Biodiversity Data Journal : Species Conservation Profiles
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Species Conservation Profiles
Species conservation profiles of endemic spiders (Araneae) from Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos, Portugal
expand article infoPedro Cardoso‡,§,|, Luís C Crespo¶,‡,§, Isamberto Silva#, Paulo AV Borges|,§, Mário Boieiro|
‡ Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
§ IUCN SSC Spider & Scorpion Specialist Group, Helsinki, Finland
| Azorean Biodiversity Group/CE3C, University of the Azores, Angra do Heroismo, Portugal
¶ Biodiversity Research Institute UB, Departament Biologia Animal, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
# Institute of Forests and Nature Conservation, Funchal, Portugal
Open Access

Abstract

Background

The North Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and Selvagens present a unique biological diversity including, presently, 56 endemic spider species. Several recent projects provide valuable information on their distribution across most islands and habitats. To date, the only endemic spider assessed according to the IUCN Red List criteria is Hogna ingens. The objective of this paper is to assess all remaining endemic species and advise on possible future conservation actions critical for the survival of endangered species.

New information

Seven species were found to have a continuing decline in either range or population size. Their decline can be mostly attributed to habitat destruction or degradation, invasive plant species that reduce quality of habitat, forest fires at high mountain regions and possible competition for resources from invasive congeners. The tetragnathid M. barreti is considered as possibly extinct due to the suspected impact of a competing species. Although most endemic spiders from the Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos have relatively low extinction risk due to the good condition and protection of the laurisilva forests where many live, there are a number of species requiring urgent attention and protection measures. These include all cave and mountain-restricted species as well as those threatened by competing congeners or invasive plants. Extending current protected areas, restoring original habitats of threatened species and the control of invasive taxa should remain a priority for species survival.

Keywords

Arachnida, Arthropoda, extinction risk, islands, IUCN, Red List

Introduction

The archipelagos of Madeira and Selvagens are renown for presenting a unique biological diversity, which is a major contributing factor (together with threat levels) for their inclusion in one of the major biodiversity hotspots worldwide, jointly with two other Macaronesian archipelagos (Azores and the Canaries) (Myers et al. 2000). Both geological and geographical factors were important drivers of species richness as well as endemism in the Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos. The geological age of these islands (5-27 My) and their proximity to the mainland or to paleoislands allowed the colonization and diversification of many taxonomic groups (Fernández-Palacios 2010, Fernández-Palacios et al. 2011). Furthermore, the two archipelagos are composed by several islands and islets that share a number of species but also have a considerable number of exclusive species, single-island endemics (Borges et al. 2008). The Madeira archipelago comprises three island groups - the Desertas Islands (Deserta Grande - Fig. 1, Bugio and Ilhéu Chão); Porto Santo (including the main island - Fig. 2 - and seven islets); and Madeira proper (the main island - Fig. 3 - and the surrounding islets). The Selvagens archipelago is composed by one island and two islets – Selvagem Grande (Fig. 4), Selvagem Pequena and Ilhéu de Fora. It is however important to highlight the much larger contribution of Madeira Island to the overall species pool (both in terms of species richness and endemism) when compared with the other islands (Borges et al. 2008). Madeira Island is the largest, the highest and presents a more diverse set of terrestrial ecosystems, matching the stage of maximum orographic complexity of the volcanic island cycle (Fernández-Palacios et al. 2011).

Figure 1.  

Barren area of Pedregal, Deserta Grande (photo by Pedro Cardoso).

Figure 2.  

Coastal area near Pico Branco, Porto Santo (photo by Pedro Cardoso).

Figure 3.  

Laurisilva forest at Fajã da Nogueira, Madeira Island (photo by Pedro Cardoso).

Figure 4.  

Selvagem Grande (photo by António Costa).

The most emblematic ecosystem of the archipelago – the laurisilva forest – is restricted to Madeira Island where it covers nearly 20% of the land surface (Menezes et al. 2005, Boieiro et al. 2015). Madeira laurisilva is the largest area of this relict forest and includes some of the most pristine fragments being classified as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO (IUCN 1999), a priority habitat under the Habitats Directive and also benefiting from regional, national and international legislation (Menezes et al. 2005). Both the laurisilva forest and the summit vegetation harbour a large number of endemic species which made them preferential targets of biodiversity and taxonomic studies since the 19th century (Boieiro et al. 2010). The other islands, besides Madeira, are dominated by coastal scrublands and thermophilous woodland (particularly in Porto Santo) and have been less studied.

Recent efforts were made to update the knowledge on the taxonomy and conservation priorities for the archipelagos of Madeira and Selvagens (Martín et al. 2008, Silva et al. 2008, Martín et al. 2010). Over 7500 taxa were reported for these archipelagos, of which nearly 20% were endemics, mostly being terrestrial arthropods (Borges et al. 2008). The spider checklist was based on a thorough analysis of the literature plus personal observations and reported the occurrence of 184 species for these archipelagos, including 58 endemics (Cardoso and Crespo 2008). This publication also pointed to some gaps in the knowledge on species taxonomy and distribution that needed to be addressed in future studies. Several recent papers were important contributions to overcome those gaps by reporting new species to the archipelagos and providing valuable information on endemic species distribution (Crespo et al. 2009a, Crespo et al. 2009b, Crespo et al. 2013, Crespo et al. 2014a, Crespo et al. 2014b). Finally, a number of different projects (see acknowledgements) have made important contributions to overcoming these gaps by reporting extensive spider samples across islands and habitats during the last 10 years. These works led to important taxonomic and distribution data changes and we currently know 56 described endemic spider species.

Despite the known vulnerability of many endemic spider species, only the Desertas wolf spider - Hogna ingens (Blackwall, 1857), Fig. 5 - was assessed for extinction risk according to the Red List criteria of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (Cardoso 2014). This large spider, restricted to Vale da Castanheira in the northern end of Deserta Grande, is threatened by Phalaris spp. grasses which, with their large roots, prevent the spider to access adequate shelters under stones and in soil crevices. A species conservation plan is now underway and includes regular monitoring of the spider population, chemical treatments to control the invasive species and ex situ conservation with possible future reintroduction of adult specimens.

Figure 5.  

Hogna ingens (Blackwall, 1857) adult female (photo by Pedro Cardoso).

The objective of this paper is to assess the remaining 55 endemic spider species according to the IUCN criteria and advise on possible future conservation actions critical for the survival of endangered species. In the future we intend to assess a number of species currently being described in order to contribute to the proper protection of this unique fauna.

Methods

Species data were collected from all bibliography on Madeira and Selvagens spiders published until July 2017. These included mainly taxonomic and faunistic works. We also used numerous unpublished data collected within multiple projects (e.g. Boieiro et al. 2013, see also acknowledgements) that used standardized sampling (e.g. Cardoso 2009). This new information on species distribution will be published in several forthcoming papers. Whenever possible, with each species record we also collected additional information, namely habitat type and spatial error of coordinates.

For all analyses we used the R package red - IUCN redlisting tools (Cardoso 2017a, Cardoso 2017b). This package performs a number of spatial analyses based on either observed occurrences or estimated ranges. Functions include calculating Extent of Occurrence (EOO), Area of Occupancy (AOO), mapping species ranges, species distribution modelling using climate and land cover, calculating the Red List Index for groups of species, among others. The package also allows the calculation of confidence limits for all measures, an essential but almost invariably forgotten feature in view of unavoidable uncertainty. It outputs geographical range, elevation and country values, maps in several formats and vectorial data for visualization in Google Earth.

In this work, the EOO and AOO were calculated in one of two ways:

- for extremely range restricted species for which we assumed to know the full range, these values were classified as observed, the minimum convex polygon encompassing all observations used to calculate the EOO and the 2x2 km cells known to be occupied used to calculate the AOO. When the EOO was smaller than the AOO, it was made equal as per the IUCN guidelines (IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee 2017).

- for widespread species or those for which we did not have confidence to know the full range, we performed species distribution modeling (SDM). This was done based on two environmental datasets depending on the distribution of each species. For single island endemics of Madeira proper (main island) we used 100x100m resolution data on altimetry, slope, annual precipitation, annual maximum and minimum relative humidity, annual maximum and minimum temperature, land cover and a disturbance index based on the latter (Boieiro et al. 2013, Cardoso et al. 2013). For species living on other islands, given the lack of availability of high-resolution data, we used 30 arc-second (approximately 1x1km) resolution data on 19 bioclimatic variables (Fick and Hijmans 2017) reduced to three after performing a PCA (the three first axes) plus land cover.

For SDMs we used ensemble modeling with the Maxent method (Phillips et al. 2006) implemented in red with associated spatial error (used to randomly place records within such error for each run), 100 runs per species and using only a subset of two explanatory variables for each run. Using subsets of explanatory variables was found to output better predictions than using many variables for rare species, with few occurrence records (Lomba et al. 2010, Breiner et al. 2015). Ensembles were summed using the Area Under the Curve (AUC) values to weight each of the 100 runs as:

weigthrun = max(0, (AUCrun - 0.5))2

Isolated patches outise the original distribution polygon were then excluded from maps to avoid overestimation of values. When performing SDMs, confidence limits for EOO and AOO were calculated using the number of models (runs) that predicted presence for each cell applying the percentiles 0.025 and 0.975 for the upper and lower limits respectively. All final maps and values were checked and validated by our own expert opinion. KMLs derived from these maps were also produced using the red package.

Species Conservation Profiles

Araneus hortensis (Blackwall, 1859)

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Araneidae

Taxonomic notes

This species is not found since its description in 1859 (Blackwall 1859). Given the usually easy sampling of similar species, relatively large orb weavers, and the fact that the single specimen was captured in a garden, may be due to either it being a synonym of another, potentially common, species or an introduced species.

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 1

Basis of EOO and AOO: Unknown

Basis (narrative)

This species EOO and AOO are unkown.

Range description

Only reference for the Island of Madeira, from unspecified locality (Blackwall 1859).

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: Unknown
Trend: Unknown

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Population Information (Narrative)

The population size and trend are unknown.

Subpopulations

Trend: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Unknown

Habitat (narrative)

The habitat is unknown, the only specimen was captured in a garden at 200m altitude (Blackwall 1859).

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Unknown
Habitat importance: Suitable
Habitats: 
  • 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens

Ecology

Size: 5 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: Unknown

Ecology and traits (narrative)

The ecology of the species is unknown. The species and family are orb weavers feeding mostly on flying insects.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Research needed:
  • 1.1. Research - Taxonomy
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 1.5. Research - Threats

Justification for research needed

The species has not been found since original description in 1859 (Blackwall 1859) and needs, first of all, taxonomic clarification. If valid, basic information would be needed on its distribution, ecology and possible threats.

Arctosa maderana Roewer, 1960

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Lycosidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 2

Basis of EOO and AOO: Unknown

Basis (narrative)

This species EOO and AOO are unknown.

Range description

Recorded from both Madeira Island and Porto Santo, from unspecified localities (Roewer 1960, Schmidt 1990).

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: Unknown
Trend: Unknown

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Population Information (Narrative)

The population size and trend are unknown.

Subpopulations

Trend: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Unknown

Habitat (narrative)

There is poor information on species habitat, although the second record was from a sandy beach (Schmidt 1990).

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Unknown
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 12.2. Marine Intertidal - Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc

Ecology

Size: 13-15 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: Unknown

Ecology and traits (narrative)

The species ecology is unknown. Species of the same family and genus are active epigean hunters of insects and other arthropods.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.1. Research - Taxonomy
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 1.5. Research - Threats

Justification for research needed

Adults of this species have not been found since the original description (Roewer 1960) and it needs, first of all, taxonomic clarification. If valid, basic information would be needed on its distribution, ecology and possible threats.

Centromerus anoculus Wunderlich, 1995

Species information

Common names

Aranha-cavernícola-de-São-Vicente

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae

Taxonomic notes

Possible junior synonym of Centromerus sexoculatus Wunderlich, 1992 (Reboleira et al. 2011) which if true could considerably impact the species extinction risk assessment.

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 3

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

Known from two lava tube systems (Wunderlich 1995, Reboleira et al. 2011). Given the relative scarcity and small size of caves in Madeira, this could correspond to the entire range of the species although, as noted above, it probably is a junior synonym of C. sexoculatus.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 100
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 150

Range description

Only found in the lava tubes of Gruta dos Cardais in São Vicente, on northern Madeira Island, and Furnas do Cavalum in Machico, on eastern Madeira Island. Gruta dos Cardais is part of the largest known cave system in Madeira. The neighboring Grutas de São Vicente, which probably were once habitat for the species, are now in large part converted to show caves with extensive modifications in microclimate, including artificial lighting, water reservoirs and even newly built tunnels.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 8
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

No decrease in EOO has been registered but it is inferred from decline in habitat quality.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 8
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

No decrease in AOO was observed, but it is inferred from decline in habitat quality.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 2

Justification for number of locations

Two locations, Gruta dos Cardais and Furnas do Cavalum, are threatened by uncontrolled visits, accumulation of litter and, in the case of the first, being used as shelter for domestic animals (Reboleira et al. 2011). A potential location, Grutas de São Vicente, was probably lost in the 1990s to a touristic development.

Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The possible third location was lost more than 10 years ago, meaning the current trend in number of locations is probably stable despite the impeding threats.

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Decline (estimated)

Justification for trend

The current threats are believed to cause a decrease in the species population numbers in unknown rates.

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Population Information (Narrative)

The uncontrolled visits by tourists and locals that think of caves as adventure playground, accumulation of litter and use by domestic animals cause major changes in the cave environment and consequent decrease in quality of habitat for the species. This is believed to be leading to a decrease in population numbers, although no monitoring is being made and the rates are unknown.

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 2
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Only two subpopulations historically known.

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

Species known from two lava tube systems.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The quality of habitat is inferred to be decreasing due to severe changes in the environment of caves.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 7.1. Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) - Caves

Ecology

Size: 3 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Ecology and traits are largely unknown as the only references to the species are from a short taxonomic description and a checklist. Yet, congeners are known to build sheet webs and this species might build them on cave walls on the hunt for insects.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 1.3. Residential & commercial development - Tourism & recreation areas
  • 2.3. Agriculture & aquaculture - Livestock farming & ranching
  • 6.1. Human intrusions & disturbance - Recreational activities
  • 7.2. Natural system modifications - Dams & water management/use
  • 7.3. Natural system modifications - Other ecosystem modifications

Justification for threats

The species was probably driven away from part of its historical range by touristic activities that include digging of new tunnels, water regime modifications (artificial pools) and artificial lighting. Both current locations are threatened by use of caves by domestic animals, uncontrolled visits and accumulation of litter.

Conservation

Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 1.2. Land/water protection - Resource & habitat protection
  • 2.1. Land/water management - Site/area management
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 3.2. Species management - Species recovery
  • 3.3. Species management - Species re-introduction
  • 4.2. Education & awareness - Training
  • 4.3. Education & awareness - Awareness & communications
  • 5.1. Law & policy - Legislation
  • 5.3. Law & policy - Private sector standards & codes
  • 5.4. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement

Justification for conservation actions

Furnas do Cavalum are considered scientific patrimony by the "Plano Director Municipal" of Machico. Yet, this cave species would benefit from effective protection with adequate legislation of the two lava tube systems where it occurs with eventual restoration of natural conditions of the environment and recovery and re-introduction in the lost location. While this is not possible, or as an alternative, a strict code of conduct for touristic or other activities in caves should be enforced and both communication to the general public and training of touristic agents should be subject of a conservation plan.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.1. Research - Taxonomy
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 1.5. Research - Threats
  • 2.1. Conservation Planning - Species Action/Recovery Plan
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

The taxonomical status of the species and possible synonymy with C. sexoculatus should be clarified. Research on both the species current population trend and the reasons for this is needed to know the real threat levels and how to minimize them. A species conservation plan and a management plan would improve its survival chances for the future.

Centromerus sexoculatus Wunderlich, 1992

Species information

Common names

Aranha-cavernícola-do-Machico

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae

Taxonomic notes

Possible senior synonymy with Centromerus anoculus Wunderlich, 1995 (Reboleira et al. 2011)

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 4

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

Only known from a single lava tube system (Wunderlich 1992). Given the relative scarcity and small size of caves in Madeira, this could correspond to the entire range of the species.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 150
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 150

Range description

Only found in the lava tubes of Furnas do Cavalum, close to Machico on eastern Madeira Island (Wunderlich 1992), although, if the synonymy with the more widespread C. anoculus is confirmed, it occupies two cave systems (see assessment for the latter species).

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 4
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Possibly threatened by uncontrolled visits to the caves and accumulation of litter (Reboleira et al. 2011) which decrease the habitat quality and ability of the species to occupy its full historical range.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 4
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Possibly threatened by uncontrolled visits to the caves and accumulation of litter (Reboleira et al. 2011) which decrease the habitat quality and ability of the species to occupy its full historical range.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 1

Justification for number of locations

A single site is known for the species, which is currently under serious threat.

Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The single location is the full known historical range.

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The population size of this species is unknown. It is possibly threatened by uncontrolled visits to the caves and accumulation of litter (Reboleira et al. 2011) which decrease the habitat quality and ability of the species to occupy its full historical range.

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Population Information (Narrative)

A single subpopulation exists of unknown size.

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 1
Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

Species known from a single lava tube system, Furnas do Cavalum, Machico.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 7.1. Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) - Caves

Ecology

Size: 2 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is a troglobiont species with considerable eye reduction, depigmentation and appendage elongation. Ecology and traits are largely unknown as the only reference to the species is from a short taxonomic description. However, congeners are known to build sheet webs and this species might build them on cave walls on the hunt for insects.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 6.1. Human intrusions & disturbance - Recreational activities
  • 9.4. Pollution - Garbage & solid waste

Justification for threats

This species is possibly threatened by uncontrolled visits to the caves and accumulation of litter (Reboleira et al. 2011) which decrease the habitat quality and ability of the species to occupy its full historical range.

Conservation

Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 1.2. Land/water protection - Resource & habitat protection
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 3.2. Species management - Species recovery
  • 5.1. Law & policy - Legislation
  • 5.4. Law & policy - Compliance and enforcement

Justification for conservation actions

Furnas do Cavalum are considered scientific patrimony by the "Plano Director Municipal" of Machico. Yet, this cave species would benefit from effective protection with adequate legislation of the lava tube system where it occurs with eventual restoration of natural conditions of the environment and recovery of its population. It should also be formally protected by adequate legislation.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.1. Research - Taxonomy
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.1. Conservation Planning - Species Action/Recovery Plan
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

The taxonomical status of the species and possible synonymy with C. anoculus should be clarified. Research on population trends and its causes is needed to know the real threat levels and how to minimize them. A species conservation plan and a management plan would improve its survival chances for the future.

Centromerus variegatus Denis, 1962

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 5

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for this species, mostly recent and in laurisilva forest (Denis 1962, Wunderlich 1987, Crespo et al. 2014b). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 300
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1850

Range description

Centromerus variegatus is known throughout the laurisilva forest that occupies about 20% of the island, mainly on the steep and humid northern slopes.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 256-432-716
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing a decline in area and the invasive species present seem not to affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 232-432-716
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing a decline in area and the invasive species present seem not to affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing a decline in area and the invasive species present seem not to affect the spider population.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

Humid laurisilva forest on the northern slopes of Madeira Island.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane

Ecology

Size: 2 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This species is a sheet-web builder on the tree branches and under stones, feeding mainly on small insects. The species seems closely associated to the laurisilva forest.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Most of the species range lies inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Ceratinopsis infuscata (Denis, 1962)

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 6

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species, mostly recent and in laurisilva forest (Denis 1962, Wunderlich 1987, Crespo et al. 2014b). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 300
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1650

Range description

Ceratinopsis infuscata is known throughout the laurisilva forest that occupies about 20% of the island, mainly the steep and humid northern slopes.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 181-360-640
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider population.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 120-352-640
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider population.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider population.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

Humid laurisilva forest on the northern slopes of Madeira Island.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider population.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane

Ecology

Size: 2 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Sheet-web builder of the canopy stratum, feeding on small insects.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Most of the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Dipoenata longitarsis (Denis, 1962)

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Theridiidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 7

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Only four records for this species exist, mostly recent and all in laurisilva forest (Denis 1962, Crespo et al. 2014b). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 250
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1850

Range description

Dipoenata longitarsis is known from a few sites in laurisilva forest that occupies about 20% of the island, mainly on its steep and humid northern slopes.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 192-404-725
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider population.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 192-404-708
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider population.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider population.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

Humid laurisilva forest on the northern slopes of Madeira Island.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider population.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane

Ecology

Size: 1.3 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

As other species in the genus, D. longitarsis may feed mostly on ants at ground level and low vegetation.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Most of the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Drassodes rugichelis Denis, 1962

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Gnaphosidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 8

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

Largely unknown, as there are only two records for the species (Denis 1962, Wunderlich 1992), both on open mountainous areas.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 1400
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1800

Range description

Drassodes rugichelis is known from two sites (Paúl da Serra and Pico do Cidrão), both on open mountain areas. The true range is however unknown and not possible to model with confidence.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: Unknown
Trend: Unknown

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Unknown

Habitat (narrative)

The two only known sites for the species are in open, mountain areas.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Unknown
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/High Altitude
  • 6. Rocky areas (e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)

Ecology

Size: 11-16 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

The ecology of this species is mostly unknown, but it is probable that they are active nocturnal hunters at ground level.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 7.1. Natural system modifications - Fire & fire suppression

Justification for threats

The mountain areas of Madeira Island have been affected by recent wildfires, which might have affected this species.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Part of the known species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 1.5. Research - Threats
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

The distribution of the species should be researched through extensive collections on the islands' mountainous areas above the tree line. Monitoring of population trends should be conducted in the future and the negative effects of possible threats, such as wildfires, should also be assessed.

Dysdera aneris Macías−Hernández & Arnedo, 2010

Species information

Common names

Aranha-tenaz-das-Selvagens

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Dysderidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 9

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

The restricted distribution of the species allows to known its EOO and AOO with reasonable confidence.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 0
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 160

Range description

The species is restricted to the small Selvagens archipelago that lies between Madeira and the Canary Islands, where it possibly occupies all islets - Selvagem Grande, Selvagem Pequena and Ilhéu de Fora (Macías-Hernández et al. 2010).

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 15
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

No current threats to the species.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 12
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

No current threats to the species.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No current threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

No current threats to the species.

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

No current threats to the species.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 3
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

No current threats to the species.

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Unknown

Habitat (narrative)

The Selvagens archipelago is dominated by barren areas with low herbaceous vegetation and rocky outcrops.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable

Justification for trend

The natural vegetation of Selvagem Grande has been largely recovered by successful projects coordinated by the Madeira Natural Park devoted to the eradication of invasive species.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
  • 6. Rocky areas (e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)

Ecology

Size: 10 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This species is found across the islands living on barren and rocky areas. The diet of D. aneris is unknown, although most congeners are specialized hunters feeding on woodlice.

Threats

Threat type: Future
Threats:
  • 8.1. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases

Justification for threats

Although not currently a threat, the invasive D. crocata has been previously found on Selvagem Grande in the past (Macías-Hernández et al. 2010). It is possible that a future re-introduction of the species might lead to competition for resources with D. aneris with unpredictable consequences, as was already suggested for the extinction of at least one endemic Dysdera in the Azores (Cardoso et al. 2010).

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

The entire range of the species is within the Selvagens Nature Reserve.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm this species status. In addition, some information on the species life history, namely feeding regimen, should be collected as it might be restricted to very few prey types with implications for its conservation.

Dysdera coiffaiti Denis, 1962

Species information

Common names

Aranha-tenaz-de-Coiffait

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Dysderidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 10

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species, mostly recent and in laurisilva forest. It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 300
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1850

Range description

Dysdera coiffaiti is known throughout the laurisilva forest that occupies about 20% of the island, mainly on its steep and humid northern slopes.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 141-398-780
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not declining in area and the invasive species present should not affect this spider's population.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 116-396-780
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect this spider's population.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

No known threats to the species

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

No known threats to the species.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

Humid laurisilva forest on the northern slopes of Madeira Island.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not declining in area and the invasive species present should not affect this spider's population.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane

Ecology

Size: 9-17 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Found across the laurisilva forest of Madeira Island, living on the soil. The diet of D. coiffaiti is unknown, although most congeners are specialized hunters feeding on woodlice.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Most of the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Dysdera diversa Blackwall, 1862

Species information

Common names

Aranha-tenaz-diversa

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Dysderidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 11

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

A single record is published on the original description without a precise locality (Blackwall 1862). Two more records are recent and to be confirmed and were used on an attemp to model the species distribution.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 800
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1850

Range description

Dysdera diversa is known only from high altitude areas of laurisilva forest (above 800m).

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 13-264-644
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Inferred to be stable as the preferred habitat area and quality is stable.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 12-264-644
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Inferred to be stable as the preferred habitat area and quality is stable.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Possibly stable as the preferred habitat area and quality is stable.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No species abundance estimates exist

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

High altitude laurisilva forest.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable

Justification for trend

Preferred habitat area and quality is stable.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane

Ecology

Size: 8 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

The species is found on few places of the high-altitude laurisilva forest of Madeira Island, living on the soil. The diet of D. diversa is unknown, although most congeners are specialized hunters feeding on woodlice.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

All the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

As few localities are known for the species, basic research on species distribution should be made. Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Dysdera portisancti Wunderlich, 1995

Species information

Common names

Aranha-tenaz-do-Porto-Santo

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Dysderidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 12

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

Only two subpopulations of this species are known. These are in close proximity, on the Island of Porto Santo, which has been extensively surveyed, therefore the entire current distribution of this species should be known.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 100
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 320

Range description

The species seems to be restricted to the northeastern part of the island of Porto Santo. It was originally described from Pico Branco (Wunderlich 1995), the area with the most extensive and best preserved native vegetation on the island. A single juvenile was recently collected at the top of the neighbouring Pico do Facho, in a small area with few native plants (e.g. Heberdenia excelsa) within exotic pine and cedar trees.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 8
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Although the species is not known to ever have occupied areas outside its current range, this is extremely small (EOO is in effect < 1km2) and restricted to two nearby peaks with very few remnant native vegetation, with most areas surrounding them being converted to agricultural fields now abandoned or exotic pine and cedar plantations.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 8
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The species is not known to ever have occupied areas outside its current range, this being extremely small (AOO is in effect < 1km2) and restricted to two peaks with very few remnant native vegetation. Most areas surrounding them were converted to agricultural fields now abandoned or exotic pine and cedar plantations.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 2

Justification for number of locations

The two peaks where the species is found are surrounded by exotic tree plantations with numerous invasive plant species. The species seems to be able to survive mostly among native vegetation but also in few sheltered sites with planted trees. Yet, the spread of invasive plants might jeopardize the subpopulations in these two peaks.

Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Further subpopulations were almost certainly lost in nearby peaks (e.g. Moledo or Pico da Gandaia), but probably before the species description in 1995.

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Inferred from possible decline in habitat quality (leading also to possible decline in EOO and AOO) due to the effects of invasive plant species that do not provide adequate shelter for the spider.

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 2
Trend: Stable
Severe fragmentation?: Yes

Justification for fragmentation

As only one juvenile individual (identified through clear somatic characters) was found in Pico do Facho despite intensive sampling, it is possible that this subpopulation is endangered due to loss of habitat quality in the near future. That would mean that only a single subpopulation (50%) in Pico Branco would be left.

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species seems to be restricted to rocky or few native vegetation areas with Erica platycodon or Heberdenia excelsa often within exotic pine and cedar.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (estimated)

Justification for trend

Possible estimated decline in habitat quality (leading also to possible inferred decline in EOO and AOO) due to the effects of invasive plant species that do not provide adequate shelter for the spider.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
  • 6. Rocky areas (e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)

Ecology

Size: 7 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

The species is found living within scarce patches of native vegetation. The diet of D. portisancti is unknown, although most congeners are specialized hunters feeding on woodlice.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 8.1. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases

Justification for threats

As the species seems to be able to survive mostly among native vegetation, probably due to difficulty in finding adequate shelter within other plant species, the spread of invasive plants might jeopardize its survival.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 2.3. Land/water management - Habitat & natural process restoration
  • 3.2. Species management - Species recovery
  • 3.3. Species management - Species re-introduction
  • 3.4. Species management - Ex-situ conservation
  • 4.3. Education & awareness - Awareness & communications
  • 5.1. Law & policy - Legislation

Justification for conservation actions

Part of the original habitat (Pico Branco) is included in the Natura network, but both localities urgently need to be restored jointly with the neighbouring peaks. The spider would benefit from recovery and re-introduction to these new areas which should have been part of its historical range with possible ex-situ breeding for both re-introduction and raising awareness on its emperiled status.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 2.1. Conservation Planning - Species Action/Recovery Plan
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population and habitat trends should be conducted to confirm species status. In addition, some information on life history, namely feeding regimen, should be collected about the species, as it might be restricted to very few prey types with implications for its conservation. The species would benefit from a species conservation plan that would include recovery actions for both the spider and the habitat and a management plan for new protected areas to be created within its historical range.

Dysdera vandeli Denis, 1962

Species information

Common names

Aranha-tenaz-de-Vandel

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Dysderidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 13

Basis of EOO and AOO: Unknown

Basis (narrative)

Distribution of the species is unknown as there is only a single record from Caldeirão do Inferno in 1962 (Denis 1962). It has not been found since this despite recent survey efforts.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 1500
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1500

Range description

Distribution of the species is unknown as there is a single record from Caldeirao do Inferno in 1962 (Denis 1962).

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: Unknown
Trend: Unknown

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Unknown

Habitat (narrative)

Probably humid laurisilva forest on the northern slopes of Madeira Island.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Unknown
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane

Ecology

Size: 6 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

The diet of D. vandeli is unknown, although most congeners are specialized hunters feeding on woodlice.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

The known species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.1. Research - Taxonomy
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 1.5. Research - Threats

Justification for research needed

This species has not been found since the original description (Denis 1962) and it needs, first of all, taxonomic clarification. If valid, basic information would be needed on its distribution, ecology and possible threats.

Echemus modestus Kulczynski, 1899

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Gnaphosidae

Taxonomic notes

Not recorded since original description from Madeira with uncertain locality (Kulczyński 1899).

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 14

Basis of EOO and AOO: Unknown

Basis (narrative)

The species EOO and AOO are unknown.

Range description

Only mentioned from Madeira Island, with no locality data.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: Unknown
Trend: Unknown

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Unknown

Habitat (narrative)

The species habitat is unknown.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Unknown
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 18. Unknown

Ecology

Size: 4 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

If similar to other congeners, probably an active nocturnal hunter at ground level.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.1. Research - Taxonomy
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 1.5. Research - Threats

Justification for research needed

The species has not been found since original description in 1899 (Kulczyński 1899) and needs, first of all, taxonomic clarification. If valid, basic information would be needed on its distribution, ecology and possible threats.

Frontinellina dearmata (Kulczynski, 1899)

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 15

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species, mostly recent and in laurisilva forest (Kulczyński 1899, Crespo et al. 2014b). From previous data collection it was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 100
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1450

Range description

Frontinellina dearmata is known throughout the laurisilva forest that occupies about 20% of the island, mainly on its steep and humid northern slopes.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 53-296-736
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider population.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 52-296-732
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider population.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider population.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

Humid laurisilva forest on the northern slopes of Madeira Island.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane

Ecology

Size: 5 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Sheet-web builder at the canopy of native trees feeding mainly on small insects.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Most of the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Frontiphantes fulgurenotatus (Schenkel, 1938)

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 16

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites have been recorded for the species, mostly recent and in laurisilva forest (Schenkel 1938, Denis 1962, Wunderlich 1987, Crespo et al. 2014b). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 250
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1550

Range description

Frontiphantes fulgurenotatus is known throughout the laurisilva forest that occupies about 20% of the island, mainly on its steep and humid northern slopes.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 208-361-720
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider population.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 144-356-720
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider population.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider population.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

Humid laurisilva forest on the northern slopes of Madeira Island.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider population.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane

Ecology

Size: 4 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Sheet-web builder on the tree branches feeding mainly on small insects.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Most of the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Hahnia insulana Schenkel, 1938

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Hahniidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 17

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species, mostly recent and in laurisilva forest (Schenkel 1938, Denis 1962, Crespo et al. 2014b). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 50
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1700

Range description

Hahnia insulana is known throughout the laurisilva forest that occupies about 20% of the island, mainly on its steep and humid northern slopes.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 207-364-716
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 188-364-708
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

Humid laurisilva forest on the northern slopes of Madeira Island.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane

Ecology

Size: 2 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This species is a sheet-web builder among the leaf-litter and low vegetation feeding mainly on small insects.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Most of the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Hogna biscoitoi Wunderlich, 1992

Species information

Common names

Tarântula-de-Biscoito

Biscoito Wolf Spider

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Lycosidae

Taxonomic notes

Despite intensive searches during the last decade it was not possible to find this species recently described from undetermined locality in the island of Porto Santo (Wunderlich 1992). It probably is a junior synonym of Hogna insularum.

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 18

Basis of EOO and AOO: Unknown

Basis (narrative)

The species EOO and AOO are unknown.

Range description

Only recorded from the Island of Porto Santo, from undetermined locality.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: Unknown
Trend: Unknown

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Unknown

Habitat (narrative)

The species habitat is unknown.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Unknown
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 18. Unknown

Ecology

Size: 9-13 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

If valid, the species should be an active ground hunter feeding mainly on small/medium size arthropods.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.1. Research - Taxonomy
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 1.5. Research - Threats

Justification for research needed

Clarification of the taxonomic status is necessary. If valid, basic information would be needed on its distribution, ecology and possible threats.

Hogna heeri (Thorell, 1875)

Species information

Common names

Tarântula-de-Heer

Heer Wolf Spider

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Lycosidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 19

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species, many of them recent and in a number of different habitats (Thorell 1875, Warburton 1892, Simon 1897, Kulczyński 1899, Schenkel 1938, Denis 1962, Denis 1963, Wunderlich 1992, Crespo et al. 2013). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 0
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1755

Range description

Hogna heeri is known from varied and contrasting habitats, from open barren areas in Bugio (Desertas) to laurisilva forest in Madeira Island.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 876-1087-1439
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species seems to be able to live on all kinds of habitat, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 36-408-812
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species seems to be able to live on all kinds of habitat, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species seems to be able to live on all kinds of habitat, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: No

Habitat (narrative)

The species seems to be able to live on all kinds of habitat, from barren areas to laurisilva forest.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
  • 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
  • 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
  • 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/High Altitude
  • 6. Rocky areas (e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
  • 16. Introduced vegetation

Ecology

Size: 13-15 mm
Generation length (yr): 2
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Active ground hunter feeding mainly on small/medium size arthropods.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1. Land/water protection

Justification for conservation actions

Part of the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park and in the Desertas Nature Reserve.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

The disjunct distribution of the species is currently being researched and might lead to a change in the current estimated maps. Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Hogna insularum (Kulczynski, 1899)

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Lycosidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 6

Figure 6.  

Hogna insularum (Kulczynski, 1899) female with spiderlings (photo by Pedro Cardoso).

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 20

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites have been recorded for the species, mostly recent in all Madeiran islands at low altitude (Kulczyński 1899, Denis 1962, Denis 1963, Schmidt 1990, Wunderlich 1992, Crespo et al. 2013). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 0
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 320

Range description

Hogna insularum is known in open habitats across all Madeiran islands at low altitudes. On Madeira Island it only occupies the eastern region.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 1333-2412-3518
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, open grassland or shrubland with frequent rock outcrops, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 80-208-644
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, open grassland or scrubland with frequent rock outcrops, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, open grassland or shrubland with frequent rock outcrops, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: No

Habitat (narrative)

Open grassland or shrubland with frequent rock outcrops, very common in the eastern part of the archipelago at low altitudes.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
  • 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
  • 6. Rocky areas (e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)

Ecology

Size: 11-20 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Active ground hunter feeding mainly on small/medium size arthropods.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Part of the species range is inside several protected areas including the Ponta de São Lourenco Special Protection Area and Desertas Nature Reserve.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Hogna maderiana (Walckenaer, 1837)

Species information

Common names

Tarântula-da-Madeira

Madeira Wolf Spider

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Lycosidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 21

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species, usually in open areas but at all altitudes, from coastal areas to the plateau of Paúl da Serra (Walckenaer 1837, Johnson 1863, Thorell 1875, Warburton 1892, Simon 1897, Kulczyński 1899, Schenkel 1938, Roewer 1960, Denis 1962, Denis 1963, Wunderlich 1992, Wunderlich 1995). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 0
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1800

Range description

Hogna maderiana is known throughout the island of Madeira in open habitats.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 304-368-908
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species seems to be able to live on several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 28-368-908
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species seems to be able to live on several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species seems to be able to live on several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: No

Habitat (narrative)

The species seems to be able to live on several open habitat types, including coastal areas and high-altitude plateaus dominated by grasses.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
  • 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/High Altitude
  • 6. Rocky areas (e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
  • 13.1. Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands

Ecology

Size: 25 mm
Generation length (yr): 2
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Active ground hunter feeding mainly on small/medium size arthropods.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

The disjunct distribution of the species is currently being researched and might lead to a change in the current estimated maps. Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Hogna nonannulata Wunderlich, 1995

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Lycosidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 22

Basis of EOO and AOO: Unknown

Basis (narrative)

The species EOO and AOO are unknown.

Range description

The true distribution of Hogna nonannulata is unknown (Roewer 1960, Wunderlich 1995), although it might be present exclusively in laurisilva forest.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: Unknown
Trend: Unknown

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

The species was found from few sites in humid laurisilva forest (Ribeiro Frio) on the northern slopes of Madeira Island.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Unknown
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane

Ecology

Size: 15-17 mm
Generation length (yr): 2
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Active ground hunter feeding mainly on small/medium size arthropods.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

The known locality is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 1.5. Research - Threats

Justification for research needed

Basic information is needed on its distribution, ecology and possible threats.

Hogna schmitzi Wunderlich, 1992

Species information

Common names

Tarântula-de-Porto-Santo (Portuguese)

Porto Santo Wolf Spider (English)

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Lycosidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global
Figure(s) or Photo(s): 

Fig. 7

Figure 7.  

Hogna schmitzi Wunderlich, 1992 (photo by Pedro Cardoso).

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 23

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species (Blackwall 1857, Johnson 1863, Schmitz 1895, Kulczyński 1899, Cockerell 1924, Denis 1962, Schmidt 1990, Wunderlich 1992). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 0
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 270

Range description

Across the entire island of Porto Santo and its small islets. Habitats include areas close to human settlements but exclude densely forested areas.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 32-64-68
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species seems to be able to live on several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 32-64-68
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species seems to be able to live on several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No current threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species seems to be able to live on several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: No

Habitat (narrative)

The species seems to be able to live on several habitat types, even close to human settlements. It only avoids densely forested areas.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
  • 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
  • 6. Rocky areas (e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)

Ecology

Size: 20-30 mm
Generation length (yr): 2
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Active ground hunter feeding mainly on medium/large size arthropods.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

A small part of the species range is inside the Porto Santo Network of Marine Protected Areas (which include islets).

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Lathys affinis (Blackwall, 1862)

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Dictynidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 24

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species, mostly recent and in all habitat types (Blackwall 1862, Kulczyński 1899, Schenkel 1938, Denis 1962, Wunderlich 1992, Crespo et al. 2013, Crespo et al. 2014b). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 0
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1460

Range description

Lathys affinis is known on all islands across the Madeira archipelago and on all habitat types, from laurisilva forest to open arid areas.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 744-3373-3699
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species seems to be able to live on several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 40-544-948
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species seems to be able to live on several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species seems to be able to live on several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: No

Habitat (narrative)

The species seems to be able to live on several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.4. Forest - Temperate
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
  • 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
  • 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
  • 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/High Altitude
  • 6. Rocky areas (e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
  • 16. Introduced vegetation

Ecology

Size: 2 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Small cribellate web builder on vegetation or ground level feeding mainly on small insects.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Much of the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park and in several protected areas across the archipelago.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Lepthyphantes impudicus Kulczynski, 1909

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 25

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species, mostly recent and in laurisilva forest (Kulczyński 1909, Denis 1962, Crespo et al. 2014b). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 200
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1850

Range description

Lepthyphantes impudicus is known throughout the laurisilva forest that occupies about 20% of the island, mainly on its steep and humid northern slopes.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 153-400-736
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing a decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 152-400-736
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

Humid laurisilva forest on the northern slopes of Madeira Island.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane

Ecology

Size: 3 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This species is a sheet-web builder on the tree branches feeding mainly on small insects.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Most of the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Lepthyphantes lundbladi Schenkel, 1938

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 26

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species in laurisilva forest (Schenkel 1938, Wunderlich 1987). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 750
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1850

Range description

Lepthyphantes lundbladi is predicted to be present throughout the laurisilva forest that occupies about 20% of the island, mainly on its steep and humid northern slopes.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 40-288-600
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 40-288-600
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

Humid laurisilva forest on the northern slopes of Madeira Island.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane

Ecology

Size: 3 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This species is a sheet-web builder close to the soil, being first described from the entrance of a lava tube (Gruta da Ribeira do Inferno).

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Most of the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Lepthyphantes mauli Wunderlich, 1992

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 27

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species, mostly recent and in laurisilva forest (Wunderlich 1992, Crespo et al. 2014b). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 50
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1850

Range description

Lepthyphantes mauli is known from different sites in laurisilva forest that occupies about 20% of the island, mainly on its steep and humid northern slopes.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 200-316-524
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 200-316-524
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

Humid laurisilva forest on the northern slopes of Madeira Island.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane

Ecology

Size: 3 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This species is a sheet-web builder close to the soil, being first described from the entrance of a lava tube (Grutas de São Vicente).

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Macaroeris desertensis Wunderlich, 1992

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Salticidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 28

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites have been recorded for the species in both Porto Santo and Desertas (Wunderlich 1992, Crespo et al. 2013). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 0
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 270

Range description

Macaroeris desertensis is known throughout the islands and islets of Porto Santo and Desertas, mainly on open grassland, scrubland and rocky areas.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 529-599-599
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species seems to be common in open areas of several islands and islets.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 36-104-104
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species seems to be common in open areas of several islands and islets.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species seems to be common in open areas of several islands and islets.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: No

Habitat (narrative)

Macaroeris desertensis is known throughout the islands and islets of Porto Santo and Desertas, mainly on open grassland, scrubland and rocky areas.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable

Justification for trend

The species seems to be common in open areas of several islands and islets.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
  • 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
  • 6. Rocky areas (e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)

Ecology

Size: 4-5 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Active hunter on low vegetation feeding mainly on small/medium size arthropods.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Part of the species range lies inside the Desertas Nature Reserve and in the Porto Santo Network of Marine Protected Areas (which includes islets).

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Macarophaeus cultior (Kulczynski, 1899)

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Gnaphosidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 29

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species, mostly recent and in laurisilva forest (Kulczyński 1899, Denis 1962, Crespo et al. 2014b). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 100
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1850

Range description

Macarophaeus cultior is known throughout the laurisilva forest that occupies about 20% of the island, mainly on its steep and humid northern slopes.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 153-372-688
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 136-372-688
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

Humid laurisilva forest on the northern slopes of Madeira Island.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane

Ecology

Size: 10-13 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Active nocturnal ground hunter feeding mainly on small/medium size arthropods.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Most of the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Mesiotelus maderianus Kulczynski, 1899

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Liocranidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 30

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

There are only three records for the species, mostly old (Kulczyński 1899) plus a new record from Pico do Cidrão (unpublished). We still performed species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits although these should be taken with caution. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 650
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1850

Range description

Known from few sites at high altitude, in laurisilva forest or above tree-line.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 28-256-720
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

One of the species habitats, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations. The other habitat, mountain areas, experienced a severe wildfire in 2010 which might have reduced the species range.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 28-256-720
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

One of the species habitats, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations. The other habitat, mountain areas, experienced a severe wildfire in 2010 which might have reduced the species range.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 2

Justification for number of locations

A single wildfire event may affect the entire area above tree-line. The forest areas are in general not threatened.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

One of the species habitats, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations. The other habitat, mountain areas, experienced a severe wildfire in 2010 which might have reduced the species range.

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: Unknown
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

One of the species habitats, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations. The other habitat, mountain areas, experienced a severe wildfire in 2010 which might have reduced the species population.

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: No

Habitat (narrative)

The only records of the species are from both laurisilva (Queimadas) and the mountain peaks (Pico do Cidrão).

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

Although the laurisilva areas are extensive and mostly well-preserved, the mountain areas above the tree-line have suffered recent (2010) extensive wildfires that destroyed much of the native habitat. It is unknown whether these events have affected the species and to what proportion of its range, although this can be inferred.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
  • 6. Rocky areas (e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)

Ecology

Size: 3 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Active ground hunter feeding mainly on small size arthropods.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 7.1. Natural system modifications - Fire & fire suppression

Justification for threats

Wildfires have negatively impacted the subpopulations above treeline in the past and may do it again in the future.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Most of the species range is predicted to be inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 1.5. Research - Threats
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends
  • 3.4. Monitoring - Habitat trends

Justification for research needed

Given the high uncertainty the species range should be extensively studied. Furthermore, studies on the ecology of the species and how it was affected by wildfire is necessary. Afterwards, monitoring of population and habitat trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Meta barreti Kulczynski, 1899

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Tetragnathidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 31

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species mostly in laurisilva forest, although none recently (Warburton 1892, Schmitz 1895, Kulczyński 1899, Bristowe 1925, Bacelar 1937, Schenkel 1938, Denis 1962, Wunderlich 1987, Wunderlich 1992). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 50
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1850

Range description

Meta barreti is (or was) known throughout the laurisilva forest that occupies about 20% of the island, mainly on its steep and humid northern slopes.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 0-352-899
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area. It should be noted, however, that the species has not been recorded for at least two decades despite extensive sampling. At the same time, the endemic congener Meta stridulans is now commonly seen after description in 1987, about the same time as M. barreti was last recorded. It is possible there was replacement of one species by the other, both single island endemics, although this is for now only suspected.

Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 0-352-880
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area. It should be noted, however, that the species has not been recorded for at least two decades despite extensive sampling. At the same time, the endemic congener M. stridulans is now commonly seen after description in 1987, about the same time as M. barreti was last recorded. It is possible there was replacement of one species by the other, both single island endemics, although this is for now only suspected.

Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: 0-1

Justification for number of locations

The species is not recorded for at least two decades despite extensive sampling. At the same time, the endemic congener M. stridulans is now very common in the same habitat and region. If this latter species replaced M. barreti it was a fast single event, although this can only be suspected.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area. It should be noted, however, that the species is not recorded for at least two decades despite extensive sampling. At the same time, the endemic congener M. stridulans is now commonly seen after description in 1987, about the same time as M. barreti was last recorded. It is possible there was replacement of one species by the other, both single island endemics, although this, for now, is only suspected.

Basis for decline: 
  • (c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat
  • (e) the effects of introduced taxa, hybridization, pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites.
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: Unknown
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area. It should be noted however that the species is not recorded for at least two decades despite extensive sampling. At the same time, the endemic congener M. stridulans is now commonly seen after description in 1987, about the same time as M. barreti was last recorded. It is possible there was replacement of one species by the other, both single island endemics, although this, for now, is only suspected.

Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

Humid laurisilva forest on the northern slopes of Madeira Island.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area. It should be noted, however, that the species is not recorded for at least two decades despite extensive sampling. At the same time, the endemic congener M. stridulans is now commonly seen after description in 1987, about the same time as M. barreti was last recorded. It is possible there was replacement of one species by the other, both single island endemics, although this, for now, is only suspected.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane

Ecology

Size: 6 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This species is an orb-web builder, possibly on the tree branches, feeding mainly on small insects. The congener M. stridulans is much larger (up to 11 mm), possibly giving it a competitive advantage.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 8.2. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Problematic native species/diseases

Justification for threats

The endemic congener M. stridulans is now commonly seen after description in 1987, about the same time as M. barreti was last recorded. It is possible there was replacement of one species by the other, both single island endemics, although this is for now only suspected.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 3.2. Species management - Species recovery

Justification for conservation actions

All the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park. If its apparent disappearance from the native range is confirmed some measures targeting species recovery should be implemented.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.5. Research - Threats

Justification for research needed

The true distribution of the species and possible confusion with Meta stridulans should be clarified. Also research on the possible temporal replacement between these two species is needed.

Meta stridulans Wunderlich, 1987

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Tetragnathidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 32

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species, mostly recent and in laurisilva forest (Wunderlich 1987, Crespo et al. 2014b). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 200
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1400

Range description

Meta stridulans is known throughout the laurisilva forest that occupies about 20% of the island, mainly on its steep and humid northern slopes.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 98-336-832
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 96-324-812
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

Humid laurisilva forest on the northern slopes of Madeira Island.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane

Ecology

Size: 7-11 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This species is an orb-web builder, possibly on the tree branches, feeding mainly on small-medium size insects.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Most of the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Less important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Misumena nigromaculata Denis, 1963

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Thomisidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 33

Basis of EOO and AOO: Unknown

Basis (narrative)

The species EOO and AOO are unknown.

Range description

Misumena nigromaculata is known only from Funchal, south coast of Madeira Island, captured in October 1940 (Denis 1963) and was recently found with doubts in identification at Dunas da Piedade, Ponta de São Lourenco (unpublished).

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: Unknown
Trend: Unknown

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Unknown

Habitat (narrative)

The only place of confirmed presence in Funchal was largely occupied by farms and gardens at the time. The unconfirmed identification in Ponta de São Lourenco is on a semi-arid grassland.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Unknown
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
  • 16. Introduced vegetation

Ecology

Size: 6 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Unknown, but congeners are ambush hunters in low-vegetation, often seen waiting for prey on flowers.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 1.1. Residential & commercial development - Housing & urban areas

Justification for threats

The only confirmed locality and location is now mostly residential area in the outskirts of Funchal.

Conservation

Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 3.2. Species management - Species recovery

Justification for conservation actions

If a small range is confirmed in the future the species should benefit from a recovery plan. Yet, little information available precludes from advising on any concrete measures.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.5. Research - Threats
  • 2.1. Conservation Planning - Species Action/Recovery Plan
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan

Justification for research needed

The true distribution of the species should be assessed along with possible threats along its range. If endangered, a species conservation plan encompassing recovery actions and area management should be needed to ensure the species survival.

Oecobius minor Kulczynski, 1909

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Oecobiidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 34

Basis of EOO and AOO: Unknown

Basis (narrative)

The species EOO and AOO are unknown.

Range description

Oecobius minor is known only from the mountainous area south of Faial on the northern coast of Madeira Island, captured in undefined date (Wunderlich 1992). The only other record is from the same island in undefined locality (Kulczyński 1909).

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: Unknown
Trend: Unknown

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Unknown

Habitat (narrative)

The only known locality probably is in laurisilva forest.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Unknown
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane

Ecology

Size: 2 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Unknown, but congeners build small flat webs over rocks or trunks where they hunt for small insects.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

The known species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.5. Research - Threats

Justification for research needed

The true distribution of the species should be assessed along with possible threats along its range.

Oecobius selvagensis Wunderlich, 1995

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Oecobiidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 35

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

The restricted distribution of the species allows to know its EOO and AOO with reasonable confidence.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 0
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 160

Range description

The species is probably restricted to the Selvagem Grande Island between Madeira and the Canary Islands, where it was found in an unnamed erosion coastal cave in 1958 (Denis 1963, Rambla 1978, Wunderlich 1992). Two caves are now the entire known range of the species.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 4
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The cosmopolitan congener O. navus is now commonly seen, even in caves, after being detected on the island for the first time before 1978. It is possible there is a gradual replacement of one species by the other, although this is for now only suspected.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: No

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 4
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The cosmopolitan congener O. navus is now commonly seen, even in caves, after being detected on the island for the first time before 1978. It is possible there is a gradual replacement of one species by the other, although this is for now only suspected.

Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: No

Locations

Number of locations: 1

Justification for number of locations

If the suspicion that the introduction of O. navus is affecting O. selvagensis is confirmed, there is a single location derived from the spread of the invasive species in a single event.

Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Probably stable for the last 10 years.

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The cosmopolitan congener O. navus is now commonly seen, even in caves, after being detected on the island for the first time before 1978. It is possible there is a gradual replacement of one species by the other, although this is for now only suspected.

Basis for decline: 
  • (e) the effects of introduced taxa, hybridization, pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites.
Causes ceased?: No
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: No

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 1
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

A single subpopulation is historically known.

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

Only know from two caves.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (inferred)

Justification for trend

The cosmopolitan congener O. navus is now commonly seen, even in caves, after being detected on the island for the first time before 1978. It is possible there is a gradual replacement of one species by the other, although this, for now, is only suspected.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 13.2. Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Coastal Caves/Karst

Ecology

Size: 2 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

It is probable that this is a species that lives underground due to the two known localities being inside of caves and it being largely depigmented. Congeners build small flat webs where they hunt for small insects.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 8.1. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases - Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases

Justification for threats

The cosmopolitan O. navus may be outcompeting the species in part of its range.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection
Conservation action type: Needed
Conservation actions:
  • 2.2. Land/water management - Invasive/problematic species control
  • 3.2. Species management - Species recovery
  • 3.3. Species management - Species re-introduction
  • 3.4. Species management - Ex-situ conservation

Justification for conservation actions

The island of Selvagem Grande is part of the Selvagens Nature Reserve. If competition is confirmed, the invasive O. navus should be controlled. As this task is probably impossible, ex-situ conservation with eventual re-introduction and recovery might be the only feasible measure to prevent further reduction of O. selvagensis.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.5. Research - Threats
  • 2.1. Conservation Planning - Species Action/Recovery Plan
  • 2.2. Conservation Planning - Area-based Management Plan

Justification for research needed

The current distribution of the species and possible threats from the invasive congener should be thoroughly studied. If outcompeted, O. selvagensis should be the target of a species conservation plan with consequent area management actions.

Parapelecopsis mediocris (Kulczynski, 1899)

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae

Taxonomic notes

Possible junior synonym of Parapelecopsis nemoralioides (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1884) (Wunderlich 1992)

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 36

Basis of EOO and AOO: Unknown

Basis (narrative)

The species EOO and AOO are unknown.

Range description

Described from undefined locality in Madeira Island (Kulczyński 1899)

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: Unknown
Trend: Unknown

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Population Information (Narrative)

The species population size and trend are unknown.

Subpopulations

Trend: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Unknown

Habitat (narrative)

The species habitat is unknown.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Unknown
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 18. Unknown

Ecology

Size: 2 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Unknown.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.1. Research - Taxonomy
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 1.5. Research - Threats

Justification for research needed

The species is not found since original description in 1899 (Kulczyński 1899) and needs, first of all, taxonomic clarification to confirm synonymy with P. nemoralioides. If valid, basic information would be needed on its distribution, ecology and possible threats.

Philodromus insulanus Kulczynski, 1905

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Philodromidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 37

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species, mostly recent and in laurisilva forest (Kulczyński 1905, Schenkel 1938, Denis 1962, Crespo et al. 2014b). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 300
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1750

Range description

Philodromus insulanus is known throughout the laurisilva forest that occupies about 20% of the island, mainly on its steep and humid northern slopes.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 201-419-782
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 132-396-776
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

Humid laurisilva forest on the northern slopes of Madeira Island.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane

Ecology

Size: 5-12 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

The species is an active hunter at low to high vegetation feeding mainly on small size arthropods.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Most of the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Philodromus simillimus Denis, 1962

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Philodromidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 38

Basis of EOO and AOO: Unknown

Basis (narrative)

The species EOO and AOO are unknown.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 1860
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1860

Range description

Only known from Pico Ruivo, the highest mountain in Madeira Island with 1861 m altitude (Denis 1962). A single female was captured in April 1957.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: Unknown
Trend: Unknown

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Unknown

Habitat (narrative)

The single site where the species was sampled is in high mountain above tree-line.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Unknown
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 6. Rocky areas (e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)

Ecology

Size: 5 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Nothing is known about the species but congeners are active hunters mainly feeding on small arthropods.

Threats

Threat type: Ongoing
Threats:
  • 7.1. Natural system modifications - Fire & fire suppression

Justification for threats

If this species is restricted to the high peaks of Madeira recent wildfires may have affected its population. Given the lack of information this is purely speculative.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

If only living in the mountain peaks of Madeira, this species habitat is protected by the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.1. Research - Taxonomy
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 1.5. Research - Threats

Justification for research needed

Individuals of this species are not found since the original description (Denis 1962) and it needs, first of all, taxonomic clarification. If valid, basic information would be needed on its distribution, ecology and possible threats.

Pholcus dentatus Wunderlich, 1995

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Pholcidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 39

Basis of EOO and AOO: Unknown

Basis (narrative)

The species EOO and AOO are unkown.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 300
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 450

Range description

Pholcus dentatus is known from only two sites separated by 25 kms in the northern coast of Madeira Island between 300 and 450 meters elevation, Fonte da Pedra and Ribeira da Janela (Wunderlich 1995).

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: Unknown
Trend: Unknown

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Unknown

Habitat (narrative)

Habitat was never specified.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Unknown
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 18. Unknown

Ecology

Size: 4-5 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

The species ecology is unknown but almost certainly a tangle-web builder feeding on small arthropods.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 1.5. Research - Threats

Justification for research needed

Basic information is needed on its distribution, ecology and possible threats.

Pholcus madeirensis Wunderlich, 1987

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Pholcidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 40

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species, mostly recent and in laurisilva forest (Wunderlich, 1987, unpublished). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 350
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1850

Range description

Pholcus madeirensis was first described from the southern slopes of Madeira, including near Funchal, in undescribed habitat (Wunderlich 1987). More recently it was found in several laurisilva forest sites of the northern slopes.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 47-332-761
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 12-332-752
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: No

Habitat (narrative)

Mainly humid laurisilva forest on the northern slopes of Madeira Island, but also known from the southern slopes in undescribed habitat.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
  • 18. Unknown

Ecology

Size: 5 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

The ecology of this species is unknown but almost certainly a tangle-web builder feeding on small arthropods.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Part of its range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status. As the preferred habitat outside laurisilva forest is unknown, research on distribution and preferred habitats should be a priority.

Pholcus magnus Wunderlich, 1987

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Pholcidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 41

Basis of EOO and AOO: Unknown

Basis (narrative)

The EOO and AOO of this species are unknown.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 700
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 700

Range description

Only known from Portela, on eastern Madeira Island (Wunderlich 1987), captured under a bridge before 1987.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: Unknown
Trend: Unknown

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Unknown

Habitat (narrative)

Only known from under a bridge surrounded by undescribed habitat (Wunderlich 1987).

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Unknown
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 18. Unknown

Ecology

Size: 5-6 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

The ecology of the species is unknown but almost certainly a tangle-web builder feeding on small arthropods.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 1.5. Research - Threats

Justification for research needed

Basic information is needed on its distribution, ecology and possible threats.

Pholcus parvus Wunderlich, 1987

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Pholcidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 42

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

Four collection sites are recorded for the species, most recently in laurisilva forest close to the northern coast of Madeira (Wunderlich 1987, Wunderlich 1995). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 50
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1150

Range description

Pholcus parvus is known from a few sites in laurisilva forest or nearby, always in valleys close to the northern coast of Madeira Island.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 76-213-912
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 16-204-912
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Yes

Habitat (narrative)

Humid laurisilva forest on the northern valleys of Madeira Island.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitat of the species, humid laurisilva forest, is not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane

Ecology

Size: 4-5 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

The ecology of the species is unknown but almost certainly a tangle-web builder feeding on small arthropods.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Most of the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Pholcus silvai Wunderlich, 1995

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Pholcidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 43

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species, from both laurisilva forest and open areas above 450 m altitude (Wunderlich 1995). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 450
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1800

Range description

Pholcus silvai is known on the western side of Madeira Island, from both laurisilva forest and open areas above 450 m altitude.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 38-440-888
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitats of the species, humid laurisilva forest and open areas on the western side of the island, are not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 20-440-888
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitats of the species, humid laurisilva forest and open areas on the western side of the island, are not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitats of the species, humid laurisilva forest and open areas on the western side of the island, are not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: No

Habitat (narrative)

The species occurs in both laurisilva forest and open areas on the western side of the island.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable

Justification for trend

The preferred habitats of the species, humid laurisilva forest and open areas on the western side of the island, are not experiencing any decline in area and the invasive species present should not affect the spider populations.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
  • 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
  • 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/High Altitude

Ecology

Size: 4-5 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

The ecology of this species is unknown but almost certainly a tangle-web builder feeding on small arthropods.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Most of the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm this species' status.

Prinerigone pigra (Blackwall, 1862)

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 44

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Only three collection sites have ever been recorded for this species, mostly from laurisilva forest (Blackwall 1862, Schenkel 1938, Wunderlich 1995). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits, although it must be carefully considered due to the low number of samples. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 600
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1850

Range description

Prinerigone pigra seems to be restricted to high-altitude forest (above 600 m) in Madeira Island.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 52-456-87
Trend: Unknown

Justification for trend

There are no recent collections of the species. It does not seem to be common given the scarce number of records. Impossible to infer on the current trend.

Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 16-456-872
Trend: Unknown

Justification for trend

There are no recent collections of the species. It does not seem to be common given the scarce number of records. Impossible to infer on the current trend.

Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: Unknown

Justification for number of locations

Impossible to infer if there are any threats.

Trend: Unknown

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Unknown

Justification for trend

There are no recent collections of the species. It does not seem to be common given the scarce number of records. Impossible to infer on the current trend.

Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Unknown

Habitat (narrative)

It seems to be mostly found in high-altitude laurisilva forest but possibly also in other habitats above 600m.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Unknown

Justification for trend

There are no recent collections of the species. It does not seem to be common given the scarce number of records. Therefore, it is impossible to infer the current trend.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
  • 18. Unknown

Ecology

Size: 2 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Unknown, but sister taxa such as Prinerigone vagans (Audouin, 1826) are sheet-web weavers at ground and low vegetation levels.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Part of the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 1.5. Research - Threats

Justification for research needed

Basic information is needed on its distribution, ecology and possible threats.

Rugathodes madeirensis Wunderlich, 1987

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Theridiidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 45

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species, mostly recent and in laurisilva forest (Schenkel 1938, Denis 1962, Wunderlich 1987, Wunderlich 1992, Crespo et al. 2014b). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 50
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1700

Range description

Rugathodes madeirensis is one of the most common species in Madeira Island, known throughout the laurisilva forest and also other habitats including pine plantations and close to urban areas.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 235-432-792
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species seems to be able to live within several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 188-404-792
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species seems to be able to live on several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The species seems to be able to live within several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: No

Habitat (narrative)

Rugathodes madeirensis is one of the most common species in Madeira Island, known throughout the laurisilva forest and also other habitats including pine plantations and close to urban areas.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
Habitat importance: Suitable
Habitats: 
  • 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
  • 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens

Ecology

Size: 2 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Cobweb spider at all vegetation layers feeding on small arthropods.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Most of the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Scotognapha paivani (Blackwall, 1864)

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Gnaphosidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 46

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

As the species is thought to be restricted to the three small islands/islets of Selvagens, the EOO and AOO can be calculated with some confidence.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 0
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 160

Range description

Restricted to Selvagem Grande, Selvagem Pequena and Ilhéu de Fora in the archipelago of Selvagens.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 13
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The EOO seems to be stable with no signs of loss or known threats.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 12
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The AOO seems to be stable with no signs of loss or known threats.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The population size seems to be stable with no signs of loss or known threats.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 3
Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Unknown

Habitat (narrative)

The islands and islets of Desertas have a mix of grassland and rocky outcrops within coastal cliffs. The species seems to be relatively common in grassland, unknown if also occurs in other habitats.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable

Justification for trend

The habitat in Selvagem Grande was subject of a recovery plan during 2000-2002 and seems to be stable with no signs of loss or known threats.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry

Ecology

Size: 3-10 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This species is probably a nocturnal hunter of small arthropods at ground level.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

The species range is inside the Selvagens Nature Reserve.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Spermophorides selvagensis Wunderlich, 1992

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Pholcidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 47

Basis of EOO and AOO: Observed

Basis (narrative)

This species is only known from Selvagem Grande (Denis 1963, Wunderlich 1992, Crespo et al. 2009b), being possible to calculate the EOO and AOO with reasonable confidence.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 0
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 160

Range description

Only known from Selvagem Grande, from both a small coastal cave (Gruta das Pardelas) and rocky areas.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 4
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The EOO seems to be stable with no signs of loss or known threats.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 4
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The AOO seems to be stable with no signs of loss or known threats.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

The population size seems to be stable with no signs of loss or known threats.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Number of subpopulations: 1
Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: No

Habitat (narrative)

Found both in a coastal cave and rocky outcrops.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 6. Rocky areas (e.g. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
  • 13.1. Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands
  • 13.2. Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Coastal Caves/Karst

Ecology

Size: 1-2 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This is a tangle-web spider hunting for small arthropods on rock walls.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

The species range is inside the Selvagens Nature Reserve.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Steatoda distincta (Blackwall, 1859)

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Theridiidae

Taxonomic notes

Possible junior synonym of Steatoda paykulliana (Walckenaer, 1806), a widespread palearctic species (Denis 1962).

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 48

Basis of EOO and AOO: Unknown

Basis (narrative)

The EOO and AOO of this species are unknown.

Range description

Only mentioned for "Madeira" (Blackwall 1859, Warburton 1892), with no locality data.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Locations

Number of locations: Unknown
Trend: Unknown

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Unknown
Causes ceased?: Unknown
Causes understood?: Unknown
Causes reversible?: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations?: Unknown
Severe fragmentation?: Unknown

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: Unknown

Habitat (narrative)

The species habitat is unknown.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Unknown
Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 18. Unknown

Ecology

Size: 5 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

Not much is known about this species ecology except it should be a cobweb builder (if the species is valid).

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 1.1. Research - Taxonomy
  • 1.2. Research - Population size, distribution & trends
  • 1.3. Research - Life history & ecology
  • 1.5. Research - Threats

Justification for research needed

S. distincta probably is a synonym of a widespread species (Denis 1962) and needs, first of all, taxonomic clarification. If valid, basic information would be needed on its distribution, ecology and possible threats.

Tenuiphantes tenebricoloides (Schenkel, 1938)

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 49

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species, mostly recent and in laurisilva forest (Schenkel 1938, Denis 1962, Wunderlich 1987, unpublished). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Min Elevation/Depth (m): 550
Max Elevation/Depth (m): 1750

Range description

Tenuiphantes tenebricoloides is one of the most common species in Madeira Island, known throughout the laurisilva forest and also other habitats including planted/cultivated forest and close to urban areas.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 181-488-700
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Although most common in laurisilva forest, the species seems to be able to live on several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 160-488-692
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Although most common in laurisilva forest, the species seems to be able to live on several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Although most common in laurisilva forest, the species seems to be able to live on several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: No

Habitat (narrative)

Most common in humid laurissilva forest but recorded from several habitat types.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Stable

Justification for trend

Although most common in laurisilva forest, the species seems to be able to live on several habitat types such as cultivated forest, even close to human settlements.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
Habitat importance: Suitable
Habitats: 
  • 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
  • 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens

Ecology

Size: 2-3 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This species is a sheet-web builder at the arboreal layer feeding mainly on small insects.

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat

Justification for threats

Unknown threats.

Conservation

Conservation action type: In Place
Conservation actions:
  • 1.1. Land/water protection - Site/area protection

Justification for conservation actions

Most of the species range is inside the Madeira Natural Park.

Other

Use type: International
Ecosystem service type: Very important
Research needed:
  • 3.1. Monitoring - Population trends

Justification for research needed

Monitoring of population trends should be conducted to confirm species status.

Trogloneta madeirensis Wunderlich, 1987

Species information

Taxonomy

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Arachnida Araneae Mysmenidae

Region for assessment:

  • Global

Geographic range

Biogeographic realm:

  • Palearctic

Countries:

  • Portugal
Map of records (Google Earth): 

Suppl. material 50

Basis of EOO and AOO: Species Distribution Model

Basis (narrative)

Multiple collection sites are recorded for the species, mostly recent and in laurisilva forest (Wunderlich 1987, Wunderlich 1992, Crespo et al. 2014b). It was possible to perform species distribution modeling to predict its potential range with confidence limits. See methods for details.

Range description

Trogloneta madeirensis is one of the most common species in Madeira Island, known throughout the laurisilva forest and also other habitats including caves and close to urban areas.

Material    Download as CSV 

Extent of occurrence

EOO (km2): 202-389-764
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Although most common in laurisilva forest, the species seems to be able to live on several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Area of occupancy

AOO (km2): 172-368-764
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Although most common in laurisilva forest, the species seems to be able to live on several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Locations

Number of locations: 0

Justification for number of locations

No known threats to the species.

Trend: Stable

Population

Number of individuals: Unknown
Trend: Stable

Justification for trend

Although most common in laurisilva forest, the species seems to be able to live on several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Causes ceased?: Yes
Causes understood?: Yes
Causes reversible?: Yes

Population Information (Narrative)

No population size estimates exist.

Subpopulations

Trend: Stable

Habitat

System: Terrestrial
Habitat specialist: No

Habitat (narrative)

Most common in humid laurissilva forest but recorded from several habitat types.

Trend in extent, area or quality?: Decline (observed)

Justification for trend

Although most common in laurisilva forest, the species seems to be able to live on several habitat types, even close to human settlements.

Habitat importance: Major Importance
Habitats: 
  • 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
Habitat importance: Suitable
Habitats: 
  • 7.1. Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) - Caves
  • 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens

Ecology

Size: 0.9-1.3 mm
Generation length (yr): 1
Dependency of single sp?: No

Ecology and traits (narrative)

This tiny spider has been found living among the rocks and trees, shrubs and herbs and also in moss on tree trunks (Wunderlich 1987). It possibly builds three-dimensional webs (Hajer 2000).

Threats

Threat type: Past
Threats:
  • 12. Other options - Other threat