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Data Paper (Biosciences)
Dataset of "true mangroves" plant species traits
expand article infoAline Ferreira Quadros, Martin Zimmer
‡ Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research, Bremen, Germany
Open Access

Abstract

Background

Plant traits have been used extensively in ecology. They can be used as proxies for resource-acquisition strategies and facilitate the understanding of community structure and ecosystem functioning. However, many reviews and comparative analysis of plant traits do not include mangroves plants, possibly due to the lack of quantitative information available in a centralised form.

New information

Here a dataset is presented with 2364 records of traits of "true mangroves" species, gathered from 88 references (published articles, books, theses and dissertations). The dataset contains information on 107 quantitative traits and 18 qualitative traits for 55 species of "true mangroves" (sensu Tomlinson 2016). Most traits refer to components of living trees (mainly leaves), but litter traits were also included.

Keywords

Mangroves, Rhizophoraceae, leaf traits, plant traits, halophytes

Introduction

The vegetation of mangrove forests is loosely classified as "true mangroves" or "mangrove associates". True mangroves are woody plants, facultative or obligate halophytes (Wang et al. 2011). "True mangroves" are defined by Tomlinson (2016) as plant species that 1) occur only in mangrove forests and are not found in terrestrial communities; 2) play a major role in the structure of the mangrove community, sometimes forming pure stands; 3) have morphological specialisations to the mangrove environment; 4) have some mechanism for salt exclusion. Other notable specialisations of mangrove plants include: aerial roots to counteract the anaerobic sediments, support structures such as buttresses and above-ground roots, low water potentials and high intracellular salt concentrations, salt-excretion through leaves and buoyant, viviparous propagules (Duke et al. 1998).

Following Tomlinson (2016), all species of genera Avicennia, Lumnitzera, Bruguiera, Ceriops, Kandelia, Rhizophora and Sonneratia, plus the species Nypa fruticans and Laguncularia racemosa, are considered as "true mangroves" and are the major components of mangrove forests worldwide. Other species, such as Acrostichum aureum, Aegiceras corniculatum, Osbornia octodonta et al., are also "true mangroves" but considered as minor components of mangrove forests (Tomlinson 2016).

Mangrove forests are highly threatened worldwide (Duke et al. 2007) and conservation efforts face the lack of a good understanding of mangrove community structure and ecosystem processes. With this gap in mind, literature on mangrove trees was reviewed and a dataset of traits was assembled, with the aim of contributing to future studies of mangroves using a functional trait perspective and also to allow the inclusion of mangrove trees in future comparative studies of plant ecology and resource-acquisition strategies.

Geographic coverage

Description: 

Global

Taxonomic coverage

Description: 

This dataset contains traits for 55 species of "true mangroves". To standardise the spelling of species' names, The Plant List (2013) was followed. Some species listed below are currently considered as synonyms in The Plant List (e.g. Avicennia alba is currently a synonym of Avicennia marina). However, they were chosen to be included under the names given by the authors to allow the tracking of the original information. All records of Ceriops tagal var. australis were included as Ceriops australis, and Ceriops tagal var. tagal was included as Ceriops tagal following Ballment et al. (1988).

Taxa included:
Rank Scientific Name
species Acanthus ilicifolius
species Acrostichum aureum
species Aegialitis annulata
species Aegialitis rotundifolia
species Aegiceras corniculatum
species Avicennia alba
species Avicennia bicolor
species Avicennia eucalyptifolia
species Avicennia germinans
species Avicennia integra
species Avicennia lanata
species Avicennia marina
species Avicennia officinalis
species Avicennia rumphiana
species Avicennia schaueriana
species Bruguiera cylindrica
species Bruguiera exaristata
species Bruguiera gymnorhiza
species Bruguiera hainesii
species Bruguiera parviflora
species Bruguiera rhynchopetala
species Bruguiera sexangula
species Camptostemon schultzii
species Ceriops australis
species Ceriops decandra
species Ceriops tagal
species Excoecaria agallocha
species Kandelia candel
species Kandelia obovata
species Laguncularia racemosa
species Lumnitzera littorea
species Lumnitzera racemosa
species Nypa fruticans
species Osbornia octodonta
species Pelliciera rhizophorae
species Rhizophora apiculata
species Rhizophora harrisonii
species Rhizophora lamarckii
species Rhizophora mangle
species Rhizophora mucronata
species Rhizophora racemosa
species Rhizophora samoensis
species Rhizophora stylosa
species Scyphiphora hydrophylacea
species Sonneratia alba
species Sonneratia apetala
species Sonneratia caseolaris
species Sonneratia griffithii
species Sonneratia gulngai
species Sonneratia hainanensis
species Sonneratia lanceolata
species Sonneratia ovata
species Xylocarpus granatum
species Xylocarpus mekongensis
species Xylocarpus moluccensis

Traits coverage

This dataset contains 18 qualitative traits (Table 1) and 107 quantitative traits (Table 2). The number of records per species and trait is shown in Suppl. material 1. The number of traits available per species varies from 2 to 95 and is shown in Fig. 1.

Detailed list of qualitative traits and respective references.

Trait name Type of information Possible values References
dispersal unit floating capacity in freshwater categorical

floater;

sinker

Clarke et al. 2001
dispersal unit floating capacity in saltwater categorical

floater;

sinker

Clarke et al. 2001, Giesen et al. 2007
dispersal unit orientation in water categorical prone; prone to vertical; vertical Clarke et al. 2001
dispersal unit shape categorical tear-drop; ovoid, round; long curved; long; ellipsoidal; obovate; flattened-round Giesen et al. 2007
dispersal unit size class ordinal

I = < 0.1 cm3;

II = < 1 cm3;

III = < 10 cm3;

IV = <100 cm3;

V = < 1000 cm3

Duke et al. 1998
germination type categorical

epigeal;

hypogeal

Clarke et al. 2001, Soepadmo et al. 2002, Tomlinson 1986
leaf emergences (pubescence) binary

yes;

no

Giesen et al. 2007, NParks 2017, Reef and Lovelock 2015, Sheue et al. 2003
plant growth form categorical

shrub/small tree;

tree

Giesen et al. 2007
plant position in the intertidal ordinal

L = low;

M = mid;

H = high;

ML = middle to low;

HM = high to middle;

HML = high, middle and low

Clough 1992, Duke et al. 1998
plant preferred substrate categorical

Sand; clay; mud; riverbanks; mud/sand/peaty soils; mudflat/sand/calcareous; sand/mud; soft fine-grained;

Giesen et al. 2007
plant tolerance to drought ordinal

1 = very low;

2 = low;

3 = mid;

4 = high;

5 = very high;

Clough 1992
plant tolerance to low temperature ordinal

1 = very low;

2 = low;

3 = mid;

4 = high;

5 = very high;

Clough 1992
plant tolerance to salt ordinal

1 = very low;

2 = low;

3 = mid;

4 = high;

5 = very high;

or

low; mid; high

Clough 1992, Reef and Lovelock 2015
plant tolerance to shade binary tolerant; intolerant Smith 1992
presence of salt glands binary yes; no NParks 2017, Reef and Lovelock 2015, Sheue et al. 2003
root type categorical non_aerial; pneumatophore; buttresses_knees; buttresses; knees; prop Duke et al. 1998, Tomlinson 2016
sexual type categorical hermaphrodite; androdioecious; monoecious Tomlinson 1986
type of embryo development categorical cryptoviviparous; viviparous; recalcitrant; non-viviparous Clarke et al. 2001, Sahu et al. 2016, Farnsworth 2000, Tomlinson 1986

List of quantitative traits available in the dataset and respective references of trait values.

bark carbon (C) content per unit bark dry mass Koch 2002
bark carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio Koch 2002
bark litter nitrogen (N) content per unit bark dry mass Nordhaus 2004
bark litter carbon (C) content per unit bark dry mass Nordhaus 2004
bark litter carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio Nordhaus 2004
bark nitrogen (N) content per unit bark dry mass Koch 2002
dispersal unit length Clarke et al. 2001, Duke and Jackes 1987, Giesen et al. 2007, Hogarth 1999, NParks 2017, Oliveira 2005, Soepadmo et al. 2002, Van der Stocken et al. 2015, Tomlinson 2016
dispersal unit litter C/N ratio Nordhaus 2004
dispersal unit litter carbon (C) content per unit dry mass Nordhaus 2004
dispersal unit litter nitrogen (N) content per unit dry mass Nordhaus 2004, Reise 2003
dispersal unit litter phosphorus (P) content per unit dry mass Reise 2003
dispersal unit litter potassium (K) content per unit dry mass Reise 2003
dispersal unit litter sodium (Na) content per unit dry mass Reise 2003
dispersal unit width Soepadmo et al. 2002
flower litter carbon (C) content per flower dry mass Nordhaus 2004
flower litter CN ratio Nordhaus 2004
flower litter nitrogen (N) content per flower dry mass Nordhaus 2004
leaf acid detergent fib content per unit dry mass Amiri 2014
leaf area Arrivabene et al. 2014, Ball 1988, Lin and Wang 2001, Medina and Francisco 1997, Saenger and West 2016, Yuanyue et al. 2009, Medina et al. 2001, Okello et al. 2014, Reise 2003
leaf area per leaf mass (SLA) Choong et al. 1992, Medina and Francisco 1997, Medina et al. 2001, Arrivabene et al. 2014, Ball 1988, Lin and Wang 2001, Medina and Francisco 1997, Saenger and West 2016, Yuanyue et al. 2009Wang et al. 2011
leaf ash content per leaf dry mass Lacerda et al. 1986
leaf boron (B) content per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013
leaf calcium (Ca) content per leaf area Wang et al. 2011
leaf calcium (Ca) content per leaf dry mass Ahmed et al. 2010, Bernini et al. 2006, Christofoletti et al. 2013, Feller 1995, Medina et al. 2001, Woodroffe et al. 1988
leaf carbon (C) content per leaf dry mass Koch 2002, Feller 1995, Medina et al. 2001, Nordhaus et al. 2011
leaf carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio Ahmed et al. 2010, Chen and Ye 2008, Koch 2002, Medina et al. 2001, Nordhaus et al. 2011, Rao et al. 1994, Schmitt 2006
leaf cellulose content per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013
leaf chlorine (Cl) content per leaf dry mass Lacerda et al. 1986, Tong et al. 2006
leaf copper (Cu) content per leaf dry mass Bernini et al. 2006, Feller 1995, Christofoletti et al. 2013
leaf crude fiber content per leaf dry mass Amiri 2014,Chen and Ye 2008, Choong et al. 1992, Lacerda et al. 1986, Tong et al. 2006
leaf cuticula thickness Arrivabene et al. 2014, Das and Ghose 1996
leaf dry mass Arrivabene et al. 2014, Medina et al. 2001, Saenger and West 2016, Lin and Wang 2001, Zimmer (unpublished data)
leaf dry mass per area (LMA) Arrivabene et al. 2014, Ball 1988, Johnstone 1981, Lin and Wang 2001, Medeiros and Sampaio 2013, Medina et al. 2001
leaf energy content per leaf dry mass Saenger and West 2016
leaf hemi-cellulose content per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013
leaf intercellular CO2 concentration Mehlig 2001
leaf iron (Fe) content per leaf dry mass Bernini et al. 2006, Feller 1995, Medina et al. 2001, Christofoletti et al. 2013
leaf length Duke and Jackes 1987, Giesen et al. 2007, Soepadmo et al. 2002
leaf length/width ratio Medina et al. 2001
leaf lifespan Burrows 2003, Duke et al. 1984, Ellison 2002, Ellison and Farnsworth 1996, Gill and Tomlinson 1971, Khan et al. 2009, Lee 1991, Medeiros and Sampaio 2013, Mehlig 2001, Moryia et al. 1988, Saenger and West 2016, Sharma et al. 2012, Steinke 1988, Steinke and Rajh 1995, Tong et al. 2006, Wang and Lin 1999, Wang’ondu et al. 2013, Wium-Andersen 1981, Wium-Andersen and Christensen 1978
leaf lignin content per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013
leaf litter boron (B) content per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013
leaf litter calcium (Ca) content per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013, Woodroffe et al. 1988
leaf litter carbon (C) content per leaf dry mass Herbon and Nordhaus 2013, Nordhaus 2004, Nordhaus et al. 2011
leaf litter carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio Herbon 2011, Herbon and Nordhaus 2013, Micheli 1993, Nordhaus 2004, Nordhaus et al. 2011, Rao et al. 1994
leaf litter cellulose content per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013
leaf litter copper (Cu) content per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013
leaf litter energy content per leaf dry mass Nordhaus 2004
leaf litter hemi-cellulose content per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013
leaf litter iron (Fe) content per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013
leaf litter lignin content per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013
leaf litter lignin/N ratio Gleason and Ewel 2002
leaf litter magnesium (Mg) content per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013, Woodroffe et al. 1988
leaf litter manganese (Mn) content per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013
leaf litter nitrogen (N) content per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013, Herbon and Nordhaus 2013, Nordhaus 2004, Nordhaus et al. 2011, Reise 2003, Steinke et al. 1993, Woodroffe et al. 1988
leaf litter organic matter content per leaf dry mass Micheli 1993
leaf litter phenolics content (polyphenol) per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013
leaf litter phosphorus (P) content per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013, Reise 2003, Steinke et al. 1993, Woodroffe et al. 1988
leaf litter potassium (K) content per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013, Reise 2003, Steinke et al. 1993, Woodroffe et al. 1988
leaf litter sodium (Na) content per leaf dry mass Reise 2003, Woodroffe et al. 1988
leaf litter sulphur (S) content per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013
leaf litter tannins content per leaf dry mass Micheli 1993, Steinke et al. 1993
leaf litter toughness Micheli 1993
leaf litter water content per leaf dry mass Micheli 1993
leaf litter zinc (Zn) content per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013
leaf magnesium (Mg) content per leaf dry mass Bernini et al. 2006, Christofoletti et al. 2013, Feller 1995, Medina et al. 2001, Woodroffe et al. 1988
leaf manganese (Mn) content per leaf dry mass Bernini et al. 2006, Feller 1995, Medina et al. 2001, Christofoletti et al. 2013
leaf maximum water use efficiency Mehlig 2001
leaf nitrate (NO3-) content per leaf dry mass Koch 2002
leaf nitrogen (N) content per leaf area Wang et al. 2011
leaf nitrogen (N) content per leaf dry mass Ahmed et al. 2010, Amiri 2014, Bernini et al. 2006, Choong et al. 1992, Feller 1995, Lin et al. 2006, Lin and Lin 1985, Medina and Francisco 1997, Rao et al. 1994, Schmitt 2006, Tam et al. 1995, Tong et al. 2006, Christofoletti et al. 2013, Koch 2002, Wang et al. 2011, Lacerda et al. 1986,Medina et al. 2001, Nordhaus 2004, Nordhaus et al. 2011, Reise 2003, Woodroffe et al. 1988
leaf nitrogen (N) retranslocation prior to leaf senescence Reise 2003
leaf oxalate content per leaf dry mass Koch 2002
leaf phenolics content (polyphenol) per leaf dry mass Christofoletti et al. 2013
leaf phosphorus (P) content per leaf dry mass Ahmed et al. 2010, Bernini et al. 2006, Christofoletti et al. 2013, Feller 1995, Lin and Lin 1985, Medina and Francisco 1997, Tam et al. 1995, Medina et al. 2001, Reise 2003, Woodroffe et al. 1988
leaf phosphorus (P) retranslocation prior to leaf senescence Reise 2003
leaf photosynthesis rate per leaf area Chen et al. 2008, Clough and Sim 1989, Jiang et al. 2017, Li et al. 2016, Lugo et al. 2007, Mehlig 2001, Nandy (Datta) et al. 2005, Sobrado 2000
leaf potassium (K) content per leaf dry mass Ahmed et al. 2010, Bernini et al. 2006, Christofoletti et al. 2013, Feller 1995, Lin and Lin 1985, Tam et al. 1995, Medina et al. 2001, Woodroffe et al. 1988
leaf sclerophyly index Choong et al. 1992
leaf sodium (Na) content per leaf dry mass Ahmed et al. 2010, Feller 1995, Lacerda et al. 1986, Tong et al. 2006, Wang et al. 2011, Medina et al. 2001, Woodroffe et al. 1988
leaf soluble tannins per leaf mass Tong et al. 2006
leaf sulphur (S) content per leaf dry mass Bernini et al. 2006, Christofoletti et al. 2013, Medina et al. 2001, Koch 2002
leaf thickness Arrivabene et al. 2014, Choong et al. 1992, Das and Ghose 1996, Poompozhil and Kumarasamy 2014, Saenger and West 2016, Sheue et al. 2003, Yuanyue et al. 2009, Zimmer M unpubl. Data
leaf total aminoacid content per leaf dry mass Koch 2002
leaf total carbohydrates per leaf dry mass Lacerda et al. 1986, Tong et al. 2006
leaf total organic carbon per leaf dry mass Schmitt 2006
leaf toughness Choong et al. 1992, Zimmer M unpubl. data
leaf transpiration rate per leaf area Mehlig 2001, Nandy (Datta) et al. 2005
leaf water content per leaf area Ball 1988, Okello et al. 2014, Wang et al. 2011
leaf water content per leaf dry mass Ball 1988, Chen and Ye 2008, Choong et al. 1992, Feller 1995, Lacerda et al. 1986, Saenger and West 2016, Tong et al. 2006
leaf zinc (Zn) content per leaf dry mass Bernini et al. 2006, Feller 1995, Christofoletti et al. 2013
maximum salinity Smith 1992
plant absolute maximum height Chen and Twilley 1998, Duke and Jackes 1987, Duke et al. 2010, Ellison et al. 2010, Ellison et al. 2010, FAO Ecocrop 2017, Kathiresan et al. 2010, Khan et al. 2009, NParks 2017, Giesen et al. 2007
plant mean maximum height Duke 2010, Ellison et al. 2010 Giesen et al. 2007
pneumatophore C/N ratio Koch 2002
pneumatophore carbon content per unit dry mass Koch 2002
root C/N ratio Koch 2002
root carbon (C) content per unit dry mass Koch 2002
root nitrogen (N) content per unit dry mass Koch 2002
root porosity Cheng et al. 2012, McKee 1996
root to shoot ratio Reise 2003
seed air-dried mass Royal Botanic Gardens Kew Seed Information Database (SID) 2017
seed C/N ratio Nordhaus 2004
seed fresh mass Royal Botanic Gardens Kew Seed Information Database (SID) 2017
seed litter carbon (C) content per unit dry mass Nordhaus 2004
seed litter nitrogen (N) content per unit dry mass Nordhaus 2004
wood density Zanne et al. 2009
Figure 1.  

Number of traits available per mangrove species.

Remarks on data collection:

When data was provided for young leaves and mature leaves, only mature leaves were used. When studies reported traits from the same species from different locations, all locations were considered as separate records in the database. Studies that reported a range of maximum and minimum values were also added as separate records. Leaves collected from the ground were not used for measurement of traits. For leaf litter traits, data were used where authors reported using "senescent leaves", or "yellow leaves" that could be easily detached from the trees.

To facilitate the comparison of mangrove traits with those from other studies and datasets, the same trait names were used as in the TRY Database of plant traits (KATTGE et al. 2011) whenever possible.

Usage rights

Use license: 
Open Data Commons Attribution License

Data resources

Data package title: 
Mangrove plants traits
Alternative identifiers: 
Number of data sets: 
1
Data set name: 
Mangrove plants trait dataset
Data format: 
CSV file
Column label Column description
Compartment Categorical. Describes whether the trait refers to the living plant (TREE), or to the litter (LITTER).
Organ Categorical. Indicates to which plant organ the trait refers (LEAF, ROOT, BARK, FLOWER, DISPERSAL UNIT, SEED) or if it refers to the whole plant (TREE).
Trait name Trait name
Trait value Trait value as given in the publication
Remarks Any important remark about that particular value
Plant species name Species name as given in the publication
Trait type Categorical. Describes whether the trait is QUANTITATIVE or QUALITATIVE
Trait unit Specifies the unit of quantitative traits (e.g. percentage, mg per g, mm, g)
Source Reference for the trait value
Record number Sequential record number

References

Supplementary material

Suppl. material 1: Matrix of traits per species showing the number of records per each combination. 
Authors:  Aline Ferreira Quadros, Martin Zimmer
Data type:  phylogenetic