall, 1862)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 4; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 630; decimalLatitude: 32.7415; decimalLongitude: -16.9161; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  2. locationID: 6; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 614; decimalLatitude: 32.7418; decimalLongitude: -16.9177; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  3. locationID: 7; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Tanque; verbatimElevation: 845; decimalLatitude: 32.7425; decimalLongitude: -16.9168; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  4. locationID: 11; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1211; decimalLatitude: 32.7733; decimalLongitude: -16.9081; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 4 females
  5. locationID: 12; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1103; decimalLatitude: 32.7762; decimalLongitude: -16.9022; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  6. locationID: 13; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Viveiro; verbatimElevation: 906; decimalLatitude: 32.7354; decimalLongitude: -16.8864; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 2 females
  7. locationID: 14; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Cottages; verbatimElevation: 994; decimalLatitude: 32.7319; decimalLongitude: -16.8861; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  8. locationID: 18; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 491; decimalLatitude: 32.7957; decimalLongitude: -17.1117; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 5 females
  9. locationID: 24; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal - Levada dos Cedros; verbatimElevation: 820; decimalLatitude: 32.8259; decimalLongitude: -17.158; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 4 females
  10. locationID: 24; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal - Levada dos Cedros; verbatimElevation: 820; decimalLatitude: 32.8259; decimalLongitude: -17.158; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male
  11. locationID: 25; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 890; decimalLatitude: 32.8236; decimalLongitude: -17.156; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  12. locationID: 27; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1023; decimalLatitude: 32.8182; decimalLongitude: -17.1521; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
  13. locationID: 28; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1134; decimalLatitude: 32.8062; decimalLongitude: -17.1409; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
  14. locationID: 32; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Calheta; locality: Rabaças; verbatimElevation: 993; decimalLatitude: 32.7413; decimalLongitude: -17.0783; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 3 females
  15. locationID: 33; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Rabaçal; verbatimElevation: 930; decimalLatitude: 32.7647; decimalLongitude: -17.1341; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 3 females
  16. locationID: 34; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Ponta do Sol; locality: Risco; verbatimElevation: 1048; decimalLatitude: 32.7608; decimalLongitude: -17.1256; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
macaronesian endemic
Distribution: 
Madeira archipelago, Canary Islands
Notes: 

This macaronesian endemic is widespread in the Laurisilva of Madeira island. L. Crespo has examined the material cited as L. affinis from the Canary Islands, deposited at the Senckenberg Naturmuseum of Frankfurt, and questions their species affiliation. Additional taxonomic analyses are thus needed to clarify the taxonomic status of the Canary Islands specimens.

Nigma puella (Simon, 1870)

Material   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 32; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Calheta; locality: Rabaças; verbatimElevation: 993; decimalLatitude: 32.7413; decimalLongitude: -17.0783; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
introduced
Distribution: 
Europe, Madeira archipelago, Azores, Canary Islands

Haplodrassus dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 15; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1533; decimalLatitude: 32.7231; decimalLongitude: -16.9109; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 13 males, 4 females
  2. locationID: 16; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1594; decimalLatitude: 32.7287; decimalLongitude: -16.9202; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 20 males, 19 females
Native status: 
native
Distribution: 
Palearctic, Ethiopia

Macarophaeus cultior Kulczynski, 1899

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 2; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 552; decimalLatitude: 32.754; decimalLongitude: -16.8099; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  2. locationID: 6; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 614; decimalLatitude: 32.7418; decimalLongitude: -16.9177; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 5 females
  3. locationID: 12; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1103; decimalLatitude: 32.7762; decimalLongitude: -16.9022; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 1 female
  4. locationID: 18; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 491; decimalLatitude: 32.7957; decimalLongitude: -17.1117; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 2 females
  5. locationID: 24; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal - Levada dos Cedros; verbatimElevation: 820; decimalLatitude: 32.8259; decimalLongitude: -17.158; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 3 females
  6. locationID: 29; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Ginjas; verbatimElevation: 869; decimalLatitude: 32.7758; decimalLongitude: -17.0534; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
  7. locationID: 32; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Calheta; locality: Rabaças; verbatimElevation: 993; decimalLatitude: 32.7413; decimalLongitude: -17.0783; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 2 females
Native status: 
SIE
Distribution: 

Madeira island (Fig. 1b)

Notes: 
So far this species has only been collected in the Laurisilva of Madeira island, where is commonly found under the bark of endemic trees.

Micaria pallipes (Lucas, 1846)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 15; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1533; decimalLatitude: 32.7231; decimalLongitude: -16.9109; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 9 males, 2 females
  2. locationID: 16; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1594; decimalLatitude: 32.7287; decimalLongitude: -16.9202; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 6 males, 7 females
Native status: 
introduced
Distribution: 
Madeira island, Canary Islands, Europe to Central Asia

Zelotes civicus (Simon, 1878)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 15; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1533; decimalLatitude: 32.7231; decimalLongitude: -16.9109; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 54 males, 25 females
  2. locationID: 16; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1594; decimalLatitude: 32.7287; decimalLongitude: -16.9202; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 99 males, 36 females
  3. locationID: 32; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Calheta; locality: Rabaças; verbatimElevation: 993; decimalLatitude: 32.7413; decimalLongitude: -17.0783; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  4. locationID: 32; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Calheta; locality: Rabaças; verbatimElevation: 993; decimalLatitude: 32.7413; decimalLongitude: -17.0783; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 3 males
Native status: 
introduced
Distribution: 
Europe, Madeira archipelago

Hahnia insulana Schenkel, 1938

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 6; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 614; decimalLatitude: 32.7418; decimalLongitude: -16.9177; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  2. locationID: 7; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Tanque; verbatimElevation: 845; decimalLatitude: 32.7425; decimalLongitude: -16.9168; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 males
  3. locationID: 9; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Queimadas; verbatimElevation: 841; decimalLatitude: 32.7873; decimalLongitude: -16.9047; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  4. locationID: 12; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1103; decimalLatitude: 32.7762; decimalLongitude: -16.9022; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 3 males, 1 female
  5. locationID: 13; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Viveiro; verbatimElevation: 906; decimalLatitude: 32.7354; decimalLongitude: -16.8864; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  6. locationID: 14; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Cottages; verbatimElevation: 994; decimalLatitude: 32.7319; decimalLongitude: -16.8861; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  7. locationID: 18; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 491; decimalLatitude: 32.7957; decimalLongitude: -17.1117; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 males
  8. locationID: 21; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Levada; verbatimElevation: 568; decimalLatitude: 32.8047; decimalLongitude: -16.9346; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  9. locationID: 33; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Rabaçal; verbatimElevation: 930; decimalLatitude: 32.7647; decimalLongitude: -17.1341; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  10. locationID: 34; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Ponta do Sol; locality: Risco; verbatimElevation: 1048; decimalLatitude: 32.7608; decimalLongitude: -17.1256; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
SIE
Distribution: 

Madeira island (Fig. 1c).

Notes: 

This is the first time this species was captured after its description (Schenkel 1938). The previous record only included adult specimens from Caramujo, but this study shows that the species has a wider distribution including many Laurisilva sites in Madeira island.

Centromerus variegatus Denis, 1962

Material   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 25; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 890; decimalLatitude: 32.8236; decimalLongitude: -17.156; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 2 females
Native status: 
SIE
Distribution: 

Madeira island (Fig. 1d)

Notes: 

Records of C. variegatus are extremely scarce. After its formal description based on five specimens collected in Santo da Serra (Denis 1962), only an additional specimen was later reported from Rabaçal (Wunderlich 1987).

Ceratinopsis acripes (Denis, 1962)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 2; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 552; decimalLatitude: 32.754; decimalLongitude: -16.8099; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  2. locationID: 7; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Tanque; verbatimElevation: 845; decimalLatitude: 32.7425; decimalLongitude: -16.9168; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  3. locationID: 33; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Rabaçal; verbatimElevation: 930; decimalLatitude: 32.7647; decimalLongitude: -17.1341; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
SIE
Distribution: 

Madeira island (Fig. 2a)

Notes: 

Ceratinopsis acripes seems to be restricted to Laurisilva.

Ceratinopsis infuscata (Denis, 1962)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 11; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1211; decimalLatitude: 32.7733; decimalLongitude: -16.9081; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  2. locationID: 12; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1103; decimalLatitude: 32.7762; decimalLongitude: -16.9022; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  3. locationID: 18; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 491; decimalLatitude: 32.7957; decimalLongitude: -17.1117; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
SIE
Distribution: 

Madeira island (Fig. 2b)

Notes: 

Ceratinopsis infuscata seems to be restricted to Laurisilva, with an additional record from Santo da Serra (Denis 1962). This record might indicate a change in the landscape of Santo da Serra, which currently does not have Laurisilva.

Ceratinopsis n. sp.

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 1; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 500; decimalLatitude: 32.7493; decimalLongitude: -16.8114; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  2. locationID: 6; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 614; decimalLatitude: 32.7418; decimalLongitude: -16.9177; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  3. locationID: 7; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Tanque; verbatimElevation: 845; decimalLatitude: 32.7425; decimalLongitude: -16.9168; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  4. locationID: 13; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Viveiro; verbatimElevation: 906; decimalLatitude: 32.7354; decimalLongitude: -16.8864; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 2 females
  5. locationID: 14; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Cottages; verbatimElevation: 994; decimalLatitude: 32.7319; decimalLongitude: -16.8861; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 1 female
  6. locationID: 18; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 491; decimalLatitude: 32.7957; decimalLongitude: -17.1117; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 2 females
  7. locationID: 21; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Levada; verbatimElevation: 568; decimalLatitude: 32.8047; decimalLongitude: -16.9346; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  8. locationID: 27; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1023; decimalLatitude: 32.8182; decimalLongitude: -17.1521; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  9. locationID: 28; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1134; decimalLatitude: 32.8062; decimalLongitude: -17.1409; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  10. locationID: 29; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Ginjas; verbatimElevation: 869; decimalLatitude: 32.7758; decimalLongitude: -17.0534; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  11. locationID: 34; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Ponta do Sol; locality: Risco; verbatimElevation: 1048; decimalLatitude: 32.7608; decimalLongitude: -17.1256; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
SIE
Distribution: 

Madeira island (Fig. 2c)

Notes: 

This is a new species to science, to be described in a future work. As the previous species of Ceratinopsis, it also seems to be restricted to Laurisilva.

Diplostyla concolor (Wider, 1834)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 3; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Pte. Roquete; verbatimElevation: 1074; decimalLatitude: 32.7391; decimalLongitude: -16.9156; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  2. locationID: 16; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1594; decimalLatitude: 32.7287; decimalLongitude: -16.9202; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 females
  3. locationID: 18; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 491; decimalLatitude: 32.7957; decimalLongitude: -17.1117; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  4. locationID: 20; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Encumeada; verbatimElevation: 999; decimalLatitude: 32.7558; decimalLongitude: -17.0143; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
introduced
Distribution: 
Holarctic

Entelecara schmitzi Kulczynski, 1905

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 6; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 614; decimalLatitude: 32.7418; decimalLongitude: -16.9177; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
  2. locationID: 7; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Tanque; verbatimElevation: 845; decimalLatitude: 32.7425; decimalLongitude: -16.9168; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
  3. locationID: 8; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Til Gigante; verbatimElevation: 841; decimalLatitude: 32.7457; decimalLongitude: -16.915; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  4. locationID: 11; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1211; decimalLatitude: 32.7733; decimalLongitude: -16.9081; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 1 female
  5. locationID: 13; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Viveiro; verbatimElevation: 906; decimalLatitude: 32.7354; decimalLongitude: -16.8864; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  6. locationID: 14; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Cottages; verbatimElevation: 994; decimalLatitude: 32.7319; decimalLongitude: -16.8861; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  7. locationID: 17; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 519; decimalLatitude: 32.7933; decimalLongitude: -17.1122; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  8. locationID: 18; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 491; decimalLatitude: 32.7957; decimalLongitude: -17.1117; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  9. locationID: 24; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal - Levada dos Cedros; verbatimElevation: 820; decimalLatitude: 32.8259; decimalLongitude: -17.158; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 8 females
  10. locationID: 25; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 890; decimalLatitude: 32.8236; decimalLongitude: -17.156; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
  11. locationID: 26; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 889; decimalLatitude: 32.8226; decimalLongitude: -17.1539; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 2 females
  12. locationID: 27; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1023; decimalLatitude: 32.8182; decimalLongitude: -17.1521; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  13. locationID: 29; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Ginjas; verbatimElevation: 869; decimalLatitude: 32.7758; decimalLongitude: -17.0534; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  14. locationID: 34; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Ponta do Sol; locality: Risco; verbatimElevation: 1048; decimalLatitude: 32.7608; decimalLongitude: -17.1256; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
native
Distribution: 
Madeira island, Azores, France
Notes: 
This species seems to be widespread in Madeira Laurisilva. In the Azores occurs at low altitude, being very common in the canopies of orchards and exotic trees.

Frontinellina dearmata (Kulczynski, 1899)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 18; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 491; decimalLatitude: 32.7957; decimalLongitude: -17.1117; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  2. locationID: 25; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 890; decimalLatitude: 32.8236; decimalLongitude: -17.156; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 males
Native status: 
SIE
Distribution: 

Madeira island (Fig. 2d)

Notes: 
This is the first record of this endemic species since its original description, which is based on females only and fails to include the precise location of the type material. The specimens collected in this study will be used in a future work to describe the male of this endemic species.

Frontiphantes fulgurenotatus (Schenkel, 1938)

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  1. locationID: 6; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 614; decimalLatitude: 32.7418; decimalLongitude: -16.9177; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 males
  2. locationID: 11; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1211; decimalLatitude: 32.7733; decimalLongitude: -16.9081; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  3. locationID: 12; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1103; decimalLatitude: 32.7762; decimalLongitude: -16.9022; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  4. locationID: 34; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Ponta do Sol; locality: Risco; verbatimElevation: 1048; decimalLatitude: 32.7608; decimalLongitude: -17.1256; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
Native status: 
SIE
Distribution: 

Madeira island (Fig. 3a)

Notes: 

This endemic species seems to be restricted to Laurisilva. The two records outside Laurisilva (Denis 1962) are most likely artifacts due to imprecise location of sampling localities and/or reductions in Laurisilva cover during the last decades.

Lepthyphantes impudicus Kulczynski, 1909

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  1. locationID: 12; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1103; decimalLatitude: 32.7762; decimalLongitude: -16.9022; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  2. locationID: 36; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Calheta; locality: Galhano; verbatimElevation: 975; decimalLatitude: 32.7971; decimalLongitude: -17.1729; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
SIE
Distribution: 

Madeira island (Fig. 3b)

Notes: 

Distribution data on L. impudicus is scarce consisting of only 4 records. This species seems to be associated with Laurisilva and the lack of congruence between historical data (Denis 1962) and the current distribution of Laurisilva may be explained by the lack of precision in the identification of sampling sites and/or by the decrease of Laurisilva cover in the last decades.

Lepthyphantes mauli Wunderlich, 1992

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  1. locationID: 33; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Rabaçal; verbatimElevation: 930; decimalLatitude: 32.7647; decimalLongitude: -17.1341; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male
Native status: 
SIE
Distribution: 

Madeira island (Fig. 3c)

Notes: 
This is solely the second record of this endemic species, thus enlarging its known distribution.

Meioneta fuscipalpa (C. L. Koch, 1836)

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  1. locationID: 32; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Calheta; locality: Rabaças; verbatimElevation: 993; decimalLatitude: 32.7413; decimalLongitude: -17.0783; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 males
Native status: 
introduced
Distribution: 
Palearctic

Microctenonyx subitaneus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1875)

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  1. locationID: 16; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1594; decimalLatitude: 32.7287; decimalLongitude: -16.9202; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
introduced
Distribution: 
Holarctic

Microlinyphia johnsoni (Blackwall, 1859)

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  1. locationID: 8; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Til Gigante; verbatimElevation: 841; decimalLatitude: 32.7457; decimalLongitude: -16.915; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
macaronesian endemic
Distribution: 
Madeira archipelago, Azores, Canary Islands
Notes: 
A Macaronesian endemic also recorded from Porto Santo island and very common in native forests of the Azores.

Palliduphantes schmitzi (Kulczynski, 1899)

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  1. locationID: 1; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 500; decimalLatitude: 32.7493; decimalLongitude: -16.8114; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 females
  2. locationID: 2; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 552; decimalLatitude: 32.754; decimalLongitude: -16.8099; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 males, 8 females
  3. locationID: 3; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Pte. Roquete; verbatimElevation: 1074; decimalLatitude: 32.7391; decimalLongitude: -16.9156; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  4. locationID: 4; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 630; decimalLatitude: 32.7415; decimalLongitude: -16.9161; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 4 females
  5. locationID: 4; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 630; decimalLatitude: 32.7415; decimalLongitude: -16.9161; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  6. locationID: 5; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Casa do Levadeiro; verbatimElevation: 989; decimalLatitude: 32.7406; decimalLongitude: -16.9136; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 2 females
  7. locationID: 6; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 614; decimalLatitude: 32.7418; decimalLongitude: -16.9177; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  8. locationID: 7; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Tanque; verbatimElevation: 845; decimalLatitude: 32.7425; decimalLongitude: -16.9168; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 1 female
  9. locationID: 9; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Queimadas; verbatimElevation: 841; decimalLatitude: 32.7873; decimalLongitude: -16.9047; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 1 female
  10. locationID: 10; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico das Pedras; verbatimElevation: 883; decimalLatitude: 32.7841; decimalLongitude: -16.9055; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  11. locationID: 10; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico das Pedras; verbatimElevation: 883; decimalLatitude: 32.7841; decimalLongitude: -16.9055; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 2 females
  12. locationID: 11; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1211; decimalLatitude: 32.7733; decimalLongitude: -16.9081; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  13. locationID: 11; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1211; decimalLatitude: 32.7733; decimalLongitude: -16.9081; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 4 males, 2 females
  14. locationID: 12; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1103; decimalLatitude: 32.7762; decimalLongitude: -16.9022; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 males, 3 females
  15. locationID: 13; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Viveiro; verbatimElevation: 906; decimalLatitude: 32.7354; decimalLongitude: -16.8864; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 1 female
  16. locationID: 15; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1533; decimalLatitude: 32.7231; decimalLongitude: -16.9109; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male
  17. locationID: 17; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 519; decimalLatitude: 32.7933; decimalLongitude: -17.1122; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 males
  18. locationID: 18; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 491; decimalLatitude: 32.7957; decimalLongitude: -17.1117; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 2 females
  19. locationID: 19; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Chão dos Louros; verbatimElevation: 748; decimalLatitude: 32.7636; decimalLongitude: -17.019; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 3 females
  20. locationID: 20; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Encumeada; verbatimElevation: 999; decimalLatitude: 32.7558; decimalLongitude: -17.0143; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 males
  21. locationID: 21; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Levada; verbatimElevation: 568; decimalLatitude: 32.8047; decimalLongitude: -16.9346; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  22. locationID: 21; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Levada; verbatimElevation: 568; decimalLatitude: 32.8047; decimalLongitude: -16.9346; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  23. locationID: 22; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Ribeiro; verbatimElevation: 560; decimalLatitude: 32.7985; decimalLongitude: -16.936; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  24. locationID: 28; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1134; decimalLatitude: 32.8062; decimalLongitude: -17.1409; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 1 female
  25. locationID: 29; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Ginjas; verbatimElevation: 869; decimalLatitude: 32.7758; decimalLongitude: -17.0534; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male
  26. locationID: 30; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Caramujo; verbatimElevation: 981; decimalLatitude: 32.7722; decimalLongitude: -17.0529; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 1 female
  27. locationID: 31; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Caramujo; verbatimElevation: 1001; decimalLatitude: 32.7746; decimalLongitude: -17.0559; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male
  28. locationID: 36; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Calheta; locality: Galhano; verbatimElevation: 975; decimalLatitude: 32.7971; decimalLongitude: -17.1729; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 males
Native status: 
macaronesian endemic
Distribution: 
Madeira island, Azores

Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841)

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  1. locationID: 24; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal - Levada dos Cedros; verbatimElevation: 820; decimalLatitude: 32.8259; decimalLongitude: -17.158; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  2. locationID: 28; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1134; decimalLatitude: 32.8062; decimalLongitude: -17.1409; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 1 female
Native status: 
introduced
Distribution: 
Holarctic
Notes: 
First record for Madeira island.

Tenuiphantes tenuis (Blackwall, 1852)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 1; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 500; decimalLatitude: 32.7493; decimalLongitude: -16.8114; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 4 males, 5 females
  2. locationID: 1; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 500; decimalLatitude: 32.7493; decimalLongitude: -16.8114; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 3 females
  3. locationID: 2; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 552; decimalLatitude: 32.754; decimalLongitude: -16.8099; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 19 males, 22 females
  4. locationID: 2; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 552; decimalLatitude: 32.754; decimalLongitude: -16.8099; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 5 males, 7 females
  5. locationID: 3; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Pte. Roquete; verbatimElevation: 1074; decimalLatitude: 32.7391; decimalLongitude: -16.9156; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  6. locationID: 4; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 630; decimalLatitude: 32.7415; decimalLongitude: -16.9161; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 5 males, 6 females
  7. locationID: 4; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 630; decimalLatitude: 32.7415; decimalLongitude: -16.9161; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 4 females
  8. locationID: 5; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Casa do Levadeiro; verbatimElevation: 989; decimalLatitude: 32.7406; decimalLongitude: -16.9136; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  9. locationID: 6; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 614; decimalLatitude: 32.7418; decimalLongitude: -16.9177; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 8 males, 16 females
  10. locationID: 6; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 614; decimalLatitude: 32.7418; decimalLongitude: -16.9177; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 males, 4 females
  11. locationID: 7; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Tanque; verbatimElevation: 845; decimalLatitude: 32.7425; decimalLongitude: -16.9168; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 3 males, 7 females
  12. locationID: 7; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Tanque; verbatimElevation: 845; decimalLatitude: 32.7425; decimalLongitude: -16.9168; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 4 males, 1 female
  13. locationID: 8; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Til Gigante; verbatimElevation: 841; decimalLatitude: 32.7457; decimalLongitude: -16.915; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 4 males, 9 females
  14. locationID: 8; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Til Gigante; verbatimElevation: 841; decimalLatitude: 32.7457; decimalLongitude: -16.915; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 males, 3 females
  15. locationID: 9; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Queimadas; verbatimElevation: 841; decimalLatitude: 32.7873; decimalLongitude: -16.9047; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 3 females
  16. locationID: 9; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Queimadas; verbatimElevation: 841; decimalLatitude: 32.7873; decimalLongitude: -16.9047; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 females
  17. locationID: 12; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1103; decimalLatitude: 32.7762; decimalLongitude: -16.9022; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 males, 1 female
  18. locationID: 13; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Viveiro; verbatimElevation: 906; decimalLatitude: 32.7354; decimalLongitude: -16.8864; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  19. locationID: 14; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Cottages; verbatimElevation: 994; decimalLatitude: 32.7319; decimalLongitude: -16.8861; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  20. locationID: 14; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Cottages; verbatimElevation: 994; decimalLatitude: 32.7319; decimalLongitude: -16.8861; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 3 males, 2 females
  21. locationID: 16; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1594; decimalLatitude: 32.7287; decimalLongitude: -16.9202; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  22. locationID: 17; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 519; decimalLatitude: 32.7933; decimalLongitude: -17.1122; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 5 males, 8 females
  23. locationID: 18; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 491; decimalLatitude: 32.7957; decimalLongitude: -17.1117; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 15 females
  24. locationID: 18; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 491; decimalLatitude: 32.7957; decimalLongitude: -17.1117; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 4 males, 1 female
  25. locationID: 19; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Chão dos Louros; verbatimElevation: 748; decimalLatitude: 32.7636; decimalLongitude: -17.019; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 2 females
  26. locationID: 20; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Encumeada; verbatimElevation: 999; decimalLatitude: 32.7558; decimalLongitude: -17.0143; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 males, 4 females
  27. locationID: 21; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Levada; verbatimElevation: 568; decimalLatitude: 32.8047; decimalLongitude: -16.9346; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 6 males, 18 females
  28. locationID: 21; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Levada; verbatimElevation: 568; decimalLatitude: 32.8047; decimalLongitude: -16.9346; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 4 females
  29. locationID: 22; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Ribeiro; verbatimElevation: 560; decimalLatitude: 32.7985; decimalLongitude: -16.936; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 13 females
  30. locationID: 22; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Ribeiro; verbatimElevation: 560; decimalLatitude: 32.7985; decimalLongitude: -16.936; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 males, 2 females
  31. locationID: 23; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 755; decimalLatitude: 32.8302; decimalLongitude: -17.1585; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 1 female
  32. locationID: 24; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal - Levada dos Cedros; verbatimElevation: 820; decimalLatitude: 32.8259; decimalLongitude: -17.158; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
  33. locationID: 24; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal - Levada dos Cedros; verbatimElevation: 820; decimalLatitude: 32.8259; decimalLongitude: -17.158; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 9 males, 3 females
  34. locationID: 25; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 890; decimalLatitude: 32.8236; decimalLongitude: -17.156; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 3 females
  35. locationID: 26; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 889; decimalLatitude: 32.8226; decimalLongitude: -17.1539; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male
  36. locationID: 27; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1023; decimalLatitude: 32.8182; decimalLongitude: -17.1521; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  37. locationID: 27; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1023; decimalLatitude: 32.8182; decimalLongitude: -17.1521; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 males, 2 females
  38. locationID: 28; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1134; decimalLatitude: 32.8062; decimalLongitude: -17.1409; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  39. locationID: 28; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1134; decimalLatitude: 32.8062; decimalLongitude: -17.1409; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 4 males, 2 females
  40. locationID: 29; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Ginjas; verbatimElevation: 869; decimalLatitude: 32.7758; decimalLongitude: -17.0534; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 males, 2 females
  41. locationID: 29; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Ginjas; verbatimElevation: 869; decimalLatitude: 32.7758; decimalLongitude: -17.0534; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 3 females
  42. locationID: 30; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Caramujo; verbatimElevation: 981; decimalLatitude: 32.7722; decimalLongitude: -17.0529; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 females
  43. locationID: 32; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Calheta; locality: Rabaças; verbatimElevation: 993; decimalLatitude: 32.7413; decimalLongitude: -17.0783; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  44. locationID: 32; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Calheta; locality: Rabaças; verbatimElevation: 993; decimalLatitude: 32.7413; decimalLongitude: -17.0783; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 5 males, 13 females
  45. locationID: 33; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Rabaçal; verbatimElevation: 930; decimalLatitude: 32.7647; decimalLongitude: -17.1341; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 males, 3 females
  46. locationID: 33; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Rabaçal; verbatimElevation: 930; decimalLatitude: 32.7647; decimalLongitude: -17.1341; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 5 males, 2 females
  47. locationID: 34; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Ponta do Sol; locality: Risco; verbatimElevation: 1048; decimalLatitude: 32.7608; decimalLongitude: -17.1256; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 males, 2 females
  48. locationID: 34; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Ponta do Sol; locality: Risco; verbatimElevation: 1048; decimalLatitude: 32.7608; decimalLongitude: -17.1256; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 4 females
  49. locationID: 35; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Casa do Elias; verbatimElevation: 814; decimalLatitude: 32.8268; decimalLongitude: -17.1883; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 2 females
  50. locationID: 36; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Calheta; locality: Galhano; verbatimElevation: 975; decimalLatitude: 32.7971; decimalLongitude: -17.1729; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 6 males, 6 females
Native status: 
introduced
Distribution: 
Palearctic (introduced, elsewhere)

Turinyphia maderiana (Schenkel, 1938)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 4; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 630; decimalLatitude: 32.7415; decimalLongitude: -16.9161; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 1 female
  2. locationID: 7; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Tanque; verbatimElevation: 845; decimalLatitude: 32.7425; decimalLongitude: -16.9168; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  3. locationID: 20; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Encumeada; verbatimElevation: 999; decimalLatitude: 32.7558; decimalLongitude: -17.0143; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male
  4. locationID: 22; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Ribeiro; verbatimElevation: 560; decimalLatitude: 32.7985; decimalLongitude: -16.936; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  5. locationID: 30; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Caramujo; verbatimElevation: 981; decimalLatitude: 32.7722; decimalLongitude: -17.0529; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male
  6. locationID: 33; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Rabaçal; verbatimElevation: 930; decimalLatitude: 32.7647; decimalLongitude: -17.1341; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
SIE
Distribution: 

Madeira island (Fig. 3d)

Notes: 

This is the third record of this species. Turinyphia maderiana seems to be restricted to Laurisilva.

Typhochrestus madeirensis Crespo, 2013

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Holotype:
  1. locationID: 16; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1594; decimalLatitude: 32.7287; decimalLongitude: -16.9202; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male
Native status: 
archipelago endemic
Distribution: 
Madeira island, Deserta Grande island
Notes: 

This species was recently described (Crespo et al. 2013), from native arid or semi-arid meadows. In Madeira archipelago this kind of habitat is usually found at high altitude, as in Pico do Areeiro where the species was collected.

Unidentified species

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  1. locationID: 32; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Calheta; locality: Rabaças; verbatimElevation: 993; decimalLatitude: 32.7413; decimalLongitude: -17.0783; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 1 female
Native status: 
native
Distribution: 
Madeira island, Porto Santo island
Notes: 
Although this is clearly a “micronetine”, species identification was impossible.

Pardosa proxima (C. L. Koch, 1847)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 15; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1533; decimalLatitude: 32.7231; decimalLongitude: -16.9109; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 6 females
  2. locationID: 16; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1594; decimalLatitude: 32.7287; decimalLongitude: -16.9202; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 11 males, 51 females
Native status: 
introduced
Distribution: 
Palearctic, Canary Islands, Azores, Madeira archipelago

Ero aphana (Walckenaer, 1802)

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  1. locationID: 2; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 552; decimalLatitude: 32.754; decimalLongitude: -16.8099; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
Native status: 
introduced
Distribution: 
Palearctic (St. Helena, Queensland, Western Australia, introduced)

Cheiracanthium albidulum (Blackwall, 1859)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 2; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 552; decimalLatitude: 32.754; decimalLongitude: -16.8099; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  2. locationID: 6; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 614; decimalLatitude: 32.7418; decimalLongitude: -16.9177; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  3. locationID: 12; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1103; decimalLatitude: 32.7762; decimalLongitude: -16.9022; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  4. locationID: 13; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Viveiro; verbatimElevation: 906; decimalLatitude: 32.7354; decimalLongitude: -16.8864; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  5. locationID: 24; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal - Levada dos Cedros; verbatimElevation: 820; decimalLatitude: 32.8259; decimalLongitude: -17.158; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 4 males, 1 female
  6. locationID: 28; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1134; decimalLatitude: 32.8062; decimalLongitude: -17.1409; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
macaronesian endemic
Distribution: 
Madeira archipelago, Canary Islands

Trogloneta madeirensis Wunderlich, 1987

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 1; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 500; decimalLatitude: 32.7493; decimalLongitude: -16.8114; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  2. locationID: 4; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 630; decimalLatitude: 32.7415; decimalLongitude: -16.9161; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 4 females
  3. locationID: 6; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 614; decimalLatitude: 32.7418; decimalLongitude: -16.9177; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
  4. locationID: 7; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Tanque; verbatimElevation: 845; decimalLatitude: 32.7425; decimalLongitude: -16.9168; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 2 females
  5. locationID: 8; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Til Gigante; verbatimElevation: 841; decimalLatitude: 32.7457; decimalLongitude: -16.915; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  6. locationID: 11; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1211; decimalLatitude: 32.7733; decimalLongitude: -16.9081; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  7. locationID: 14; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Cottages; verbatimElevation: 994; decimalLatitude: 32.7319; decimalLongitude: -16.8861; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  8. locationID: 18; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 491; decimalLatitude: 32.7957; decimalLongitude: -17.1117; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 3 females
  9. locationID: 21; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Levada; verbatimElevation: 568; decimalLatitude: 32.8047; decimalLongitude: -16.9346; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 4 males, 5 females
  10. locationID: 22; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Ribeiro; verbatimElevation: 560; decimalLatitude: 32.7985; decimalLongitude: -16.936; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 1 female
  11. locationID: 25; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 890; decimalLatitude: 32.8236; decimalLongitude: -17.156; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  12. locationID: 29; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Ginjas; verbatimElevation: 869; decimalLatitude: 32.7758; decimalLongitude: -17.0534; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
Native status: 
SIE
Distribution: 

Madeira island (Fig. 4a)

Notes: 

This species seems to be restricted to Laurisilva. Wunderlich (Wunderlich 1987) described T. madeirensis from only two sites, but the present study considerably enlarges the distribution of this endemic species throughout the Laurisilva of Madeira island.

Philodromus insulanus Kulczynski, 1905

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  1. locationID: 28; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1134; decimalLatitude: 32.8062; decimalLongitude: -17.1409; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
Native status: 
archipelago endemic
Distribution: 
Madeira island, Porto Santo island

Thanatus oblongiusculus (Lucas, 1846)

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  1. locationID: 32; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Calheta; locality: Rabaças; verbatimElevation: 993; decimalLatitude: 32.7413; decimalLongitude: -17.0783; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
introduced
Distribution: 
Palearctic

Chalcoscirtus sublestus (Blackwall, 1867)

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  1. locationID: 15; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1533; decimalLatitude: 32.7231; decimalLongitude: -16.9109; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 5 males, 4 females
  2. locationID: 16; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1594; decimalLatitude: 32.7287; decimalLongitude: -16.9202; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 4 females
Native status: 
macaronesian endemic
Distribution: 
Madeira archipelago, Canary Islands

Macaroeris diligens (Blackwall, 1867)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 4; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 630; decimalLatitude: 32.7415; decimalLongitude: -16.9161; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  2. locationID: 6; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 614; decimalLatitude: 32.7418; decimalLongitude: -16.9177; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  3. locationID: 11; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1211; decimalLatitude: 32.7733; decimalLongitude: -16.9081; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 4 females
  4. locationID: 12; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1103; decimalLatitude: 32.7762; decimalLongitude: -16.9022; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  5. locationID: 13; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Viveiro; verbatimElevation: 906; decimalLatitude: 32.7354; decimalLongitude: -16.8864; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  6. locationID: 14; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Cottages; verbatimElevation: 994; decimalLatitude: 32.7319; decimalLongitude: -16.8861; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  7. locationID: 24; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal - Levada dos Cedros; verbatimElevation: 820; decimalLatitude: 32.8259; decimalLongitude: -17.158; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 3 females
  8. locationID: 25; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 890; decimalLatitude: 32.8236; decimalLongitude: -17.156; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 4 females
  9. locationID: 27; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1023; decimalLatitude: 32.8182; decimalLongitude: -17.1521; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 3 females
  10. locationID: 32; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Calheta; locality: Rabaças; verbatimElevation: 993; decimalLatitude: 32.7413; decimalLongitude: -17.0783; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  11. locationID: 33; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Rabaçal; verbatimElevation: 930; decimalLatitude: 32.7647; decimalLongitude: -17.1341; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  12. locationID: 34; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Ponta do Sol; locality: Risco; verbatimElevation: 1048; decimalLatitude: 32.7608; decimalLongitude: -17.1256; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
macaronesian endemic
Distribution: 
Madeira archipelago, Azores
Notes: 
This Macaronesian endemic occurs both in Madeira and Porto Santo islands. In the Azores, it was reported from locations at low altitude, being very common in the canopies of orchards and exotic trees.

Macaroeris sp.

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 2; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 552; decimalLatitude: 32.754; decimalLongitude: -16.8099; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  2. locationID: 17; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 519; decimalLatitude: 32.7933; decimalLongitude: -17.1122; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  3. locationID: 32; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Calheta; locality: Rabaças; verbatimElevation: 993; decimalLatitude: 32.7413; decimalLongitude: -17.0783; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 males, 1 female
Native status: 
native
Notes: 
The taxonomy of the genus Macaroeris Wunderlich, 1992 is unclear, with some species still poorly described. Several specimens of this species were identified as different from M. diligens, but their species affiliation was not possible.

Pellenes maderianus Kulczynski, 1905

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  1. locationID: 15; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1533; decimalLatitude: 32.7231; decimalLongitude: -16.9109; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male
  2. locationID: 32; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Calheta; locality: Rabaças; verbatimElevation: 993; decimalLatitude: 32.7413; decimalLongitude: -17.0783; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male
Native status: 
native
Distribution: 
Madeira island, Israel
Notes: 

Some confusion appears to exist regarding the identity of P. maderianus. Although most authors consider this species a valid taxon, some support that it is a synonymy of P. epularis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872) (Logunov et al. 1999).

Meta stridulans Wunderlich, 1992

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 17; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 519; decimalLatitude: 32.7933; decimalLongitude: -17.1122; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
  2. locationID: 18; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 491; decimalLatitude: 32.7957; decimalLongitude: -17.1117; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  3. locationID: 25; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 890; decimalLatitude: 32.8236; decimalLongitude: -17.156; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
SIE
Distribution: 

Madeira island (Fig. 4b)

Notes: 
Previous records were mostly from Laurisilva with a single record from a moutain area (Pico do Areeiro). Our records confirm the association of this endemic species with Laurisilva.

Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891

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  1. locationID: 2; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 552; decimalLatitude: 32.754; decimalLongitude: -16.8099; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
introduced
Distribution: 
Portugal to Hungary, Russia, Madeira
Notes: 

First record for Madeira island. It is possible that previous records of T. obtusa C. L. Koch, 1837 from the Madeira archipelago (Cardoso and Crespo 2008) refer to T. intermedia as the former was believed to be a subspecies of the latter until the elevation of T. intermedia to species level (Wunderlich 2011).

Cryptachaea blattea (Urquhart, 1886)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 1; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 500; decimalLatitude: 32.7493; decimalLongitude: -16.8114; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 2 females
  2. locationID: 2; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 552; decimalLatitude: 32.754; decimalLongitude: -16.8099; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 4 females
  3. locationID: 2; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 552; decimalLatitude: 32.754; decimalLongitude: -16.8099; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 males, 2 females
  4. locationID: 4; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 630; decimalLatitude: 32.7415; decimalLongitude: -16.9161; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 6 females
  5. locationID: 4; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 630; decimalLatitude: 32.7415; decimalLongitude: -16.9161; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 females
  6. locationID: 6; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 614; decimalLatitude: 32.7418; decimalLongitude: -16.9177; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  7. locationID: 6; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 614; decimalLatitude: 32.7418; decimalLongitude: -16.9177; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  8. locationID: 7; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Tanque; verbatimElevation: 845; decimalLatitude: 32.7425; decimalLongitude: -16.9168; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 males
  9. locationID: 8; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Til Gigante; verbatimElevation: 841; decimalLatitude: 32.7457; decimalLongitude: -16.915; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  10. locationID: 9; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Queimadas; verbatimElevation: 841; decimalLatitude: 32.7873; decimalLongitude: -16.9047; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
  11. locationID: 10; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico das Pedras; verbatimElevation: 883; decimalLatitude: 32.7841; decimalLongitude: -16.9055; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 4 females
  12. locationID: 11; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1211; decimalLatitude: 32.7733; decimalLongitude: -16.9081; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 4 males, 5 females
  13. locationID: 11; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1211; decimalLatitude: 32.7733; decimalLongitude: -16.9081; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  14. locationID: 12; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1103; decimalLatitude: 32.7762; decimalLongitude: -16.9022; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 males, 1 female
  15. locationID: 12; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1103; decimalLatitude: 32.7762; decimalLongitude: -16.9022; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 females
  16. locationID: 13; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Viveiro; verbatimElevation: 906; decimalLatitude: 32.7354; decimalLongitude: -16.8864; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 males
  17. locationID: 14; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Cottages; verbatimElevation: 994; decimalLatitude: 32.7319; decimalLongitude: -16.8861; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
  18. locationID: 15; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1533; decimalLatitude: 32.7231; decimalLongitude: -16.9109; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  19. locationID: 17; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 519; decimalLatitude: 32.7933; decimalLongitude: -17.1122; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male
  20. locationID: 18; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 491; decimalLatitude: 32.7957; decimalLongitude: -17.1117; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 3 females
  21. locationID: 20; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Encumeada; verbatimElevation: 999; decimalLatitude: 32.7558; decimalLongitude: -17.0143; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 males, 4 females
  22. locationID: 21; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Levada; verbatimElevation: 568; decimalLatitude: 32.8047; decimalLongitude: -16.9346; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 5 females
  23. locationID: 21; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Levada; verbatimElevation: 568; decimalLatitude: 32.8047; decimalLongitude: -16.9346; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  24. locationID: 22; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Ribeiro; verbatimElevation: 560; decimalLatitude: 32.7985; decimalLongitude: -16.936; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  25. locationID: 22; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Ribeiro; verbatimElevation: 560; decimalLatitude: 32.7985; decimalLongitude: -16.936; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  26. locationID: 23; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 755; decimalLatitude: 32.8302; decimalLongitude: -17.1585; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 3 females
  27. locationID: 24; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal - Levada dos Cedros; verbatimElevation: 820; decimalLatitude: 32.8259; decimalLongitude: -17.158; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 3 males, 4 females
  28. locationID: 25; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 890; decimalLatitude: 32.8236; decimalLongitude: -17.156; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
  29. locationID: 25; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 890; decimalLatitude: 32.8236; decimalLongitude: -17.156; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 5 females
  30. locationID: 26; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 889; decimalLatitude: 32.8226; decimalLongitude: -17.1539; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 2 females
  31. locationID: 27; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1023; decimalLatitude: 32.8182; decimalLongitude: -17.1521; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
  32. locationID: 27; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1023; decimalLatitude: 32.8182; decimalLongitude: -17.1521; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  33. locationID: 28; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1134; decimalLatitude: 32.8062; decimalLongitude: -17.1409; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 3 females
  34. locationID: 28; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1134; decimalLatitude: 32.8062; decimalLongitude: -17.1409; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 females
  35. locationID: 29; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Ginjas; verbatimElevation: 869; decimalLatitude: 32.7758; decimalLongitude: -17.0534; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  36. locationID: 29; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Ginjas; verbatimElevation: 869; decimalLatitude: 32.7758; decimalLongitude: -17.0534; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  37. locationID: 33; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Rabaçal; verbatimElevation: 930; decimalLatitude: 32.7647; decimalLongitude: -17.1341; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  38. locationID: 33; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Rabaçal; verbatimElevation: 930; decimalLatitude: 32.7647; decimalLongitude: -17.1341; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 4 females
  39. locationID: 35; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Casa do Elias; verbatimElevation: 814; decimalLatitude: 32.8268; decimalLongitude: -17.1883; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 1 female
Native status: 
introduced
Distribution: 
Cosmopolitan

Dipoenata cf. longitarsis (Denis, 1962)

Material   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 7; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Tanque; verbatimElevation: 845; decimalLatitude: 32.7425; decimalLongitude: -16.9168; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
Native status: 
SIE
Distribution: 

Madeira island (Fig. 4c)

Notes: 
The male of D. longitarsis is unknown. This preliminary identification is based on the observation of somatical similarities between a male and a female hadrotarsine also collected in Laurisilva and identified as D. longitarsis.

Enoplognatha sattleri Bösenberg, 1895

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 11; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1211; decimalLatitude: 32.7733; decimalLongitude: -16.9081; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
  2. locationID: 21; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Levada; verbatimElevation: 568; decimalLatitude: 32.8047; decimalLongitude: -16.9346; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  3. locationID: 25; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 890; decimalLatitude: 32.8236; decimalLongitude: -17.156; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
native
Distribution: 
Madeira island, Selvagens, Canary Islands

Episinus maderianus Kulczynski, 1905

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 1; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 500; decimalLatitude: 32.7493; decimalLongitude: -16.8114; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 1 female
  2. locationID: 4; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 630; decimalLatitude: 32.7415; decimalLongitude: -16.9161; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 1 female
  3. locationID: 7; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Tanque; verbatimElevation: 845; decimalLatitude: 32.7425; decimalLongitude: -16.9168; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  4. locationID: 9; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Queimadas; verbatimElevation: 841; decimalLatitude: 32.7873; decimalLongitude: -16.9047; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  5. locationID: 10; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico das Pedras; verbatimElevation: 883; decimalLatitude: 32.7841; decimalLongitude: -16.9055; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 males
  6. locationID: 12; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1103; decimalLatitude: 32.7762; decimalLongitude: -16.9022; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  7. locationID: 13; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Viveiro; verbatimElevation: 906; decimalLatitude: 32.7354; decimalLongitude: -16.8864; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 males
  8. locationID: 14; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Cottages; verbatimElevation: 994; decimalLatitude: 32.7319; decimalLongitude: -16.8861; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  9. locationID: 17; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 519; decimalLatitude: 32.7933; decimalLongitude: -17.1122; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  10. locationID: 18; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 491; decimalLatitude: 32.7957; decimalLongitude: -17.1117; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  11. locationID: 21; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Levada; verbatimElevation: 568; decimalLatitude: 32.8047; decimalLongitude: -16.9346; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 4 females
  12. locationID: 22; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Ribeiro; verbatimElevation: 560; decimalLatitude: 32.7985; decimalLongitude: -16.936; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 1 female
  13. locationID: 25; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 890; decimalLatitude: 32.8236; decimalLongitude: -17.156; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  14. locationID: 27; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1023; decimalLatitude: 32.8182; decimalLongitude: -17.1521; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 1 female
  15. locationID: 28; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1134; decimalLatitude: 32.8062; decimalLongitude: -17.1409; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  16. locationID: 33; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Rabaçal; verbatimElevation: 930; decimalLatitude: 32.7647; decimalLongitude: -17.1341; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  17. locationID: 34; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Ponta do Sol; locality: Risco; verbatimElevation: 1048; decimalLatitude: 32.7608; decimalLongitude: -17.1256; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  18. locationID: 35; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Casa do Elias; verbatimElevation: 814; decimalLatitude: 32.8268; decimalLongitude: -17.1883; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 male, 1 female
Native status: 
SIE
Distribution: 

Madeira island (Fig. 4d)

Notes: 

Previous records of E. maderianus were made by Schenkel (Schenkel 1938) and are exclusive to the Laurisilva. The present study greatly widens up the distribution of this endemic species that seems to be widespread within Laurisilva.

Paidiscura orotavensis (Schmidt, 1968)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 11; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1211; decimalLatitude: 32.7733; decimalLongitude: -16.9081; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  2. locationID: 18; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 491; decimalLatitude: 32.7957; decimalLongitude: -17.1117; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
Native status: 
macaronesian endemic
Distribution: 
Madeira archipelago, Canary Islands

Rugathodes madeirensis Wunderlich, 1987

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 3; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Pte. Roquete; verbatimElevation: 1074; decimalLatitude: 32.7391; decimalLongitude: -16.9156; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  2. locationID: 4; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 630; decimalLatitude: 32.7415; decimalLongitude: -16.9161; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
  3. locationID: 8; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Til Gigante; verbatimElevation: 841; decimalLatitude: 32.7457; decimalLongitude: -16.915; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  4. locationID: 9; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Queimadas; verbatimElevation: 841; decimalLatitude: 32.7873; decimalLongitude: -16.9047; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  5. locationID: 10; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico das Pedras; verbatimElevation: 883; decimalLatitude: 32.7841; decimalLongitude: -16.9055; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  6. locationID: 11; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1211; decimalLatitude: 32.7733; decimalLongitude: -16.9081; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  7. locationID: 12; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1103; decimalLatitude: 32.7762; decimalLongitude: -16.9022; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  8. locationID: 12; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1103; decimalLatitude: 32.7762; decimalLongitude: -16.9022; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  9. locationID: 13; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Viveiro; verbatimElevation: 906; decimalLatitude: 32.7354; decimalLongitude: -16.8864; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  10. locationID: 17; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 519; decimalLatitude: 32.7933; decimalLongitude: -17.1122; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  11. locationID: 22; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Ribeiro; verbatimElevation: 560; decimalLatitude: 32.7985; decimalLongitude: -16.936; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 3 females
  12. locationID: 24; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal - Levada dos Cedros; verbatimElevation: 820; decimalLatitude: 32.8259; decimalLongitude: -17.158; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
  13. locationID: 28; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1134; decimalLatitude: 32.8062; decimalLongitude: -17.1409; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 1 female
  14. locationID: 29; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: São Vicente; locality: Ginjas; verbatimElevation: 869; decimalLatitude: 32.7758; decimalLongitude: -17.0534; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
SIE
Distribution: 

Madeira island (Fig. 5a)

Notes: 
This species has been found mostly in Laurisilva. Its occurence outside the largest areas of native forest may be explained by the existence of small, secluded micro-habitats composed of native flora, which might serve as ecological islands for forest species.

Steatoda nobilis (Thorell, 1875)

Material   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 4; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 630; decimalLatitude: 32.7415; decimalLongitude: -16.9161; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
native
Distribution: 
Madeira archipelago, Canary Islands (elsewhere, introduced)

Theridion melanurum Hahn, 1831

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 4; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 630; decimalLatitude: 32.7415; decimalLongitude: -16.9161; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
  2. locationID: 7; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Tanque; verbatimElevation: 845; decimalLatitude: 32.7425; decimalLongitude: -16.9168; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  3. locationID: 9; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Queimadas; verbatimElevation: 841; decimalLatitude: 32.7873; decimalLongitude: -16.9047; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  4. locationID: 11; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Achada do Teixeira; verbatimElevation: 1211; decimalLatitude: 32.7733; decimalLongitude: -16.9081; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 3 females
  5. locationID: 14; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Cottages; verbatimElevation: 994; decimalLatitude: 32.7319; decimalLongitude: -16.8861; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  6. locationID: 15; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1533; decimalLatitude: 32.7231; decimalLongitude: -16.9109; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  7. locationID: 26; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 889; decimalLatitude: 32.8226; decimalLongitude: -17.1539; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 2 females
  8. locationID: 27; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 1023; decimalLatitude: 32.8182; decimalLongitude: -17.1521; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
Native status: 
introduced
Distribution: 
Holarctic, Azores, Madeira

Theridion n. sp.

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 1; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 500; decimalLatitude: 32.7493; decimalLongitude: -16.8114; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 1 female
  2. locationID: 2; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Machico; locality: Funduras; verbatimElevation: 552; decimalLatitude: 32.754; decimalLongitude: -16.8099; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  3. locationID: 4; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Fajã da Nogueira - Mtdo. do Leacoque; verbatimElevation: 630; decimalLatitude: 32.7415; decimalLongitude: -16.9161; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  4. locationID: 13; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Viveiro; verbatimElevation: 906; decimalLatitude: 32.7354; decimalLongitude: -16.8864; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  5. locationID: 14; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Frio - Cottages; verbatimElevation: 994; decimalLatitude: 32.7319; decimalLongitude: -16.8861; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  6. locationID: 18; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Chão da Ribeira; verbatimElevation: 491; decimalLatitude: 32.7957; decimalLongitude: -17.1117; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  7. locationID: 21; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Ribeiro Bonito - Levada; verbatimElevation: 568; decimalLatitude: 32.8047; decimalLongitude: -16.9346; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 female
  8. locationID: 24; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal - Levada dos Cedros; verbatimElevation: 820; decimalLatitude: 32.8259; decimalLongitude: -17.158; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  9. locationID: 33; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Rabaçal; verbatimElevation: 930; decimalLatitude: 32.7647; decimalLongitude: -17.1341; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male, 1 female
  10. locationID: 34; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Ponta do Sol; locality: Risco; verbatimElevation: 1048; decimalLatitude: 32.7608; decimalLongitude: -17.1256; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
Native status: 
SIE
Distribution: 

Madeira island (Fig. 5b)

Notes: 

This is a new species to science. It seems to be restricted to Laurisilva and is now being formally described (Van Keer, in prep.).

Misumena spinifera (Blackwall, 1862)

Material   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 25; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Porto Moniz; locality: Fanal; verbatimElevation: 890; decimalLatitude: 32.8236; decimalLongitude: -17.156; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
Native status: 
macaronesian endemic
Distribution: 
Madeira island, Canary Islands

Xysticus nubilus Simon, 1875

Material   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 15; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1533; decimalLatitude: 32.7231; decimalLongitude: -16.9109; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 2 females
Native status: 
introduced
Distribution: 
Mediterranean, Macaronesia

Zodarion styliferum (Simon, 1870)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. locationID: 15; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Santana; locality: Pico do Areeiro; verbatimElevation: 1533; decimalLatitude: 32.7231; decimalLongitude: -16.9109; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 201 males, 63 females
  2. locationID: 32; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Calheta; locality: Rabaças; verbatimElevation: 993; decimalLatitude: 32.7413; decimalLongitude: -17.0783; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Direct sampling; sex: 1 male
  3. locationID: 32; higherGeography: Macaronesia; continent: Europe; waterBody: Atlantic Ocean; islandGroup: Madeira archipelago; island: Madeira; country: Portugal; countryCode: PT; stateProvince: Madeira; county: Calheta; locality: Rabaças; verbatimElevation: 993; decimalLatitude: 32.7413; decimalLongitude: -17.0783; geodeticDatum: WGS84; samplingProtocol: Pitfall; sex: 14 males, 7 females
Native status: 
introduced
Distribution: 
Iberian Peninsula, Madeira island, Porto Santo island (introduced in the islands)

Discussion

Fifty two spider species and 3145 specimens are accounted in this study. Out of these, 17 are Madeira’s endemics species (SIE) mostly restricted to Laurisilva. Range for most endemic spider species was expanded by this study (Figs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) and six endemics [Hahnia insulana Schenkel, 1938, Frontinellina dearmata (Kulczynski, 1899), Lepthyphantes mauli Wunderlich, 1992, Trogloneta madeirensis Wunderlich, 1987, Metastridulans Wunderlich, 1987 and Dipoenata longitarsis (Denis, 1962)], were collected for the first time after their original description. A major finding of this study was the discovery of two species new to science, a species of Ceratinopsis Emerton, 1882, and a species of Theridion Walckenaer, 1805, apparently restricted to Laurisilva. The remaining thirty five spider species were assigned to one of the two following categories: non-endemic native (for both macaronesian endemics and species with a wider distribution) and introduced species. The inclusion of each species in these categories was based on distribution and species ecological traits. Sixteen species were classified as introduced species, including Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841) and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891, two new records for Madeira island. Two species with uncertain identity, Macaroeris sp. and “Linyphiidae unidentified species” were considered as non-endemic native species.

Species richness considerations

The highest values of species richness were found in sites 18, 7, 11, 12, 25 and 33, which were also among those with the largest number of endemics (Fig. 7, Table 2). The lowest species richness was recorded in site 31, with only 1 native species. Abundance was maximum on alpine meadow sites (15, 16), mostly due to the presence of several abundant species like Zodarion styliferum, Haplodrassus dalmatensis and Zelotes civicus. These ground-dwelling species are quite vagile and are among the top invertebrate predators of Madeiran altitudinal meadows. In most study areas, introduced species were more abundant than natives, with some exceptions, such as sites 11, 12, 13, 18, 25 and 34, where higher proportions of specimens from endemic species were recorded (Fig. 8). The lowest proportions of native and endemic species were recorded for sites 5, 19, 23, 31 and 35, where site 19 was the only sampled by both sampling techniques.

Species richness and abundance per study site. Sampling methods used, number of endemic (SIE), native and introduced species are presented for each site. Site codes as in Table 1.

Site Species richness (S) Abundance (N) Sampling methods
Code SIE Native Invasive total SIE Native Invasive total
1 4 2 2 8 7 3 24 34 Pitfall & direct sampling
2 3 3 4 10 4 12 63 79 Pitfall & direct sampling
3 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 4 Pitfall
4 5 4 3 12 13 8 38 59 Pitfall & direct sampling
5 0 1 1 2 0 3 1 4 Pitfall
6 5 6 2 13 12 7 36 55 Pitfall & direct sampling
7 7 4 3 13 10 6 21 37 Pitfall & direct sampling
8 2 2 2 6 2 2 19 23 Pitfall & direct sampling
9 3 1 3 7 3 3 10 16 Pitfall & direct sampling
10 3 1 2 6 4 4 9 17 Pitfall & direct sampling
11 5 7 2 14 5 25 17 47 Pitfall & direct sampling
12 7 5 2 14 12 11 8 31 Pitfall & direct sampling
13 6 5 2 13 9 10 7 26 Pitfall & direct sampling
14 5 4 3 12 7 4 11 22 Pitfall & direct sampling
15 0 4 7 11 0 28 364 392 Pitfall
16 0 3 7 10 0 45 215 260 Pitfall
17 3 3 2 8 4 4 14 22 Pitfall & direct sampling
18 9 5 3 16 17 17 25 59 Pitfall & direct sampling
19 0 1 1 2 0 3 3 6 Pitfall & direct sampling
20 1 1 3 5 1 2 13 16 Pitfall
21 5 2 2 9 17 3 37 57 Pitfall & direct sampling
22 4 1 2 7 8 1 20 29 Pitfall & direct sampling
23 0 0 2 2 0 0 5 5 Pitfall
24 3 5 3 11 7 22 22 51 Pitfall & direct sampling
25 6 6 2 8 11 12 19 42 Pitfall & direct sampling
26 0 2 3 5 0 7 7 14 Pitfall & direct sampling
27 2 4 3 9 3 7 9 19 Pitfall & direct sampling
28 5 4 3 12 5 9 15 29 Pitfall & direct sampling
29 4 2 2 8 6 5 11 22 Pitfall & direct sampling
30 1 1 1 3 1 2 2 5 Pitfall
31 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Pitfall
32 0 6 6 12 0 11 49 60 Pitfall
33 7 5 2 14 11 7 17 35 Pitfall & direct sampling
34 7 3 1 11 9 3 8 20 Pitfall & direct sampling
35 1 0 2 3 2 0 5 7 Pitfall
36 1 1 1 3 1 2 12 15 Pitfall
Figure 7.

Species richness values per site, highlighting the relative proportion of endemic, native and introduced species. The data of each site combines information from both pitfall and direct sampling. Suppl. material 1.

Figure 8.

Scatter plot of the log-transformed species richness of endemic and native species versus exotics for each sampling site. Red circles – from both pitfall trapping and direct sampling; Green squares – pitfall data only. Suppl. material 1.

This study reveals a high number of endemic spider species in some locations, such as Chão da Ribeira (sites 17 and 18), Rabaçal (site 33), Risco (site 34), Achada do Teixeira (sites 11 and 12), Ribeiro Frio (sites 13 and 14), Fajã da Nogueira (sites 3 to 8) and Fanal (sites 23 to 28) that should therefore be the focus of further conservation biology of Madeiran spiders and their associated habitats. Those sites are the only where Centromerus variegatus, Ceratinopsis infuscata, Dipoenata longitarsis, Frontinellina dearmata, Frontiphantes fulgurenotatus and Lepthyphantes mauli are known to occur. However, the occurrence of these araneoid spiders in other locations within Madeira island is expected since they have a potentially high dispersal ability.

This is the first time that a large set of standardized samples of spiders from Madeira island is reported. The distribution of several Madeiran endemic species was greatly increased, particularly Macarophaeus cultior, Hahnia insulana, Turinyphia maderiana, Trogloneta madeirensis, Rugathodes madeirensis and Episinus maderianus. Other endemics were recorded in fewer sites, but in most cases such species are still associated with Laurisilva. In some instances, the historical distribution of endemic spider species includes areas no longer covered by Laurisilva. An example is a record of Centromerus variegatus from Santo da Serra (Denis 1962), a site now covered by exotic forest but which was presumably dominated by endemic Erica shrubs just some decades ago.

The need to apply a combination of sampling techniques in a standardized design in order to assess species composition and structure of ecological communities has been strongly emphasized in the last few years by different authors (Borges and Wunderlich (2008), Borges et al. (2005), Borges et al. (2006), Cardoso (2009), Cardoso et al. (2009)). Accordingly, combining two complementary sampling techniques was determinant in our study to find a variety of spider species that use the habitat in different ways.

In complex habitats like Laurisilva, the prospection of microhabitats such as fallen logs and trees, tree holes, under tree bark and epiphytes allows the finding of species with highly specialized niches. Furthermore, several spider species seldom move or do not move at all at ground level, making direct sampling the most suitable detection technique. From the 52 spider species reported, 16 were collected exclusively using pitfall traps while 22 other species were only found by direct sampling. On the other hand, direct sampling proved to be an effective method to sample Madeiran endemics since most of the sampled endemic spider species were only collected using this technique (see also Fig. 8).

The original descriptions of some Madeiran endemics do not allow inequivocal identification since they were based on very few specimens or on specimens of a single gender. Thus, taxonomic revisions of several genera or families (i.e. Dysdera Latreille, 1804, Hahnia C.L. Koch, 1841, or the Linyphiidae) are mandatory for a better understanding of Madeiran spider biodiversity. Besides the merits of the present study in improving the knowledge on the distribution of spider species in Madeira island, it also allowed the collection of a number of specimens that will be the aim of future taxonomic studies, such as species redescriptions and formal descriptions of new species to science.

Madeira Laurisilva presents a unique spider biodiversity and efforts should be made towards improving knowledge on the abundance and distribution of endemic species as well as to develop a strategy for their conservation and monitoring.

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge Madeira Natural Park, particularly Herculano Fernandes and Martinho Gomes, for the valuable support during fieldwork. Financial support was provided by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT, Portugal) through projects PDCT/BIA-BDE/59202/2004 and PTDC/BIABEC/99138/2008 (http://www.fct.pt/). CR was supported by grant SFRH/BPD/91357/2012, and IR by grants SFRH/BPD/29578/2006 (FCT, Portugal) and M3.1.7/F/030/2011 (FRCT, Açores, Portugal).

References

Supplementary material

Suppl. material 1: Species richness data
Authors:  Luís Crespo
Data type:  occurrences
Brief description: 

Data from where Figures 5 and 6 were built.