Biodiversity Data Journal : Species Conservation Profiles
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Species Conservation Profiles
Conservation status of the forest beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera) from Azores, Portugal
expand article infoPaulo Alexandre Vieira Borges‡,§, Lucas Lamelas-López‡,§, Isabel R. Amorim‡,§, Anja Danielczak|, Rui Nunes‡,§, Artur R.M. Serrano, Mário Boieiro‡,§, Carla Rego‡,§, Axel Hochkirch|, Virgílio Vieira#,§
‡ CE3C – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and Universidade dos Açores, Dep. de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Angra do Heroísmo, Açores, Portugal
§ IUCN SSC Mid-Atlantic Islands Specialist Group, Angra do Heroísmo, Açores, Portugal
| Trier University, Department of Biogeography, D-54296 Trier, Germany
¶ Centro de Biologia Ambiental/Departamento de Biologia Animal/, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
# cE3c – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and Universidade dos Açores - Departamento de Biologia, Ponta Delgada, São Miguel, Açores, Portugal
Open Access

Abstract

Background

Island biodiversity is under considerable pressure due to the ongoing threats of invasive alien species, land use change or climate change. The few remnants of Azorean native forests harbour a unique set of endemic beetles, some of them possibly already extinct or under severe long term threat due to the small areas of the remaining habitats or climatic changes. In this contribution we present the IUCN Red List profiles of 54 forest adapted beetle species endemic to the Azorean archipelago, including species belonging to four speciose families: Zopheridae (12 species), Carabidae (11 species), Curculionidae (11 species) and Staphylinidae (10 species).

New information

Most species have a restricted distribution (i.e. 66% occur in only one island) and a very small extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO). Also common to most of the species is the severe fragmentation of their populations, and a continuing decline in EOO, AOO, habitat quality, number of locations and subpopulations caused by the ongoing threat from pasture intensification, forestry, invasive species and future climatic changes. Therefore, we suggest as future measures of conservation: (1) a long-term monitoring plan for the species; (2) control of invasive species; (3) species-specific conservation action for the most highly threatened species.

Keywords

Beetles, forest species, islands, IUCN, red list, invasive species, climatic changes.

Introduction

The currently known diversity of Azorean endemic beetle taxa totals 76 taxa, including 68 endemic species and the remaining being subspecies (Borges et al. 2010, Borges et al. 2017). Nine of the endemics are cave or lavicolous adapted (most of them belonging to the genus Trechus) (see Borges et al. 2004, Borges et al. 2007, three are freshwater species, and the remaining are forest adapted species. Therefore, the remnants of native forests on the Azores harbour a unique set of endemic beetles, some of them possibly already extinct (Terzopoulou et al. 2015) or under severe long term threats due to small sized habitats (Triantis et al. 2010) or climatic changes (Ferreira et al. 2016). Only two Azorean beetle species were so far assessed for the IUCN Red List, the click beetle Alestrus dolosus (Nardi and Mico 2010), with a current status of Data Deficient (DD) and the longhorn beetle Crotchiella brachyptera (Nardi and Mico Balaguer 2010), with a current status of Endangered (EN), both requiring reassessements.

In this contribution we present the IUCN Red List profiles of 54 forest adapted beetle species endemic to the Azores. This group of species includes 12 ironclade beetles (Zopheridae), 11 ground beetles (Carabidae), 11 weevil and bark beetles (Curculionidae) and 10 rove beetles (Staphylinidae) representing the four most speciose beetle families in Azores (Borges et al. 2010, Borges et al. 2017).

Materials and Methods

To perform the IUCN Red List profiles we went through the following steps: i) the original species descriptions were examined to learn about the habitats and ecology of the species; ii) the most recent literature was also consulted to obtain information about synonyms and critical information for the taxonomic notes; iii) for the calculation of AOO and EOO we consulted the Azorean Biodiversity Portal and downloaded CSV files with the distribution of each species; iv) images of the species were also obtained from the repository available in the Azorean Biodiversity Portal, the most important source of information for Azores biodiversity (see Borges et al. 2010).

Prior to the calculation of area of occupancy (AOO) and extent of occurrence (EOO), the 500 m x 500 m cells obtained from Azorean Biodiversity Portal were filtered to consider only the cells with high level of precision as defined by Borges et al. 2010: 1 – very precise locality, usually point UTM data; 2 – literature locality not exceeding 25 km2. The centroid for each cell was calculated to obtain the distribution points for each species. Despite not fully following the guidelines, the calculation of AOO and EOO was performed using the commonly used Geospatial Conservation Assessment Tool (GeoCAT). For EOO calculation Minimum Convex Polygones (MCP) were used without need of species distribution medelling, since in most cases the final polygons covered all the native habitat area. Final maps with species distributions were produced using the IUCN standards with ArcMap 10.

Critical information on species threats and conservation were mostly obtained from Lindroth 1960, Gaston et al. 2006, Machado 2009, Triantis et al. 2010, Meijer et al. 2011, Terzopoulou et al. 2015, Ferreira et al. 2016, Borges et al. 2017.

The raw data on species distributions in the islands, values of AOO, EOO, altitudinal range and number of localities is available in Suppl. material 1.

Species Conservation Profiles

Bembidion derelictus Alluaud, 1926

Species information

Synonyms

Bembidion derelictus Alluaud, 1926; Ocydromus derelictus (Alluaud, 1926); Peryphus derelictus Alluaud, 1926.

Common names

Ground beetle (English); Carocho (Portuguese).

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae

Taxonomic notes

Bembidion derelictus was described from a single male collected on the 31.VII.1888 and deposited in the Museum of Paris (Alluaud 1926). The wings are rudimentary, narrow, parallel-sided, length about one half, width about one third of one elytron (Lindroth 1960).

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 2

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

This species has a very small extent of occurrence (EOO = 0-12 km²) and area of occupancy (AOO = 0-12 km²).

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 562
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 870

Range description

Bembidion derelictus is a single-island endemic species restricted to Flores (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from Caldeira Comprida in the Natural Forest Reserve of Morro Alto e Pico da Sé. The species is considered possibly extinct (Terzopoulou et al. 2015).

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 0-12
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species is considered extinct in the historical locality due to habitat destruction (last sample dates from 1888). It was not sampled recently despite some intensive field work (see Borges et al. 2005, Borges et al. 2016).

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 0-12
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species is considered extinct in the historical locality due to habitat destruction. It was not sampled recently despite some intensive field work.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 0-1

Justification for number of locations

The species is potentially extinct due to destruction of the habitat in all its range.

Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Possibly went extinct more than 10 years ago.

Population

Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species is only known from a single subpopulation. According to Terzopoulou et al. 2015 this species was extinct more than ten years ago.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 0-1
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species is only known from a single subpopulation. According to Terzopoulou et al. 2015 this species was extinct more than ten years ago.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurred in the hyper-humid native forest of the Flores Island (Azores) dominated by Juniperus brevifolia woodland, with an altitudinal range between 562 and 870 m. This species is possibly extinct (Terzopoulou et al. 2015).

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Since the historical record, the native habitat in the island of Flores was greatly reduced to accomodate pastures and Cryptomeria japonica plantations (Triantis et al. 2010). In the last ten years invasive plant species are spreading (e.g. Hedychium gardnerianum; Hydrangea macrophylla) changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil which will impact the species habitat quality.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate

Ecology

Size: 0.6 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is a nocturnal predator species that lived in hyper-humid forest floor.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and lack of resources due to its large body size (Terzopoulou et al. 2015). Currently, Cryptomeria japonica wood & pulp plantations management and invasive plant species spreading (e.g. Hedychium gardnerianum; Hydrangea macrophylla) are changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil with impacts on native invertebrate species. Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 5. Law & policy
  • 5.1. Law & policy - Legislation
  • 5.2. Law & policy - Policies and regulations
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is protected by regional law (RAA 2012). Its habitat is located in a regionally protected area (Natural Park of Flores Island). Therefore, degraded habitats in the Natural Park of Flores Island should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by invasive species and climate change in this area. Ultimately, more area of pristine Juniperus brevifolia woodland is required around the lower-altitude, sheltered parts of the cloud forest zone, with greater connectivity between them. Formal education and awareness is needed to allow future investments in restored habitats invaded by invasive plants.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 12. Biocontrol
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary an area-based management plan and a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Bradycellus chavesi Alluaud, 1919

Species information

Common names

Ground beetle (English); Carocho (Portuguese).

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae

Taxonomic notes

Bradycellus chavesi was described from a single female collected in São Miguel island and deposited in the Museum of Paris. The hind-wings are quite rudimentary (Lindroth 1960).

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 3

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

The species is considered extinct in the unique historical locality. It had a very small extent of occurrence (EEO = 0-4 km2) and area of occupancy (AOO = 0-4 km2).

Range description

Bradycellus chavesi is a single-island endemic species restricted to S. Miguel (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010) that is considered extinct in the Azorean arquipelago (Terzopoulou et al. 2015). Last record is from 1919 with the original species description.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 0-4
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species is considered extinct in the historical locality, possibly due to habitat destruction. Not sampled recently despite some intensive field work during the BALA expeditions (Borges et al. 2005; Borges et al. 2016).

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 0-4
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species is considered extinct in the historical locality, possibly due to habitat destruction. Not sampled recently despite some intensive field work.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 0-1

Justification for number of locations

The species is potentially extinct due to destruction of the habitat in all its range.

Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Possibly went extinct more than 10 years ago.

Population

Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species is only known from a single subpopulation. According to Terzopoulou et al. 2015 this species was extinct more than ten years ago.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 0-1
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species is only known from a single subpopulation. According to Terzopoulou et al. 2015 this species is extinct more than 10 years ago.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurred in the native forest of São Miguel Island (Azores), but it is considered extinct. Current altitudinal range is unknown.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Since the historical record, the native habitat in the island of São Miguel was greatly reduced to accomodate pastures and Cryptomeria japonica plantations (Triantis et al. 2010). In the last ten years invasive plant species are spreading (e.g. Hedychium gardnerianum; Gunnera tinctoria, Pittosporum undulatum) changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil with impacts on soil invertebrates.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate

Ecology

Size: 0.5 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is an univoltine species. The species was a predator with night activity that lived in hyper-humid forest floor.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 8.1. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size. In the last ten years and currently, Cryptomeria japonica wood & pulp plantations management and invasive plant species spreading (e.g. Hedychium gardnerianum; Gunnera tinctoria, Pittosporum undulatum) are changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil with impacts on soil invertebrates. Based on Ferreira et al. 2016 the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is possibly in a regionally protected area (Natural Park of São Miguel Island). There is the need to keep the control of invasive plants and the restoration of native habitat in some areas in the Northeast part of S. Miguel. Formal education and awareness is needed to allow future investments in restored habitats invaded by invasive plants.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 12. Biocontrol
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends.

Calathus carvalhoi Serrano & Borges, 1986

Species information

Common names

Ground beetle (English); Carocho (Portuguese).

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae

Taxonomic notes

Calathus carvalhoi was described from five individuals. A female (Holotype) was collected in Terra Chã (Terceira island) from 15.X.1983 to 4.XI.1983 and deposited in the collection of A. Serrano. A male (Allotype) was collected in Terra Chã (Terceira island) on the 9.X.1983 and deposited in the collection of P. Borges. A male and two females (Paratypes) were collected in Terra Chã (Terceira island) on the 1.X.1984 and on the 9.X.1983, respectively, deposited in the collections of P. Borges and A. Serrano. According to morphology of aedeagus, Calathus mollis Marsh, is the closted species to C. carvalhoi Serrano & Borges, but according to the index, length:width of the pronotum, this species is more similar to Calathus lundbladi Colas (Serrano and Borges 1986).

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 1

Figure 1.  

Female of Calathus carvalhoi from Terra Chã (Terceira, Azores) (Credit: Enésima Mendonça).

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 4

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

It has a very small extent of occurrence (EOO = 4-8 km²) and area of occupancy (AOO = 4-8 km²).

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 634
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 710

Range description

Calathus carvalhoi is a single-island endemic species restricted to Terceira (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from the Natural Reserve of Terra Brava. The species is possibly considered extinct in the original locality (Terra Chã). The extent of occurrence (EOO) is 4-8 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is also 4-8 km2.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 4-8
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species is considered extinct in the historical locality (Terra Chã, Terceira island) due to habitat destruction. However, the species was found recently in Terra Brava pristine forest.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 4-8
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species is considered extinct in the historical locality (Terra Chã, Terceira island) due to habitat destruction. However, the species was found recently in Terra Brava pristine forest.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 1

Justification for number of locations

In the historical site (Terra Chã, Terceira island) the species is considered as possibly extinct. Only known with a stable subpopulation in Terra Brava pristine native forest fragment.

Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Only one site left at Terra Brava (Terceira) that is in pristine native forest.

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is very rare and only known from a single subpopulation in Terra Brava. Despite the fact that Terra Brava was considerered a native forest fragment with a high value of biotic integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011), a continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred from the ongoing recent habitat degradation due to invasions of alien plants that are changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants with impacts in soil invertebrates.

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 1
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is very rare and only known from a single subpopulation at Terra Brava, since the other subpopulation in Terra Chã is considered as possible extinct. A continuing decline in the number of subpopulations is consequently inferred.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurs in a native forests of the Azores (Terceira Island) dominated by Ilex perado ssp. azorica, Laurus azorica and Juniperus brevifolia, with an altitudinal range between 634 and 710 m.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

Ongoing invasion of exotic plants that are changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate

Ecology

Size: 0.74 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is an univoltine species. It is a night activity predator that lives under barks of native trees and in the soil.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to deforestation. The species is considered extinct in Terra Chã (Terceira island) due to major historical land-use changes with clearing of original habitat and current Eucalyptus spp. wood & pulp plantations management. The most important ongoing threat to this species is the spread of invasive plants (e.g. Hedychium gardnerianum) that are changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. Based on Ferreira et al. 2016 the habitat will decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts, and habitat shift and alteration), which may drive this species to extinction, because it is depending on humid forests.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 1.2. Land/water protection - Resource & habitat protection
  • 5.1. Law & policy - Legislation
  • 5.2. Law & policy - Policies and regulations
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is protected by regional law (RAA 2012). Its habitat is in a regionally protected area (Natural Park of Terceira). The Terceira Natural Park administration is currently starting control measures of the invasive plants. Further spread of invasive plants needs to be stopped in order to avoid any future declines of the species. Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years. Since this species is restricted to the relict native Azorean forests, it is suggested that some awareness measures should be put in practice.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 12. Biocontrol
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to learn about its current population size, distribution and trends. A general monitoring scheme for the invertebrate community in the habitat is in place, but the extant subpopulation of this particular species and its habitat in Terra Brava needs to be monitored in more detail. It is also necessary an area-based management plan for the species in Terra Brava. A monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (Gaspar et al. 2011). Based on Borges et al. 2016and Borges et al. 2017b the species is very rare and there is the need to invest in direct nocturnal surveys to evaluate the rarity status of the species.

Calathus extensicollis Putzeys, 1983

Species information

Synonyms

Calathus mollis Marsh

Common names

Ground beetle (English); Carocho (Portuguese).

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae

Taxonomic notes

Calathus extensicollis was described from a single mature female collected in Pico island and deposited in the collection of Chaudoir. Two additional specimens are deposited in British Natural History Museum. The hind-wings are quite reduced (Lindroth 1960).

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 5

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

It has a very small extent of occurrence (EOO = 0-16 km²) and area of occupancy (EOO = 0-16 km²)

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 900
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1000

Range description

Calathus extensicollis is a single-island endemic species restricted to Pico (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from high elevation native forest (900-1000 m). This large bodied species is considered extinct (Terzopoulou et al. 2015). No precise locality was indicated in the original description, but at the indicated elevation there are the current main remnants of native forest.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 0-16
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species is considered extinct in the historical locality due to habitat destruction. Not sampled recently despite some intensive field work during the BALA expeditions (Borges et al. 2005; Borges et al. 2016).

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 0-16
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species is considered extinct in the historical locality due to habitat destruction. Not sampled recently despite some intensive field work during the BALA expeditions (Borges et al. 2005; Borges et al. 2016).

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 0-1

Justification for number of locations

The species is only known from a single subpopulation. According to Terzopoulou et al. 2015 this species is extinct more than 10 years ago. The historical site at 900 m of altitude is the main current area with fragments of native forest.

Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Possibly went extinct more than 10 years ago.

Population

Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species is only known from a single subpopulation. According to Terzopoulou et al. 2015 this species was extinct more than ten years ago.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 0-1
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species is only known from a single subpopulation. According to Terzopoulou et al. 2015 this species was extinct more than 10 years ago.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurred in the native forest of the Pico Island (Azores), with an altitudinal range between 900 and 1000 m. This species is considered extinct (Terzopoulou et al. 2015) more than 10 years ago.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Since the historical record, the native habitat in the island of Pico was greatly reduced to accomodate pastures. Recently invasive plant species are promoting changes in habitat structure.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate

Ecology

Size: 0.90 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is an univoltine species. It was a night activity predator that lived in the high elevation native forest.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality and the lack of resources due to its large body size (Terzopoulou et al. 2015). Currently, Cryptomeria japonica wood & pulp plantations management and invasive plant species spreading (e.g. Hedychium gardnerianum; Pittosporum) are changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil with impacts on native invertebrate species. Based on Ferreira et al. 2016 the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 1.2. Land/water protection - Resource & habitat protection
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in a regionally protected area (Natural Park of Pico). It is also necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan. Therefore, degraded habitats in the Natural Park of Pico Island should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by invasive species and climate change in this area. Formal education and awareness is needed to allow future investments in restored habitats invaded by invasive plants.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 12. Biocontrol
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Calathus lundbladi Colas, 1938

Species information

Synonyms

Calathus melanocephalus Uyttenboogaart, 1947; Calathus mollis Drouet, 1859

Common names

Ground beetle (English); Carocho (Portuguese).

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Carabida

Taxonomic notes

This is the most similar Azorean endemic Calathus species to the mainland relative Calathus mollis (Lindroth 1960). The hind-wings are quite reduced (Lindroth 1960).

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 2

Figure 2.  

Male of Calathus lundbladi from Tronqueira (S. Miguel, Azores) (Credit: Enésima Mendonça).

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 6

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is 42.5 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 36.0 km2.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 543
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 100

Range description

Calathus lundbladi is an endemic species from S. Miguel (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from Natural Forest Reserve of Pico da Vara (Tronqueira). The extent of occurrence and the area of occupancy (AOO) are probably smaller since the species is possibly considered extinct in Furnas.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 42.5
Trend: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

The species occurs in a small fragment of native forest (Tronqueira). This is the only locality known after intensive survey in the Island (Borges et al. 2005, Borges et al. 2016). The EOO of native forest is only around 4 km2.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 36
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species occurs in a small fragment of native forest (Tronqueira). This is the only localityn known after intensive survey in the Island (Borges et al. 2005, Borges et al. 2016). The AOO of native forest is only around 4 km2.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 1

Justification for number of locations

The complete forest is threatened by invasive plants (Hedychium gardnerianum and Clethra arborea) that are changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants.

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Only one location left, since the species seems extinct in all other sites of the island due to major historical land-use changes. The current subpopulation is threatened by invasive plants that are changing habitat structure.

Population

Trend: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

A continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred from monitoring schemes (sampled in 1989 with a large population and decreasing numbers in 2000 and 2010) (Borges et al. 2005, Borges et al. 2016), and from the ongoing habitat degradation due to invasions of alien plants (Hedychium gardnerianum and Clethra arborea).

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 1
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species is very rare and only known from a single subpopulation.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurs in the hyper-humid native forests of the Azores, surrounded by plantations of exotic trees, with an altitudinal range between 543 and 1000 m.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Ongoing invasion of exotic plants (Hedychium gardnerianum and Clethra arborea) that are changing habitat structure.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate

Ecology

Size: 0.9 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is an univoltine species. It is a nocturnal predator that lives under barks of native trees and in the soil.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to deforestation. The species is considered as possibly extinct in Furnas due to major historical land use changes with clearing of original habitat. The most important ongoing threat to this species is the spread of invasive plants (Hedychium gardnerianum and Clethra arborea) that are changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. Based on Ferreira et al. 2016 the habitat will decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration), which may drive this species to extinction, because it is dependent on humid forests.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 1.2. Land/water protection - Resource & habitat protection
  • 5.1. Law & policy - Legislation
  • 5.2. Law & policy - Policies and regulations
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is protected by regional law (RAA 2012). Its habitat is in a regionally protected area (S. Miguel Natural Park). The São Miguel Natural Park administration is currently starting control measures of the invasive plants. LIFE PRIOLO project started with a restoration of degraded habitats increasing the area of pristine forest. A general monitoring scheme for the invertebrate community in the habitat is in place, but the subpopulation of this particular species and its habitat needs to be monitored in more detail. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 12. Biocontrol
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2. Conservation Planning
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. A general monitoring scheme for the invertebrate community in the habitat is in place, but the subpopulation of this particular species and its habitat needs to be monitored in more detail in order to contribute to perform an area-based management plan and a species potential recovery plan due to recent rarity. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Calathus vicenteorum Schatzmayr, 1939

Species information

Common names

Ground beetle (English); Carocho (Portuguese).

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Carabida

Taxonomic notes

The most similar species is C. lundbladi that is endemic to S. Miguel; the eyes are flatter than in C. mollis and the hind wings are reduced (Lindroth 1960).

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 7

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

It has a very small extent of occurrence (EOO = 0-4 km²) and area of occupancy (AOO = 0-4 km²).

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 450
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 550

Range description

Calathus vicenteorum is an endemic species from Santa Maria (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from high elevation native forest in Pico Alto (550 m asl). This large bodied species is considered extinct (Terzopoulou et al. 2015). The area of its remaining native habitat is 0.09 km².

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 0-4
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The area of its remaining native habitat is now 0.09 km². Not sampled recently despite some intensive field work during the BALA expeditions (Borges et al. 2005; Borges et al. 2016). This large bodied species is considered extinct.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 0-4
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The area of its remaining native habitat is now 0.09 km². Not sampled recently despite some intensive field work during the BALA expeditions (Borges et al. 2005; Borges et al. 2016). This large bodied species is considered extinct.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 0-1

Justification for number of locations

A single fragment of native forest at Pico Alto currently with 0.09 km2 included in a Natural Reserve that has a very low Index of Biotic Integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011). The species is considered extinct due to destruction of the habitat in all its range.

Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Possibly went extinct more than 10 years ago.

Population

Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species is only known from a single subpopulation. According to Terzopoulou et al. 2015 this species was extinct more than ten years ago.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 0-1
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species is only known from a single subpopulation. According to Terzopoulou et al. 2015 this species is extinct more than 10 years ago.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurred in the native forest of the Santa Maria Island (Azores), with an altitudinal range between 500 and 550 m. It is considered extinct (Terzopoulou et al. 2015).

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Since the historical record, the native habitat in the island of Santa Maria was greatly reduced to accomodate Cryptomeria japonica plantations (Triantis et al. 2010). Currently invasive plants (Hedychium gardnerianum; Pittosporum undulatum) are changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil which will impact the species habitat quality.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate

Ecology

Size: 0.87 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is a predator species with nocturnal activity. The last specimens found in 1957 were captured associated with Calluna vulgaris (Lindroth 1960).

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality and its large body size (Terzopoulou et al. 2015). Based on Ferreira et al. 2016 the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration). The most important ongoing threat to this species is Cryptomeria japonica wood & pulp plantations management and the spread of invasive plants (Hedychium gardnerianum and Pittosporum undulatum) that are changing the habitat structure in the main native forest, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in a regionally protected area (Natural Park of Santa Maria). It is also necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan. Therefore, degraded habitats in the Natural Park of Santa Maria Island should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by invasive species and climate change in this area. Formal education and awareness is needed to allow future investments in restored habitats invaded by invasive plants.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 12. Biocontrol
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary an area-based management plan and a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Cedrorum azoricus Borges & Serrano, 1993

Species information

Common names

Ground beetle (English); Carocho-da-penumbra (Portuguese)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae

Taxonomic notes

Cedrorum azoricus was described from individuals collected in Terceira (Terra Brava and Morro Assombrado), Santa Maria (Pico Alto) and Pico (Caveiro) islands, between 1990 and 1992. This species is recognized by the form of pronotum, the absence of crossed epipleura, the shape of the aedeagus and the shape of the terminal stylomere. C. azoricus has two subspecies, recognized by the form of pronotum (Borges and Serrano 1993).

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 3Fig. 4

Figure 3.  

Male of Cedrorum azoricus azoricus from Caldeira de St. Bárbara (Terceira, Azores) (Credit: Enésima Mendonça).

Figure 4.  

Male of Cedrorum azoricus caveirensis from Cabeço do Caveiro (Pico, Azores) (Credit: Enésima Mendonça).

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 8

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is ca 12,300 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 40 km2.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 500
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1200

Range description

Cedrorum azoricus is an endemic species with two subspecies, C. a. azoricus occurring in Terceira and Santa Maria islands, and C. a. caveirensis restricted to Pico island (Azores, Portugal) (Borges and Serrano 1993; Borges et al. 2010). The species is known from the Natural Forest Reserves of Biscoito da Ferraria, Serra de Santa Bárbara, Terra Brava (Terceira), Caveiro and Mistério da Prainha (Pico) and Pico Alto (Santa Maria).

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 12,300
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The extent of occurrence includes large areas of unsuitable habitats and the size of its remaining native habitat is now only 40 km2. The species continues in decline due to native forest degradation (mainly Juniperus brevifolia-Laurus azorica and Ilex perado subsp. azorica forests) due to the ongoing spread of invasive species in Santa Maria (Hedychium gardnerianum and Pittosporum undulatum), Terceira and Pico (Hedychium gardnerianum).

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 40
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species occurs in native forests of several islands (Terceira, Pico and Santa Maria). The AOO with native forest is around 40 km². The species continues in decline due to native forest degradation (mainly Juniperus brevifolia, Laurus azorica and Ilex perado subsp. azorica forests) due to the ongoing spread of invasive species in Santa Maria (Hedychium gardnerianum and Pittosporum undulatum), Terceira and Pico (Hedychium gardnerianum).

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 6

Justification for number of locations

The species inhabits in six native isolated forest patches in three islands (Terceira, Pico, Santa Maria).

Trend: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

Six locations known since in the last ten years a spread of invasive plants is changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. Pico Alto (Santa Maria) site has a very low Index of Biotic Integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011) with a size of 0.09 km² and invasive plants that can drive the local subpopulation to extinction very fast. In recent times at least one location was lost in S. Maria island due to major changes in habitat with the removal of vegetation.

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is particularly restricted and the subpopulation of Santa Maria is very low in number of individuals. A continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred from monitoring schemes (never sampled in Santa Maria after its description, in spite of several sampling efforts in the last ten years) (Borges et al. 2005, Borges et al. 2016), and from the ongoing habitat degradation due to invasions of alien plants (Gaspar et al. 2011).

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 4
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is known from four subpopulations. The subpopulation of Santa Maria is very low in number of individuals. A continuing decline in the number of subpopulations is inferred from monitoring schemes (never sampled in Sta. Maria after its description, in spite of several sampling efforts in the last ten years) (Borges et al. 2005, Borges et al. 2016), and from the ongoing habitat degradation due to invasions of alien plants.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Yes

Justification for fragmentation

Major land-use changes at all elevations in Santa Maria, Terceira and Pico islands promoted the creation of small patches of native and exotic forest. The species occurs in four natural forest fragments that are isolated in a sea of pastures and Cryptomeria japonica plantations. At least two of the locations will be under severe threat in the next 10 years due to the aggressive spread of the invasive plant Hedychium gardnerianum.

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

Cedrorum azoricus has two subspecies, C. a. azoricus present in Terceira and Santa Maria islands, occurs in native forests of high altitude (altitudinal range between 500 and 1000 m) ("cloud-zone forests"; dominated by Juniperus brevifolia, Ilex perado subsp. azorica and Laurus azorica), and C. a. caveirensis, restricted to Pico island, occurs also in native forests (dominated by Juniperus brevifolia) (altitudinal range between 800 and 1200 m) (Borges and Serrano 1993; Borges et al. 2010).

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality and its large body size (Terzopoulou et al. 2015). Currently invasive plant species are decreasing the quality of the habitat .

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate

Ecology

Size: 1.34-1.6 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is an univoltine species. It is a nocturnal predator that lives in the soil. In both Terceira and Pico islands it occurs mostly in sites with deep crevices in hyper-humid forest. The peak of activity in October, being an autumn breader.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality and its large body size (Terzopoulou et al. 2015). Ongoing invasion of an invasive plant species (Hedychium gardnerianum) in Terceira and Pico and in addition Pittosporum undulatum in Santa Maria, are major threats since these plant species are changing the habitat structure in the main native forest, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 1.2. Land/water protection - Resource & habitat protection
  • 2. Land/water management
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.1. Law & policy - Legislation
  • 5.2. Law & policy - Policies and regulations
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is protected by regional law (RAA 2012). Its habitat is in regionally protected areas (Natural Parks of Terceira, Pico and Santa Maria). The Terceira Natural Park administration is currently starting control measures of the invasive plants. Further spread of invasive plants needs to be stopped in order to avoid any future declines of the species. Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years.

Other

Use type: International

Justification for use and trade

This species is not utilized.

Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 12. Biocontrol
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary an area-based management plan and a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan in the island of Santa Maria. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Olisthopus inclavatus Israelson, 1983

Species information

Common names

Ground beetle (English); Carocho (Portuguese)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae

Taxonomic notes

Olisthopus inclavatus was described from a single male collected on the 10.VII.1982 in Santa Maria (Airport) island. This species is similar to O. elongatus Wollaston but differs by the absence of a conspicuous nail-shaped sclerite in the internal sac of the penis (Israelson 1983).

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 5

Figure 5.  

Female of Olisthopus inclavatus from Mata dos Anjos (Santa Maria, Azores) (Credit: Enésima Mendonça).

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 9

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

Olisthopus inclavatus is a single-island endemic species from Santa Maria (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from few patches of highly modified lowland forests.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 150
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 300

Range description

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is 35 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 32 km2.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 35
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species occurs in several small fragments of exotic forest in a small area at low altitude. The species continues in decline due to native forest destruction and habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 32
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species occurs in several exotic forest patchs in Santa Maria island and it is relatively widespread by the island, but highly fragmented. The species continues in decline due to native forest destruction, invasive plant spread and habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 4

Justification for number of locations

The species occurs in at least four isolated exotic forest patches in Santa Maria island that are under major disturbance.

Trend: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

Four locations known but the area decreased in the last ten years due to exotic forest removal.

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is particularly restricted but the abundance is relatively high in some of the known sites. A continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred from the ongoing habitat degradation due to invasions of alien plants and the destruction of exotic plantations for the implementation of pastures.

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 5
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is particularly restricted but the abundance is relatively high in some of the known subpopulations. A continuing decline in the number of subpopulations is inferred from the ongoing habitat degradation due to invasions of alien plants and the destruction of exotic plantations for the implementation of pastures.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Yes

Justification for fragmentation

Major land-use changes at all elevations in S. Maria island promoted the creation of small patches of native and exotic forest. The species occurs in five small patches of exotic forest that are isolated in a sea of pastures and Cryptomeria japonica plantations. More than 50% of the known subpopulations are under severe threat due to exotic forest management and eventual forest removal.

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurs in exotic forests (dominated by Cryptomeria japonica, Acacia spp.), semi-natural forests and in semi-natural pastures in Santa Maria island, with an altitudinal range between 150 and 300 m, being relatively widespread (Meijer et al. 2011).

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality and its large body size (Terzopoulou et al. 2015).

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate
  • 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
  • 16. Introduced vegetation

Ecology

Size: 0.55 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is an univoltine species. It is a nocturnal predator that lives in native trees and in the soil associated with plant litter.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality. Currently the modified habitats where it occurs are being highly disturbed, namely pactches of Cryptomeria japonica and Acacia spp.. Agriculture and wood & pulp productions are also a major threat. Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).

Conservation

Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the ongoing impact of invasive plants and future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years. Formal education and awareness is needed to allow future investments in restored habitats invaded by alien plants.

Other

Use type: International

Justification for use and trade

This species is not utilized.

Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 12. Biocontrol
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan in some of the isolated exotic Acacia spp. patches.

Pseudanchomenus aptinoides Tarnier, 1860

Species information

Synonyms

Anchomenus aptinoides Tarnier, 1860; Azoranchus aptinoides Tarnier, 1860

Common names

Ground beetle (English); Laurocho (Portuguese)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae

Taxonomic notes

Pseudanchomenus aptinoides was described from an individual collected in S. Miguel, on 1867, and deposited in the Natural History Museum of Paris. The specimens found more recently in Pico Island have no difference in the shape of aedeagus (PAV Borges, pers. observation).

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 6

Figure 6.  

Female of Pseudanchomenus aptinoides from Cabeço do Caveiro (Pico, Azores) (Credit: Enésima Mendonça).

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 10

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

Pseudanchomenus aptinoides is an endemic species present in Pico and S. Miguel islands (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from Natural Forest Reserves of Caveiro, Lagoa do Caiado and Mistério da Prainha in Pico island and in Furnas in S. Miguel island. After some surveys in Furnas the species was not found in the last 20 years despite some intensive search (Borges et al. 2005, Borges et al. 2016), and is potentially considered extinct in S. Miguel.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 800
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1200

Range description

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is therefore only 16 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 16 km2.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 16
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The EOO was calculated based on Pico distribution. The species continues in decline due to ongoing native forest degradation and habitat fragmentation. The species is considered extinct in Furnas locality at S. Miguel due to major land-use changes and habitat destruction.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 16
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species occurs in native forest patches included in the Natural Reserves of Caveiro, Lagoa do Caiado and Mistério da Prainha in Pico island and it is considered extinct in S. Miguel (Furnas), due to habitat destruction. The species continues in decline due to native forest degradation and habitat fragmentation. Despite an AOO of 16 km2, the current areal area of available native forest is only 9.52 km2.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 3

Justification for number of locations

The species occurs in several native forest patches in Pico, and in a location in a S. Miguel island (Furnas), but possibly extinct there.

Trend: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

Three locations known but the original area was larger. In one of the locations now is possibly extinct. In the last ten years a spread of invasive plants (namely Hedychium gardnerianum) is changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants.

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is relatively abundant in Pico Island native forest in particular in the pristine fragment of Caveiro. In spite of several sampling efforts in the last 20 years no individuals were sampled in S. Miguel (Borges et al. 2005, Borges et al. 2016), and consequently the subpopulation of this island is possibly considered extinct, which is inferred from major land-use changes in this locality in the last 100 years, that were maintained in the last ten years with increaing pasture development and urbanization.

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 3
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is relatively abundant in Pico Island native forest in particular in the pristine fragment of Caveiro. In spite of several sampling efforts in the last 20 years no individuals were sampled in S. Miguel (Borges et al. 2005, Borges et al. 2016), and consequently the subpopulation of this island is considered extinct, which is inferred from major land-use changes in this locality in the last 100 years, that were maintained in the last ten years with increasing pasture development and urbanization.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Yes

Justification for fragmentation

Major land-use changes at middle and high elevations in Pico and S. Miguel promoted the creation of small patches of native forest. The species is confirmed to occur in three natural forest fragments in Pico that are isolated in a sea of pastures and Cryptomeria japonica plantations. In at least half of the locations in the last ten years a spread of invasive plants is changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. At least two of the locations will be under severe threat in the next 10 years, with only Caveiro area still having some resistance to the spread of the invasive plant Hedychium gardnerianum.

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurs in native forests dominated by montane Juniperus brevifolia woodland in Caveiro but also lavic formations dominated by Erica azorica in Mistério da Prainha, in the island of Pico, with an altitudinal range between 800 and 1200 m

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

Due to ongoing invasion of exotic plants that are changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil with impacts on native invertebrate species.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate

Ecology

Size: 1.2 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is an univoltine species. It is a nocturnal predator that lives in native trees and in the soil, particularly in ravines. Based on seasonal data from SLAM traps obtained in several islands between 2012 and 2016 (see Borges et al. 2017b), the adults are active all year, being most abundant in summer and autumn.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality and its large body size (Terzopoulou et al. 2015). Currently, Cryptomeria japonica wood & pulp plantations management and invasive plant species spreading (e.g. Hedychium gardnerianum;) are changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil with impacts on the species. Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration). The species is considered extinct in S. Miguel island due to major historical land-use changes with clearing of original habitat.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 1.2. Land/water protection - Resource & habitat protection
  • 2. Land/water management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 4. Education & awareness
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4.1. Education & awareness - Formal education
  • 4.3. Education & awareness - Awareness & communications
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in a regionally protected area (Natural Park of Pico). Degraded habitats should be restored and of critical importance is the continued expansion and linking of habitat fragments as well as removal of invasive non-native species where this is possible. A strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years. Formal education and awareness is needed to allow future investments in restored habitats invaded by invasive plants.

Other

Use type: International

Justification for use and trade

This species is not utilized.

Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 12. Biocontrol
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens in S.Miguel and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends in both S. Miguel and Pico islands. It is also necessary an area-based management plan and a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Trechus terrabravensis Borges, Serrano & Amorim, 2004

Species information

Common names

Ground beetle (English); Carocho-da-terra-brava (Portuguese)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae

Taxonomic notes

Trechus terrabravensis was described from three individuals (one male and two females), collected from 18.VII.2001 to 02.VIII.2001, in Terceira island (Terra Brava). The aedeagus of this species clearly resembles those of the cavernicolous troglobitic species Trechus jorgensis (S. Jorge) and T. pereirai (Pico) (Borges et al. 2004).

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 7

Figure 7.  

Male of Trechus terrabravensis from Terrra Brava (Terceira, Azores) (Credit: Enésima Mendonça).

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 11

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

Trechus terrabravensis is a single-island endemic species restricted to Terceira (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from the Natural Forest Reserves of Biscoito da Ferraria e Pico Alto, Pico do Galhardo, Terra Brava and Serra de Sta Bárbara.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 500
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1000

Range description

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is 32 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 32 km2.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 32
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

This species occurs in native forests included in several protected areas of Terceira island. The extent of occurrence of this species continues to decline due to habitat degradation in the native forest (mainly Juniperus brevifolia-Laurus azorica and Ilex perado subsp. azorica forests) mostly caused by invasive plants, and habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 32
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

This species occurs in native forests included in several protected areas of Terceira island. The AOO including only native forest is around 21 km². The area of occupancy of this species continues to decline due to habitat degradation in the native forest (mainly Juniperus brevifolia-Laurus azorica and Ilex perado subsp. azorica forests) mostly caused by invasive plants, and habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 4

Justification for number of locations

The species occurs in four native forest patches included in Natural Park of the Terceira island, and two of them (Biscoito da Ferraria e Pico Alto, Pico do Galhardo) were highly impacted by invasive plants in the last ten years having a low Index of Biotic Integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011).

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Four locations known but the last ten years we observed a spread of invasive plants changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants.

Population

Trend: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

The species is particularly restricted but abundant in some of the localities (Gaston et al. 2006). A continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred from monitoring schemes (Borges et al. 2005, Borges et al. 2016) and from the ongoing habitat degradation due to invasions of alien plants (Gaspar et al. 2011).

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 4
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is particularly restricted but abundant in some of the subpopulations in Terra Brava and Caldeira St. Barbara (Gaston et al. 2006). A continuing decline in the number of subpopulations is inferred from monitoring schemes (Borges et al. 2005, Borges et al. 2016) and from the ongoing habitat degradation due to invasions of alien plants in Biscoito da Ferraria e Pico Alto and Pico do Galhardo.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Yes

Justification for fragmentation

Major land-use changes at middle elevations promoted the creation of small patches of native forest. The species occurs in four natural forest fragments that are isolated in a sea of pastures and Cryptomeria japonica plantations, and is very rare in two of the subpopulations (Biscoito da Ferraria e Pico Alto and Pico do Galhardo).

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

This species occurs deep inside very humid laurel forests (native forests dominated by Laurus azorica, Ilex perado subsp. azorica and Juniperus azorica) on Terceira, with an altitudinal range between 500 and 1000 m. Several specimens were collected in leaf litter, suggesting that this is a litter species. In both Terra Brava and Caldeira da Serra de Santa Bárbara, the terrain is basaltic with a system of cracks and deep holes and the forest floor is covered by a dense carpet of mosses and ferns with little light reaching the ground (Borges et al. 2004)

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality. Currently invasive plant species are decreasing the quality of the habitat changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate

Ecology

Size: 0.35 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is an univoltine species and it is a predator that lives in the soil litter in hyperhumid conditions.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality and lack of resources due to its large body size (Terzopoulou et al. 2015). Currently, Cryptomeria japonica wood & pulp plantations management and invasive plant species spreading (e.g. Hedychium gardnerianum) are changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil with impacts on the species. Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 1.2. Land/water protection - Resource & habitat protection
  • 2. Land/water management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in a regionally protected area (Natural Park of Terceira). The Terceira Natural Park administration is currently starting control measures of the invasive plants. Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years.

Other

Use type: International

Justification for use and trade

The species is not utilized.

Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 12. Biocontrol
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary an area-based management plan and a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan as a consequence of invasive plant species spread in two native forest fragments (Biscoito da Ferraria e Pico Alto and Pico do Galhardo). Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Trechus torretassoi Jeannel, 1937

Species information

Common names

Ground beetle (English); Carocho (Portuguese)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae

Taxonomic notes

This species was described from individuals collected in S. Miguel island (Sete Cidades), on the 4.VI.1935. The hind-wings are reduced to almost inconspicuous rudiments (Lindroth 1960). Later was cited to Furnas (Gillerfors 1986a) and never found after that.

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 12

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

Trechus torretassoi is a single-island endemic species known from S. Miguel (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), and occurring historically only at Furnas and Sete Cidades volcanos.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 700
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 845

Range description

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is 24 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 12 km2. The species is considered possibly extinct (Terzopoulou et al. 2015) due to destruction of the habitat in all its range.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 0-24
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species occured in two areas now dominated by exotic plantations and pastures in S. Miguel island (Sete Cidades and Furnas). The extent of occurrence of this species declined due to habitat degradation in the native forest, mostly caused by invasive plants, and suitable habitat has been extirpated from areas where the species once occurred (historical distribution). Now the species is considered extinct more than 10 years ago (Terzopoulou et al. 2015).

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 0-12
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species occured in two areas now dominated by exotic plantations and pastures in S. Miguel island. The area of occupancy of this species declined in the last decades due to habitat degradation in the native forest, mostly caused by invasive plants, and suitable habitat has been extirpated from areas where the species once occurred (historical distribution). Now the species is considered extinct more than 10 years ago (Terzopoulou et al. 2015).

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 0-2

Justification for number of locations

The species occured in two areas now dominated by exotic plantations and pastures in S. Miguel island (Furnas and Sete Cidades). Now the species is considered extinct more than 10 years ago (Terzopoulou et al. 2015).

Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Possibly went extinct more than 10 years ago.

Population

Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species was historically particularly restricted and with very low number of sampled individuals. A continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred from monitoring schemes, from massive land-use changes in the last 100 years and the ongoing habitat degradation due to invasions of alien plants in the last 10 years. Despite intensive collecting efforts in the past 20 years (Borges et al. 2005, Borges et al. 2016), no specimens have been collected since 1985 and according to Terzopoulou et al. (2015) this species is possibly extinct.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 0-2
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species was particularly restricted and with very low in number of sampled individuals. A possible decline in the number of subpopulations is inferred from monitoring schemes (Borges et al. 2005, Borges et al. 2016), from massive land-use changes in the last 50 years and the ongoing habitat degradation due to invasions of alien plants. Despite intensive collecting efforts in the past 20 years, no specimens have been collected since 1985 and according to Terzopoulou et al. (2015) this species was extinct more than ten years ago.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

This species occurred originally in native forest in S. Miguel island (Azores), with an altitudinal range between 700 and 845 m. However, if still extant it should occur in exotic plantations of Cryptomeria japonica. It is a predator that lives in the soil associated with debris and litter.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Massive land-use changes in the last 100 years have probably led to strong declined of this species due to changes in habitat size and quality.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate
  • 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
  • 16. Introduced vegetation

Ecology

Size: 0.30-0.32 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is an univoltine species and it is a predator that lives in the soil associated with debris and litter. In the last record in 1985 it was sampled associated with debris in a lake shore near a Cryptomeria japonica plantation (Gillerfors 1986a).

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to deforestation (Triantis et al. 2010). The species is potentially considered extinct due to major historical land-use changes with clearing of original habitat (Terzopoulou et al. 2015). The most important ongoing threat to this species is Cryptomeria japonica wood & pulp plantations management and the spread of invasive plants (Hedychium gardnerianum) that are changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).

Conservation

Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. It is also necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan in Furnas and Sete Cidades. Therefore, degraded habitats in Furnas and Sete Cidades should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the ongoing threat by invasive species and future threat by climate change. Formal education and awareness is needed to allow future investments in restored habitats invaded by invasive plants.

Other

Use type: International

Justification for use and trade

The species is not utilized.

Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 12. Biocontrol
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens in historical areas of Furnas and Sete Cidades. It is also necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan.

Mniophilosoma obscurum Gillerfors, 1986

Species information

Common names

Leaf beetle (English); Escaravelho-do-musgão (Portuguese)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Chrysomelidae

Taxonomic notes

Mniophilosoma obscurum was described from a single male, collected in Flores island (Caldeira Comprida), on the 15.VI.1985. It is deposited in Museu Municipal do Funchal (Madeira). This species is very similar to the Madeiran M. laeve Wollaston, that has a body-form suborbiculate-ovate, exceedingly convex, but easily separated from that species by rather strong microsculpture of upper surface; by being apparently glabrous impunctate and by structure of male genitalia (Gillerfors 1986b).

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 13

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

Mniophilosoma obscurum is a single-island endemic species restricted to Flores (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from Natural Forest Reserve of Morro Alto e Pico da Sé.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 560
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 880

Range description

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is 13 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 4 km2.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 13
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

This species occurs in a small fragment of native forest in Flores island. The extent of occurrence is stable in the last 60 years and has a high value of biotic integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011).

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 4
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

This species occurs in a small fragment of native forest in Flores island. In spite for the fact that the whole nature reserve has some levels of biotic integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011), part of the area is being recently invaded by two invasive plants (Hydrangea macrophylla and Hedychium gardnerianum) with destruction of some areas.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 1

Justification for number of locations

The species occurs in a single native forest fragment in the Flores island that is starting to be impacted by invasive plants (Hydrangea macrophylla and Hedychium gardnerianum) that are disrupting the quality of forest ground.

Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Between 1940 and 1950 major land-use changes occurred in the island, the reserve has a high Index of Biotic Integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011), but the historical site is already under strong impact of invasive plants that are decreasing the cover of Sphagnum spp., disrupting the quality of forest ground, habitat of the species.

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is rare and only known from a single subpopulation in Flores island. The surrounding area is protected and it is well preserved with a high Index of Biotic Integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011). However, part of the AAO is starting to be impacted by invasive plants (Hydrangea macrophylla and Hedychium gardnerianum) that are disrupting the quality of forest ground with potential decline un the number of individuals.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 1
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species is rare and only known from a single subpopulation in Flores island. The surrounding area is protected and it is well preserved with a high Index of Biotic Integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011). However, part of the AAO is starting to be impacted by invasive plants (Hydrangea macrophylla and Hedychium gardnerianum) that are disrupting the quality of forest ground and the supopulation may be under threat.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

This species occurs in a small fragment of native forest in Flores island (Azores), dominated by Juniperus brevifolia, Calluna vulgaris shrubs and Sphagnum spp. moss (Gillerfors 1986a), with an altitudinal range between 560 and 880 m.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

The Habitat is stable in the last 60 years, part of the AAO is starting to be impacted by invasive plants (Hydrangea macrophylla and Hedychium gardnerianum) that are disrupting the quality of forest ground.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate

Ecology

Size: 0.16 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is an univoltine species. Adults and larvae are herbivores and feed on all sorts of plant tissue in Sphagnum spp. bogs.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Triantis et al. 2010; Terzopoulou et al. 2015). Currently invasive plants Hydrangea macrophylla and Hedychium gardnerianum are changing some of the areas and decreasing the quality of the habitat, since are changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4.1. Education & awareness - Formal education
  • 4.3. Education & awareness - Awareness & communications
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in a regionally protected area (Natural Park of Flores). Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years. Formal education and awareness is needed to allow future investments in restored habitats invaded by invasive plants.

Other

Use type: International

Justification for use and trade

This species is not utilized.

Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 8. Habitat Maintenance
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about population trends and habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011)

Atlantocis gillerforsi Israelson, 1985

Species information

Common names

Minute tree beetle, fungus beetle (English)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Ciidae

Taxonomic notes

Atlantocis gillerforsi was described from several individuals collected in Santa Maria (Coevas) and S. Miguel (Povoação) islands, between 30.VII.1983 and 10.VIII.1983. These specimens are deposited in G. Gillerfors and G. Israelson collections (Israelson 1985c).

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 8

Figure 8.  

Female of Atlantocis gillerforsi from Caveiro (Pico, Azores) (Credit: Enésima Mendonça).

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 14

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

Atlantocis gillerforsi is an endemic species present in Flores, Terceira, Pico, S. Miguel and Santa Maria islands (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from Natural Forest Reserves of Morro Alto e Pico da Sé (Flores); Pico Galhardo and Terra Brava (Terceira); Atalhada and Pico da Vara (S. Miguel) and Pico Alto (Santa Maria).

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 350
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1000

Range description

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is ca 34,000 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 64 km2.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 34,000
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species occurs in several islands and many natural areas, most of them currently well preserved.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 64
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species occurs in areas of native and exotic forests of several islands (Flores, Terceira, Pico, S. Miguel and Santa Maria). The area with native forest is around one third of the AOO. The species continues in decline due to native forest degradation and habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 11

Justification for number of locations

The species occurs in eleven native and exotic forest patches in five islands (Flores, Terceira, Pico, S. Miguel and Santa Maria). All the locations are currently under severe invasion by plants like Hedychium gardnerianum, with major impacts on the structure of the forest floor.

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Eleven locations known but the original area was larger with decreasing of habitat quality in the last 10 years due to land-use changes and invasive plants that are changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. In fact, Pico Galhardo (Terceira); Atalhada and Pico da Vara (S. Miguel) and Pico Alto (Santa Maria) have a low Index of Biotic Integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011).

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is highly abundant. However, part of the AAO is starting to be impacted by invasive plants (Hedychium gardnerianum, Pittosporum undulatum) that are disrupting the quality of forest ground with potential decline in the number of individuals.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 7
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is very abundant. However, some of the subpopulations are starting to be impacted by invasive plants (Hedychium gardnerianum, Pittosporum undulatum) that are disrupting the quality of forest ground with potential decline in the number of subpopulations.

Severe fragmentation?: Yes

Justification for fragmentation

Major land-use changes at all elevations in the islands promoted the creation of small patches of native and exotic forest. The species occurs in seven natural forest fragments that are isolated in a sea of pastures and Cryptomeria japonica plantations. In the last ten years a spread of invasive plants is changing the habitat structure in more than 50% of the subpopulations, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. The sites at Pico Galhardo (Terceira); Atalhada (S. Miguel) and Pico Alto (Santa Maria) have a low Index of Biotic Integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011).

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurs in native (dominated by Laurus azorica and Juniperus brevifolia) and exotic (e.g. Eucalyptus spp.) forests of several islands (Flores, Terceira, Pico, S. Miguel and Santa Maria), with an altitudinal range between 350 and 1000 m. This species was an inhabitant of ancient azorean laurel forests and successfully adapted itself to changed conditions of life (habitat transformation) (Israelson 1985c).

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

The habitat was stable during last century. However, in the last ten years invasive plant species spreading (e.g. Hedychium gardnerianum; Pittosporum undulatum) are changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil decreasing the quality of the habitat with impacts on the species.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate
  • 16. Introduced vegetation

Ecology

Size: 0.14 - 0.17 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This species feeds mostly on fungi. Based on seasonal data from SLAM traps obtained in several islands between 2012 and 2016, the adults are active all year (Borges et al. 2017b), being more abundant in summer.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Triantis et al. 2010, Terzopoulou et al. 2015). Currently invasive plants Hydrangea macrophylla, Pittosporum undulatum and Hedychium gardnerianum are changing some of the areas and decreasing the quality of the habitat, since are changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 1.2. Land/water protection - Resource & habitat protection
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in regionally protected areas (Natural Parks of Flores, Terceira, S. Miguel and Santa Maria). Further spread of invasive plants needs to be stopped in order to avoid any future declines of the species. Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years. Formal education and awareness is needed to allow future investments in restored habitats invaded by invasive plants.

Other

Use type: International

Justification for use and trade

This species is not utilized.

Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 8. Habitat Maintenance
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Calacalles azoricus Stüben, 2004

Species information

Common names

True weevil, Snout beetle, Weevil (English); Gorgulho (Portuguese)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae

Taxonomic notes

Species described by Stüben 2004 based on specimens found in Caladeira do Faial associated with roots of Tolpis azorica.

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 9

Figure 9.  

Female of Calacalles azoricus from Caldeira do Faial (Faial, Azores) (Credit: Enésima Mendonça).

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 15

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

Calacalles azoricus is a single-island endemic species from Faial (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from Natural Forest Reserve of Caldeira do Faial.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 800
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1000

Range description

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is 4 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 4 km2.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 4
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

This species occurs in a small fragment of native forest in Faial island. The host plant is also very rare and decreasing its distribution due to invasive plants, that are changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 4
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species occurs in a small fragment of native forest of Faial island. The AOO with native forest is around 1.9 km². The species continues in decline due to native forest destruction and habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 1

Justification for number of locations

The species occurs only in Caldeira do Faial in the Faial island.

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species had a larger distribution in recent past, but major reductions in the distribution of the host plant (Tolpis azorica) due to major land-use changes in the last decades decreased the number of adequate patches of habitat. The single site is being heavily impacted by invasive plants in the last ten years.

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is very rare and only known from a single subpopulation in Faial island. A continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred due to restricted distribution and host-plant rarity (Tolpis azorica).

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 1
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is very rare and only known from a single subpopulation in Faial island. A continuing decline in the number of supoputaions is inferred due to restricted distribution and host-plant rarity (Tolpis azorica), with potential extinction of the species.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurs in native forests of high altitude in the Faial island (Azores), with an altitudinal range between 800 and 1000 m.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

In the last 100 years, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality. Currently invasive plant species are also decreasing the quality of the remaining habitat

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate

Ecology

Size: 0.35 -0.5 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: Yes
Dependent on species: Tolpis azorica

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is an univoltine species. Adults and larvae are herbivores and feed of plant tissues (Tolpis azorica).

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Triantis et al. 2010, Terzopoulou et al. 2015). Currently invasive plants (Hedychium gardnerianum and Rubus ulmifolius) are changing some of the areas and decreasing the quality of the habitat, as they are changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 5.1. Law & policy - Legislation
  • 5.2. Law & policy - Policies and regulations
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is protected by regional law (RAA 2012). Its habitat is in a regionally protected area (Natural Park of Faial). Degraded habitats should be restored in Caldeira do Faial and of critical importance is the removal of invasive non-native species where this is possible. A strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years. Formal education and awareness is needed to allow future investments in restored habitats invaded by invasive plants.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 8. Habitat Maintenance
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary an area-based management plan and a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Calacalles droueti (Crotch, 1867)

Species information

Common names

True weevil, Snout beetle, Weevil (English); Gorgulho (Portuguese)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae

Taxonomic notes

Calacalles droueti was originally described based on specimens collected by Godman in the island of Flores associated with stems of Euphorbia stygiana. More recently the Lectotypes were designated by Stüben 2004 based on specimens collected in Pico (Lagoa do Caiado) and Faial (Caldeira).

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 10

Figure 10.  

Female of Calacalles droueti from Lagoa do Caiado (Pico, Azores) (Credit: Enésima Mendonça).

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 16

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

Calacalles droueti is an endemic species present in Flores, Faial and Pico islands, but possibly extinct in Flores (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known currently from Natural Forest Reserves of Caldeira do Faial (Faial) and Lagoa do Caiado (Pico).

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 600
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1200

Range description

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is 706 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 28 km2.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 706
Trend: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

This species occurs in several areas of native forest of Faial and Pico islands. Possibly extinct in Flores. Most of the EOO includes habitats not occupied by this species that is restricted to few patches with the rare host plant (Euphorbia stygiana subsp. stygiana). The extent of occurrence of this species continues to decline due to habitat degradation in the native forest (mostly due to invasive plants) and to habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 28
Trend: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

The species occurs in several native forest patchs in Faial and Pico islands, but possibly extinct in Flores island. The area of occupancy of this species continues to decline due to habitat degradation in the native forest (mostly due to invasive plants) and to habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 7

Justification for number of locations

This species occurs in seven isolated native forest patches in the Faial and Pico islands. Possibly extinct in Flores.

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Seven locations known but the original area was larger. Most of the sites have very few plants of Euphorbia stygiana subsp. stygiana, and the species can easily be extinct in some sites in near future.

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is very rare and only known from a single subpopulation in Faial island and several subpopulations in Pico island. A continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred due to host-plant rarity (Euphorbia stygiana subsp. stygiana). Most of the sites have very few plants of Euphorbia stygiana subsp. stygiana, and the species can easily be extinct in some sites in near future.

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 7
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is very rare, possibly extinct in Flores, known from a single subpopulation in Faial island and six subpopulations in Pico island. A continuing decline in the number of subpopulations is inferred due to host-plant rarity (Euphorbia stygiana subsp. stygiana). Decline is due to rarity and abundance decreasing of host plant.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Yes

Justification for fragmentation

Major land-use changes at middle and high elevations in Pico island promoted the creation of small patches of native forest. The species occurs in five natural forest fragments in Pico that are isolated in a sea of pastures and Cryptomeria japonica plantations. Most of the small fragments are not sustainable at long-term due to the spread of invasive plants. Possibly only the Lagoa do Caiado fragment is sustainable at long-term due to its larger size and larger populations of the host plant.

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurs in native forests of high altitude in the Faial and Pico islands (Azores), with an altitudinal range between 600 and 1200 m.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

In the last 100 years, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality. Currently invasive plant species are also decreasing the quality of the remaining habitat. The host plant is very rare and has a declining trend (IUCN classification: Critically Endangered).

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate

Ecology

Size: 0.4 - 0.6 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: Yes
Dependent on species: Euphorbia stygiana stygiana
Dependent on IUCN Status: Critically Endangered (CR)

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is an univoltine species. Adults and larvae are nocturnal herbivores and feed of plant tissues of Euphorbia stygiana subsp. stygiana.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
  • 12. Other options - Other threat
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Triantis et al. 2010, Terzopoulou et al. 2015). Currently, Cryptomeria japonica wood & pulp plantations management and invasive plants (Hedychium gardnerianum) are changing some of the areas and decreasing the quality of the habitat, since are changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration). Other important threat is the extreme rarity of the host plant.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 2. Land/water management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.1. Law & policy - Legislation
  • 5.2. Law & policy - Policies and regulations
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is protected by regional law (RAA 2012). Its habitat is in regionally protected areas (Natural Parks of Faial and Pico). It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years. The conservation of the host plant is critical. Since this species occurs in relict native Azorean forests and associated also with a very rare plant, it is suggested that some awareness measures should be put in practice.

Other

Use type: International

Justification for use and trade

This species is not utilized.

Ecosystem service type: Less important

Justification for ecosystem services

There is insufficient information available to identify the ecosystem services for this species.

Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens in other sites with the host plant, and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary an area-based management plan and a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Calacalles subcarinatus (Israelson, 1984)

Species information

Synonyms

Acalles subcarinatus Israelson, 1984; Acalles wollastoni Chevr., 1852

Common names

True weevil, Snout beetle, Weevil (English); Gorgulho (Portuguese)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae

Taxonomic notes

This small species was described from a individuals collected in Santa Maria (Pico Alto) and S. Miguel (Furnas) islands, between 8.VII.1982 and 13.VII.1982. These specimens are deposited in the Finnish Museum of Natural History (Israelson 1984b).

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Figs 11, 12

Figure 11.  

Female of Calacalles subcarinatus from Terra Brava (Terceira, Azores) (Credit: Enésima Mendonça).

Figure 12.  

Female of Calacalles subcarinatus from Terra Brava (Terceira, Azores) (Credit: Paulo A.V. Borges).

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 17

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

Calacalles subcarinatus is a widespread endemic species present in all islands of the Azorean archipelago (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from Natural Forest Reserves of Caldeiras Funda e Rasa and Morro Alto e Pico da Sé (Flores); Caldeira do Faial (Faial); Mistério da Prainha (Pico); Pico Pinheiro and Topo (S. Jorge); Biscoito da Ferraria, Pico Galhardo, Serra Sta. Bárbara and Terra Brava (Terceira); Atalhada e Pico da Vara (S. Miguel) and Pico Alto (Santa Maria).

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 100
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1200

Range description

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is ca 42,600 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 220 km2.

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Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 42,600
Trend: Increase

Justification for trend

The species is expanding its range to exotic trees and man made habitats.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 220
Trend: Increase

Justification for trend

The species is expanding its range to exotic trees and man made habitats. The species is expanding to non-native habitats.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

This is a widespread species, with no threats.

Trend: Increase

Justification for trend

Possibly is increasing distribution due to adaptation to exotic trees, namely low altitude orchards.

Population

Trend: Increase

Justification for trend

C. subcarinatus is a widespread and highly abundant species. The species is expanding to exotic habitats and population is increasing. We assume no impact for the population as it occurs naturally in several native and exotic patches in all islands of the archipelago.

Basis for decline: 
  • (a) direct observation
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 9
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

C. subcarinatus is a widespread and highly abundant species. The species presents a stable population and occurs in several islands. We assume no impact for the subpopulations as it occurs naturally in several patches in all islands of the arquipelago.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: No

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurs in several habitats and in all islands of the Azorean arquipelago, with an altitudinal range between 100 and 1200 m. C. subcarinatus inhabits the native forests dominated by native and endemic vegetation, prefering Ilex perado subsp. azorica but also occurring in Juniperus brevifolia, Frangula azorica, Vaccinium cylindraceum and Erica azorica; exotic forests (mainly plantations and forests of Pittosporum spp. and Eucalyptus spp.); in agricultural areas occurs in orchards associated with Castanea sativa.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Increase

Justification for trend

The species is expanding to exotic trees

Habitat importance: Suitable
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate

Ecology

Size: 0.17 - 0.26 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Adults and larvae are herbivores and feed of plant tissues both during the day and night. Based on seasonal data from SLAM traps obtained in several islands between 2012 and 2016 (Borges et al. 2017b), the adults are active all year, being most abundant in spring and summer.

Threats

Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 8.1. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Triantis et al. 2010; Terzopoulou et al. 2015). However, the species seems to be adapting to other non-native trees and is expanding its range. No threats are known for this species, but possibly invasive species may create an impact in future.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in regionally protected areas (Natural Parks of Flores, Faial, Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira, Graciosa, S. Miguel and Santa Maria). No special measures of conservation are needed since the species also occurs in non-native plants.

Other

Use type: International

Justification for use and trade

The species is not utilized.

Ecosystem service type: Important
Ecosystem services:
  • 8. Habitat Maintenance
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. A monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011)

Caulotrupis parvus Israelson, 1985

Species information

Common names

True weevil, Snout beetle, Weevil (English); Gorgulho (Portuguese)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae

Taxonomic notes

Caulotrupis parvus was described from two individuals collected in Santa Maria island (Pico Alto), between 11.VII.1982 and 8.VIII.1983, deposited in G. Israelson collection. The particularities of the aedeagal structures may indicate a more profund difference between C. parvus and the Madeiran forms (Israelson 1985a).

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 13

Figure 13.  

Caulotrupis parvus from Pico Alto (Santa Maria, Azores) (Credit: Enésima Mendonça).

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 18

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

The area of its remaining native habitat is 0.09 km², but the AOO is 8 km². Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is therefore also 8 km².

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 310
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 550

Range description

Caulotrupis parvus is a single-island endemic species from Santa Maria (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), where it is restricted to the highest elevations of the island (310 to 550 m asl) and to the unique native primary forest. However the species was also found recently by Meijer et al. 2011 in a Cryptomeria japonica plantation, prone to be cut soon.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 8
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

This species occurs in a native forest patch and in a small fragment of exotic forest in Santa Maria island. There is an inferred continuing decline in EOO due to the spread of invasive plants and observed loss of habitat quality. In addition one of the sites is an industrial Cryptomeria japonica plantation, prone to be cut soon, which will imply a reduction of EOO to half.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 8
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

There is an inferred continuing decline in AOO due to the spread of invasive plants and observed loss of habitat quality. In addition one of the localities is an industrial Cryptomeria japonica plantation, prone to be cut soon.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 2

Justification for number of locations

The main native complete forest is threatened by invasive plants. The additional location is a pulp Cryptomeria japonica plantation that will be cut soon.

Trend: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

Only one location of native forest left, that has a very low Index of Biotic Integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011) with a size of 0.09 km² and invasive plants that can drive this species to extinction very fast. The other location is a Cryptomeria japonica plantation that will be cut soon.

Population

Trend: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

The species is very rare and only known from a single sustainable subpopulation (the species occurs in a single native forest patch included in a Natural Reserve of Santa Maria island that has a very low Index of Biotic Integrity, Gaspar et al. 2011)), since the second known location is a Cryptomeria japonica plantation threaten by deforestation. A continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred from the ongoing habitat degradation due to invasions of alien plants, and deforestation of pulp plantation of Cryptomeria japonica.

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 2
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is very rare and only known from a single sustainable subpopulation, since the second known location is a Cryptomeria japonica plantation threatened by deforestation. A continuing decline in the number of subpopulations is inferred from the ongoing habitat degradation due to invasions of alien plants, and deforestation of production pulp plantation of Cryptomeria japonica.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Yes

Justification for fragmentation

Major land-use changes at all elevations in Santa Maria island promoted the creation of small patches of native and exotic forest. The species occurs in one natural forest fragment and in a small patch of exotic forest that are both isolated in a sea of pastures and Cryptomeria japonica plantations. The subpopulation of the exotic plantation is not sustainable in the next ten years and the single native forest patch is included the Natural Reserve of Santa Maria island that has a very low Index of Biotic Integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011).

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurs in the native forests of the Azores, surrounded by plantations of exotic trees and pastures, but also found in a Cryptomeria japonica plantation. This species has an altitudinal range between 310 and 550 m.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

Ongoing invasion of exotic plants that are changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil with impacts on native invertebrate species.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate
  • 16. Introduced vegetation

Ecology

Size: 0.23 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is an univoltine species. It feeds on dead wood.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 2.3.2. Agriculture & aquaculture - Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to deforestation. The most important ongoing threats to this species are Cryptomeria japonica wood & pulp plantations management and the spread of invasive plants (Hedychium gardnerianum and Pittosporum undulatum) that are changing the habitat structure in the main native forest, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. Based on Ferreira et al. 2016 the habitat will decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts), which may drive this species to extinction, because it is depending on humid forests.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 1.2. Land/water protection - Resource & habitat protection
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 5.1. Law & policy - Legislation
  • 5.2. Law & policy - Policies and regulations
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is protected by regional law (RAA 2012). Its habitat is in a regionally protected area (Santa Maria Natural Park). The Santa Maria Natural Park administration is currently starting control measures of the invasive plants. Further spread of invasive plants needs to be stopped in order to avoid any future declines of the species. Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. A general monitoring scheme for the invertebrate community in the habitat is in place, but the population of this particular species and its habitat needs to be monitored in more detail. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 8. Habitat Maintenance
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary an area-based management plan and a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the Pico Alto native forest and surrounded areas of non-native habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Donus multifidus (Israelson, 1984)

Species information

Synonyms

Hypera multifida Israelson, 1984

Common names

True weevil, Snout beetle, Weevil (English); Gorgulho (Portuguese)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Curculiniodae

Taxonomic notes

Donus multifidus was described from four individuals collected in Santa Maria island (Pico Alto), between 8.VII.1982 and 4.VIII.1983, deposited in G. Israelson collection (Israelson 1984b).

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 14

Figure 14.  

Donus multifidus from Pico Alto (Santa Maria, Azores) (Credit: Enésima Mendonça).

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 19

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

The area of its remaining native habitat is 0.09 km², but the AOO is 4 km². Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is therefore also 4 km².

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 450
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 550

Range description

Donus multifidus is a single-island endemic species from Santa Maria (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), where it is restricted to the highest elevations of the island (450 to 550 m asl) and to the unique native forest remnant included in a Natural Reserve of Santa Maria island that has a very low Index of Biotic Integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011).

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 4
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

This species occurs in a single native forest patch of Santa Maria island. There is an inferred continuing decline in EOO due to the spread of invasive plants and observed loss of habitat quality.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 4
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

This species occurs in a small fragment of native forest in Santa Maria island. The size of its remaining native habitat is now only around 0.09 km². The species continues in decline due to native forest destruction and habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 1

Justification for number of locations

The species occurs in a single native forest patch in the Santa Maria island.

Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species occurs in a single native forest patch included in a Natural Reserve of Santa Maria island that has a very low Index of Biotic Integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011).

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is very rare and only known from a single sustainable subpopulation. A continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred from the ongoing habitat degradation due to invasions of alien plants (e.g. Hedychium gardnerianum; Pittosporum undulatum), that are changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil decreasing the quality of the habitat with impacts on the species.

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 1
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species is very rare and only known from a single subpopulation.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurs in native forests of high altitude in Santa Maria island (Azores), with an altitudinal range between 450 and 550 m.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

Due to invasive plant species that are changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil with impacts on the species.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate

Ecology

Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Adults and larvae are herbivores and feed of plant tissues. This is an univoltine species.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to deforestation. The most important ongoing threats to this species are Cryptomeria japonica wood & pulp plantations management and the spread of invasive plants (Hedychium gardnerianum and Pittosporum undulatum) that are changing the habitat structure in the main native forest, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. Based on Ferreira et al. 2016 the habitat will decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts), which may drive this species to extinction, because it is dependend on humid forests.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 5. Law & policy
  • 5.1. Law & policy - Legislation
  • 5.2. Law & policy - Policies and regulations
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is protected by regional law (RAA 2012). Its habitat is in a regionally protected area (Natural Park of Santa Maria). Further spread of invasive plants needs to be stopped in order to avoid any future decline of the species. Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 8. Habitat Maintenance
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens in the Pico Alto region (including non-native habitats) and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary an area-based management plan and a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Drouetius azoricus (Drouet, 1859)

Species information

Synonyms

Laparocerus azoricus Drouet, 1859

Common names

True weevil, Snout beetle, Weevil (English); Gorgulho (Portuguese)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae

Taxonomic notes

Machado 2009 describes in detail all the subspecies of this taxon originally described by Drouet in 1859. Differences between the subspecies are based on shape of rostrum, thorax and scales.

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 15

Figure 15.  

Drouetius azoricus nitens from Flores (Azores) (Credit: Enésima Mendonça).

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 20

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is 23,800 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 76 km2.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 0
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 500

Range description

Drouetius azoricus is an endemic species with four subspecies, D. a. azoricus occurring in Faial, S. Jorge and Graciosa islands; D. a. nitens occurring in Occidental group (Corvo and Flores islands); D. a. parallelirostris restricted to Terceira island and D. a. separandus restricted to S. Miguel island (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010). D. a. parallelirostris is known from a small area within Terceira Natural Park.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 23,800
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The Extent of Occurrence includes large areas of unsuitable habitats. The species continues in decline due to native forest destruction at lower altitudes and habitat continuing degradation and fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 76
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species continues in decline due to native forest destruction at lower altitudes and habitat continuing degradation and fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 11

Justification for number of locations

This species occurs in eleven isolated locations at lower altitudes by the occidental group (Flores and Corvo islands), central group (Faial, S. Jorge, Graciosa and Terceira islands) and also in São Miguel. All these locations are under threat due to continuous change of the habitat as a consequence Human activities at lower elevations. The locations keeping native vegetation are also changing due to the spread of invasive plants (e.g. Pittosporum undulatum)

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Eleven locations known but the original area was larger due to major land-use changes in low elevation habitats.

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is rare (very few specimens known) and known from subpopulations in low elevation areas in several islands (Corvo, Flores, Faial, S. Jorge, Graciosa, Terceira and S. Miguel islands). A continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred from the ongoing habitat degradation due to human activities at lower elevations.

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 7
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is very rare (very few specimens known) and known from subpopulations in low elevation areas in seven islands (Corvo, Flores, Faial, S. Jorge, Graciosa, Terceira and S. Miguel islands). A continuing decline in the number of subpopulations is inferred from the ongoing habitat degradation due to human activities at lower elevations.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Yes

Justification for fragmentation

As a consequence of major past and ongoing land-use changes at low and middle elevations in all islands the seven subpoulations are restricted to small patches.

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

This species has four subspecies (D. a. azoricus present in Faial, S. Jorge and Graciosa islands; D. a. nitens present in Occidental group (Corvo and Flores islands); D. a. parallelirostris restricted to Terceira island and D. a. separandus restricted to S. Miguel island), and occurs in modified native forests (dominated by Erica azorica and Morella faya), exotic forests and semi-natural pastures (Machado 2009). Some specimens can also be found inside caves at Terceira island, possibly falling there when migrating to the soil (adults stay underground during the day). This species has an altitudinal range between 0 and 500 m.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

Due to major land-use changes at low elevations, with the destruction of many habitats for urbanization and implementation of agriculture activities.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate
  • 4. Grassland
  • 7.1. Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) - Caves
  • 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland

Ecology

Size: 0.62-0.82 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

It is frequent to find specimens in caves, since the adults stay underground during the day. The fact that the species is polyphagous facilitates its survival in a highly human modified territory at lower elevations. Adults and larvae are herbivores and feed on plant tissues. This is an univoltine species.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 1.1. Residential & commercial development - Housing & urban areas
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
  • 9.1.1. Pollution - Domestic & urban waste water - Sewage
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Terzopoulou et al. 2015, Triantis et al. 2010). One of the most important ongoing threat to this species is the continuous change of habitat due to Human activities at lower elevations. The sites keeping native vegetation are also changing due to the spread of invasive plants (e.g. Pittosporum undulatum). Based on Ferreira et al. 2016 the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and Habitat shifting & alteration).

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in a regionally protected area (Natural Park of Terceira). In the other six islands none of subpopulations are located within the range of protected areas. Further spread of invasive plants needs to be stopped in order to avoid any future declines of the species. Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. Formal education and awareness is needed to allow future investments in restored habitats at low elevations.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 7. Nutrient Cycling
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens in all the historical localities and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan in many of the historical localities. In addition, there is the need of special area-based management plans for most of the subpopulations.

Drouetius borgesi Machado, 2009

Species information

Common names

True weevil, Snout beetle, Weevil (English); Gorgulho (Portuguese)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae

Taxonomic notes

Machado 2009 describes in detail all the subspecies of this taxon. Differences between the subspecies are based on shape of rostrum, thorax and scales.

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 16

Figure 16.  

Drouetius borgesi borgesi from Terra Brava (Terceira, Azores) (Credit: Javier Torrent).

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 21

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

Drouetius borgesi is an endemic species with three subspecies: D. b. borgesi occurring in Terceira island; D. b. centralis occurring in Faial, Pico, S. Jorge and Graciosa islands and D. b. sanctmichaelis restricted to S. Miguel island (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010). D. borgesi is known from the Natural Forest Reserves of Caveiro (Pico); Pico Pinheiro (S. Jorge); Pico Galhardo, Serra de Sta Bárbara and Terra Brava (Terceira); and Pico da Vara (S. Miguel).

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 300
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1100

Range description

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is ca 11,600 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 92 km2.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 11,600
Trend: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

The Extent of Occurrence includes large areas of unsuitable habitats. This species continues to decline due to habitat degradation in the native forest (mostly due to invasive plants) and to habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 92
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species occurs in the native and exotic forests of the islands of the central group (Faial, Pico, S. Jorge, Graciosa and Terceira) and S. Miguel island. Possibly the AOO value is slightly overestimated. The area of occupancy of this species continues to decline due to habitat degradation in the native forest (mostly due to invasive plants) and to habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 17

Justification for number of locations

This species occurs in 17 native and exotic forest patches distributed by the islands of the central group (Faial, Pico, S. Jorge, Graciosa and Terceira islands) and S. Miguel island.

Trend: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

Seventeen locations known, but the original area was larger. Invasive plant species spreading (e.g. Hedychium gardnerianum) are changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil with impacts on the species.

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

D. borgesi is a widespread and still an abundant species in some pristine sites. The species currently has a decreasing population density due to the spread of the invasive plant Hedychium gardnerianum that is changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil with impacts on the species.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 17
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

D. borgesi is a widespread and still a highly abundant species. The species presents currently a stable population only in pristine sites. However, the spread of Hedychium gardnerianum) is changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil with impacts on the species and potential decline of the most disturbed subpopulations.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Yes

Justification for fragmentation

Major land-use changes at all elevations in all islands promoted the creation of small patches of native forest. The species occurs in 17 natural forest fragments that are isolated in a sea of pastures and Cryptomeria japonica plantations. In the last ten years many of those subpopulations were highly impacted by invasive plants that are changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. The trend of invasive plant species spread will continue in future with negative impacts in most of the subpopulations.

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

This species has three subspecies: D. b. borgesi present in Terceira island, inhabits native forests (dominated by Juniperus brevifolia, Ilex perado subsp. azorica, Laurus azorica and Erica azorica) and Cryptomeria plantations; D. b. centralis present in Faial, Pico, S. Jorge and Graciosa islands, inhabits in native and exotic forests, native plants on lavic formations (Erica azorica) and grasslands and natural pastures and D. b. sanctmichaelis restricted to S. Miguel island, inhabits native forests.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The spread of Hedychium gardnerianum is changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil with impacts on the species.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate
  • 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
  • 16. Introduced vegetation

Ecology

Size: 0.17 - 0.26 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This species has an altitudinal range between 300 and 1100 m. Adults and larvae are herbivores and feed on plant tissues, mostly leafs and during the night. Based on seasonal data from SLAM traps obtained in several islands between 2012 and 2016 (Borges et al. 2017b), the adults are active all year, being most abundant in spring and summer.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.1.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Triantis et al. 2010; Terzopoulou et al. 2015). The most important ongoing threats to this species are Cryptomeria japonica wood & pulp plantations management and the spread of invasive plants (e.g. Hedychium gardnerianum) that are changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 2. Land/water management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 4. Education & awareness
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in regionally protected areas (Natural Parks of Pico S. Jorge, Terceira and S. Miguel). The Terceira Natural Park administration is currently starting control measures of the invasive plants. Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years. Since this species occurs in relict native Azorean forests, some awareness measures were put recently in practice using for instance images from extreme macro (see Fig. 17 and Arroz et al. 2016)

Figure 17.  

Extreme macro photo of Drouetius borgesi borgesi from Terra Brava (Terceira, Azores) (Credit: Javier Torrent).

Other

Use type: International

Justification for use and trade

This species is not utilized.

Ecosystem service type: Important
Ecosystem services:
  • 8. Habitat Maintenance
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens in more sites and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Drouetius oceanicus Machado, 2009

Species information

Synonyms

Laparocerus azoricus Drouet, 1859

Common names

True weevil, Snout beetle, Weevil (English); Gorgulho (Portuguese)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae

Taxonomic notes

Machado 2009 describes in detail all the subspecies of this new taxon. Differences between the subspecies are based on shape of rostrum, thorax and scales.

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 18

Figure 18.  

Drouetius oceanicus tristis from Pico Timão (Graciosa, Azores) (Credit: Enésima Mendonça).

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 22

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is ca 22,000 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 40 km2.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 0
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 200

Range description

Drouetius oceanicus is an endemic species with two subspecies: D. o. oceanicus restricted to Terceira island and D. o. tristis occurring in Corvo, Faial, S. Jorge, Graciosa and S. Miguel islands (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010). The species occurs in coastal areas, but in Graciosa also at higher altitudes (Pico Timão).

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 22,000
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The Extent of Occurrence includes many unsuitable habitats not occupied by this species. The species continues in decline due to native forest destruction at lower elevations and habitat continuing destruction and fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 40
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species continues in decline due to native forest destruction at lower elevations and habitat continuing destruction and fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 6

Justification for number of locations

This species occurs in six isolated locations in the islands of Corvo, Faial, S. Jorge, Graciosa, Terceira and S. Miguel islands under threat.

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Six locations known but the original area was larger due to major changes in low elevation habitats. Possibly extinct in some of these six locations and in danger in the others due to continuing disturbance and land-use changes for urbanization ang agriculture activities.

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is extremely rare and there are six known subpopulations at low elevation areas in several islands (Corvo, Faial, S. Jorge, Graciosa, Terceira and São Miguel islands). A continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred from the ongoing habitat degradation due to human activities. Recently in 2016 (Borges et al. 2017a) found two specimens in the historical site from Terceira in a highly degraded marsh associated with native and exotic plants (Paul do Belo Jardim).

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 6
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is extremely rare and there are six known subpopulations at low elevations in several islands (Corvo, Faial, S. Jorge, Graciosa, Terceira and São Miguel islands). A continuing decline in the number of subpopulations is inferred from the ongoing habitat degradation due to human activities. Recently in 2016 few specimens were found in the historical site from Terceira in a highly degraded marsh associated with native and exotic plants (Paul do Belo Jardim) (Borges et al. 2017a).

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Yes

Justification for fragmentation

Major land-use changes at low and middle elevations in all islands promoted the creation of small patches of native and exotic forest. The species occurs in six islands in small patches of exotic habitats fragmented due to urban and agriculture development, that will keep occurring in the next ten years in all the subpopulations.

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

This species has two subspecies (D. o. oceanicus restricted to Terceira island and D. o. tristis present in Corvo, Faial, S. Jorge, Graciosa and S. Miguel islands), and occurs in modified native forests (dominated by Erica azorica and Morella faya), exotic forests and marsh areas (in Terceira) (Machado 2009; Borges et al. 2017a). Some of the historical llocalities are completely destroyed and urbanized or with intensive pastures, which may imply local extinction. The subpopulation of Terceira is located in a small water course near a march area surrounded by an industrial area. This species has an altitudinal range between 0 and 200 m.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

The habitat is being highly modified and is currently under extreme disturbance regimes due to urbanization and agriculture activities at low elevations.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate
  • 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
  • 5.16. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools
  • 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
  • 16. Introduced vegetation

Ecology

Size: 0.70-0.82 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Adults and larvae are herbivores and feed on plant tissues. The fact that the species is polyphagous facilitates its survival in a highly human modified territory at lower elevations. This is an univoltine species.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 1.1. Residential & commercial development - Housing & urban areas
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Terzopoulou et al. 2015, Triantis et al. 2010). One of the most important ongoing threat to this species is the continuous change of habitat due to Human activities at lower elevations, mostly urbanization and pollution, but also agriculture activities. The sites with still native vegetation are also changing due to the spread of invasive plants (e.g. Pittosporum undulatum) and managment of pulp plantations. Based on Ferreira et al. 2016 the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration due to severe weather).

Conservation

Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Further spread of invasive plants needs to be stopped in order to avoid any future declines of the species. Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. Formal education and awareness is needed to allow future investments in restored habitats at low elevations.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 7. Nutrient Cycling
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens at lower elevations and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan. In addition, there is the need of special area-based management plans for most of the subpopulations. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Neocnemis occidentalis Crotch, 1867

Species information

Common names

True weevil, Snout beetle, Weevil (English); Gorgulho (Portuguese)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 23

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

This species is considered extinct in Azores (Terzopoulou et al. 2015).

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 450
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 550

Range description

Neocnemis occidentalis is a single-island endemic species from Santa Maria (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010).

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 0-4
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Based on the area of a unique cell of the historical locality. The species is considered extinct in the historical locality possibly due to habitat destruction. Not sampled recently despite some intensive field work (Borges et al. 2005, Borges et al. 2016).

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 0-4
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Based on the area of a unique cell of the historical locality. The species is considered extinct in the historical locality possibly due to habitat destruction. Not sampled recently despite some intensive field work (Borges et al. 2005, Borges et al. 2016).

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 0-1

Justification for number of locations

The species is potentially extinct due to destruction of the habitat in all its range (Terzopoulou et al. 2015).

Trend: Unknown

Justification for trend

Possibly went extinct more than 10 years ago.

Population

Trend: Unknown

Justification for trend

The species is only known from a single subpopulation. A continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred from historical records. According to Terzopoulou et al. 2015 this species was extinct more than ten years ago.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 0-1
Trend: Unknown

Justification for trend

The species is only known from a single subpopulation. According to Terzopoulou et al. 2015 this species was extinct more than ten years ago.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species occured in the native forest of Santa Maria Island (Azores), with an altitudinal range between 450 and 550 m. It is considered extinct.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

Since the historical record, the native habitat in the island of Santa Maria was greatly reduced to accomodate Cryptomeria japonica plantations (Triantis et al. 2010). In the last ten years invasive plant species are spreading (e.g. Hedychium gardnerianum; Pittosporum undulatum) changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil which will impact the species habitat quality.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate

Ecology

Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

It is a phytophagous species. This is an univoltine species.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Terzopoulou et al. 2015). The most important ongoing threat to this species is the spread of invasive plants (Hedychium gardnerianum and Pittosporum undulatum) that are changing the habitat structure in the main native forest, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. Based on Ferreira et al. 2016 the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in a regionally protected area (Natural Park of Santa Maria). Degraded habitats should be restored and of critical importance is the removal of invasive non-native species where this is possible. A strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years. Formal education and awareness is needed to allow future investments in restored habitats invaded by invasive plants.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 8. Habitat Maintenance
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens at Pico Alto (Santa Maria) and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary an area-based management plan and a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Phloeosinus gillerforsi Bright, 1987

Species information

Common names

Bark beetle (English); Caruncho-do-cedro-do-mato (Portuguese)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae

Taxonomic notes

This species was described from individuals collected in Pico island, between 29.VII.1983 and 25.6.1985. These are deposited in G. Israelson collection and in the Canadian National Collection of Insects. Adults are easily recognized by the convex elytral declivity on which the first and third interstriae are, at most, very weakly elevated and all interstriae bear a row of minute to small granules and distinct punctures and by the distinct, median carina on the frons of both sexes (Bright 1987).

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 24

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is ca 10,100 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 40 km2.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 0
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1200

Range description

Phloeosinus gillerforsi is an endemic species present in Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira and S. Miguel islands (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from Natural Forest Reserves of Mistério da Prainha (Pico); Pico Pinheiro (S. Jorge); Biscoito da Ferraria and Serra de Sta. Bárbara (Terceira); Atalhada and Pico da Vara (S. Miguel).

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 10,100
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is well adapted to Juniperus brevifolia, species that is protected, but is reducing its area due to invasive plants and forest fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 40
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species occurs in the native forests of the Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira and S. Miguel islands. The AOO value including native forest is around 30 km2. The species may decline due to invasive plants that are promoting host tree Juniperus brevifolia habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 8

Justification for number of locations

This species occurs in eigth isolated native forest patches in the Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira and S. Miguel islands.

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Eight locations known but the original area was larger. In the last ten years invasive plant species are spreading (e.g. Hedychium gardnerianum; Hydrangea macrophylla, Pittosporum undulatum, Clethra arborea), changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil which will impact the species habitat quality.

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

P. gillerforsi is a widespread and particularly abundant species in native forests (very common in the host tree Juniperus brevifolia). The species is currently abundant but a declining in the abundance of some subpopulation is inferred from the fragmentation and declining of the host species Juniperus brevifolia.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 8
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

P. gillerforsi is a widespread and particularly abundant species in native forests (very common in the host tree Juniperus brevifolia). A declining in the number of subpopulations is inferred from the fragmentation and declining in the abundance of the host species Juniperus brevifolia.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurs in native forests dominated by the main host Azorean endemic tree Juniperus brevifolia in Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira and S. Miguel islands (Azores), with an altitudinal range between 0 and 1200 m.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable

Justification for trend

The habitat is more or less stable since the host plant is protected.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate

Ecology

Size: 0.32 cm
Generation length (yr): 0
Dependency of single sp?: Yes
Dependent on species: Juniperus brevifolia
Dependent on IUCN Status: Vulnerable (VU)

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Adults and larvae are herbivores and feed on plant tissues of the host tree, the Azorean Cedar Juniperus brevifolia. Based on seasonal data from SLAM traps obtained in several islands between 2012 and 2016 (Borges et al. 2017b), the adults are active all year, being most abundant in spring and autumn.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Terzopoulou et al. 2015, Triantis et al. 2010). One of the most important ongoing threat to this species is the fragmentation of the host plant habitat due to invasive plants (e.g. Hedychium gardnerianum; Hydrangea macrophylla, Pittosporum undulatum, Clethra arborea) and Cryptomeria japonica pulp plantation management. Based on Ferreira et al. 2016 the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts).

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in regionally protected areas (Natural Parks of Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira, Pico and S. Miguel). Further spread of invasive plants needs to be stopped in order to avoid any future declines of the host plant species. Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 7. Nutrient Cycling
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens in small fragments with the host plant Juniperus brevifolia. and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan in some areas. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Pseudechinosoma nodosum Hustache, 1936

Species information

Common names

True weevil, Snout beetle, Weevil (English); Gorgulho-casca-de-noz (Portuguese).

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 19

Figure 19.  

Pseudechinosoma nodosum from Pico Alto (Santa Maria, Azores) (Credit: Enésima Mendonça).

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 25

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

Pseudechinosoma nodosum is an endemic species present in Flores, Faial, Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira, S. Miguel and Santa Maria islands (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from Natural Forest Reserves of Caveiro and Mistério da Prainha (Pico); Pico Pinheiro (S. Jorge); Pico Galhardo and Terra Brava (Terceira); Graminhais and Pico da Vara (S. Miguel) and Pico Alto (Santa Maria).

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 400
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1200

Range description

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is ca 33,700 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 100 km2.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 33,700
Trend: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

The EOO includes large areas of unsuitable habitats. The EOO of this species continues to decline due to habitat degradation in the native forest (mostly due to invasive plants) and to habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 100
Trend: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

The species occurs in the native and exotic forests of the Flores, Faial, Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira, S. Miguel and Santa Maria islands. Possibly the AOO value is slightly overestimated. The species continues in decline due to native forest destruction and habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 13

Justification for number of locations

This species occurs in 13 native and exotic forest fragmented patches in the Flores, Faial, Pico, S. Jorge,Terceira, S. Miguel and Santa Maria islands.

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Thirteen locations known but the original area was larger. The natural forest reserves of Pico Pinheiro (S. Jorge); Pico Galhardo (Terceira) and Pico Alto (St. Maria) have a very low Index of Biotic Integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011) and in the last ten years invasive plant species spreading (e.g. Hedychium gardnerianum; Pittosporum undulatum) are changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil decreasing the quality of the habitat with impacts on the species.

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

P. nodosum is a widespread and particularly abundant species in native and few patches of exotic forests. The species currently has a decreasing population density due to the spread of the invasive plant Hedychium gardnerianum that is changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil with impacts on the species

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 13
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

P. nodosum is a widespread and particularly abundant species in native and few patches of exotic forests. A decreasing in the number of subpopulations is inferred as a consequence of the spread of the invasive plant Hedychium gardnerianum that is changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil with impacts on the species.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurs in native forests (mainly dominated by Juniperus brevifolia, Laurus azorica and Ilex perado spp. azorica) and Cryptomeria japonica plantations in Flores, Faial, Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira, S. Miguel and Santa Maria islands (Azores), with an altitudinal range between 400 and 1200 m.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Triantis et al. 2010). Currently the quality of the habitat in part of its range is decreasing due to the invasions of alien plants (namely Hedychium gardnerianum) and Cryptomeria japonica plantations managemen.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate
  • 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
  • 16. Introduced vegetation

Ecology

Size: 0.18 - 0.25 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is an univoltine species. Adults and larvae are herbivores and feed on plant tissues. This is a dead wood specialist (i.e. saprophagous).

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Triantis et al. 2010, Terzopoulou et al. 2015). The most important ongoing threats to this species are Cryptomeria japonica wood & pulp plantations management an the spread of invasive plants changing the structure of the forest. Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 2. Land/water management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 4. Education & awareness
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in regionally protected areas (Natural Parks of Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira, Pico, S. Miguel and Santa Maria). The Terceira Natural Park administration is currently starting control measures of the invasive plants. Further spread of invasive plants needs to be stopped in most islands order to avoid any future declines of the species. Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years.

Other

Use type: International

Justification for use and trade

The species is not utilized.

Ecosystem service type: Important
Ecosystem services:
  • 7. Nutrient Cycling
  • 8. Habitat Maintenance
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens in more native forest sites and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan in some of the islands. An Area-based Management Plan is needed for some of the subpopulations, namely in Santa Maria and S. Miguel. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Sphaericus velhocabrali Israelson, 1984

Species information

Common names

Cigarette beetle, Death wacth beetle, Drugstore beetle, Furniture beetle, Powerpost beetle (English)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Anobiidae

Taxonomic notes

Sphaericus velhocabrali was described from a individuals collected in Santa. Maria island, on the 9.VII.1982 (Israelson 1984a).

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 26

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

Sphaericus velhocabrali is a single-island endemic species from Santa Maria (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010).

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 0
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 150

Range description

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is 8 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 8 km2. The species cccurs only in a small coastal area at Ponta de São Lourenço.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 8
Trend: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

This species occurs in habitats associated with agricultural activities of Santa Maria island. Possibly the EOO value is slightly overestimated since the species has a very small range. The species continues in decline due to human land-use change and agricultural activities at low elevations.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 8
Trend: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

This species occurs in habitats associated with agricultural activities of Santa Maria island. Possibly the AOO value is slightly overestimated. The species continues in decline due to human disturbance.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 1

Justification for number of locations

This species occurs in habitats associated with agricultural activities (vineyards) of Santa Maria island.

Trend: Unknown

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is only known from a single subpopulation on Santa Maria island. A continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred due to the ongoing threats, mainly due to human disturbance associated to agricultural activities.

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 1
Trend: Unknown

Justification for trend

The species is only known from a single subpopulation on Santa Maria island.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

This species occurs in habitats associated to agricultural areas (vineyards) in Sant Maria island (Azores), with an altitudinal range between 0 and 150 m (Israelson 1984a).

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Due to human disturbance associated to agricultural activities.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
  • 16. Introduced vegetation

Ecology

Size: 0.14 - 0.20 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is an univoltine species. S. velhocabrali is an herbivorous xylophagous species (i.e. whose diet consists primarily of wood).

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 1.1. Residential & commercial development - Housing & urban areas
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Triantis et al. 2010). Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration). In addition, environmental degradation is also occurring due to agriculture activities an invasive species, such as Hedychium gardnerianum, since this species is changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. Main additional threat will be the change of vineyards to other land-use, or urban development due to tourism.

Conservation

Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4.1. Education & awareness - Formal education
  • 4.3. Education & awareness - Awareness & communications
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law, but some enforcement should be put in place in this direction. Thus, it is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. Since this species is one of the few endemic species of insects in the Azores that lives associated with vineyards, it is suggested that some awareness measures should be put in practice, due to its unique natural value of the species and cultural value of vineyards for the Azorean region. Therefore, current habitat should be maintained and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change.

Other

Use type: International

Justification for use and trade

The species is not utilized.

Ecosystem service type: Important
Ecosystem services:
  • 8. Habitat Maintenance
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens in additional coastal areas in Santa Maria and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan.

Athous azoricus Platia & Gudenzi, 2002

Species information

Common names

Click beetle, Wireworm (English); Escaravelho-mola-dos-Açores (Portuguese)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Elateridae

Taxonomic notes

Athous azoricus was described from a single male collected in S. Miguel island. Female has the same coloration of the male; it differs latter by the more convex and quadrangular pronotum and shorter antennae not reaching for two articles the apices of the posterior angles of pronotum (Platia and Borges 2002).

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 20

Figure 20.  

Athous azoricus from Terceira (Azores) (Credit: Enésima Mendonça).

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 27

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is ca 14,000 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 44 km2.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 50
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 300

Range description

Athous azoricus is an endemic species present in Flores, Graciosa, Terceira and S. Miguel islands (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010).

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 14,000
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species keeps a decline trend due to native forest destruction, landscape transformation associated to agricultural activities, introduced species and habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 44
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species occurs in native forests patches of the Flores, Graciosa, Terceira, and S. Miguel islands. The species keeps a decline trend due to native forest destruction, landscape transformation associated to agricultural activities, introduced species and habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 5

Justification for number of locations

This species occurs in five native and exotic forest patches in the Flores, Graciosa, Terceira and S. Miguel islands.

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Five locations known that were highly impacted by land use changes and invasive plants in the last ten years.

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

This species is rare. There is an inferred continuing decline in the number of mature individuals since the five known subpopulations are under threat due to major land-use changes at lower elevations.

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 5
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

This species is rare. There is an inferred continuing decline in the number of subpopulations thatare under threat due to major land-use changes at lower elevations.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Yes

Justification for fragmentation

Major land-use changes at low and middle elevations promoted the creation of small patches of native and exotic forest in all islands. The species occurs in five natural and exotic forest fragments that are isolated in a sea of pastures and Cryptomeria japonica plantations. In the last ten years a spread of invasive plants is changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants.

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurs in native and exotic forests of the Flores, Graciosa, Terceira, and S. Miguel islands (Azores), with an altitudinal range between 50 and 300 m.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

Impact of introduced invasive plant speciesm namely Hedychium gardnerianum and Pittosporum undulatum and human activities decreases the quality of habitat at lower and middle elevations.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate
  • 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations

Ecology

Size: 0.95 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Adults and larvae are herbivores and feed of plant tissues. This is an univoltine species.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Terzopoulou et al. 2015, Triantis et al. 2010). Currently the main threat to this species is the impact of introduced species and the agricultural activities, including the impact of Cryptomeria japonica wood & pulp plantations management. Based on Ferreira et al. 2016 the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts).

Conservation

Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years. Formal education and awareness is needed to allow future investments in restored habitats invaded by invasive plants.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 7. Nutrient Cycling
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens in additional native forest fragments in several islands and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary a area-based management plan and a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Athous pomboi Platia & Borges, 2002

Species information

Common names

Click beetle, Wireworm (English); Escaravelho-mola-de-Santa-Maria (Portuguese)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Elateridae

Taxonomic notes

Athous pomboi was described from two individuals collected in Santa Maria island, between 20.VIII.1997 and 27.VIII.1997. Both deposited in the University of Azores in Terceira at the "Dalberto Teixeira Pombo collection". This new species is distinguished from A. azoricus essentially by the darker colour, in the male by the greater convexity of pronotum, the shape of anterior frontal margin, and shorter antennae (Platia and Borges 2002).

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 21

Figure 21.  

Athous pomboi from Pico Alto (Santa Maria, Azores) (Credit: Enésima Mendonça).

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 28

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is 40 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 40 km2.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 100
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 550

Range description

Athous pomboi is a single-island endemic species restricted to Santa Maria (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from Natural Forest Reserve of Pico Alto.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 40
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

This species occurs in several native and exotic forest patches of Santa Maria island. The area of its remaining native habitat is now only around 0.09 km². The extent of occurrence of this species continues in decline due to habitat degradation in the native forest (mostly due to invasive plants) and to habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 40
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species occurs in native and exotic forests of the Sta. Maria island. The size of its remaining native habitat is now only 0.09 km². The area of occupancy of this species continues in decline due to habitat degradation in the native forest (mostly due to invasive plants) and to habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 4

Justification for number of locations

This species occurs in one native and three exotic forest patches in Sta. Maria island.

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Four locations that were highly impacted by invasive plants in the last ten years. The native forest location has a very low Index of Biotic Integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011) with a area of 0.09 km² and invasive plants can drive this species to extinction very fast.

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is very rare in all known locations in Sta. Maria island. A continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred due to small patches and the expansion of alien plants.

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 2
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is very rare in all known locations in Sta. Maria island. A continuing decline in the number of subpopulations is inferred due to small patches and the expansion of alien plants.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Yes

Justification for fragmentation

Major land-use changes at all elevations in S. Maria island promoted the creation of small patches of native and exotic forest. The species occurs in one natural forest fragment and small not sustainable small patches of exotic forest that are isolated in a sea of pastures and Cryptomeria japonica plantations. With exception of the native forest all the other sites are under severe threat.

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurs in native forests, Cryptomeria japonica plantations and Acacia spp. exotic forests in S. Maria (Azores), with an altitudinal range between 100 and 550 m.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

In the last ten years invasive plant species are spreading (e.g. Hedychium gardnerianum; Pittosporum undulatum) changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil which will impact the species habitat quality.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate
  • 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
  • 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
  • 16. Introduced vegetation

Ecology

Size: 0.94 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Adults and larvae are herbivores and feed on plant tissues, being active during the night. Based on seasonal data from SLAM traps obtained in several islands between 2012 and 2016 (Borges et al. 2017b), the adults are active all year, being most abundant in summer. This is an univoltine species.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 2.3. Agriculture & aquaculture - Livestock farming & ranching
  • 8.2.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Problematic native species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Triantis et al. 2010, Terzopoulou et al. 2015). One of the most important ongoing threats to this species is the spread of invasive plants (Hedychium gardnerianum and Pittosporum undulatum), agriculture activities, Cryptomeria japonica pulp plantations management and habitat degradation in the unique site of native forest. Based on Ferreira et al. 2016 the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its main native habitat is in a regionally protected area (Natural Park of Santa Maria). Further spread of invasive plants needs to be stopped in order to avoid any future declines of the species. Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 7. Nutrient Cycling
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens in additional fragments of exotic forest in S. Maria and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary an area-based management plan and a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Heteroderes azoricus (Tarnier, 1860)

Species information

Synonyms

Oophorus azoricus Tarnier, 1860

Common names

Click beetle (English); Escaravelho-mola (Portuguese)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Elateridae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 29

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is ca 39,000 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 200 km2.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 0
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 500

Range description

Heteroderes azoricus is an endemic species occurring in all Azorean islands (Borges et al. 2010), known from the Natural Forest Reserve of Pico Alto in Santa Maria.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 39,000
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The Extent of Occurrence includes large areas of unsuitable habitats. The species keeps a decline trend due to native forest destruction at lower elevations and habitat continuing destruction and fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 200
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species keeps a decline trend due to native forest destruction and habitat fragmentation at lower elevations.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 35

Justification for number of locations

This is a widespread species that occurs in 35 locations of native and exotic forests and in agricultural landuses of the Flores, Faial, Graciosa, Terceira, S. Miguel and Sta. Maria islands.

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

35 locations, in which many of them in the last ten years were highly impacted by invasive species spread, exotic forest cut, intensive pasture management and urban development. Possibly some of these locations are not currently adequate for the species.

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

H. azoricus is a widespread and particularly abundant species in several habitats. A decline in the population abundance is inferred as a consequence of the spread invasive plant species, exotic forest cut, intensive pasture management and urban development.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 9
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

H. azoricus is a widespread and particularly abundant species in several habitats. We assume stability in the number of subpopulations, despite de fact that some subpopulations are under threat.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: No

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurs in several habitats, like native forests, exotic forests, lava formations, grasslands and in agricultural land-uses of the Flores, Faial, Graciosa, Terceira, S. Miguel and Sta. Maria islands (Azores). It is widespread by the low elevation habitats in the archipelago (altitudinal range between 0 and 500 m).

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

Many of the fragments in the last ten years were highly impacted by invasive species spread, exotic forest cut, intensive pasture management and urban development. Possibly some of the sites are not currently adequate for the species.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate
  • 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
  • 4. Grassland
  • 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
  • 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
  • 16. Introduced vegetation

Ecology

Size: 0.85-10.5 cm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Adults and larvae are herbivores and feed on plant tissues. It is common to find many individuals under the bark of exotic trees. Based on seasonal data from SLAM traps obtained in several islands between 2012 and 2016 (Borges et al. 2017b) most of the adults are active in summer. This is an univoltine species.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.1.2. Agriculture & aquaculture - Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Triantis et al. 2010, Terzopoulou et al. 2015). Currently agriculture activities, Cryptomeria japonica plantations as well as invasive plants are promoting dramatic changes in the low elevation habitats. Based on Ferreira et al. 2016 the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate changes (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its main native habitat is in a regionally protected area (Natural Park of Santa Maria). In the remaining islands the species range is outside protected areas. Further spread of invasive plants needs to be stopped in order to avoid any future declines of the species. Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 7. Nutrient Cycling
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens in historical sites and in additional low elevation sites and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Cryptolestes azoricus (Ratti, 1972)

Species information

Synonyms

Leptophloeus azoricus Ratti, 1972

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Laemophloeidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 30

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

The area of its remaining native habitat is 0.09 km², but the AOO is 4 km². Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is therefore also 4 km².

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 400
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 550

Range description

Cryptolestes azoricus is a single-island endemic species from Santa Maria (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010). This species is only known from the original Holotype for which there is no precise locality in the island, but possibly is located in the small remnant of native forest at Pico Alto Natural Forest reserve.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 4
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

This species possibly occurs in the only remaining native forest patch from Santa Maria island. There is an inferred continuing decline in EOO due to the spread of invasive plants and observed loss of habitat area in the last 100 years and additional loss of habitat quality in the last 10 years.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 4
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Based on one locality, the main native forest remaining in the island. There is an inferred continuing decline in AOO due to the spread of invasive plants and observed loss of habitat area in the last 100 years and additional loss of habitat quality in the last 10 years.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 1

Justification for number of locations

The main current native forest that is highly threatened by invasive plants, namely Hedychium gardnerianum and Pittosporum undulatum that are changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil which will impact the species habitat quality.

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Only one location of native forest left that has a very low Index of Biotic Integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011) with a area of 0.09 km² and invasive plants can drive this species to extinction very fast The other possibe locations are now with exotic plantations of Cryptomeria japonica or pastures.

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is very rare and only known from a single possible sustainable subpopulation. A continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred from recent past deforestation and the ongoing habitat degradation due to invasions of alien plants.

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 1
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is very rare and only known from a single possible sustainable subpopulation that may become extinct due to recent past deforestation and the ongoing habitat degradation due to invasions of alien plants.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species possibly occurs in the single native forests patch of Santa Maria, surrounded by plantations of exotic trees and pastures. This species has an altitudinal range between 400 and 500 m.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

In the last ten years invasive plant species are spreading (e.g. Hedychium gardnerianum; Pittosporum undulatum) changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil which will impact the species habitat quality

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate

Ecology

Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is a predator that lives under bark of native trees. This is an univoltine species.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to major deforestation (Triantis et al. 2010). The most important ongoing threats to this species are Cryptomeria japonica wood & pulp plantations management andthe spread of invasive plants (Hedychium gardnerianum and Pittosporum undulatum) that are changing the habitat structure in the main native forest, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. Based on Ferreira et al. 2016 the habitat will decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration), which may drive this species to extinction, because it is depending on humid forests.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in a regionally protected area (Natural Park of Santa Maria). The Santa Maria Natural Park administration is currently starting control measures of the invasive plants. Further spread of invasive plants needs to be stopped in order to avoid any future declines of the species. Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. A general monitoring scheme for the invertebrate community in the habitat is in place, but the population of this particular species and its habitat needs to be monitored in more detail. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 12. Biocontrol
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens in the surrounding areas of Pico Alto (S, Maria) and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary an area-based management plan and a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Metophthalmus occidentalis Israelson, 1984

Species information

Common names

Mould beetle, Minute brown, Plaster beetle, Scavenger beetle (English)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Latridiidae

Taxonomic notes

This species was described from two individuals, collected in Santa Maria island (Pico Alto), between 4.VIII.1983 and 6.VIII.1983. These specimens are deposited in G. Israelson and G. Gillerfors collections. The Azorean species differ of the Macaronesian forms by uniform body colour, broader prothorax, non-raised elytral interstriae, considerably smaller size, more convex elytra and/or in details of the upper-side sculpture (Israelson 1984b).

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 22

Figure 22.  

Metophthalmus occidentalis from Caldeira da Graciosa (Graciosa, Azores) (Credit: Enésima Mendonça).

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 31

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is ca 23,000 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 48 km2.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 100
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 550

Range description

Metophthalmus occidentalis is an endemic species present in Faial, Graciosa, S. Miguel and Santa Maria islands (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from Natural Forest Reserve of Pico Alto (Santa Maria) and occurring also in some exotic plantations in the other islands.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 23,000
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The Extent of Occurrence includes large areas of unsuitable habitats. The species keeps a decline trend due to native forest destruction and habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 48
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species occurs in several native and exotic forests of the Faial, Graciosa, S. Miguel and Santa Maria islands. The species continues in decline due to native forest destruction and habitat fragmentation.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 7

Justification for number of locations

The species occurs in seven exotic and native forest patches in the Faial, Graciosa, S. Miguel and Santa Maria islands.

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Seven locations that were highly impacted by invasive plants in the last ten years, and native forest patch included in a Natural Reserve of Santa Maria island has a very low Index of Biotic Integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011).

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

M. occidentalis is a widespread and particularly abundant species in native and exotic forests. A decline in the population abundance is inferred as a consequence of the spread invasive plant species and exotic forest cut.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 4
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

M. occidentalis is a widespread and particularly abundant species in native and exotic forests. We assume stability in the number of subpopulations, despite de fact that some subpopulations are under threat.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: No

Habitat (narrative)

This species occurs in native forests, exotic forests (dominated by Pittosporum undulatum) and Cryptomeria japonica plantations in several Azorean islands (Faial, Graciosa, S. Miguel and Santa Maria islands), with an altitudinal range between 100 and 500 m.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Many of the fragments in the last ten years were highly impacted by invasive species spread and exotic forest cut.Possibly some of the sites are not currently adequate for the species.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate
  • 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
  • 16. Introduced vegetation

Ecology

Generation length (yr): 0
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This species is a descomposer of organic matter living in the soil. Based on seasonal data from SLAM traps obtained in several islands between 2012 and 2016 (Borges et al. 2017b), the adults are active all year, being most abundant in spring and summer. This is bivoltine species.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 2.2.1. Agriculture & aquaculture - Wood & pulp plantations - Small-holder plantations
  • 8.1.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species
Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 11.1. Climate change & severe weather - Habitat shifting & alteration
  • 11.2. Climate change & severe weather - Droughts

Justification for threats

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Triantis et al. 2010). The main current threats are Cryptomeria japonica wood & pulp plantations management and the advance of the invasive plant Hedychium gardnerianum that is changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. Based on Ferreira et al. 2016 the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting & alteration).

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 4. Education & awareness
  • 5.4.3. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement - Sub-national level

Justification for conservation actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in regionally protected areas (Natural Parks of S. Miguel and Santa Maria). Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Ecosystem services:
  • 7. Nutrient Cycling
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find extant specimens in additional low elevaton sites in several islands and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2011).

Catops velhocabrali Blas & Borges, 1998

Species information

Common names

Azorean small scavenger beetle (English)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Leiodidae

Taxonomic notes

Catops velhocabrali was described from a single male collected in Santa Maria island, from 12 to 18.VI.1990 (holotype). It is deposited in the University of Azores in Terceira ("Dalberto Teixeira Pombo collection"). Catops velhocabrali differs from its probable nearest C. thurepalmi and C. antoniomachadoi from the Canaries, by having a stronger and more convex general appearance and a less transverse pronotum. It also differs in the antennae, maxillary palpus and aedeagus (Blas and Borges 1999).

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Reviewers

Anja Danielczak

Editor

Axel Hochkirch

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 32

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is 12 km2 and the maximum area of occupancy (AOO) is 12 km2.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 450
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 550

Range description

Catops velhocabrali is a single-island endemic species from Santa Maria (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from Natural Forest Reserve of Pico Alto.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 12
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

This species occurs in native and exotic forest patches and geological formations of Santa Maria island. The species continues in decline due to native forest destruction, habitat fragmentation and degradation of the geologic formations.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 12
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species occurs in native and exotic forests and geological formations of the Santa Maria islands. The area of its remaining native habitat is now only 0.09 km². The species continues in decline due to native forest destruction, habitat fragmentation and degradation of the geologic formations.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 1

Justification for number of locations

This species occurs in native and exotic forest patches and geological formations at Pico Alto Santa Maria island.

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

One location included in a Natural Reserve of Santa Maria island that has a very low Index of Biotic Integrity (Gaspar et al. 2011) as a consequence of a dramatic spread of invasive plants (e.g. Hedychium gardnerianum; Pittosporum undulatum), that are changing the structure of the forest and the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil decreasing the quality of the habitat with impacts on the species.

Population

Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend