Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic Paper
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Taxonomic Paper
The communities of terrestrial macrofungi in different forest types in vicinities of Khanty-Mansiysk (middle taiga zone of West Siberia)
expand article infoNina Filippova, Tatiana Bulyonkova§
‡ Yugra State University, 628012, Chekhova street, 16, Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia
§ A.P. Ershov Institute of Informatics Systems Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090, prospekt Lavrentyeva, 6, Novosibirsk, Russia
Open Access

Abstract

Background

The diversity of macrofungi in the vicinities of Khanty-Mansiysk (Yugra, Russia) was surveyed using a method of permanent sampling plots. Ten plots, each consisting of a number of micro-plots, were established in several different communities ranging from old-growth mixed taiga forest to its derivatives in cutting succession and bogged areas. For more complete registration of the mycota, plots were supplemented with random walking routes directly nearby. Survey results were subjected to various quantitative analyses which allowed not only to evaluate the diversity of fungi but also to obtain valuable information on occurrence, abundance and ecology of individual species as well as community structure and its dynamics in the course of ecological succession. The paper reports the results of the first year of observations.

New information

460 species of terrestrial macrofungi revealed in a poorly explored area in middle taiga of West Siberia. The plot-based study revealed differences between communities of terrestrial macrofungi of old coniferous forests, their after-cutting secondary formations and bogged stages. The survey allowed to reveal records of 3 species listed in the Red Data Book of Russia and 9 species listed in the Red Data Book of Yugra.

Keywords

biodiversity, macrofungi, funga, boreal forest, West Siberia

Introduction

Terrestrial macrofungi are a crucial component of boreal forest ecosystems playing several significant roles, the most notable being their saprotrophic function and mycorrhizal symbiosis with trees. Basidial macromycetes are the key decomposers of highly recalcitrant coniferous litter; as mycorrhizal partners of trees, they enable the survival of the forest in harsh conditions of the north. The species diversity of terrestrial macrofungi may be several times higher compared to that of plants in coniferous forests and the biomass of mycelium in forest floor is comparable to that of the forest undergrowth (Burova 1986). Terrestrial macrofungi are an important food source of insects and other forest animals; a number of edible and medicinal species are commercially important for man.

Conifers cover vast areas of boreal zone of West Siberia. Low human population density and historical factors have helped to preserve relatively intact massive areas of zonal coniferous forests there. At the same time, the region has always been under-studied mycologically, with most of the research concentrated around large urban scientific centres, notably in Tomsk, Novosibirsk and Yekaterinburg. The region does not have a comprehensive analogue of “Funga Nordica” (Knudsen and Vesterholt 2008); existing checklists are few and only cover fragments of the whole territory with a varying degree of fullness.

While surveying species diversity remains the top priority for our region, it is believed that plot-based studies of fungal communities can yield additional valuable information about the ecology of individual species and about community structure. Thereby, a series of permanent plots for observations of terrestrial macrofungi was laid out in different forest types in the vicinities of Khanty-Mansiysk in the spring of 2015. This paper reports the results of the first year of observations. Although the manpower was limited (only one person was employed on the plots during vegetation season), it is believed that the results can be considered as representative for the surrounding area.

Materials and methods

Site description

The studied area is located in the middle taiga zone of West Siberia. The climate is continental subarctic according to the Köppen climate classification. The average annual temperature is –1.3 °C, the mean temperature of the coldest month (January) –19.8 °C, the warmest month is July with its average of 18 °C (Bulatov 2007). Vegetation of the middle taiga zone of West Siberia is characterised by dark coniferous and pine forests and their secondary formations. The forests are made up of spruce (Picea obovata), Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica) and fir (Abies sibirica) tree canopy and the undergrowth of various small herbs, ericoid shrubs and feather mosses. The dark coniferous forests are replaced by their secondary communities with Pinus sylvestris, Betula spp. and Populus tremula. The middle taiga of West Siberia is a highly bogged region, with peatlands covering up to 50% of its area. The transition between forests and bogs is represented by pine-birch and pine-dwarfshrub forests (Il'ina et al. 1985).

For the purpose of permanent monitoring, an area located 20 km from the Khanty-Mansiysk town was chosen which is at the same time situated within the borders of the natural park «Samarovskiy Chugas» and is relatively intact (Fig. 1). A number of clear-cuts were undertaken here from 5 to 30 years ago which diversified old coniferous forests by their secondary communities. The detailed description of the studied plots is as follows:

Figure 1.  

Position of 10 plots (white bars) and walking routes (dotted white lines) on a Landsat satellite image from July 2014 for terrestrial macromycetes observations near Khanty-Mansiysk (Shapsha village showed in upper right corner).

Plots 1-4 represent old coniferous forests with dominance of P. sibirica with some P. obovata and a smaller proportion of A. sibirica. Plots 5-7 are located in an old cutting site and represent secondary aspen forests. P. tremula dominates in the community with an admixture of B. pendula and regrowth of coniferous trees. Plot 8 represents a fresh cutting site where clear-cut was about 5 years ago. The tree layer is absent except for isolated surviving trees (P. sibirica, A. sibirica, P. obovata) and the regrowth made by P. tremula. Plot 9 is located in a small in size bogged locality with waterlogged soil (peat) and residual falling trees. Presumably a fire could have had some impact in the past. Plot 10 is located in proximity to plot 9 on a relatively drier position occupied by wet birch forest. The description of vegetation and geo-reference position of the plots are summarised in Table 1. Photographs of vegetation of studied plots are available under the link: https://www.flickr.com/photos/fungariumysu/albums/72157672157314073.

Characteristics of permanent plots of macromycetes observations in different forest types in vicinities of Khanty-Mansiysk, West Siberia.

Plot No.

Coordinate

Vegetation type

Time after cut, years

Trees height and % cover

Plants % cover

Mosses % cover

T, °C for May-September

Total number of plant species

Dominant plants (only species with >5 % of cover shown)

1

61.08379 N, 69.46695 E

Coniferous mixed forest

-

18-20 m 80%

15

70

Av 11,7

Min 2.3

Max 23

26

Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, Betula pubescens, Picea obovata, Vaccinium myrtillus, Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Polytrichum commune

2

61.08553 N, 69.47594 E

Coniferous mixed forest

-

20-22 m 70%

25

70

22

Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, Pinus sylvestris, Picea obovata, Vaccinium myrtillus, Linnaea borealis, Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Polytrichum commune

3

61.08259 N, 69.45434 E

Coniferous mixed forest

-

18-20 m 80%

15

60

26

Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, Picea obovata, Populus tremula, Vaccinium myrtillus, Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi

4

61.07960 N, 69.45287 E

Coniferous mixed forest

-

18-20 m 70%

15

75

24

Pinus sibirica, Picea obovata, Abies sibirica, Populus tremula, Linnaea borealis, Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Polytrichum commune

5

61.06641 N, 69.46803 E

Aspen forest

25-30

14-16 m 60%

15

3

-

30

Pinus sibirica, Picea obovata, Abies sibirica, Populus tremula, Gymnocarpium dryopteris

6

61.06636 N, 69.47094 E

Aspen forest

25-30

16-18 m 70%

25

5

31

Populus tremula, Betula pubescens, Pinus sibirica, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Equisetum sylvaticum

7

61.05473 N, 69.42897 E

Aspen forest

20-25

14-15 m 70%

15

10

Av 12.2

Min 1.9

Max 30

33

Populus tremula, Betula pubescens, Polytrichum commune, Pleurozium schreberi

8

61.05523 N, 69.41694 E

Fresh cutting site

5

1-3 m

30%

40

5

Av 12,4

Min -2,4

Max 32,9

37

Populus tremula, Gymnocarpium dryopteris, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Equisetum sylvaticum, Calamagrostis canescens

9

61.05791 N, 69.43936 E

Bogged site

-

3-4 m

30%

40

90

Av 13,4

Min -0,6

Max 36,8

22

Betula pubescens, Carex globularis, Carex lasiocarpa, Calamagrostis purpurea, Sphagnum angustifolium, Polytrichum strictum

10

61.05746 N, 69.44044 E

Birch forest

-

8-10 m

80%

8

80

Av 11,9

Min -0,4

Max 26,4

27

Betula pubescens, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Polytrichum commune, Pleurozium schreberi, Polytrichum juniperinum

Sampling design

Ten permanent plots were established in spring 2015 distributed over an area of about 10 square kilometres Fig. 1. The locations were chosen to assess major homogenous contours of different forest types, e.g. old-growth coniferous forests and their after-cut secondary forests 5 and 20-30 years after cutting, plus a wet birch forest site and a bogged site. Two plots were established in each forest type when the contour was extensive and uniform (plots 1-6). For smaller and relatively mosaic vegetation contours,a single plot for each contour was only applicable (plots 7-10).

Each plot consisted of 20 circular 5 m2 micro-plots 5 m apart aligned in a 200 m long line. The observation area of a plot thus equals 100 m2 and the total area of plot-observation during the survey was 1000 m2. Centres of each micro-plot were marked by plastic poles. A rope was used to draw the outlines of a plot during its examination. The total number of fruiting bodies of each species was counted on each micro-plot. Counted fruitbodies were removed in order to avoid repeated count in the following visits. A few species, where the counting would be impossible due to their high abundance, were counted by estimated number. Some species with densely clustered growth were counted by number of clusters (e.g. Collybia cirrhata). In addition to plots observation, walking routes designed to find species not registered in plots (rare species or species with special requirements for environmental conditions) were used. For this, the authors walked along a straight line (using GPS) and collected only new species. No quantitative count was done at this stage. The length of the routes ranged between 500 m to 2 km depending on the abundance of fruiting or weather conditions.

The plots were visited from the end of May (soon after snow melt) until the middle of September (when fungal fruiting was suppressed by the first frosts). The time interval between subsequent visits of each plot ranged between 14-23 days, resulting in total of 5 visits per plot and 5 visits per random route during the season (one visit per month).

The temperature regime of the plots was measured by temperature loggers located in 5 plots of different vegetation types at 5 cm above soil level (Thermochron loggers DS1921G-F5).

Processing of specimens, identification and analysis of trophic groups

The collection and processing of specimens was done as described in Lodge et al. (2004). Fresh fruiting bodies were wrapped in aluminium foil and carried to the laboratory to be processed on the day of collection. The processing of specimens included: 1) photographing on a photo-studio table, 2) description of vital characters, 3) preliminary microscopy and determination, 4) filling the data in the database, 5) labelling, and 6) drying at 50°C to store in the Fungarium of Yugra State University (collection acronym YSU-F). By the end of the study, the collection amounted to nearly 1500 dried specimens.

The detailed identification was done during the winter following the collection season. Dry specimens were rehydrated in tap water or KOH (10%); dyes and other chemicals (Congo Red, Melzer reagent, ammonia) were applied when necessary. A Zeiss Axiostar microscope with Achromat 5/0.12, 10/0.25, 40/0.65 (dry) and 100/1.25 (oil immersion) objectives was used for microscopical examination. Мicro-photographs were taken with an AxioCam ERc5s digital camera.

Most of the finds were identified using Funga Nordica keys (Knudsen and Vesterholt 2008) and some additional monographs on particular taxa were used when necessary. Fungal authorities are mentioned according to Index Fungorum (last access 12.2016) and Funga Nordica and the classification of the fungal taxa at various taxonomic ranks follows Index Fungorum.

The trophic groups of species were determined from literature (Kovalenko 1980, Burova 1986, Knudsen and Vesterholt 2008). This classification is not strictly unequivocal as some species could be parasitic in the earlier stage of their life cycle and saprotrophic later. Some species could be both saprotrophic and mycorrhizal (Knudsen and Vesterholt 2008). But the number of such cases is not high and usually, these species were referred to a specific group based on an arbitrary decision.

Statistical analyses

Statistical analyses were performed using EstimateS (Colwell et al. 2012) and open-source R software (R Core Team 2015). Species accumulation and extrapolation curves and their unconditional confidence intervals were computed analytically, using the formulae built in EstimateS software. Clustering and Principal Component Analysis were made in different packages available in the R software, following Borcard et al. (2011). The dissimilarity matrices were built by the chord distance method (“decostand” and “vegdist” functions of “vegan” package (Oksanen et al. 2013). The best method for the cluster analysis was chosen on the basis of a cophenetic correlation computed between original dissimilarity matrices and the cophenetic distances (by means of the function “cophenetic” of package “stats” (R Core Team and contributors worldwide 2017). The method with the highest cophenetic correlation was employed in the analysis (Unweighted Pair-Group Method using arithmetic Averages) (“hclust” function of “stats”). The optimal number of clusters in the dendrogram was estimated by plotting fusion level values, a function “rect.hclust” of “stats” package was used to draw dotted rectangles around clusters (functions in Borcard et al. 2011). Principal Component Analysis was done on a Hellinger pre-transformed abundance data (“decostand” and “rda” functions of “vegan”) using “cleanplot.pca” function of “vegan” package. Rare taxa (singletons and doubletons) were removed prior to the analysis to simplify the results. The Shannon diversity was calculated in R using natural logarithm (“diversity” function of “vegan”).

Accepted definitions

Terrestrial macrofungi – the macrofungi which confine to terrestrial habitat as opposed to wood-inhabiting species representing another prominent community in boreal forests. However, these groups partially overlap and species were recorded growing on mossy old trunks or buried wood within the plots. This study included the following groups in the analysis: Discomycetes, agaricoid members of Agaricales and Boletales and club-like members of Aphyllophorales (following defenitions in Kirk et al. 2008) and some other minority groups.

Sporocarp density – number of sporocarps of macrofungi produced in a certain area. The accumulated sporocarp density, calculated as sum of densities of all visits, was used, as well as sporocarps density per visit when discussing phenology.

Species abundance – number of micro-plots where species was registered within a plot. The sum values were calculated for each plot based on all visits. This criterion was selected for statistical analyses to align the species that fruit in density with those with scattered fruiting, thus each micro-plot corresponded to a genet of a particular species.

Species occurrence – number of plots where the species was registered (maximum – 10 plots).

Species richness – number of species registered in a particular plot.

Data resources

The collection database was imported to Specify 6 (offline) and Specify 7 (available at https://fungariumysu.org/fungarium-ysu-database) software. The plot-based observation database (as Sampling Event Dataset) was uploaded to GBIF and could be available from the page (http://www.gbif.org/dataset/7648036d-fdac-4ebe-8861-9a28134adae1) (Filippova 2017).

The total species list of terrestrial macrofungi in different forest types in vicinities of Khanty-Mansiysk (including species encountered in plots and during walking routes)

Agaricus semotus Fr.

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Agrocybe elatella (P. Karst.) Vesterh.

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Agrocybe firma (Peck) Singer

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Alloclavaria purpurea (Fr.) Dentinger & D.J. McLaughlin

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Amanita battarae (Boud.) Bon

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Amanita crocea (Quél.) Singer

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Amanita fulva Fr.

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Amanita porphyria Alb. & Schwein.

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Amanita regalis (Fr.) Michael

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Amanita vaginata var. alba (Sacc.) Romagn.

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Ampulloclitocybe clavipes (Pers.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys

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Armillaria lutea Gillet

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Arrhenia acerosa (Fr.: Fr.) Kühner

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Arrhenia discorosea (Pilát) Zvyagina, Alexandrova & Bulyonkova

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Arrhenia epichysium (Pers.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys

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Arrhenia onisca (Fr.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys

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Artomyces pyxidatus (Pers.) Jülich

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Asterophora lycoperdoides (Bull.) Ditmar

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Auriscalpium vulgare Gray

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Baeospora myriadophylla (Peck) Singer

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Bolbitius titubans (Bull.: Fr.) Fr.

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Boletus edulis Bull.

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Boletus subtomentosus L.: Fr

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Calocera cornea (Batsch) Fr.

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Calocera viscosa (Pers.) Fr.

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Calocybe gambosa (Fr.) Singer

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Cantharellus cibarius Fr.

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Chalciporus piperatus (Bull.) Bataille

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Chroogomphus rutilus (Schaeff.: Fr.) O.K. Mill.

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Ciboria betulicola J.W. Groves & M.E. Elliott

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Ciboria caucus (Rebent.) Fuckel

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Clavaria flavipes Pers.

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Clavariadelphus truncatus Donk

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Clavulina coralloides (L.) J. Schröt.

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Clavulinopsis laeticolor (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) R.H. Petersen

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Clavulinopsis luteoalba (Rea) Corner

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Clavulinopsis umbrinella (Sacc.) Corne

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Clitocybe agrestis Harmaja

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Clitocybe albofragrans (Harmaja) Kuyper

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Clitocybe amarescens Harmaja

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Clitocybe candicans (Pers.) P. Kumm.

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Clitocybe diatreta (Fr.) P. Kumm.

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Clitocybe diosma Einhell.

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Clitocybe foetens Melot

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Clitocybe globispora Harmaja

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Clitocybe metachroa (Fr.) P. Kumm.

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Clitocybe nebularis (Batsch) P. Kumm.

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Clitocybe odora (Bull.) P. Kumm.

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Clitocybe regularis Peck

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Clitocybe subspadicea (J.E. Lange) Bon & Chevassut

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Clitocybe vermicularis (Fr.) Quél.

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Clitocybe vibecina (Fr.) Quél.

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Clitopilus prunulus (Scop.) P. Kumm.

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Collybia cirrhata (Schumach.) Quél.

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Collybia cookei (Bres.) J.D. Arnold

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Collybia tuberosa (Bull.) P. Kumm.

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Coltricia perennis (L.) Murrill

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Conocybe apala (Fr.: Fr.) Arnolds

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Conocybe aurea (Jul. Schäff.) Hongo

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Conocybe filipes (G.F. Atk.) Kühner

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Conocybe merdaria Arnolds & Hauskn.

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Conocybe mesospora Kühner & Watling

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Conocybe semiglobata Kuhner & Watling

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Cordyceps militaris (L.) Fr.

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Cortinarius acutus (Pers.) Fr

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Cortinarius agathosmus Brandrud, H. Lindstr. & Melot

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Cortinarius alborufescens Imler

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Cortinarius albovariegatus (Velen.) Melot

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Cortinarius alboviolaceus (Pers.) Fr.

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Cortinarius anomalus (Fr.) Fr.

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Cortinarius argutus Fr.

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Cortinarius armeniacus (Schaeff.) Fr.

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Cortinarius armillatus (Fr.) Fr.

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Cortinarius aurantiomarginatus M.M. Moser

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Cortinarius balaustinus Fr.

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Cortinarius bataillei (J. Favre ex M.M. Moser) Hil.

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Cortinarius biformis Fr.

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Cortinarius bivelus (Fr.) Fr.

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Cortinarius bolaris (Pers.) Fr

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Cortinarius brunneus (Pers.) Fr.

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Cortinarius camphoratus (Fr.) Fr.

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Cortinarius carbunculus H. Lindstr. & H. Markl.

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Cortinarius casimiri (Velen.) Huijsman

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Cortinarius cicindela Kytöv., Niskanen & Liimat.

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Cortinarius cinnamomeus (L.) Fr.

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Cortinarius collinitus (Pers.) Fr.

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Cortinarius comptulus M.M. Moser

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Cortinarius craticius Fr.

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Cortinarius croceus (Schaeff.) Gray

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Cortinarius decipiens (Pers.) Fr.

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Cortinarius delibutus Fr.

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Cortinarius depressus Fr.

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Cortinarius diasemospermus Lamoure

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Cortinarius disjungendus P. Karst.

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Cortinarius dolabratus Fr.

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Cortinarius duracinus Fr.

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Cortinarius evernius (Fr.) Fr.

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Cortinarius flexipes (Pers.) Fr.

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Cortinarius fusisporus Kühner

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Cortinarius gentilis (Fr.) Fr.

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Cortinarius glandicolor (Fr.) Fr.

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Cortinarius illuminus Fr.

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Cortinarius laniger Fr.

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Cortinarius lepidopus Cooke

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Cortinarius lux-nymphae Melot

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Cortinarius melleopallens (Fr.) Britzelm.

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Cortinarius multiformis Fr.

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Cortinarius obtusus (Fr.) Fr.

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Cortinarius ochrophyllus Fr.

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Cortinarius paragaudis Fr.

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Cortinarius parvannulatus Kühner

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Cortinarius pholideus (Lilj.) Fr.

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Cortinarius phrygianus (Fr.) Fr.

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Cortinarius pilatii Svrček

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Cortinarius porphyropus (Alb. & Schwein.) Fr.

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Cortinarius praestigiosus (Fr.) M.M. Moser

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Cortinarius raphanoides (Pers.) Fr.

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Cortinarius sanguineus (Wulfen) Fr.

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Cortinarius saturninus (Fr.: Fr.) Fr.

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Cortinarius scaurus (Peck) Brandrud

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Cortinarius semisanguineus (Fr.) Gillet

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Cortinarius septentrionalis Bendiksen, K. Bendiksen & Brandrud

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Cortinarius spilomeus (Fr.) Fr.

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Cortinarius talus Fr.

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Cortinarius tortuosus (Fr.) Fr.

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Cortinarius traganus (Fr.: Fr.) Fr.

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Cortinarius trivialis J.E. Lange

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Cortinarius tubarius Ammirati & A.H. Sm.

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Cortinarius umbrinolens P.D. Orton

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Cortinarius venustus P. Karst.

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Cortinarius vernus H. Lindstr. & Melo

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Cortinarius vibratilis (Fr.) Fr.

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Cortinarius violaceus (L.) Gray

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Crepidotus cesatii (Rabenh.) Sacc.

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Crepidotus epibryus (Fr.) Quél.

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Crepidotus mollis (Schaeff.) Staude

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Cudonia circinans (Pers.) Fr.

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Cuphophyllus virgineus (Wulfen) Kovalenko

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Cystoderma amianthinum (Scop.) Fayod

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Cystoderma carcharias var. fallax (Pers.: Fr.) Fayod

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Cystoderma jasonis (Cooke & Massee) Harmaja

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Cystodermella adnatifolia (Peck) Harmaja

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Cystodermella cinnabarina (Alb. & Schwein.) Harmaja

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Cystodermella granulosa var. granulosa (Batsch) Harmaja

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Cystolepiota seminuda (Lasch) Bon

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Dendrocollybia racemosa (Pers.) R.H. Petersen & Redhead

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Elaphomyces asperulus Vittad.

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Entoloma allospermum Noordel.

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Entoloma cetratum (Fr.) M.M. Moser

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Entoloma conferendum (Britzelm.) Noordel.

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Entoloma depluens (Batsch) Hesler

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Entoloma lampropus (Fr.) Hesler

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Entoloma lanuginosipes Noordel.

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Entoloma myrmecophilum (Romagn.) M.M. Moser

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Entoloma nitens (Velen.) Noordel.

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Entoloma rhodopolium var. pseudopolitum (Fr.) P. Kumm.

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Entoloma rusticoides (Gillet) Noordel.

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Entoloma sericatum (Britzelm.) Sacc

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Entoloma sericellum (Fr.) P. Kumm.

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Entoloma sericeum Quél.

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Entoloma solstitiale (Fr.) Noordel.

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Flammulaster rhombosporus (G.F. Atk.) Watling

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Flammulaster subincarnatus (Joss. & Kühner) Watling

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Flammulina elastica (Lasch) Redhead & Petersen

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Galerina allospora A.H. Sm. & Singer

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Galerina atkinsoniana A.H. Sm.

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Galerina camerina (Fr.) Kühner

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Galerina cephalotricha Kühner

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Galerina cerina A.H. Sm. & Singer

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Galerina hypnorum (Schrank)

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Galerina marginata (Batsch)

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Galerina mniophila (Lasch: Fr.)

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Galerina paludosa (Fr.)

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Galerina pumila (Pers.) M. Lange

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Galerina salicicola P.D. Orton

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Galerina vittiformis (Fr.) Singer

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Gamundia hygrocyboides (Lonati) Bon

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Gamundia striatula (Kühner) Raithelh.

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Gomphidius flavipes Peck

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Gomphus clavatus (Pers.) Gray

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Grifola frondosa (Dicks.) Gray

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Gymnopilus penetrans (Fr.) Murrill

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Gymnopilus sapineus (Fr.) Murrill

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Gymnopus androsaceus (L.) Della Maggiora & Trassinelli

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Gymnopus confluens (Pers.: Fr.) Antonn, Halling & Noordel.

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Gymnopus dryophilus (Bull.) Murrill

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Gymnopus inodorus (Pat.) Antonín & Noordel.

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Gymnopus ocior (Pers.) Antonín & Noordel.

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Gymnopus peronatus (Bolton) Gray

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Gymnopus putillus (Fr.: Fr.) Antonn, Halling & Noordel.

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Gyromitra esculenta (Pers.) Fr.

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Gyromitra gigas (Krombh.) Cooke

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Gyromitra infula (Schaeff.) Quél.

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Hebeloma fragilipes Romagn.

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Hebeloma hiemale Bres.

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Hebeloma incarnatulum A.H. Sm.

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Hebeloma radicosum (Bull.) Ricken

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Hebeloma sordescens Vesterh.

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Hebeloma velutipes Bruchet

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Helvella cupuliformis Dissing & Nannf.

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Helvella lacunosa Afzel.

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Helvella macropus (Pers.) P. Karst.

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Hemimycena delectabilis (Peck) Singer

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Hemimycena mairei (J.-E. Gilbert) Singer

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Hemimycena pseudocrispula (Kühner) Singer

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Hemimycena sordida Noordel. & Antonín

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Hemimycena subtilis (Velen.) Antonín

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Hericium cirrhatum (Pers.) Nikol.

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Hericium coralloides (Scop.) Pers.

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Hohenbuehelia nigra (Schwein.) Singer

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Hohenbuehelia petalodes (Bull.: Fr.) Schulzer

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Humaria hemisphaerica (F.H. Wigg.) Fuckel

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Hydnum repandum L.

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Hydnum rufescens Pers.

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Hygrocybe cantharellus (Schwein.: Fr.) Murrill

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Hygrocybe conica var. conica (Schaeff.) P. Kumm.

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Hygrocybe constrictospora Arnolds

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Hygrocybe glutinipes var. glutinipes (J.E. Lange) R. Haller Aar.

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Hygrocybe laeta (Pers.: Fr.) P. Kumm.

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Hygrocybe reidii Kühner

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Hygrophorus erubescens (Fr.) Fr.

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Hygrophorus olivaceoalbus (Fr.) Fr.

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Hygrophorus piceae Kühner

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Hymenochaete tabacina (Sowerby) Lév.

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Hypholoma capnoides (Fr.) P. Kumm.

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Hypholoma ericaeoides P.D. Orton

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Hypholoma fasciculare (Huds.) P. Kumm.

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Hypholoma marginatum (Pers.: Fr.) J. Schröt.

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Hypholoma polytrichi (Fr.) Ricken

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Hypocrea gelatinosa (Tode) Fr.

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Hypomyces luteovirens (Fr.) Tul. & C. Tul.

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Hypsizygus ulmarius (Bull.) Redhead

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Infundibulicybe gibba (Pers.) Harmaja

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Infundibulicybe squamulosa (Pers.) Harmaja

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Inocybe albovelutipes Stangl

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Inocybe amethystina Kuyper

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Inocybe cookei Bres.

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Inocybe geophylla (Bull.) P. Kumm.

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Inocybe griseolilacina J.E. Lange

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Inocybe jacobi Kühner

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Inocybe lacera (Fr.) P. Kumm.

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Inocybe lanuginosa (Bull.) P. Kumm.

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Inocybe maculata Boud.

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Inocybe mixtilis (Britzelm.) Sacc.

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Inocybe perlata (Cooke) Sacc.

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Inocybe phaeodisca Kühner

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Inocybe putilla Bres.

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Inocybe subcarpta Kühner & Boursier

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Inocybe subnudipes Kühner

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Inocybe urceolicystis Stangl & Vauras

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Kuehneromyces lignicola (Peck) Redhead

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Kuehneromyces mutabilis (Schaeff.) Singer & A.H. Sm.

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Laccaria bicolor (Maire) P.D. Orton

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Laccaria proxima (Boud.) Pat.

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Lactarius aurantiacus (Pers.) Gray

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Lactarius auriolla Kytöv.

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Lactarius deterrimus Gröger

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Lactarius flexuosus (Pers.) Gray

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Lactarius glyciosmus (Fr.: Fr.) Fr

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Lactarius helvus (Fr.: Fr.) Fr.

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Lactarius hysginoides Korhonen & T. Ulvinen

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Lactarius leonis Kytöv.

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Lactarius mammosus Fr.

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Lactarius musteus Fr.

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Lactarius plumbeus (Bull.) Gray

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Lactarius pubescens Fr.

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Lactarius repraesentaneus Britzelm.

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Lactarius rufus (Scop.) Fr.

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Lactarius torminosus (Schaeff.) Gray

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Lactarius trivialis (Fr.) Fr.

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Lactarius utilis (Weinm.) Fr.

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Lactarius uvidus (Fr.) Fr.

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Lactarius vietus (Fr.) Fr.

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Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill

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Leccinum albostipitatum den Bakker & Noordel.

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Leccinum aurantiacum (Bull.) Gray

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Leccinum scabrum (Bull.) Gray

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Leccinum versipelle (Fr.) Snell

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Lentinellus micheneri (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Pegler

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Lentinus vulpinus (Sowerby: Fr.) Kühner & Maire

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Leotia lubrica (Scop.) Pers.

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Lepiota clypeolaria (Bull.) P. Kumm.

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Lepiota cristata (Bolton) P. Kumm.

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Lepiota felina (Pers.) P. Karst.

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Lepista sordida (Schumach.: Fr.) Singer

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Lichenomphalia umbellifera (L.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys

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Lycoperdon molle Pers.

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Lycoperdon nigrescens Pers.

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Lycoperdon perlatum Pers.

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Lycoperdon pyriforme Schaeff.

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Lycoperdon umbrinum Pers.

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Macrotyphula fistulosa (Holmsk.) R.H. Petersen

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Macrotyphula juncea (Alb. & Schwein.) Berthier

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Marasmius epiphyllus (Pers.) Fr.

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Marasmius rotula (Scop.) Fr.

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Megacollybia platyphylla (Pers.) Kotl. & Pouzar

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Melanoleuca melaleuca (Pers.) Murrill

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Melanoleuca polioleuca (Fr.: Fr.) Kühner & Maire

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Melanoleuca strictipes (P. Karst.) Jul. Schff.

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Mycena acicula (Schaeff.) P. Kumm.

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Mycena aciculata (A.H. Sm.) Desjardin & E.

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Mycena adonis (Bull.: Fr.) Gray

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Mycena algeriensis Maire

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Mycena amicta (Fr.) Quél.

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Mycena capillaripes Peck

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Mycena citrinomarginata Gillet

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Mycena clavicularis (Fr.) Gillet

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Mycena delectabilis (Peck) Singer

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Mycena epipterygia (Scop.) Gray

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Mycena erubescens Höhn.

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Mycena fibula (Bull.) Kühner

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Mycena fragillima A.H. Sm.

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Mycena galopus (Pers.) P. Kumm.

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Mycena haematopus (Pers.) P. Kumm

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Mycena hiemalis (Osbeck) Quél.

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Mycena laevigata (Lasch) Gillet

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Mycena leptocephala (Pers.) Gillet

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Mycena metata (Secr. ex Fr.) P. Kumm.

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Mycena mirata (Peck) Sacc.

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Mycena niveipes (Murrill) Murrill

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Mycena olida Bres.

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Mycena olivaceomarginata (Massee) Massee

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Mycena pelianthina (Fr.) Quél.

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Mycena pseudopicta (J.E. Lange) Kühner

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Mycena pura (Pers.) P. Kumm

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Mycena silvae-nigrae Maas Geest. & Schwöbel

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Mycena stipata Geest. & Schwöbel

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Mycena stylobates (Pers.: Fr) P. Kumm.

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Mycena subcana A.H. Sm.

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Mycena tristis Maas Geest.

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Mycena viridimarginata P. Karst.

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Mycena vitilis (Fr.) Quél.

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Mycena vulgaris (Pers.: Fr.) P. Kumm.

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Mycenella lasiosperma (Bres.) Locq.

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Mycetinis querceus (Britzelm.) Antonín & Noordel.

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Myxomphalia maura (Fr.) Hora

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Neolentinus cyathiformis (Schaeff.) Della Maggiora & Trassinelli

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Neolentinus lepideus (Fr.) Redhead & Ginns

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Omphaliaster asterosporus (J.E. Lange) Singer

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Ophiocordyceps gracilis (Grev.) Durieu & Mont.

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Ossicaulis lignatilis (Pers.) Redhead & Ginns

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Otidea leporina (Batsch) Fuckel

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Otidea platyspora Nannf.

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Panus neostrigosus Drechsler-Santos & Wartchow

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Paxillus involutus (Batsch) Fr.

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Peziza arvernensis Roze & Boud.

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Peziza michelii (Boud.) Dennis

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Pholiota astragalina (Fr.) Singer

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Pholiota flammans (Batsch) P. Kumm.

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Pholiota lenta (Pers.) Singer

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Pholiota limonella (Peck) Sacc.

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Pholiota lubrica (Pers.) Singer

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Pholiota spumosa (Fr.) Singer

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Pholiota squarrosa (Vahl) P. Kumm.

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Pholiota subochracea (A.H. Sm.) A.H. Sm. & Hesler

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Pholiotina parvula (Døssing & Watling) Bon

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Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.: Fr.) Quél.

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Pluteus cervinus (Schaeff.) P. Kumm.

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Pluteus chrysophaeus (Schaeff.) Quél.

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Pluteus cyanopus Quél.

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Pluteus exiguus (Pat.) Sacc.

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Pluteus leoninus (Schaeff.) P. Kumm.

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Pluteus nanus (Pers.) P. Kumm.

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Pluteus petasatus (Fr.) Gillet

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Pluteus phlebophorus (Ditmar) P. Kumm.

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Pluteus plautus (Weinm.) Gillet

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Pluteus podospileus Sacc. & Cub.

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Pluteus pouzarianus Singer

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Pluteus romellii (Britzelm.) Sacc.

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Pluteus salicinus (Pers.) P. Kumm.

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Pluteus semibulbosus (Lasch) Quél.

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Pluteus umbrosus (Pers.) P. Kumm

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Polyporus ciliatus Fr.

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Polyporus melanopus (Pers.) Fr.

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Polyporus squamosus (Huds.) Fr.

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Polyporus varius (Pers.) Fr.

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Psathyrella caput-medusae (Fr.) Konrad & Maubl.

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Psathyrella fatua (Fr.) Konrad & Maubl.

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Psathyrella fusca (Schumach.) A. Pearson

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Psathyrella larga (Kauffman) A.H. Sm.

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Psathyrella pygmaea (Bull.: Fr.) Singer

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Psathyrella squamosa (P. Karst.) A.H. Sm.

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Pseudoclitocybe cyathiformis (Bull.) Singer

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Pseudoomphalina pachyphylla (Fr.) Knudsen

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Pseudoplectania melaena (Fr.) Sacc.

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Pseudoplectania nigrella (Pers.) Fuckel

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Psilocybe inquilinus (Fr.: Fr.) Bres.

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Psilocybe montana (Pers.: Fr.) P. Kumm.

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Psilocybe phyllogena (Sacc.) Peck

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Psilocybe turficola J. Favre

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Pterula multifida (Chevall.) Fr.

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Ramaria pallida (Schaeff.) Ricken

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Ramaria tsugina (Peck) Marr & D.E. Stuntz

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Ramariopsis asperulospora (G.F. Atk.) Corner

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Ramariopsis crocea (Pers.) Corner

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Ramariopsis subtilis (Pers.) R.H. Petersen

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Rhodocollybia butyracea var. asema (Bull.) Lennox