Biodiversity Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
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Data Paper (Biosciences)
Aphyllophoroid fungi in insular woodlands of eastern Ukraine
expand article infoAlexander Ordynets, Anton Savchenko§, Alexander Akulov|, Eugene Yurchenko, Vera F. Malysheva#, Urmas Kõljalg§, Josef Vlasák¤, Karl-Henrik Larsson«, Ewald Langer
‡ Department of Ecology, University of Kassel, Kassel, Germany
§ Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
| V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv, Ukraine
¶ Department of Biotechnology, Paleski State University, Pinsk, Belarus
# Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia
¤ Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, České Budějovice, Czech Republic
« Department of Research and Collections, University of Oslo, Natural History Museum, Oslo, Norway
Open Access

Abstract

Background

Fungi play crucial roles in ecosystems and are among the species-richest organism groups on Earth. However, knowledge on their occurrence lags behind the data for animals and plants. Recent analyses of fungal occurrence data from Western, Central and Northern Europe provided important insights into response of fungi to global warming. The consequences of the global changes for biodiversity on a larger geographical scale are not yet understood. Landscapes of Eastern Europe and particularly of eastern Ukraine, with their specific geological history, vegetation and climate, can add substantially new information about fungal diversity in Europe.

New information

We describe the dataset and provide a checklist of aphyllophoroid fungi (non-gilled macroscopic Basidiomycota) from eastern Ukraine sampled in 16 areas between 2007 and 2011. The dataset was managed on the PlutoF biodiversity workbench (http://dx.doi.org/10.15156/BIO/587471) and can also be accessed via Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, parts of datasets https://doi.org/10.15468/kuspj6 and https://doi.org/10.15468/h7qtfd). This dataset includes 3418 occurences, namely 2727 specimens and 691 observations of fructifications belonging to 349 species of fungi. With these data, the digitised CWU herbarium (V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine) doubled in size A most detailed description of the substrate's properties and habitat for each record is provided. The specimen records are supplemented by 26 nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences and six 28S sequences. Additionally, 287 photographs depicting diagnostic macro- and microscopic features of fungal fruitbodies as well as studied habitats are linked to the dataset. Most of the specimens have at least one mention in literature and relevant references are displayed as associated with specimen data. In total, 16 publication references are linked to the dataset. The dataset sheds new light on the fungal diversity of Eastern Europe. It is expected to complement other public sources of fungal occurrence information on continental and global levels in addressing macroecological and biogeographical questions.

Keywords

Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes, diversity, checklist, wood-inhabiting fungi, ectomycorrhizal fungi, corticioid fungi, polypore fungi, substrate, dead wood, Kharkiv, Donetsk, Luhansk, Nature Reserve, National Park

Introduction

Fungi play crucial roles in ecosystems and are among the species-richest organism groups on Earth (Mora et al. 2011, Heilmann-Clausen et al. 2014, Peay et al. 2016). However, their occurrence has been poorly documented so far due to the difficulties of species detection, identification and delimitation. The situation is now rapidly changing due to substantial improvements in the methods used to identify and communicate the taxa of fungi (Kõljalg et al. 2013, Hibbett et al. 2016). On the other hand, possibilities to digitise the taxon occurrences during the few last years have been additionally improved, providing great benefits for all biodiversity researchers including mycologists (Abarenkov et al. 2010, Senderov et al. 2016).

Europe is the continent with the most advanced knowledge of fungal diversity due to a long-standing tradition of mycological research (Dahlberg et al. 2010). In the last decades, numerous national projects documenting fungal diversity have been initiated. Furthermore, national efforts have been consolidated into the international projects. Such cooperation enables researchers to investigate important ecological questions, for example, species- and community-level responses of fungi to global warming (Andrew et al. 2016, Kauserud et al. 2012). Answering macroecological questions may be facilitated by broad spatial coverage of the dataset, as exemplified by "Climate Change Impacts on the Fungal Ecosystem Component" project,ClimFun (Andrew et al. 2017). There is a place to further expand geographic coverage of successful projects such as ClimFun, but this requires filling sampling gaps and digitisation efforts for national datasets, especially from Eastern Europe. In this region, sparse data availability and accessibility generally result from low numbers of both professional mycologists and citizen scientists (Dahlberg et al. 2010).

The environment of eastern Ukraine (Kharkiv, Donetsk and Luhansk regions) offers a special possibility to study fungal diversity associated with woody plants. Severe continental climate substantially limits the distribution of forests on the local scale, resulting in forest patches of limited size. These "forest oases" are separated from each other by the steppe vegetation or human-managed lands (Popovych 1990). Unlike the other parts of Ukraine and Europe, the European beech and Norway spruce are totally absent in the forests, while pedunculate oak and other numerous deciduous trees form a forest canopy. A specific geological history of the region resulted in the development of forest habitats on chalk outcrops or sandy sediments which are unique on a European scale (Fedorova 1980, Onyshchenko et al. 2007, Didukh and Pashkevich 2003).

Fungal diversity of eastern Ukraine remains insufficiently known. The first scanty documentation of fungal occurrences dates back to the beginning of 19th century (Akulov et al. 2003). The first inventory, specifically focused on the region, was completed four decades ago (Wasser and Soldatova 1977). Less than a decade ago, we reported the results of aphyllophoroid fungi species inventories in several protected areas of eastern Ukraine (Ordynets and Akulov 2011, Ordynets and Akulov 2012, Ordynets et al. 2012, Ordynets et al. 2013). However, these were mostly species lists with sparse metadata, spread over several "floristic papers". This valuable information on fungal occurrences hardly meets the criteria of accessibility, reusability and sharing claimed for biodiversity data nowadays (Senderov and Penev 2016, Costello et al. 2013). Moreover, during the last four years, specimens collected by us were involved in a series of taxonomic studies and were re-identified. All the past and future identifications of the specimens represent valuable information which ideally should be easily updated and traced. Finally, the research area is affected by military activity for more than three years (Vasyliuk et al. 2015) and its preservation and accessibility for research in the forthcoming decades is questionable. Therefore, a proper preservation of the currently available data is required. In this data paper, we describe the effort of digitising and sharing the dataset of aphyllophoroid fungi in selected areas of eastern Ukraine according to the current standards of publishing biodiversity information.

General description

Additional information: 

The project focuses on the diversity of aphyllophoroid fungi. These fungi form neither an evolutionary nor an ecological group but are often targeted as a research object because of both strong taxonomic tradition and sampling convenience. During most of the 20th century, fungi with macroscopic fruitbodies were taxonomically classified according to their fruitbody morphologies. Several generations of mycologists were trained using the morphological classification of fungi. Though these morphological groups barely represent monophyletic taxa and are usually the result of convergent evolution (Hibbett 2007), the present-day identification keys for macrofungi for practical reasons are still compiled based on the principal fruitbody type (e.g. Bernicchia and Gorjón 2010, Krieglsteiner and Kaiser 2000, Ryvarden and Melo 2014).

Aphyllophoroid fungi represent those basidial macrofungi which do not develop gills or closed reproductive structures but have smooth, toothed, irregularly folded to poroid hymenophore and one-celled basidia. They were previously treated as a single taxonomic order but are now found among ca. 20 orders mostly of the class Agaricomycetes (Kirk et al. 2008, Hibbett et al. 2014). Aphyllophoroid fungi are among the best-known groups of fungi globally and especially in Europe (Bernicchia and Gorjón 2010, Ryvarden and Melo 2014). They comprise a highly diverse group both in terms of species richness and functional differentiation. They are the most important agents of wood decay globally (Stokland et al. 2012), but also include mycorrhizal species, plant pathogens and litter saprotrophs (Tedersoo and Smith 2013). In general, aphyllophoroid fungi are strongly dependent on woody plants in terms of nutrition and habitat.

Project description

Study area description: 

Within the project, we inventoried aphyllophoroid fungi on 16 sampling areas located in eastern Ukraine and covering parts of three administrative regions, namely Kharkiv, Donetsk and Luhansk. All sampling areas are located in the middle basin of Siverskyi Donets River, Black Sea basin and their geomorphology developed due to the erosive activity of the river on the massive Upper Cretaceous sediments. We focused on the inventory of the well-preserved areas. We carried out the inventory in two Nature Reserves, i.e. the most strictly protected areas according to the Ukrainian conservational legislation (3 sampling areas), one National Nature Park (8 sampling areas) and one Regional Landscape Park (one sampling area). Four areas had no protected status but were located close to the protected ones. The list of areas with their definition, short characteristics including protection status, links to the areas as PlutoF objects and visiting/sampling statistics are provided in the Table 1. Beside the text description, each area was captured in photographs viewable on the respective area page in PlutoF (see web links in Table 1)

Definitions of 16 sampling areas in eastern Ukraine where aphyllophoroid fungi were inventoried, with number of visits and taxa occurrences recorded.

Sampling area name Locality text Region Commune URL to the area in PlutoF*1 Number of visits to area

Number of specimens

collected

Number of observations
Ukraine, Iziumska Luka floodplain Iziumska Luka Regional Landscape Park, floodplain of the Siverskyi Donets River Kharkiv Balaklea https://plutof.ut.ee/#/area/view/1782438 2 588 25
Ukraine, Iziumska Luka sandy terrace Large sandy massif to the east from Iziumska Luka Regional Landscape Park Kharkiv Balaklea https://plutof.ut.ee/#/area/view/1782428 2 78 11
Ukraine, Yaremivka Area between Siverskyi Donets River and railway Izium-Sviatohirsk, between "Bukino" and "Studenok" train stations, including the candidate protected area Yaremivskyi Preserve Kharkiv Izium https://plutof.ut.ee/#/area/view/1782489 2 74 43
Ukraine, Sviatohirsk floodplain Sviati Hory National Nature Park, floodplain to the south of Sviatohirsk town Donetsk Sloviansk https://plutof.ut.ee/#/area/view/1782490 7 127 39
Ukraine, Sviatohirsk hills Sviati Hory National Nature Park, high steep hills south of the Syverskyi Donets River Donetsk Sloviansk https://plutof.ut.ee/#/area/view/1782491 4 75 34
Ukraine, Sviatohirsk sandy terrace Sviati Hory National Nature Park, pinery with inclusion of deciduous forest patches to the north and east of Sviatohirsk town Donetsk Lyman https://plutof.ut.ee/#/area/view/1782495 8 610 206
Ukraine, Teplynske Sviati Hory National Nature Park, west of Bogorodychne village Donetsk Sloviansk https://plutof.ut.ee/#/area/view/1782493 5 115 149
Ukraine, Maiatske Sviati Hory National Nature Park, west of Maiaki village Donetsk Sloviansk https://plutof.ut.ee/#/area/view/1782494 2 85 5
Ukraine, Drobyshivske Sviati Hory National Nature Park, forest south-west of Drobyshevo village Donetsk Lyman https://plutof.ut.ee/#/area/view/1782496 3 52 110
Ukraine, Lyman sandy terrace Sviati Hory National Nature Park, sandy terrace south of Lyman town (before 2016 named Krasnyi Lyman) Donetsk Lyman https://plutof.ut.ee/#/area/view/1782498 1 23 0
Ukraine, Lyman floodplain Sviati Hory National Nature Park, floodplain south of Brusivka and Dibrova villages Donetsk Lyman https://plutof.ut.ee/#/area/view/1782499 1 6 0
Ukraine, Kreidova flora hills Kreidova Flora, division of the Ukrainian Steppe Nature Reserve, vicinities of Kryva Luka village Donetsk Sloviansk https://plutof.ut.ee/#/area/view/1782500 1 220 0
Ukraine, Kreidova flora floodplain Floodplain of the Syverskyi Donets River near Kryva Luka village Donetsk Sloviansk https://plutof.ut.ee/#/area/view/1782501 1 101 0
Ukraine, Trokhizbenka sandy terrace Trokhizbenskyi Step division of the Luhansk Nature Reserve, north of Trokhizbenka and Kriakivka villages Luhansk Slovianoserbsk https://plutof.ut.ee/#/area/view/1782503 1 136 52
Ukraine, Trokhizbenka floodplain Floodplain of Syverskyi Donets River south of Trokhizbenka and Kriakivka villages Luhansk Slovianoserbsk https://plutof.ut.ee/#/area/view/1782505 1 11 17
Ukraine, Stanychno-Luhanske Stanychno-Luhanske division of the Luhansk Nature Reserve, east of Stanytsia Luhanska town Luhansk Stanytsia Luhanska https://plutof.ut.ee/#/area/view/1782502 1 426 0

The sampling areas lie in the East European Plain. The elevation varies between 35 and 220 m a.s.l. The Upper Cretaceous sediments (of a chalk and marl) form a series of hills along the right bank of the Siverskyi Donets River, often with outcroppings. Quaternary sediments were formed mostly on the left bank of the river as alluvial and massive sandy accumulations (Bondarchuk 1959). The soils vary according to the bedrock characteristics. On the products of eolation, the ordinary chernozems with medium humus contents were formed. Slopes of the river valley and ravines are covered with the leached sod-calcareous soils. The river floodplain is dominated by meadow chernozems. Alluvial sand accumulations of the second river terrace bear sod-podzolic soils (Didukh and Pashkevich 2003).

According to the Köppen climate classification, the region falls into the area of a cold forest climate with severe winters and dry, long and hot summers (Jylhä et al. 2010). Compared to the rest of Ukraine, here the climate has the most pronounced continental characteristics. The mean annual temperature is 7.5°С, with recorded minimum of -40°С (January) and maximum of 39°С (July). The average annual precipitation is 400‒540 mm, while the evaporation is 580‒650 mm. Up to 60 days per year with very strong hot dry winds are possible (Popov et al. 1968).

According to the classification of terrestrial ecoregions of the world, the study area belongs to the biome of temperate grasslands, savannahs and shrublands (Olson et al. 2001). It is also known as a steppe region (EEA 2015). In these conditions, the natural woody vegetation mostly represents forest patches of limited size. The few striking exceptions exist due to their proximity to the large Siverskyi Donets River, as well as hilly landscape. Two broadleaf forests (called Teplynska dacha and Maiatska dacha) are the largest forest massifs on the watershed in the Ukrainian steppe zone (Onyshchenko et al. 2007).

The pedunculate oak Quercus robur L. is one of the most important tree species in the area. In the forests on the watershed, this oak species is accompanied by Fraxinus excelsior L., Tilia cordata Mill., Acer platanoides L., A. campestre L., A. tataricum L. and Corylus avellana L. In the Siverskyi Donets floodplain, the oak forest grows mosaically with the forests composed of Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn., various poplars (Populus nigra L., P. alba L. and P. tremula L.), willows (Salix alba L., Salix fragilis L.) and Acer negundo L. (Popovych 1990).

The massive sandy terrace of the Siverskyi Donets River is basically a habitat for the psammophytic grasses and herbs. However, there are numerous depressions which provide a suitable microclimate for the development of the wetland local forests (groves). The usual trees in these habitats are: Betula pendula Roth, B. pubescens Ehrh., Populus tremula, P. nigra and P. alba, Alnus glutinosa and Crataegus spp. The willow shrubby communities of Salix acutifolia Willd. and Salix rosmarinifolia L. are common in some localities (Popovych 1990). As a result of land-use in the 19th and 20th centuries, large areas of the sandy terrace are currently covered not by primary vegetation of psammophytic grasses and herbs, but by plantations of Pinus sylvestris L. However, some of these stands are about 200 years old and resemble natural forests. The true natural pine forests in the region are currently confined to the chalky outcrops with the sod-calcareous soils. These populations were treated in the past decades as a relict species Pinus cretacea Kalen. (Didukh and Pashkevich 2003, Fedorova 1980) currently regarded as a variety of Scots pine, P. sylvestris var. cretacea (Kalen.) Kom. (Gardner 2013).

Funding: 

The work of Alexander Ordynets and Alexander Akulov in eastern Ukraine was supported by the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University and Ukrainian Ministry of Education and Science Grant Number 0112U007570/16-16-13 “Biodiversity exploration as a base for the nature conservation network development in Ukraine”. Alexander Ordynets and Ewald Langer were supported by the University of Kassel and the programme LOEWE (“Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung Wissenschaftlich-ökonomischer Exzellenz”) of the Hesse's Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Arts within the framework of the Integrative Fungal Research (IPF) project (http://www.integrative-pilzforschung.de). The work of Alexander Ordynets on the molecular identification of Thelephorales was undertaken due to support from the European Social Fund’s Doctoral Studies and Internationalisation Programme DoRa and hosted by the Chair of Mycology, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Estonia.

Sampling methods

Sampling description: 

In 16 areas, we sampled living fungal fruitbodiesaccording to the standards for macrofungi collecting (Lodge et al. 2004). We were interested in recording the majority of species from the local species pool. Therefore we sampled not within fixed areas, but covered larger areas by sampling along the forest paths. We were passing up to ten kilometres of forest paths per day. We spent more time at the points which visually harboured higher amounts and diversity of deadwood. Visiting and sampling statistics for each area are provided in Table 1.

If the species could be readily identified in the field, the occurrence was recorded without taking a specimen, i.e. as observation, except for the very first finding of the species during the field work. All fruiting bodies from a single woody substrate or growing in a single cluster on debris or litter were treated as a single individual. For the records on woody substrata (which prevail in the dataset), principal tree fraction, diameter class, decay stage, spatial location and presence/absence of the direct contact with soil were recorded. For all the records, plant species of the substrate as well as characteristics of forest habitat and mesorelief were described (Table 2). All collected data were uploaded and managed on the PlutoF platform (Abarenkov et al. 2010).

Substrate and habitat characteristics of fungal occurrence data recorded in the project.

Variable attribution Variable Number of categories States of the variable Reference
Substrate: all records Plant species 56
Substrate: records from wood Principal tree fraction 3 branch; stump; trunk Safonov 2003
Diameter class 4 1 (<3 cm); 2 (3‒10 cm); 3 (10‒20 cm); 4 (>20 cm), according to measurement at the base of woody unit Safonov 2003
Wood decay stage 5 1‒5 according to the depth of knife penetration into the wood, bark cover, preservation of initial circumference Heilmann-Clausen and Christensen 2003, Renvall 1995
Spatial location of substrate 3 attached (including suspended); fallen; standing (including snags and stumps) This project
Direct contact with soil 2 in contact with soil; no contact with soil This project
Habitat Forest spread type 5 continuous; focal in steppe; focal surrounded by artificial pine forest; sparce; windbreaks This project
Forest type, according to dominating tree species 6 alder, birch, oak, pinery, poplar, willow This project
Mesorelief type 6 floodplain, ravine, sands depression, sands rising, steep river bank, watershed Belgard 1971
Quality control: 

One of the challenges in inventorying fungal diversity based on fruiting bodies is the temporal irregularity of fruiting. To reduce the bias associated with this phenomenon, within five years (2007‒2011), we carried out 15 expeditions, usually making one expedition per season (spring, summer and autumn). The earliest and latest sampling dates were March 9 and November 22 respectively. Each expedition lasted as a minimum three and as a maximum seven days. Within a single expedition, we visited up to four sampling areas (see Table 1). Some areas could be visited only once. This may be acceptable in the case of aphyllorphoid fungi which, as opposed to other fruiting fungi, in general create more lasting fruitbodies.

Along with the specimens which were more or less easily identified, there were also collections whose identifications were verified by another expert or collections which we could identify to the genus level only. Wolfgang Dämon, Ivan Zmitrovich, Anton Shyriaev, Heikki Kotiranta, Masoomeh Ghobad-Nejhad, Philomena Bodensteiner, Sergey Volobuev, Viacheslav Spirin and Erast Parmasto kindly helped us in such issues. The names of the experts who verified or improved our identifications are provided in the pane "Identifications", fields "Identifiers" and/or "Remarks" on the respective specimen page as viewed in PlutoF. Additionally, each PlutoF observation linked to our dataset was verified by the platform developer as seen in the pane "Discussion" on the single observation page.

Step description: 

Noticeable specimens were photographed directly in the field or after drying in the laboratory. The micromorphology study of the dried specimens was performed under 1000× magnification using light microscopes Zeiss Primo Star (Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH, Jena, Germany) and Nicon Eclipse 90i (Nikon Corp., Tokyo, Japan). The specimens were examined in 5% aqueous potassium hydroxide solution, Melzer’s reagent and 1% Congo red solution in concentrated ammonia (Ryvarden and Melo 2014). The main identification keys used were Bernicchia and Gorjón (2010), Kõljalg (1996), Larsson (1992), Ryvarden and Melo (2014).

Geographic coverage

Description: 

The extent of all sampling areas covers about 180 km in the longitudinal and 60 km in latitudinal direction. The total area of study is 380 km2.

Coordinates: 

48.7175° and 49.29° Latitude; 36.91884° and 39.39385° Longitude.

Taxonomic coverage

Description: 

The dataset contains 3418 species occurrences. It has 2727 specimens and 691 observation records, containing 349 species of fungi from the phylum Basidiomycota. Additional 16 items have no specific epithet but only genus-level (in one case order-level) identification (Table 3).

Species checklist and frequencies of occurrence of aphyllophoroid fungi (phylum Basidiomycota) from insular woodlands of eastern Ukraine. Specific epithet is available for 349 taxa, while it could not be found for 16 items (only genus-level or order-level identification was possible)

Taxon name Count speci-mens Count obser-vations Class Order Family Genus
Abortiporus biennis 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Podoscyphaceae Abortiporus
Aleurodiscus dextrinoideocerussatus 2 Agaricomycetes Russulales Stereaceae Aleurodiscus
Amphinema byssoides 6 Agaricomycetes Atheliales Atheliaceae Amphinema
Amyloxenasma allantosporum 1 Agaricomycetes Amylocorticiales Amylocorticiaceae Amyloxenasma
Antrodia albida 2 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Antrodia
Antrodia gossypium 9 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Antrodia
Antrodia hyalina 13 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Antrodia
Antrodia malicola 24 4 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Antrodia
Antrodia ramentacea 4 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Antrodia
Antrodia sinuosa 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Antrodia
Antrodia sp. 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Antrodia
Antrodia xantha 2 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Antrodia
Antrodiella faginea 2 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Steccherinaceae Antrodiella
Antrodiella ichnusana 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Steccherinaceae Antrodiella
Antrodiella romellii 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Steccherinaceae Antrodiella
Aphanobasidium pseudotsugae 2 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Pterulaceae Aphanobasidium
Aporpium canescens 10 Agaricomycetes Auriculariales Auriculariales fam incertae sedis Aporpium
Artomyces pyxidatus 5 5 Agaricomycetes Russulales Auriscalpiaceae Artomyces
Athelia acrospora 2 Agaricomycetes Atheliales Atheliaceae Athelia
Athelia arachnoidea 33 3 Agaricomycetes Atheliales Atheliaceae Athelia
Athelia bombacina 2 Agaricomycetes Atheliales Atheliaceae Athelia
Athelia decipiens 14 Agaricomycetes Atheliales Atheliaceae Athelia
Athelia epiphylla 26 Agaricomycetes Atheliales Atheliaceae Athelia
Athelia fibulata 3 Agaricomycetes Atheliales Atheliaceae Athelia
Athelia salicum 2 Agaricomycetes Atheliales Atheliaceae Athelia
Athelia sp. 11 Agaricomycetes Atheliales Atheliaceae Athelia
Aurantiporus fissilis 2 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Aurantiporus
Auriscalpium vulgare 3 7 Agaricomycetes Russulales Auriscalpiaceae Auriscalpium
Basidiodendron caesiocinereum 1 Agaricomycetes Auriculariales Exidiaceae Basidiodendron
Basidiodendron deminutum 2 Agaricomycetes Auriculariales Exidiaceae Basidiodendron
Basidiodendron eyrei 8 Agaricomycetes Auriculariales Exidiaceae Basidiodendron
Basidioradulum tuberculatum 1 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Basidioradulum
Bjerkandera adusta 19 14 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Bjerkandera
Bjerkandera fumosa 2 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Bjerkandera
Boidinia furfuracea 1 Agaricomycetes Russulales Russulales fam incertae sedis Boidinia
Botryobasidium arachnoideum 1 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Botryobasidiaceae Botryobasidium
Botryobasidium aureum 2 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Botryobasidiaceae Botryobasidium
Botryobasidium candicans 22 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Botryobasidiaceae Botryobasidium
Botryobasidium conspersum 34 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Botryobasidiaceae Botryobasidium
Botryobasidium curtisii 3 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Botryobasidiaceae Botryobasidium
Botryobasidium laeve 12 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Botryobasidiaceae Botryobasidium
Botryobasidium pruinatum 10 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Botryobasidiaceae Botryobasidium
Botryobasidium robustius 8 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Botryobasidiaceae Botryobasidium
Botryobasidium simile 1 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Botryobasidiaceae Botryobasidium
Botryobasidium sphaericosporum 8 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Botryobasidiaceae Botryobasidium
Botryobasidium subcoronatum 46 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Botryobasidiaceae Botryobasidium
Botryohypochnus isabellinus 7 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Botryobasidiaceae Botryohypochnus
Bourdotia galzinii 1 Agaricomycetes Auriculariales Auriculariales incertae sedis Bourdotia
Brevicellicium olivascens 1 Agaricomycetes Trechisporales Hydnodontaceae Brevicellicium
Bulbillomyces farinosus 8 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Podoscyphaceae Bulbillomyces
Byssomerulius corium 23 10 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Byssomerulius
Ceraceomyces serpens 12 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Ceraceomyces
Ceraceomyces tessulatus 3 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Ceraceomyces
Ceratobasidium cornigerum 10 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Ceratobasidiaceae Ceratobasidium
Ceriporia purpurea 19 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Ceriporia
Ceriporia reticulata 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Ceriporia
Ceriporia viridans 4 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Ceriporia
Ceriporiopsis mucida 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Steccherinaceae Ceriporiopsis
Ceriporiopsis resinascens 3 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Steccherinaceae Ceriporiopsis
Cerrena unicolor 8 3 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Cerrenaceae Cerrena
Chondrostereum purpureum 10 13 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Agaricales fam incertae sedis Chondrostereum
Colacogloea peniophorae 3 Microbotryomycetes Microbotryomycetes ord incertae sedis Microbotryomycetes fam incertae sedis Colacogloea
Coltricia perennis 1 1 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Coltricia
Coniophora arida 36 3 Agaricomycetes Boletales Coniophoraceae Coniophora
Coniophora fusispora 4 Agaricomycetes Boletales Coniophoraceae Coniophora
Coniophora olivacea 13 Agaricomycetes Boletales Coniophoraceae Coniophora
Coniophora puteana 31 3 Agaricomycetes Boletales Coniophoraceae Coniophora
Coniophora sp. 1 Agaricomycetes Boletales Coniophoraceae Coniophora
Coriolopsis gallica 3 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Polyporaceae Coriolopsis
Corticium roseum 10 Agaricomycetes Corticiales Corticiaceae Corticium
Cristinia helvetica 1 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Stephanosporaceae Cristinia
Cristinia rhenana 24 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Stephanosporaceae Cristinia
Cylindrobasidium evolvens 7 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Physalacriaceae Cylindrobasidium
Dacryobolus sudans 3 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Dacryobolus
Daedalea quercina 4 8 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Daedalea
Daedaleopsis confragosa 3 4 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Polyporaceae Daedaleopsis
Datronia mollis 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Polyporaceae Datronia
Dendrothele acerina 10 8 Agaricomycetes Agaricomycetes ord incertae sedis Agaricomycetes fam incertae sedis Dendrothele
Dendrothele alliacea 15 4 Agaricomycetes Agaricomycetes ord incertae sedis Agaricomycetes fam incertae sedis Dendrothele
Dendrothele minutissima 1 Agaricomycetes Agaricomycetes ord incertae sedis Agaricomycetes fam incertae sedis Dendrothele
Dichomitus campestris 7 4 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Polyporaceae Dichomitus
Dichomitus squalens 16 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Polyporaceae Dichomitus
Dichostereum effuscatum 1 Agaricomycetes Russulales Lachnocladiaceae Dichostereum
Diplomitoporus flavescens 6 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meripilaceae Diplomitoporus
Erythricium hypnophilum 2 Agaricomycetes Corticiales Corticiaceae Erythricium
Exidiopsis galzinii 1 Agaricomycetes Auriculariales Exidiaceae Exidiopsis
Exidiopsis griseobrunnea 1 Agaricomycetes Auriculariales Exidiaceae Exidiopsis
Fibriciellum silvae-ryae 1 Agaricomycetes Trechisporales Hydnodontaceae Fibriciellum
Fibricium subceraceum 3 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Steccherinaceae Fibricium
Fibrodontia gossypina 2 Agaricomycetes Trechisporales Hydnodontaceae Fibrodontia
Fibroporia vaillantii 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Fibroporia
Fibulomyces fusoideus 6 Agaricomycetes Atheliales Atheliaceae Fibulomyces
Fibulomyces mutabilis 5 Agaricomycetes Atheliales Atheliaceae Fibulomyces
Fibulomyces sp. 2 Agaricomycetes Atheliales Atheliaceae Fibulomyces
Fistulina hepatica 3 2 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Fistulinaceae Fistulina
Fomes fomentarius 4 81 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Polyporaceae Fomes
Fomitiporia punctata 9 7 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Fomitiporia
Fomitiporia robusta 3 14 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Fomitiporia
Fuscoporia contigua 25 2 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Fuscoporia
Fuscoporia ferruginosa 47 3 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Fuscoporia
Galzinia incrustans 3 Agaricomycetes Corticiales Corticiaceae Galzinia
Ganoderma applanatum 7 14 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Ganodermataceae Ganoderma
Ganoderma lucidum 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Ganodermataceae Ganoderma
Ganoderma resinaceum 4 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Ganodermataceae Ganoderma
Gloeocystidiellum porosum 3 Agaricomycetes Russulales Gloeocystidiellaceae Gloeocystidiellum
Gloeohypochnicium analogum 1 Agaricomycetes Amylocorticiales Amylocorticiaceae Gloeohypochnicium
Gloeophyllum sepiarium 2 Agaricomycetes Gloeophyllales Gloeophyllaceae Gloeophyllum
Gloeophyllum trabeum 3 Agaricomycetes Gloeophyllales Gloeophyllaceae Gloeophyllum
Gloeoporus dichrous 15 17 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Gloeoporus
Gloeoporus pannocinctus 12 2 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Gloeoporus
Gloeoporus taxicola 2 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Gloeoporus
Gloiothele lactescens 8 Agaricomycetes Russulales Lachnocladiaceae Gloiothele
Granulobasidium vellereum 14 Agaricomycetes Agaricomycetes ord incertae sedis Agaricomycetes fam incertae sedis Granulobasidium
Hapalopilus nidulans 6 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Hapalopilus
Helicogloea farinacea 1 Atractiellomycetes Atractiellales Atractiellales fam incertae sedis Helicogloea
Helicogloea lagerheimii 2 Atractiellomycetes Atractiellales Atractiellales fam incertae sedis Helicogloea
Henningsomyces candidus 7 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Cyphellaceae Henningsomyces
Henningsomyces stipitatus 1 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Cyphellaceae Henningsomyces
Hericium coralloides 2 Agaricomycetes Russulales Hericiaceae Hericium
Heterobasidion annosum 1 Agaricomycetes Russulales Bondarzewiaceae Heterobasidion
Heteroradulum kmetii 7 Agaricomycetes Auriculariales Exidiaceae Heteroradulum
Hydnocristella himantia 4 Agaricomycetes Gomphales Lentariaceae Hydnocristella
Hymenochaete cinnamomea 23 5 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Hymenochaete
Hymenochaete fuliginosa 9 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Hymenochaete
Hymenochaete rubiginosa 11 32 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Hymenochaete
Hyphoderma argillaceum 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Hyphodermataceae Hyphoderma
Hyphoderma griseoflavescens 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Hyphodermataceae Hyphoderma
Hyphoderma mutatum 14 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Hyphodermataceae Hyphoderma
Hyphoderma setigerum 44 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Hyphodermataceae Hyphoderma
Hyphoderma sp. 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Hyphodermataceae Hyphoderma
Hyphoderma transiens 2 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Hyphodermataceae Hyphoderma
Hyphodontia arguta 15 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Hyphodontia
Hyphodontia aspera 1 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Hyphodontia
Hyphodontia breviseta 5 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Hyphodontia
Hyphodontia crustosa 76 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Hyphodontia
Hyphodontia erastii 1 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Hyphodontia
Hyphodontia incrustata 1 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Hyphodontia
Hyphodontia microspora 2 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Hyphodontia
Hyphodontia nespori 4 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Hyphodontia
Hyphodontia pallidula 12 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Hyphodontia
Hyphodontia pruni 2 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Hyphodontia
Hyphodontia quercina 2 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Hyphodontia
Hyphodontia radula 17 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Hyphodontia
Hyphodontia sambuci 33 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Hyphodontia
Hyphodontia sp. 7 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Hyphodontia
Hyphodontia spathulata 5 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Hyphodontia
Hyphodontia subalutacea 4 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Hyphodontia
Hyphodontia tuberculata 1 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Hyphodontia
Hyphodontia verruculosa 1 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Hyphodontia
Hypochniciellum ovoideum 1 Agaricomycetes Amylocorticiales Amylocorticiaceae Hypochniciellum
Hypochnicium geogenium 3 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Podoscyphaceae Hypochnicium
Hypochnicium wakefieldiae 10 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Podoscyphaceae Hypochnicium
Inonotus cuticularis 1 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Inonotus
Inonotus hispidus 4 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Inonotus
Inonotus lonicerinus 2 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Inonotus
Inonotus obliquus 3 3 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Inonotus
Inonotus rheades 4 3 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Inonotus
Irpex lacteus 25 15 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Irpex
Junghuhnia nitida 5 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Steccherinaceae Junghuhnia
Lachnella alboviolascens 1 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Tricholomataceae Lachnella
Lachnella sp. 4 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Tricholomataceae Lachnella
Laetiporus sulphureus 3 11 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Laetiporus
Lagarobasidium detriticum 1 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Lagarobasidium
Laxitextum bicolor 2 Agaricomycetes Russulales Gloeocystidiellaceae Laxitextum
Lentaria patouillardii 3 Agaricomycetes Gomphales Lentariaceae Lentaria
Lenzites betulina 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Coriolaceae Lenzites
Lenzites warnieri 7 4 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Coriolaceae Lenzites
Leptosporomyces galzinii 1 Agaricomycetes Atheliales Atheliaceae Leptosporomyces
Leptosporomyces mundus 1 Agaricomycetes Atheliales Atheliaceae Leptosporomyces
Leucogyrophana mollusca 12 Agaricomycetes Boletales Boletales fam incertae sedis Leucogyrophana
Leucogyrophana pinastri 1 Agaricomycetes Boletales Boletales fam incertae sedis Leucogyrophana
Loweomyces fractipes 2 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Steccherinaceae Loweomyces
Macrotyphula fistulosa 4 4 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Typhulaceae Macrotyphula
Macrotyphula juncea 10 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Typhulaceae Macrotyphula
Maireina maxima 2 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Niaceae Maireina
Mensularia radiata 18 6 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Mensularia
Merismodes fasciculata 5 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Tricholomataceae Merismodes
Merulius tremellosus 26 18 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Merulius
Metulodontia nivea 1 Agaricomycetes Russulales Peniophoraceae Metulodontia
Mucronella calva 4 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Clavariaceae Mucronella
Mucronella flava 1 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Clavariaceae Mucronella
Mycoacia columellifera 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Mycoacia
Mycoacia fuscoatra 2 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Mycoacia
Mycoacia uda 7 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Mycoacia
Mycoaciella bispora 4 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Mycoaciella
Odontia ferruginea 1 Agaricomycetes Thelephorales Thelephoraceae Odontia
Odontia fibrosa 1 Agaricomycetes Thelephorales Thelephoraceae Odontia
Oxyporus corticola 21 3 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Oxyporus
Oxyporus latemarginatus 10 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Oxyporus
Oxyporus obducens 5 1 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Oxyporus
Oxyporus similis 1 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Oxyporus
Oxyporus sp. 1 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Oxyporus
Paullicorticium pearsonii 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Polyporales fam incertae sedis Paullicorticium
Peniophora cinerea 34 Agaricomycetes Russulales Peniophoraceae Peniophora
Peniophora erikssonii 5 Agaricomycetes Russulales Peniophoraceae Peniophora
Peniophora incarnata 5 Agaricomycetes Russulales Peniophoraceae Peniophora
Peniophora laeta 2 Agaricomycetes Russulales Peniophoraceae Peniophora
Peniophora lilacea 20 Agaricomycetes Russulales Peniophoraceae Peniophora
Peniophora limitata 16 4 Agaricomycetes Russulales Peniophoraceae Peniophora
Peniophora lycii 10 Agaricomycetes Russulales Peniophoraceae Peniophora
Peniophora nuda 30 1 Agaricomycetes Russulales Peniophoraceae Peniophora
Peniophora pini 2 Agaricomycetes Russulales Peniophoraceae Peniophora
Peniophora polygonia 3 2 Agaricomycetes Russulales Peniophoraceae Peniophora
Peniophora quercina 19 25 Agaricomycetes Russulales Peniophoraceae Peniophora
Peniophora rufomarginata 11 13 Agaricomycetes Russulales Peniophoraceae Peniophora
Peniophora violaceolivida 4 Agaricomycetes Russulales Peniophoraceae Peniophora
Peniophorella pallida 8 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetales fam incertae sedis Peniophorella
Peniophorella praetermissa 44 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetales fam incertae sedis Peniophorella
Peniophorella pubera 43 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetales fam incertae sedis Peniophorella
Peniophorella tsugae 1 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetales fam incertae sedis Peniophorella
Perenniporia narymica 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Ganodermataceae Perenniporia
Phaeolus schweinitzii 2 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Phaeolus
Phanerochaete cumulodentata 5 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Phanerochaete
Phanerochaete deflectens 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Phanerochaete
Phanerochaete jose-ferreirae 2 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Phanerochaete
Phanerochaete livescens 3 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Phanerochaete
Phanerochaete sanguinea 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Phanerochaete
Phanerochaete sordida 21 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Phanerochaete
Phanerochaete sp. 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Phanerochaete
Phanerochaete tuberculata 16 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Phanerochaete
Phanerochaete velutina 9 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Phanerochaete
Phellinus igniarius 8 14 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Phellinus
Phellinus pomaceus 4 2 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Phellinus
Phellinus populicola 2 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Phellinus
Phellinus rhamni 6 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Phellinus
Phellinus tremulae 5 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Phellinus
Phlebia acerina 7 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Phlebia
Phlebia albida 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Phlebia
Phlebia bresadolae 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Phlebia
Phlebia lilascens 2 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Phlebia
Phlebia radiata 9 5 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Phlebia
Phlebia subochracea 10 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Phlebia
Phlebia tremelloidea 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Phlebia
Phlebia tuberculata 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Phlebia
Phlebiopsis gigantea 3 4 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Phlebiopsis
Phylloporia ribis 1 4 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Phylloporia
Piptoporus betulinus 2 11 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Piptoporus
Piptoporus quercinus 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Piptoporus
Polyporus alveolaris 5 5 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Polyporaceae Polyporus
Polyporus arcularius 6 5 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Polyporaceae Polyporus
Polyporus ciliatus 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Polyporaceae Polyporus
Polyporus squamosus 4 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Polyporaceae Polyporus
Polyporus varius 2 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Polyporaceae Polyporus
Porodaedalea pini 4 4 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Porodaedalea
Porostereum spadiceum 21 5 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Porostereum
Postia alni 15 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Postia
Postia floriformis 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Postia
Postia leucomallella 8 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Postia
Postia stiptica 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Postia
Postia tephroleuca 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Postia
Pseudoinonotus dryadeus 2 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetaceae Pseudoinonotus
Radulodon aneirinus 5 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Cerrenaceae Radulodon
Radulomyces confluens 107 2 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Pterulaceae Radulomyces
Radulomyces molaris 21 6 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Pterulaceae Radulomyces
Ramaria abietina 1 Agaricomycetes Gomphales Gomphaceae Ramaria
Ramaria corrugata 1 Agaricomycetes Gomphales Gomphaceae Ramaria
Ramaria flaccida 9 Agaricomycetes Gomphales Gomphaceae Ramaria
Ramaria ochracea 1 Agaricomycetes Gomphales Gomphaceae Ramaria
Ramaria stricta 1 Agaricomycetes Gomphales Gomphaceae Ramaria
Resupinatus poriaeformis 4 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Tricholomataceae Resupinatus
Rigidoporus pouzarii 2 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meripilaceae Rigidoporus
Rigidoporus sanguinolentus 5 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meripilaceae Rigidoporus
Royoporus badius 3 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Polyporaceae Royoporus
Sarcodontia pachyodon 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Sarcodontia
Schizophyllum amplum 13 10 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Schizophyllaceae Schizophyllum
Schizophyllum commune 17 46 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Schizophyllaceae Schizophyllum
Schizopora flavipora 21 6 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Schizopora
Schizopora paradoxa 18 4 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Schizoporaceae Schizopora
Scopuloides hydnoides 10 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Scopuloides
Scytinostroma hemidichophyticum 6 Agaricomycetes Russulales Lachnocladiaceae Scytinostroma
Serpula himantioides 5 1 Agaricomycetes Boletales Serpulaceae Serpula
Sistotrema binucleosporum 1 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Cantharellales fam incertae sedis Sistotrema
Sistotrema brinkmannii 36 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Cantharellales fam incertae sedis Sistotrema
Sistotrema diademiferum 2 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Cantharellales fam incertae sedis Sistotrema
Sistotrema oblongisporum 1 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Cantharellales fam incertae sedis Sistotrema
Sistotrema octosporum 1 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Cantharellales fam incertae sedis Sistotrema
Sistotrema porulosum 1 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Cantharellales fam incertae sedis Sistotrema
Sistotrema resinicystidium 1 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Cantharellales fam incertae sedis Sistotrema
Sistotrema sernanderi 2 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Cantharellales fam incertae sedis Sistotrema
Sistotrema sp. 3 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Cantharellales fam incertae sedis Sistotrema
Sistotremastrum niveocremeum 6 Agaricomycetes Trechisporales Trechisporales fam incertae sedis Sistotremastrum
Sistotremastrum suecicum 16 Agaricomycetes Trechisporales Trechisporales fam incertae sedis Sistotremastrum
Sistotremella hauerslevii 1 Agaricomycetes Trechisporales Hydnodontaceae Sistotremella
Skeletocutis amorpha 3 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Skeletocutis
Skeletocutis carneogrisea 17 2 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Skeletocutis
Skeletocutis nivea 6 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Skeletocutis
Steccherinum bourdotii 2 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Steccherinaceae Steccherinum
Steccherinum fimbriatum 21 6 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Steccherinaceae Steccherinum
Steccherinum ochraceum 13 6 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Steccherinaceae Steccherinum
Steccherinum oreophilum 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Steccherinaceae Steccherinum
Stereum gausapatum 2 2 Agaricomycetes Russulales Stereaceae Stereum
Stereum hirsutum 32 24 Agaricomycetes Russulales Stereaceae Stereum
Stereum sanguinolentum 4 4 Agaricomycetes Russulales Stereaceae Stereum
Stereum subtomentosum 33 20 Agaricomycetes Russulales Stereaceae Stereum
Stypella dubia 1 Agaricomycetes Auriculariales Hyaloriaceae Stypella
Stypella grilletii 1 Agaricomycetes Auriculariales Hyaloriaceae Stypella
Subulicystidium longisporum 20 Agaricomycetes Russulales Peniophoraceae Subulicystidium
Thanatephorus fusisporus 3 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Ceratobasidiaceae Thanatephorus
Thelephora terrestris 5 6 Agaricomycetes Thelephorales Thelephoraceae Thelephora
Thelephorales sp. 2 Agaricomycetes Thelephorales Thelephorales fam incertae sedis Thelephorales gen incertae sedis
Tomentella badia 1 Agaricomycetes Thelephorales Thelephoraceae Tomentella
Tomentella ferruginea 2 Agaricomycetes Thelephorales Thelephoraceae Tomentella
Tomentella italica 1 Agaricomycetes Thelephorales Thelephoraceae Tomentella
Tomentella pilosa 2 Agaricomycetes Thelephorales Thelephoraceae Tomentella
Tomentella radiosa 2 Agaricomycetes Thelephorales Thelephoraceae Tomentella
Tomentella sp. 1 Agaricomycetes Thelephorales Thelephoraceae Tomentella
Tomentella spinosispora 7 Agaricomycetes Thelephorales Thelephoraceae Tomentella
Tomentella stuposa 3 Agaricomycetes Thelephorales Thelephoraceae Tomentella
Tomentella sublilacina 4 Agaricomycetes Thelephorales Thelephoraceae Tomentella
Tomentella subtestacea 1 Agaricomycetes Thelephorales Thelephoraceae Tomentella
Tomentellopsis bresadolana 26 Agaricomycetes Thelephorales Thelephoraceae Tomentellopsis
Tomentellopsis echinospora 1 Agaricomycetes Thelephorales Thelephoraceae Tomentellopsis
Tomentellopsis pulchella 3 Agaricomycetes Thelephorales Thelephoraceae Tomentellopsis
Tomentellopsis sp. 19 Agaricomycetes Thelephorales Thelephoraceae Tomentellopsis
Trametes hirsuta 7 9 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Coriolaceae Trametes
Trametes ljubarskyi 4 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Coriolaceae Trametes
Trametes ochracea 22 19 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Coriolaceae Trametes
Trametes pubescens 1 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Coriolaceae Trametes
Trametes suaveolens 2 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Coriolaceae Trametes
Trametes trogii 13 14 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Coriolaceae Trametes
Trametes versicolor 9 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Coriolaceae Trametes
Trametopsis cervina 3 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Meruliaceae Trametopsis
Trechinothus smardae 1 Agaricomycetes Agaricomycetes ord incertae sedis Agaricomycetes fam incertae sedis Trechinothus
Trechispora alnicola 3 Agaricomycetes Trechisporales Hydnodontaceae Trechispora
Trechispora cohaerens 19 Agaricomycetes Trechisporales Hydnodontaceae Trechispora
Trechispora confinis 2 Agaricomycetes Trechisporales Hydnodontaceae Trechispora
Trechispora farinacea 4 Agaricomycetes Trechisporales Hydnodontaceae Trechispora
Trechispora hypoleucum 1 Agaricomycetes Trechisporales Hydnodontaceae Trechispora
Trechispora kavinioides 1 Agaricomycetes Trechisporales Hydnodontaceae Trechispora
Trechispora microspora 2 Agaricomycetes Trechisporales Hydnodontaceae Trechispora
Trechispora nivea 2 Agaricomycetes Trechisporales Hydnodontaceae Trechispora
Trechispora praefocata 1 Agaricomycetes Trechisporales Hydnodontaceae Trechispora
Trechispora stevensonii 15 Agaricomycetes Trechisporales Hydnodontaceae Trechispora
Trichaptum biforme 6 2 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetales fam incertae sedis Trichaptum
Trichaptum fuscoviolaceum 29 20 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Hymenochaetales fam incertae sedis Trichaptum
Tubulicrinis calothrix 1 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Tubulicrinaceae Tubulicrinis
Tubulicrinis strangulatus 1 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Tubulicrinaceae Tubulicrinis
Tubulicrinis subulatus 1 Agaricomycetes Hymenochaetales Tubulicrinaceae Tubulicrinis
Tulasnella albida 7 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Tulasnellaceae Tulasnella
Tulasnella brinkmannii 1 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Tulasnellaceae Tulasnella
Tulasnella deliquescens 1 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Tulasnellaceae Tulasnella
Tulasnella eichleriana 11 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Tulasnellaceae Tulasnella
Tulasnella hyalina 1 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Tulasnellaceae Tulasnella
Tulasnella pallida 12 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Tulasnellaceae Tulasnella
Tulasnella pinicola 1 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Tulasnellaceae Tulasnella
Tulasnella pruinosa 1 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Tulasnellaceae Tulasnella
Tulasnella saveloides 6 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Tulasnellaceae Tulasnella
Tulasnella sp. 5 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Tulasnellaceae Tulasnella
Tulasnella thelephorea 5 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Tulasnellaceae Tulasnella
Tulasnella tomaculum 1 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Tulasnellaceae Tulasnella
Tulasnella violea 8 Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Tulasnellaceae Tulasnella
Typhula erythropus 4 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Typhulaceae Typhula
Typhula euphorbiae 1 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Typhulaceae Typhula
Typhula micans 1 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Typhulaceae Typhula
Typhula setipes 25 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Typhulaceae Typhula
Typhula sp. 10 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Typhulaceae Typhula
Typhula sphaeroidea 5 Agaricomycetes Agaricales Typhulaceae Typhula
Tyromyces chioneus 3 Agaricomycetes Polyporales Fomitopsidaceae Tyromyces
Vararia ochroleuca 2 Agaricomycetes Russulales Lachnocladiaceae Vararia
Vuilleminia comedens 24 18 Agaricomycetes Corticiales Vuilleminiaceae Vuilleminia
Vuilleminia coryli 5 5 Agaricomycetes Corticiales Vuilleminiaceae Vuilleminia
Vuilleminia cystidiata 2 1 Agaricomycetes Corticiales Vuilleminiaceae Vuilleminia
Vuilleminia pseudocystidiata 1 Agaricomycetes Corticiales Vuilleminiaceae Vuilleminia
Xenasmatella sp. 1 Agaricomycetes Agaricomycetes ord incertae sedis Xenasmataceae Xenasmatella
Xenasmatella vaga 5 Agaricomycetes Agaricomycetes ord incertae sedis Xenasmataceae Xenasmatella

Most of the species belong to subphylum Agaricomycotina, class Agaricomycetes and represent 14 orders (Agaricales, Atheliales, Amylocorticiales, Auriculariales, Cantharellales, Boletales, Gloeophyllales, Corticiales, Hymenochaetales, Gomphales, Polyporales, Russulales, Thelephorales and Trechisporales). One genus belongs to a separate lineage of presumably order level (Xenasmatella spp.) and five species have an unclear position within Agaricomycetes (three Dendrothele spp., Granulobasidium vellereum and Trechinothus smardae). Three species in the dataset represent the subphylum Pucciniomycotina: Helicogloea farinacea and H. lagerheimii (Atractiellales, Atractiellomycetes) and Colacogloea peniophorae (Microbotryomycetes).

The dataset includes several species described or raised to the species level status in the the last two decades: Antrodiella ichnusana, Lyomyces erastii, L. incrustatus, Phlebia tuberculata and Xylodon tuberculatus. We could use these names for identification purposes by 2012, i.e. by the end of specimen identification phase of the project. However, to some specimens, new important identifications were added in the course of taxonomic revisions published after 2011 (Table 4). Further important recent nomenclatural innovations reflected in the dataset are treating Tomentella crinalis and T. fibrosa in the separate genus Odontia, following Tedersoo et al. (2014).

Re-identifications of the eastern Ukrainian fungal collections based on recent taxonomical revisions. For all such species, the specimens were studied and cited personally by the authors of the new names (but see comment for Antrodia hyalina).

Original identification Current name Reference
Antrodia pulvinascens Antrodia hyalina V. Spirin, personal communication; see also Spirin et al. 2013
Eichleriella deglubens Heteroradulum kmetii Malysheva and Spirin 2017
Phanerochaete magnoliae Phanerochaete cumulodentata Volobuev et al. 2015
Phanerochaete sordida Phanerochaete livescens Volobuev et al. 2015
Rigidoporus crocatus Rigidoporus pouzarii Vampola and Vlasák 2012

From 19 specimens representing 16 species, we generated 19 nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences and four 28S sequences. Further seven ITS and two 28S sequences were produced in collaborative studies focusing on a particular taxonomic problem (see Table 4). The sequences can be found in the public repositories UNITE (Kõljalg et al. 2013) and GenBank (Benson et al. 2013) and linked to the respective CWU vouchers in PlutoF. The sequence UDB033929*1 from specimen CWU4336*1 is the first barcode sequence for the species Phellinus rhamni. Our photographs of Dichomitus squalens (CWU6509) and Lenzites warnieri (CWU6505) linked to the dataset illustrate the respective species in the latest key to European polypores (Ryvarden and Melo 2014).

Traits coverage

The assignments to the 1) lifestyle and 2) fruiting-body principal configuration (morph) type were provided for each species. Lifestyle is a predefined field in PlutoF, from which we used the categories saprotroph, symbiotroph and parasite.

The principal fruitbody configuration of macrofungi is an increasingly addressed species trait in the ecological and evolutionary studies (Abrego et al. 2016, Hibbett 2007). We classified the species of our datasetinto the following groups: those where fruitbodies have smooth spore-producing surface (corticiod), species with cup-shaped fruitbodies (cyphelloid), species with toothed hymenophore (hydnoid), species developing pores (poroid), species having gelified fruiting bodies (heterobasidial) and species having coralloid, club-like or funnel-like fruiting bodies which grow negatively geotropic (clavarioid). As the trait module for fungi in PlutoF is still under development (July 2017), we specified the fruiting body morph in the field "Identifications.Remarks" for each specimen and observation.

Temporal coverage

Data range: 
2007-3-09 - 2011-5-07.

Collection data

Collection name: 
All the specimens are stored in the V.N. Karazin National University Herbarium, Kharkiv, Ukraine (CWU). Many specimens belonging to the order Thelephorales are recorded in PlutoF having their main deposition place as: University of Tartu; Natural History Museum and Botanic Garden; Botanical and Mycological Museum; Department of Mycology, TU(M). The duplicates of CWU specimens studied by colleagues were placed in the herbaria of their institutions: M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (KW), V.F. Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany, Belarus Academy of Sciences (MSK), V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute (LE) and Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology (SVER) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, University of Gothenburg (GB) and personal collections of Josef Vlasák, Wolfgang Dämon, Heikki Kotiranta and Masoomeh Ghobad-Nejhad (will join the Iranian Cryptogamic Herbarium, ICH).
Collection identifier: 
CWU, TU(M), KW, MSK, LE, SVER, GB, ICH.
Specimen preservation method: 
Fresh specimens were dried with an electric fan dryer on the day of collection and placed in grip seal plastic bags. Shortly after drying, the specimens were placed into a deep freezer (‒20°C) for a week, to prevent their destruction by insects. Specimens are preserved in cardboard herbarium boxes.
Curatorial unit: 
CWU fungal specimens are curated by the Department of Mycology and Plant Resistance of V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine.

Usage rights

Use license: 
Open Data Commons Attribution License
IP rights notes: 

The dataset is hosted by PlutoF and accessible from the latter under Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0). The source records compiled into the dataset are available in the dedicated PlutoF project (https://plutof.ut.ee/#/study/view/38925). Project specimens and sequences are open for alternative taxon identifications. The occurrence records may also be viewed in the GBIF occurrence dataset of CWU herbarium (Savchenko 2017, https://doi.org/10.15468/kuspj6) and the GBIF dataset of PlutoF platform observations (PlutoF 2017, https://doi.org/10.15468/h7qtfd). All data resources are also provided in Suppl. material 1.

Data resources

Data package title: 
Aphyllophoroid fungi in insular woodlands of eastern Ukraine.
Alternative identifiers: 
Number of data sets: 
3
Data set name: 
Specimens
Character set: 
UTF-8
Data format: 
Darwin Core Archive
Data format version: 
1.0
Description: 

Specimens of aphyllophoroid fungi (non-gilled macroscopic Basidiomycota) from eastern Ukraine collected between 2007 and 2011.

Column label Column description
http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/ See terms in the link
Data set name: 
Observations
Character set: 
UTF-8
Data format: 
Darwin Core Archive
Data format version: 
1.0
Description: 

Observations of aphyllophoroid fungi (non-gilled macroscopic Basidiomycota) from eastern Ukraine made between 2007 and 2011.

Column label Column description
http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/ See terms in the link
Data set name: 
Areas shape files
Character set: 
UTF-8
Data format: 
ESRI Shapefile
Description: 

Shapefile of all samping areas used in the study

Column label Column description
id Short identifier without whitespaces (text string)
name Full names of areas (text string)

Additional information

Results communication

The results of species inventories in eastern Ukraine were communicated and discussed at several conferences and meetings attended by Alexander Ordynets and Alexander Akulov:

  • Conferences for young scientists organised by M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (2008 in Kamianets-Podilskyi, 2009 in Kremianets, 2010 and 2011 in Kiev, Ukraine);
  • Conferences for young scientists organised by V.N. Karazin National University in Kharkiv, Ukraine (2008-2011);
  • Presentations on Ukrainian fungi at the Microbial Evolution Research Group, University of Oslo (2012-10-16) and Botanical Museum, University of Oslo (2014-03-27);
  • Field course on identification of corticioid Basidiomycetes (2012-09-10 ‒ 2012-09-15) and winter seminar (2013-02-25), organised by the Chair of Mycology, Institute of Ecology and EarthSciences, University of Tartu, Estonia;
  • Presentation on Ukrainian fungi diversity at the Department of Mycology, University of Marburg, Germany (2013-06-17).

Outlook

While uploading and processing our data in the PlutoF system, we found that some species were missing in the PlutoF classification. Therefore we added manually to the PlutoF taxonomy one genus (Heteroradulum) and the six following species: Basidiodendron deminutum, B. rimulentum, Heteroradulum kmetii, Hyphodontia incrustata, Maireina maxima and Trechinothus smardae. Two more species, Sistotremella hauerslevii and Henningsomyces stipitatus, were added to PlutoF classification by means of import from the GBIF Backbone Taxonomy of 2016. One plant species, Prunus stepposa, was also manually added to the Plantae kingdom of PlutoF taxonomy. These taxon additions will ease the data upload for subsequent PlutoF users.

Our data contribute to more than a doubling in size of the digitised CWU herbarium, the first and the largest digital collection outside Estonia hosted by PlutoF (Savchenko 2017). Our dataset sheds further light on the fungal diversity of Eastern Europe and it is anticipated that it will complement other data sources on European fungi in addressing macroecological and biogeographical questions. It is also hoped that the example of this data paper will promote further effective enrichment of PlutoF platform with fungal occurrence data.

Acknowledgements

We thank the administration and staff of the Luhansk and Ukrainian Steppe Nature Reserves, Sviati Hory National Nature Park and Valeriy Lovchinovskyi for immense help in organising field work. Irina Dudka and her colleagues from the Department of Mycology, M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany provided comments at the designing phase of the project and Eugen Dykyi and Ihor Dzeverin commented on some preliminary results of data sampling. The voluntary help with the sampling and photographing specimens and sampling sites was provided by Olga Ternovska, Artem Bogatkov and Olena Bogatkova and occasionally by Oleg Prylutskyi, Iryna Kulyk and Eugen Nagornyi, all of whom are thanked for accompanying the team in the field. Kadri Põldmaa kindly shared her experience of modern light microscopy. Leif Ryvarden, Nils Hallenberg and Tatiana Atemasova provided some literature relevant to the project. We are indebted to our colleagues who helped with specimens identification: Wolfgang Dämon, Ivan Zmitrovich, Anton Shyriaev, Heikki Kotiranta, Masoomeh Ghobad-Nejhad, Philomena Bodensteiner, Sergey Volobuev, Viacheslav Spirin and Erast Parmasto. We thank Kessy Abarenkov, Allan Zirk and all other members of PlutoF team for help with data management. We thank editors and reviewers for the helpful comments on the manuscript.

Author contributions

Alexander Ordynets and Alexander Akulov are the main collectors of specimens and observations. Alexander Ordynets, Alexander Akulov, Eugene Yurchenko, Vera Malysheva, Urmas Kõljalg, Josef Vlasák, Karl-Henrik Larsson and Wolfgang Dämon identified the specimens. Urmas Kõljalg, Josef Vlasák, Karl-Henrik Larsson and Ewald Langer sequenced some of the specimens. Alexander Ordynets and Anton Savchenko uploaded data to the PlutoF workbench and further managed it. Alexander Ordynets wrote the first version of the manuscript and all co-authors contributed to the writing.

References

Supplementary material

Suppl. material 1: Data resources: Aphyllophoroid fungi in insular woodlands of eastern Ukraine 
Authors:  Alexander Ordynets, Anton Savchenko, Alexander Akulov, Eugene Yurchenko, Vera Malysheva, Urmas Kõljalg, Josef Vlasák, Karl-Henrik Larsson, Ewald Langer
Data type:  occurrences, links to multimedia
Brief description: 

Seperate Darwin Core Archives for specimens and observations, plus shape files of sampling areas.

Endnotes
*1

open for registered users of PlutoF platform (Abarenkov et al. 2010, https://plutof.ut.ee)