Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic Paper
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Taxonomic Paper
Checklist of Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in Bulgaria
expand article infoNikola Bankov, Milcho Todorov, Anna Ganeva
‡ Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
Open Access

Abstract

Background

Until now, a complete checklist of Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in Bulgaria has never been published. Records for species diversity and distribution in the country were scattered in many faunistic and ecological publications. The aim of the present study is to summarise all data for the species distribution at the level of country by reviewing the existing literature and by additional data obtained in our research over the past two years.

New information

The checklist comprises 171 species, classified into 43 genera, 20 families, three orders, three classes and three phyla. We present data for 16 new Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in Bulgaria and new distribution data for 134 species. Of them, 99 species are recorded from Stara Planina Mt., for which there was no available data to date. Additionally are recorded 69 new species for Pirin Mt., 21 for Vitosha Mt. and 18 for Rila Mt. Thirty six species are synonymised according to the latest taxonomic changes. Two misidentified taxa (Euglypha brachiata Penard, 1902 and Difflugia compressa var. africana Gauthier-Lièvre et Thomas, 1958) are transferred into valid species E. acanthophora and Zivkovicia compressa, respectively. Three of the recorded species have not been included in the checklist, because they are currently not refering to testate amoebae (Cochliopodium bilimbosum (Auerbach 1856) and Cochliopodium echinatum Korotneef, 1879 are gymnamoebae (naked amoebae) and Microgromia elegantula (Penard 1904) = Paralieberkuehnia elegantula (Penard 1904) is freshwater foraminifera).

Keywords

Amoebozoa, Cercozoa, Stramenopiles, biodiversity, distribution, Sphagnum mosses, Bulgaria

Introduction

Testate amoebae are a polyphyletic assemblage of at least three major, unrelated taxonomic groups of eukaryotes (Adl SM et al. 2012). They are present in most terrestrial and freshwater environments and more marginally in brackish and marine habitats. They are especially abundant and diverse in Sphagnum mosses. Research on testate amoebae have increased significantly over the past two decades due to their increasing use in different applied aspects: as a bioindicators for palaeoecological studies, in environmental monitoring, pollution hazards, ecotoxicology, studies on their role in the cycling of elements in terrestrial ecosystems, biogeographical and evolutionary studiesetc. (Aoki, Yoshiyuki et al. 2007, Booth 2002, Charman 2001, Charman et al. 1998, Lamentowicz and Mitchell 2005, Mitchell et al. 2008, Nguyen-Viet et al. 2007, Swindles et al. 2008, Swindles et al. 2015, Qin et al. 2013).

Studies on Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in Bulgaria started at the beginning of the 20th century, when Pateff (1924), Pateff (1928) published his works on freshwater Rhizopoda in the country. He recorded a total of 118 rhizopods, of which 52 testate amoebae were from Sphagnum mosses in the Rila, Rhodopes and Vitosha Mountains. Later, Valkanov (1932), Valkanov (1934) published results of his studies on the fauna of alpine lakes in the Rila and Pirin Mountains and recorded many testate amoebae, which are typical inhabitants of peat mosses. Unfortunately, they were recorded along with all other species and no distinction was made amongst the species found in the lakes themselves and in the Sphagnum mosses from the lake shore. In the 60s and 70s of the 20th century, several publications on testate amoebae from the Vitosha, Rhodopes and Pirin Mountains were published (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky 1966, Golemansky 1968, Golemansky 1974), including a lot of data on Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae. At the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21th century, the number of publications concerning various aspects of taxonomy, systematics, morphology and ecology of sphagnicolous testate amoebae in Bulgaria increased considerably (Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Golemansky and Todorov 2006, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky et al. 2006, Heger et al. 2010, Kosakyan et al. 2012, Todorov 1993, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, Todorov 2010, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov et al. 2010, Todorov et al. 2009). All data in the above-mentioned publications have never been summarised in one place and that is the reason why the main goal of the present paper is to unite this scattered information and, together with the new data obtained from our research over the past two years, to present a checklist of all known to date Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in Bulgaria. Data on the distribution, habitats, regions, localities, altitude, authors and sources of information are provided in Suppl. material 1. Some typical and a few rare sphagnicolous testate amoebae, recorded from the country, are illustrated in Figs 1, 2, 3, 4.

Figure 1.

Characteristic Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae from the order Arcellinida.

aArcella intermedia (Deflandre) (Arcellidae 
bHyalosphenia papilio (Leidy) (Hyalospheniidae 
cGibbocarina galeata (Penard) (Hyalospheniidae 
dPadaungiella lageniformis (Penard) (Hyalospheniidae 
eQuadrulella longicollis Taranek (Hyalospheniidae 
fQuadrulella symmetrica (Wallich) (Hyalospheniidae 
Figure 2.

Characteristic Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae from the order Arcellinida.

aLagenodifflugia bryophila (Penard) (Difflugiidae 
bZivkovicia compressa (Carter) (Difflugiidae 
cHeleopera rosea Penard (Incertae sedis Arcellinida 
dHeleopera petricola Leidy (Incertae sedis Arcellinida 
eLesquereusia spiralis (Ehrenberg) (Incertae sedis Arcellinida 
fLesquereusia epistomium Penard (Incertae sedis Arcellinida 
Figure 3.

Characteristic Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae from the order Euglyphida.

aEuglypha tuberculata Dujardin (Euglyphidae 
bAssulina seminulum (Ehrenberg) (Assulinidae 
cSphenoderia fissirostris Penard (Sphenoderiidae 
dSphenoderia lenta Schlumberger (Sphenoderiidae 
eCyphoderia major (Penard) (Cyphoderiidae 
fCampascus minutus Penard (Cyphoderiidae 
Figure 4.

Rare or incidentally occurring testate amoebae in Sphagum mosses.

aArcella dentata Ehrenberg (Arcellidae 
bNetzelia tuberculata (Wallich) (Netzeliidae 
cDifflugia acuminata Ehrenberg (Difflugiidae 
dTrigonopyxis arcula (Leidy) (Trigonopyxidae 
eBullinularia indica (Penard) (Plagiopyxidae 
fAwerintzewia cyclostoma (Penard) (Incertae sedis Arcellinida 

Materials and methods

The data presented in the checklist are based primarily on published information concerning Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in Bulgaria. In addition, data from our research conducted over the past two years are also included. We have tried to explore the diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in the main areas of the country where peat mosses are more widespread. Genus Sphagnum in Bulgaria numbers 27 species (Natcheva and Ganeva 2005) distributed in mires in mountain areas of the country above the tree belt or in mires in coniferous forest, these being an important component of habitat 91D0 (Bog Woodland) of Directive 92/43/EEC. Some of the species (e.g. Sphagnum capillifolium (Ehrh.) Hedw., S. subsecundum Nees, S. girgensohnii Russ., S. centrale C.E.O.Jensen, S. platyphyllum (Lindb. ex. Braithw.) Sull. ex Warnst., S. squarrosum Crome, S. teres (Schimp.) Ängstr.) are more widespread in mires of Western Stara Planina, Rhodopes, Vitosha, Rila and Pirin Mountains, where, with other bryophytes and sedges, they comprise the specific mire flora.

The material for the present study was extracted from wet Sphagnum mosses, gathered at Vitosha and Western Stara Planina Mountains in 2016 and Rila and Pirin Mountains in 2017. A total of 109 samples from 18 localities were sampled and examined. All data, concerning sampling localities including date, region, altitude, coordinates, Sphagnum moss species, as well as many physical and chemical parameters of the sampling sites, are provided in Suppl. material 2.

Testate amoebae were extracted from fresh Sphagnum mosses at the sampling site and concentrated by sieving (350 μm). The resulting fraction (50 ml) was observed with an optical microscope “Amplival” (Zeiss-Jena) using 40x objective and 10x ocular lens. For scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specimens were isolated by searching through small isolates of material in a petri dish. Specimens were extracted using a glass micropipette, washed several times in distilled water and then individual shells were positioned with a single-hair brush on a previously mounted double-sided adhesive tape on a standard aluminium stub and air-dried. The shells were coated evenly with gold in a vacuum coating unit. The photomicrographs were obtained using a JEOL JSM-5510, operating at 10 kV.

The checklist is annotated with information regarding the synonymous names (if available), species distribution in Sphagnum mosses in Bulgaria, the relevant literature sources and notes (mainly taxonomic). The higher classification used here follows Adl SM et al. 2012 and Meisterfeld (2002a), Meisterfeld (2002b). Taxonomic revision of some genera and families, as well as numerous taxonomic and nomenclature changes, based on recent molecular studies and subsequent phylogenetic reconstructions, have also been taken into account (Blandenier et al. 2017, Chatelain et al. 2013, Gomaa et al. 2013, Gomaa et al. 2017, Heger et al. 2010, Kosakyan et al. 2016a, Kosakyan et al. 2012, Kosakyan et al. 2016b, Lahr et al. 2013, Lara et al. 2007, Mazei and Warren 2012, Mazei and Warren 2014, Mazei and Warren 2015).

The list does not include separate varieties and forms recorded from Bulgaria, despite the fact that, according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, article 45.6.3, when the name was published before 1961 using the abbreviation ‘var.’ or ‘f.’, it is deemed to be subspecific rather than infrasubspecific. However, due to the fact that many of these taxa have not sufficiently detailed descriptions, which in many cases are based on signs that do not have much taxonomic significance (small differences in size, the presence or absence of spines/horns and their number, the number of lobes of the aperture etc.), these taxa remain with unclear taxonomic status. So, until the clarifying of their status with the help of combined morphological and molecular approaches and full confirmation of their validity, we prefere to adopt a conservative position and consider these taxa as the product of the phenotipic plasticity of nominal species. Nevertheless, in ‘Notes’ to each nominal species, we have included all the records for these infrasubspecific taxa, in the event that some of them may be raised in rank in the future.

Checklist of Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in Bulgaria

Kingdom Protozoa Owen,1858

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Subkingdom Neozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1993

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Phylum Amoebozoa Lühe, 1913, emend. Cavalier-Smith, 1998

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Subphylum Lobosa Carpenter, 1861, emend. Cavalier-Smith, 2009

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Class Tubulinea Smirnov et al., 2005

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Order Arcellinida Kent, 1880

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Suborder Arcellina Haeckel, 1894

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Family Microcoryciidae de Saedeler, 1934

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Genus Microcorycia Cockerell, 1911

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Microcorycia flava (Greeff, 1866), emend. Penard, 1902

Nomenclature: 

Amphizonella flava Greeff, 1866

Corycia flava Greeff, 1866

Corycia Dujardini? Gagliardi, 1871 (in part)

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006).

Family Microchlamyidae Ogden, 1985

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Genus Microchlamys Cockerell, 1911

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Microchlamys patella (Claparede and Lachmann, 1859) Cockerell, 1911

Nomenclature: 

Pseudochlamys patella Claparede and Lachmann, 1859

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Family Arcellidae Ehrenberg, 1843

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Genus Arcella Ehrenberg, 1832

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Arcella arenaria Greeff, 1866

Nomenclature: 

Arcella aureola Maggi, 1883

Arcella microstoma Penard, 1890

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, new data).

Arcella bathystoma Deflandre, 1928

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Distribution: 

Rila Mt. (new data).

Arcella catinus Penard, 1890

Nomenclature: 

Arcella vulgaris Leidy, 1879 (in part)

Arcella artocrea Penard, 1902

Arcella vulgaris var. compressa Cash, 1905

Arcella catinus var. australis Playfair, 1918

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1928, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Arcella dentata Ehrenberg, 1830

Nomenclature: 

Arcella stellaris Perty, 1852

Arcella Okeni Perty, 1852

Arcella stellata Ehrenberg, 1854

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky et al. 2006).

Arcella discoides Ehrenberg, 1871

Nomenclature: 

Arcella discoidea Ehrenberg, 1843

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

Besides the nominal species, two infrasubspecific taxa have also been recorded: Arcella discoides var. pseudovulgaris Deflandre, 1928 (Vitosha Mt.) and Arcella discoides var. scutelliformis Playfair, 1918 (Pirin Mt., Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt.).

Arcella gibbosa Penard, 1890

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Arcella hemisphaerica Perty, 1852

Nomenclature: 

Arcella vulgaris var. hemisphaerica Wailes, 1918

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov 2004, new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as infrasubspecific taxon Arcella hemisphaerica f. undulata Deflandre, 1928 (Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt.).

Arcella intermedia (Deflandre, 1928) Tsyganov and Mazei, 2006

Nomenclature: 

Arcella hemisphaerica var. intermedia f. undulata Deflandre, 1928

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rila Mt. (new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Arcella rotundata Playfair, 1918

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

Besides the nominal species, two infrasubspecific taxa have also been recorded: Arcella rotundata var. stenostoma Deflandre, 1928 (Vitosha Mt.) and Arcella rotundata var. stenostoma f. undulata Deflandre, 1928 (Rhodopes Mt., Vitosha Mt.).

Arcella vulgaris Ehrenberg, 1830

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1985,Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as infrasubspecific taxon Arcella vulgaris f. undulata Deflandre, 1928 (Rila Mt.).

Family Netzeliidae Kosakyan, Lara, Gomaa and Lahr, 2016

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Genus Netzelia Ogden, 1979

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Netzelia tuberculata (Wallich, 1864) Netzel, 1983

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia proteiformis subsp. globularis var. tuberculata Wallich, 1864

Difflugia tuberculata Archer, 1867

Difflugia lobostoma Leidy, 1879 (in part)

Nebela tuberculata Owen and Jones, 1976

Difflugia tricuspis Medioli and Scott, 1983 (in part)

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov 2004).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as synonym D. tuberculata (Rhodopes Mt.).

Suborder Difflugina Meisterfeld, 2002

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Family Difflugiidae Wallich, 1864

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Genus Difflugia Leclerc, 1815

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Difflugia acuminata Ehrenberg, 1838

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia curvicaulis Penard, 1899

Difflugia acuminata var. umbilicata Penard, 1902

Difflugia venusta Ogden, 1983

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as synonym D. venusta (Rhodopes Mt.).

Difflugia ampullula Playfair, 1918

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rila Mt. (Todorov 2005, new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Difflugia angulostoma Gauthier-Lièvre and Thomas, 1958

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Distribution: 

Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000); Stara Planina Mt. (new data).

Difflugia bacillariarum Perty, 1849

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia bicornis Penard, 1890

Difflugia australis var. minor Gauthier-Lièvre et Thomas, 1958

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Distribution: 

Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993).

Difflugia brevicolla Cash, 1909

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia pyriformis var. atricolor Penard, 1902

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data).

Difflugia bryophila (Penard, 1902) Jung, 1942

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia pyriformis var. bryophila Penard, 1902

Difflugia oblonga var. longicollis Gassowsky, 1936

Difflugia longicollis (Gassowsky, 1936) Ogden and Hedley, 1980

Difflugia gassowskii Ogden, 1983

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as synonym D. gassowskii (Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.).

Difflugia distenda Ogden, 1983

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia acuminata var. inflata Penard, 1899

Difflugia bicruris Gauthier-Lièvre et Thomas, 1958.

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995).

Difflugia elegans Penard, 1890

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia amphoralis Hopkinson, 1909

Difflugia australis (Playfair, 1918) Gauthier-Lièvre et Thomas, 1958

Difflugia borodini Gassowsky, 1936

Difflugia elegans f. bicornis Jung, 1936

Difflugia elegans f. tricornis Jung, 1936

Difflugia juzephiniensis Dekhtyar, 1993

Difflugia leidyi Wailes, 1912

Difflugia Solowetskii Mereschkowsky, 1877

Difflugia tricornis (Jung, 1936) Ogden, 1983

Difflugia varians Penard, 1902

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as synonym D. amphoralis (Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.).

Difflugia glans Penard, 1902

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Distribution: 

Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000).

Difflugia globulosa Dujardin, 1837

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia proteiformis Ehrenberg, 1838 subsp. globularis Wallich, 1864

Difflugia globularis (Wallich, 1864) Leidy, 1877

Difflugia chardezi Godeanu, 1972

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Todorov 1993, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as synonym D. globularis (Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.).

Difflugia hiraethogii Ogden, 1983

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Difflugia lanceolata Penard,1890

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990).

Difflugia lobostoma Leidy, 1874

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006)

Difflugia lucida Penard, 1890

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Difflugia mammillaris Penard, 1893

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Distribution: 

Rila Mt. (Todorov 2004).

Difflugia mica Frenzel, 1892

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Distribution: 

Rila Mt. (Todorov 2005); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Difflugia microclaviformis (Kourov, 1925) Ogden, 1983

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia pyriformis var. venusta Penard 1902

Difflugia oblogna var. venusta Cash, 1909

Difflugia oblonga var. microclaviformis Kourov, 1925

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Distribution: 

Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as the infrasubspecific taxon Difflugia oblonga var. microclaviformis (Vitosha Mt.).

Difflugia minuta Rampi, 1950

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rila Mt. (Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Difflugia molesta Penard, 1902

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia levanderi Playfair, 1918

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Difflugia oblonga Ehrenberg, 1838

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia bacillifera Penard, 1890

Difflugia lacustris (Penard, 1899) Ogden, 1983

Difflugia oblonga f. cyphodera Jung, 1942

Difflugia oblonga var. incondita Gauthier-Lièvre et Thomas, 1958

Difflugia oblonga var. lacustris Cash and Hopkinson, 1909

Difflugia oblonga var. parva Thomas, 1954

Difflugia parva (Thomas, 1954) Ogden, 1983

Difflugia pyriformis var. lacustris Penard, 1899

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

Besides the nominal species, the synonyms D. parva (Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.), D. lacustris (Rhodopes Mt., Vitosha Mt.), D. bacillifera (Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.) and infrasubspecific taxa D. oblonga var. lacustris (Vitosha Mt.) and D. oblonga var. parva (Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.) have also been recorded.

Difflugia penardi Hopkinson,1909

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia fallax Penard, 1890

Difflugia pyriformis var. tenuis Penard, 1890

Difflugia manicata Penard, 1902

Difflugia oblonga var. tenuis Wailes and Penard, 1911

Difflugia tenuis (Penard, 1890) Ogden, 1983

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as synonym D. manicata (Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.).

Difflugia petricola Cash, 1909

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005).

Difflugia pristis Penard, 1902

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Difflugia pulex Penard, 1902

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia minuta var. minor Godeanu, 1972

Difflugia ovalisina Beyens et Chardez, 1994

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Difflugia pyriformis Perty, 1849

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924).

Difflugia rotunda (Chardez, 1956) Ogden, 1983

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia globularis var. sphaerica Chardez, 1956

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Rila Mt. (Todorov 2004).

Difflugia rubescens Penard, 1891

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky and Todorov 1993, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Difflugia stoutii Ogden, 1983

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Distribution: 

Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000).

Difflugia subaequalis Penard, 1910

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974).

Difflugia urceolata Carter, 1864

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia urceolata var. olla Leidy, 1879

Difflugia urceolata var. sphaerica Playfair, 1917

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky et al. 2006).

Difflugia ventricosa Deflandre, 1926

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006).

Difflugia viscidula Penard, 1902

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia lemani Blanc, 1892

Difflugia histrio Penard, 1908

Difflugia lemani var. palustris Chardez, 1956

Difflugia lebes var. masurica Schönborn, 1965

Difflugia lebes var. bretschkoi Laminger, 1971

Difflugia finstertaliensis Laminger, 1971

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1928, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded as nominal species, as synonym D. lemani (Vitosha Mt.), as infrasubspecific taxon D. lemani var. palustris (Vitosha Mt.) and as Difflugia sp. (Vitosha Mt.).

Genus Lagenodifflugia Medioli and Scott, 1983

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Lagenodifflugia bryophila (Penard, 1902) Ogden, 1987

Nomenclature: 

Pontigulasia bryophila Penard, 1902

Pontigulasia bryophila var. elachys Jung, 1942

Pontigulasia varadi Godeanu, 1972

Zivkovicia bryophila (Penard, 1902) Ogden, 1983

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as synonym P. bryophila (Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.).

Lagenodifflugia montana (Ogden and Zivkovic, 1983) Ogden, 1987

Nomenclature: 

Pontigulasia montana Ogden and Zivkovic, 1983

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rila Mt. (new data).

Lagenodifflugia vas (Leidy, 1874) Medioli and Scott, 1983

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia vas Leidy, 1874

Difflugia pyriformis var. vas Leidy, 1879

Pontigulasia vas (Leidy) Schouteden, 1906

Zivkovicia vas (Leidy, 1874) Ogden, 1983 (in part)

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Genus Pontigulasia Rhumbler, 1896

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Pontigulasia elisa (Penard, 1893) Schouteden, 1906

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia elisa Penard, 1893

Pontigulasia incisa Rhumbler, 1896

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993); Vitosha Mt. (Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995).

Pontigulasia rhumbleri Hopkinson, 1920

Nomenclature: 

Pontigulasia compressa Rhumbler, 1896

(non Pontigulasia compressa (Carter, 1864))

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as synonym P. compressa (Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.).

Genus Zivkovicia Ogden, 1987

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Zivkovicia compressa (Carter, 1864)

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia compressa Carter, 1864

Difflugia pyriformis var. vas sub- var. bigibbosa Penard, 1899

Pontigulasia bigibbosa Penard, 1902

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as synonym P. bigibbosa (Pirin Mt., Vitosha Mt.). Furthermore, in several publications on the testate amoebae from Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995), the infrasubspecific taxa Difflugia compressa var. africana Gauthier-Lièvre et Thomas, 1958 has erroneously been recorded, because the description of the found individuals fully corresponds to Z. compressa.

Zivkovicia spectabilis (Penard, 1902) Ogden, 1987

Nomenclature: 

Pontigulasia spectabilis Penard, 1902

Zivkovicia vas (Leidy, 1874) Ogden, 1983 (in part)

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968); Rila Mt. (Todorov 2004).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as synonym P. spectabilis (Rhodopes Mt.).

Family Centropyxidae Jung, 1942

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Genus Centropyxis Stein, 1857

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Centropyxis aculeata (Ehrenberg, 1830) Stein, 1857

Nomenclature: 

Arcella aculeata Ehrenberg, 1830

Difflugia aculeata Perty, 1852

Echinopyxis aculeata Claparède et Lachmann, 1859

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

Besides the nominal species, two infrasubspecific taxa Centropyxis aculeata var. oblonga Deflandre, 1929 (Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.) and Centropyxis aculeata var. grandis Deflandre, 1929 (Vitosha Mt.) have also been recorded.

Centropyxis aerophila Deflandre, 1929

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia constricta Ehrenberg, 1838

Arcella arctiscon Ehrenberg, 1854

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

Besides the nominal species, the infrasubspecific taxon Centropyxis aerophila var. sphagnicola Deflandre, 1929 has also been recorded (Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.).

Centropyxis cassis (Wallich, 1864) Deflandre, 1929

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia cassis Wallich, 1864

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Centropyxis constricta (Ehrenberg, 1838) Penard, 1902

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia constricta Ehrenberg, 1838

Arcella constricta Ehrenberg, 1841

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as synonym D. constricta (Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.).

Centropyxis cryptostoma Bonnet, 1959

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Distribution: 

Rila Mt. (new data).

Centropyxis discoides (Penard, 1890) Deflandre, 1929

Nomenclature: 

Centropyxis aculeata var. discoides Penard, 1890

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, new data).

Centropyxis ecornis (Ehrenberg, 1841) Leidy, 1879

Nomenclature: 

Arcella ecornis Ehrenberg, 1841

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Centropyxis elongata (Penard, 1890) Thomas, 1959

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia constricta var. elongata Penard, 1890

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995).

Centropyxis gibba Deflandre, 1929

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov 2005).

Centropyxis hirsuta Deflandre, 1929

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Distribution: 

Rila Mt. (Todorov 2004).

Centropyxis laevigata Penard, 1890

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006).

Centropyxis minuta Deflandre, 1929

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia constricta p. p. Leidy, 1879, PL. XVIII, figs. 15-16

Difflugia constricta p. p. Penard, 1902, p. 299, figs. 13-14

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006).

Centropyxis orbicularis Deflandre, 1929

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rila Mt. (new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data).

Centropyxis plagiostoma Bonnet and Thomas, 1955

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993).

Centropyxis platystoma (Penard, 1890) Deflandre, 1929

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia platystoma Penard, 1890

Difflugia constricta p. p. Leidy, 1879, PL. XVIII, figs. 20-21

Difflugia constricta p. p. Penard, 1902, p. 299, figs. 8, 11, 12

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

Besides the nominal species, the infrasubspecific taxon Centropyxis platystoma var. armata Deflandre, 1929 has also been recorded (Vitosha Mt.).

Centropyxis spinosa (Cash, 1905) Deflandre, 1929

Nomenclature: 

Centropyxis aculeata var. spinosa Cash, 1905

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995).

Centropyxis sylvatica (Deflandre, 1929) Bonnet and Thomas, 1955

Nomenclature: 

Centropyxis aerophila var. sylvatica Deflandre, 1929

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Family Trigonopyxidae Loeblich and Tappan, 1964

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Genus Cyclopyxis Deflandre, 1929

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Cyclopyxis arcelloides (Penard, 1902) Deflandre, 1929

Nomenclature: 

Centropyxis arceloides Penard, 1902

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1928, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, new data).

Notes: 

The species is recorded both as nominal species and as synonym Centropyxis arceloides (Vitosha Mt.).

Cyclopyxis eurystoma Deflandre, 1929

Nomenclature: 

Centropyxis (Cyclopyxis) eurystoma Deflandre, 1929

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Cyclopyxis kahli Deflandre, 1929

Nomenclature: 

Centropyxis (Cyclopyxis) kahli Deflandre, 1929

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, new data).

Cyclopyxis pirini Golemansky, 1974

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Cyclopyxis puteus Thomas, 1960

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Distribution: 

Rila Mt. (new data).

Genus Trigonopyxis Penard, 1912

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Trigonopyxis arcula (Leidy, 1879) Penard, 1912

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia arcula Leidy, 1879

Cystidina arcula (Leidy, 1879) Volz, 1929

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Rila Mt. (new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, new data).

Family Plagiopyxidae Bonnet and Thomas, 1960

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Genus Bullinularia Deflandre, 1953

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Bullinularia indica (Penard, 1907) Deflandre, 1953

Nomenclature: 

Bulinella indica Penard, 1907

Bullinula indica Penard, 1912

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rila Mt. (new data).

Genus Plagiopyxis Penard, 1910

Material    Download as CSV 

Plagiopyxis callida Penard, 1910

Nomenclature: 

Bullinula indica var. callida Jung, 1936

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rila Mt. (new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Plagiopyxis declivis Thomas, 1955

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Plagiopyxis glyphostoma Bonnet, 1959

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Vitosha Mt. (Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995).

Plagiopyxis labiata Penard, 1910

Nomenclature: 

Centropyxia labiata Bartoš, 1947

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993).

Plagiopyxis minuta Bonnet, 1959

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Distribution: 

Vitosha Mt. (Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995).

Plagiopyxis oblonga (Bonnet et Thomas, 1955)

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Distribution: 

Stara Planina Mt. (new data).

Family Hyalospheniidae (Schulze, 1877) Kosakyan et Lara, 2012

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Genus Hyalosphenia (Stein, 1857) Schulze, 1877

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Hyalosphenia elegans (Leidy, 1874) Leidy, 1879

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia (Catharia) elegans Leidy, 1874

Hyalosphenia turfacea Taránek, 1881

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Vitosha Mt. (Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995).

Hyalosphenia papilio (Leidy, 1874) Leidy, 1875

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia (Catharia) papilio Leidy, 1874

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000,Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965,Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Genus Nebela (Leidy, 1874) sensu Kosakyan, Lahr, Mulot, Meisterfeld, Mitchell and Lara, 2016

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Nebela aliciae Mitchell et Lara, 2013

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Nebela collaris (Ehrenberg 1848) Leidy, 1879

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia collaris Ehrenberg 1848

Diffluga cancellata Ehrenberg 1848

Difflugia reticulata Ehrenberg 1848

Difflugia carpio Ehrenberg 1854

Difflugia laxa Ehrenberg 1871

Difflugia cellulifera Ehrenberg 1874

Nebela numata Leidy 1874

Nebela bohemica Taranek 1882

Nebela sphagnophila (Steinecke) Van Oye 1933

Nebela tincta var. major Deflandre 1936

Nebela tincta f. stenostoma Jung 1936

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, Kosakyan et al. 2012; new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded as nominal species, as synonym N. bohemica (Pirin Mt., Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.) and as infrasubspecific taxon Nebela tincta var. major (Vitosha Mt.).

Nebela flabellulum Leidy, 1874

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia (Nebela) flabellulum Leidy, 1874

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Stara Planina Mt. (new data).

Nebela guttata Kosakyan et Lara, 2013

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rila Mt. (new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Nebela militaris Penard, 1890

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Nebela pechorensis Kosakyan et Mitchell, 2013

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rila Mt. (new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Nebela rotunda Penard, 1890

Nomenclature: 

Nebela tincta var. rotunda Penard, 1890

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Nebela tincta (Leidy, 1879) Awerintzew, 1906

Nomenclature: 

Hyalosphenia tincta Leidy, 1879

Nebela bursella Vejdovsky, 1882

Nebela minor Penard, 1902

Nebela parvula Cash, 1909

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as synonyms N. bursella (Rila Mt, Vitosha Mt.), N. minor (Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt.) and N. parvula (Pirin Mt., Rhodopes Mt., Vitosha Mt.).

Genus Gibbocarina Kosakyan, Lahr, Mulot, Meisterfeld, Mitchell and Lara, 2016

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Gibbocarina galeata (Penard, 1890) Kosakyan, Lahr, Mulot, Meisterfeld, Mitchell and Lara, 2016

Nomenclature: 

Nebela galeata Penard, 1890

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

So far, all records for the species have been as N. galeata.

Genus Longinebela Kosakyan, Lahr, Mulot, Meisterfeld, Mitchell and Lara, 2016

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Longinebela ampulla Todorov, Bankov and Ganeva, 2018

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Distribution: 

Stara Planina Mt. (Todorov et al. 2018).

Longinebela golemanskyi (Todorov, 2010) Kosakyan, Lahr, Mulot, Meisterfeld, Mitchell and Lara, 2016

Nomenclature: 

Nebela golemanskyi Todorov, 2010

Material    Download as CSV 
Distribution: 

Vitosha Mt. (Todorov 2010, new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded as N. golemanskyi.

Longinebela penardiana (Deflandre, 1936) Kosakyan, Lahr, Mulot, Meisterfeld, Mitchell and Lara, 2016

Nomenclature: 

Nebela penardiana Deflandre, 1936

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, Kosakyan et al. 2012, new data).

Notes: 

So far, all records for the species have been as N. penardiana.

Longinebela speciosa (Deflandre, 1936) Kosakyan, Lahr, Mulot, Meisterfeld, Mitchell and Lara, 2016

Nomenclature: 

Nebela speciosa Deflandre, 1936

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, Kosakyan et al. 2012, new data).

Notes: 

So far, all records for the species have been as N. speciosa.

Longinebela tubulosa (Penard, 1902) Kosakyan, Lahr, Mulot, Meisterfeld, Mitchell and Lara, 2016

Nomenclature: 

Nebela tubulosa Penard, 1902

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, Kosakyan et al. 2012, new data).

Notes: 

So far, all records for the species have been as N. tubulosa.

Genus Padaungiella Lara et Todorov, 2012

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Padaungiella americana (Taranek, 1882)

Nomenclature: 

Nebela americana Taranek, 1882.

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky et al. 2006); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990).

Notes: 

All records for the species have been as N. americana (Rhodopes Mt., Vitosha Mt.). This species is with doubtful identity since it is sharing overlapping characters with P. lageniformis and with P. wailesi.

Padaungiella lageniformis (Penard, 1890) Lara et Todorov, 2012

Nomenclature: 

Nebela lageniformis Penard, 1890

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, Kosakyan et al. 2012, new data).

Notes: 

All records for the species (except these in Kosakyan et al. 2012) have been as N. lageniformis.

Padaungiella nebeloides (Gauthier-Lièvre and Thomas, 1958) Lara et Todorov, 2012

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia nebeloides Gauthier-Lièvre and Thomas, 1958

Nebela nebeloides (Gauthier-Lièvre and Thomas, 1958) Todorov, Golemansky and Meisterfeld, 2010

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rila Mt. (new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Todorov et al. 2010, new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded by the synonymous name N. nebeloides. It should be noted that Mazei and Warren (2014) erroneously synonymised D. nebeloides with D. linearis (Penard, 1890) Gautier-Lièvre et Thomas, 1958, because they have not taken into account the fact that this species has recently been transferred from the genus Difflugia into the genus Nebela and subsequently in the newly described genus Padaungiella (Todorov et al. 2010, Kosakyan et al. 2012).

Padaungiella tubulata (Brown, 1911) Lara et Todorov, 2012

Nomenclature: 

Nebela tubulata Brown, 1911

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

So far, all records for the species have been as N. tubulata.

Padaungiella wailesi (Deflandre, 1936) Lara et Todorov, 2012

Nomenclature: 

Nebela wailesi Deflandre, 1936

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded by the synonymous name N. wailesi.

Genus Planocarina Kosakyan, Lahr, Mulot, Meisterfeld, Mitchell and Lara, 2016

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Planocarina carinata (Archer, 1867) Kosakyan, Lahr, Mulot, Meisterfeld, Mitchell and Lara, 2016

Nomenclature: 

Nebela carinata (Archer, 1867) Leidy, 1879

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Distribution: 

Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995).

Notes: 

So far, all records for the species have been as N. carinata.

Genus Quadrulella (Cockerell, 1909) sensu Kosakyan, Lahr, Mulot, Meisterfeld, Mitchell and Lara, 2016

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Quadrulella longicollis (Taranek, 1882)

Nomenclature: 

Quadrulella symmetrica var. longicollis Taranek, 1882

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, Kosakyan et al. 2012, new data).

Notes: 

So far, all records for the species (except this one of Kosakyan et al. 2012) have been as the infrasubspecific taxon Q. symmetrica var. longicollis (Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.).

Quadrulella symmetrica (Wallich, 1864) Cockerell, 1909

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia proteiformis var. symmetrica Wallich, 1863

Difflugia pyriformis var. symmetrica Wallich, 1864

Difflugia symmetrica Wallich, 1864

Assulina assulata Ehrenberg, 1871

Assulina leptolepis Ehrenberg, 1871

Difflugia assulata Ehrenberg, 1871

Difflugia carolensis Ehrenberg, 1871

Quadrula symmetrica Schulze, 1875

Nebela (Quadrulella) symmetrica Deflandre, 1936

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004,Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, Kosakyan et al. 2012, new data).

Notes: 

Besides the nominal species, the infrasubspecific taxon Quadrulella symmetrica var. irregularis Wailes et Penard, 1911 has also been recorded (Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.).

Quadrulella tubulata Gauthier-Lièvre, 1953

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974).

Quadrulella variabilis Kosakyan, Lahr, Mulot, Meisterfeld, Mitchell and Lara, 2016

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rila Mt. (new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Suborder Phryganellina Bovee, 1985

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Family Phryganellidae Jung, 1942

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Genus Phryganella Penard, 1902

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Phryganella acropodia (Hertwig and Lesser, 1874) Hopkinson, 1909

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia acropodia Hertwig and Lesser, 1874

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Phryganella hemisphaerica (Penard, 1890) Penard, 1902

Nomenclature: 

Pseudodifflugia hemisphaerica Penard, 1890

Difflugia globulosa Leidy, 1879 (in part)

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004,Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data)

Phryganella nidulus Penard, 1902

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia globulosa Leidy, 1879 (in part)

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924).

Phryganella paradoxa Penard, 1902

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Family Cryptodifflugiidae Jung, 1942

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Genus Cryptodifflugia Penard, 1890

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Cryptodifflugia compressa Penard, 1902

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, new data).

Cryptodifflugia oviformis Penard, 1890

Nomenclature: 

Difflugiella oviformis Bonnet and Thomas, 1955

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1928, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as synonym D. oviformis (Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.), as well as infrasubspecific taxon Difflugiella oviformis var. fusca Bonnet and Thomas, 1955 (Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.).

Genus Wailesella Deflandre, 1928

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Wailesella eboracensis (Wailes and Penard, 1911) Deflandre, 1928

Nomenclature: 

Cryptodifflugia eboracensis Wailes and Penard, 1911

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1928, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as synonym C. eboracensis (Vitosha Mt.).

Order Arcellinida INCERTAE SEDIS

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Genus Argynnia Vucetich, 1974

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Argynnia bipes (Carter, 1870) Murray, 1870

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia bipes Carter, 1870

Nebela bipes Murray, 1870

Nebela bicornis West, 1905

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1928, Golemansky et al. 2006); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1928, Golemansky and Todorov 1990).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded as synonym N. bipes (Rhodopes Mt., Vitosha Mt.).

Argynnia dentistoma (Penard, 1890)

Nomenclature: 

Nebela dentistoma Penard, 1890

Nebela crenulata Penard, 1893

Nebela collaris Leidy, 1879 (in part)

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

So far, all records for the species have been as synonyms N. dentistoma (Pirin Mt., Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.), N. crenulata (Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.), as well as infrasubspecific taxa Nebela dentistoma var. oblonga Gauthier-Lièvre, 1853 (Rila Mt.).

Argynnia vitraea (Penard, 1899)

Nomenclature: 

Nebela vitraea Penard, 1899

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded as synonym N. vitraea (Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.).

Genus Awerintzewia Schouteden, 1906

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Awerintzewia cyclostoma (Penard, 1902) Schouteden, 1906

Nomenclature: 

Heleopera cyclostoma Penard, 1902

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky et al. 2006).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as synonym H. cyclostoma (Rhodopes Mt.).

Genus Heleopera Leidy, 1879

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Heleopera petricola Leidy, 1879

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

Besides the nominal species, two infrasubspecific taxa Heleopera petricola var. amethystea Penard, 1899 (Rila Mt.) and Heleopera petricola var. major Deflandre, 1928 (Vitosha Mt.) have also been recorded.

Heleopera rosea Penard, 1890

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Heleopera sphagni (Leidy, 1874)

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia (Nebela) sphagni Leidy, 1874

Nebela sphagni Leidy, 1876

Nebela picta Leidy, 1879

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993).

Heleopera sylvatica Penard, 1890

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov 2005, new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990).

Genus Lesquereusia Schlumberger, 1845

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Lesquereusia epistomium Penard, 1902

Nomenclature: 

Lecquereusia jurassica var. epistomium Penard, 1893

Lecquereusia epistomium Penard, 1902

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1968,Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Lesquereusia gibbosa Thomas and Gauthier-Lièvre, 1859

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Lesquereusia modesta Rhumbler, 1896

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia spiralis Leidy, 1879 (in part)

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Lesquereusia spiralis (Ehrenberg, 1840) Bütschli, 1880

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia spiralis Ehrenberg, 1840

Lecquereusia jurassica Schlumberger, 1845

Difflugia helix Cohn, 1853

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Genus Pyxidicula Ehrenberg, 1838

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Pyxidicula patens (Claparede and Lachmann, 1858)

Nomenclature: 

Arcella patens Claparede and Lachmann, 1858

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006).

Subkingdom / Supergroup Rhizaria Cavalier-Smith, 2002

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Phylum Stramenopiles Patterson, 1989, emend. Adl et al., 2005

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Class Labyrinthomycetes Dick, 2001

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Order Amphitremida (Poch, 1913) Gomma, Mitchell and Lara, 2013

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Family Amphitremidae Poch, 1913

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Genus Archerella Loeblich and Tappan, 1961

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Archerella flavum (Archer, 1877) Loeblich and Tappan, 1961

Nomenclature: 

Ditrema flavum Archer, 1877

Amphitrema flavum Archer, 1877

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded as synonym A. flavum (Rhodopes Mt., Vitosha Mt.).

Phylum Cercozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1998, emend. Adl et al., 2005

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Subphylum Filosa Cavalier-Smith, 2003

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Class Silicofilosea Adl et al., 2005, emend. Adl et al., 2012

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Order Euglyphida Copeland, 1956, emend. Cavalier-Smith, 1997

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Family Euglyphidae Wallich, 1864

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Genus Euglypha Dujardin, 1841

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Euglypha acanthophora (Ehrenberg, 1841) Perty, 1849

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia acanthophora Ehrenberg, 1841

Euglypha alveolata Dujardin, 1841 (in part)

Euglypha setigera Perty, 1852 (in part)

Difflugia setigera Ehrenberg, 1871

Difflugia Setigerella acanthophora Ehrenberg, 1871

Euglypha brachiata Penard, 1902 (non Leidy, 1879)

Euglypha alveolata var. gracilis Taránek, 1881 (in part)

Euglypha armata Wailes and Penard, 1911

Euglypha australica Playfair, 1918 (in part)

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

Pateff (1924) and Golemansky et al. (2006) erroneously recorded the species E. brachiata (Rhodopes Mt., Vitosha Mt.), because the description of the found individuals fully corresponds to E. acanthophora.

Euglypha aspera Penard, 1899

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov 2004, new data).

Euglypha bryophila Brown, 1911

Nomenclature: 

Euglypha α Vejdovsky, 1882

Euglypha cristata Penard, 1890 (in part)

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, new data).

Euglypha ciliata (Ehrenberg, 1848), Leidy, 1878

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia ciliata Ehrenberg, 1848

Euglypha setigera Perty, 1852 (in part)

Difflugia pilosa Ehrenberg, 1871

Difflugia Setigerella ciliata Ehrenberg, 1871

Difflugia Setigerella pilosa Ehrenberg, 1871

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as infrasubspecific taxon E. ciliata f. glabra Wailes, 1915 (Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt.).

Euglypha compressa Carter, 1864

Nomenclature: 

Euglypha ampullacea Hertwig and Lesser, 1874

Euglypha ciliata Leidy, 1879 (in part)

Euglypha α Vejdovsky, 1882 (in part)

? Euglypha zonata Maggi, 1888

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as infrasubspecific taxon E. compressa f. glabra Wailes, 1915 (Rhodopes Mt.).

Euglypha crenulata Wailes, 1912

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Distribution: 

Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded as infrasubspecific taxon E. crenulata var. minor Wailes, 1912.

Euglypha cristata Leidy, 1874

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Euglypha denticulata Brown, 1912

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Euglypha filifera Penard, 1890

Nomenclature: 

Euglypha setigera Perty, 1852 (in part)

Euglypha ciliata Leidy, 1879 (in part)

Euglypha longispina Taránek, 1881

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990,Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Euglypha laevis (Ehrenberg, 1845) Perty, 1849

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia laevis Ehrenberg, 1845

Euglypha alveolata Leidy, 1879 (in part)

Euglypha γ Vejdovsky, 1882

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924,Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Euglypha rotunda Wailes and Penard, 1911

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Euglypha strigosa (Ehrenberg, 1871) Leidy, 1878

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia strigosa Ehrenberg, 1871

Difflugia Setigerella strigosa Ehrenberg, 1871

Euglypha ciliata var. strigosa Leidy, 1879 (in part)

Euglypha heterospina Penard, 1890

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1928, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990,Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

Besides the nominal species, two infrasubspecific taxa Euglypha strigosa f. glabra Wailes and Penard, 1911 (Rila Mt.) and Euglypha strigosa f. heterospina Wailes and Penard, 1911 (Rhodopes Mt., Rila Mt., Vitosha Mt.) have also been recorded.

Euglypha tuberculata Dujardin, 1841

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia areolata Ehrenberg, 1841

Euglypha alveolata Dujardin, 1841 (in part)

Euglypha tuberculosa Dujardin, 1841

Difflugia alveolata Pritchard, 1861

Euglypha pusilla Entz, 1877

Euglypha β Vejdovsky, 1882

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded both as nominal species and as synonym E. alveolata (Rhodopes Mt., Vitosha Mt.).

Family Trinematidae Hoogenraad and De Groot 1940, emend Adl et al. 2012

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Genus Trinema Dujardin, 1841

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Trinema complanatum Penard, 1890

Nomenclature: 

? Arcella nidus-pendulus Ehrenberg, 1841

Trinema acinus Leidy, 1879 (in part)

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

Besides the nominal species, two infrasubspecific taxa Trinema complanatum var. aerophila (Decloître, 1950) Bonnet and Thomas, 1960 (Vitosha Mt.) and Trinema complanatum var. globulosa Chardez, 1959 (Rhodopes Mt., Vitosha Mt.) have also been recorded.

Trinema enchelys (Ehrenberg, 1838) Leidy, 1878

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia enchelys Ehrenberg, 1838 (in part)

Trinema acinus Dujardin, 1841

Arcella enchelys Ehrenberg, 1844

Euglypha pleurostoma Carter, 1857

Euglypha enchelys Wallich, 1864

Trinema (Difflugia) encheli Crevier, 1870

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Trinema galeata (Penard, 1890) Jung, 1942

Nomenclature: 

Trinema enchelys var. galeata Penard, 1890

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Distribution: 

Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993).

Trinema grandis (Chardez, 1960) Golemansky, 1963

Nomenclature: 

Trinema enchelys var. grandis Chardez, 1960

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Distribution: 

Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, new data).

Trinema lineare Penard, 1890

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia enchelys Ehrenberg, 1838 (in part)

Arcella hyalina Ehrenberg, 1841

Arcella enchelys Ehrenberg, 1854

Trinema acinus Leidy, 1879 (in part)

Trinema enchelys forma β Awerintzew, 1906

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Genus Corythion Taranek, 1881

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Corythion delamarei Bonnet and Thomas, 1960

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Distribution: 

Vitosha Mt. (Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995).

Corythion dubium Taránek, 1881

Nomenclature: 

Arcella constricta Ehrenberg, 1841 (in part)

Arcella disphaera Ehrenberg, 1841 (in part)

Trinema acinus Leidy, 1879 (in part)

Trinema constricta Certes, 1889

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Notes: 

Besides the nominal species, two infrasubspecific taxa Corythion dubium var. aerophila Decloître, 1950 (Vitosha Mt.) and Corythion dubium var. orbicularis Penard, 1910 (Vitosha Mt.) have also been recorded.

Genus Playfairina Thomas, 1961

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Playfairina valkanovi Golemansky, 1966

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1966, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, Golemansky and Todorov 2006,new data).

Family Sphenoderiidae Chatelain, Meisterfeld, Roussel-Delif and Lara, 2013

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Genus Sphenoderia Schlumberger, 1845

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Sphenoderia fissirostris Penard, 1890

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993,Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Sphenoderia lenta Schlumberger, 1845

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Sphenoderia minuta Deflandre, 1931

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Sphenoderia ovoidea Jung, 1942

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Distribution: 

Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Sphenoderia splendida (Playfair, 1917) Deflandre, 1931

Nomenclature: 

Sphenoderia fissirostris var. splendida Playfair, 1917

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rila Mt. (new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Genus Trachelocorythion Bonnet, 1979

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Trachelocorythion pulchellum (Penard, 1890) Bonnet, 1979

Nomenclature: 

? Euglypha minima Perty, 1852

Corythion pulchellum Penard, 1890

Chorythion pulchellum Awerintzew, 1907

? Hyalina neta Jung, 1942

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Family Assulinidae Lara et al., 2007

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Genus Assulina Leidy, 1879

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Assulina muscorum Greeff, 1888

Nomenclature: 

Assulina seminulum Leidy, 1879 (in part)

Assulina minor Penard, 1890

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Assulina seminulum (Ehrenberg, 1848) Leidy, 1879

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia seminulum Ehrenberg, 1848

Difflugia Assulina seminulum Ehrenberg, 1871

Difflugia semen Ehrenberg, 1871

Euglypha brunnea Leidy, 1874

Euglypha seminulum Leidy, 1878

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky 1968, Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky and Todorov 1993, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, new data).

Genus Placocista Leidy, 1879

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Placocista glabra Penard, 1906

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974).

Notes: 

The species has been recorded as infrasubspecific taxon Placocista glabra var. minima Decloître, 1955 (Pirin Mt.).

Placocista spinosa (Carter, 1865) Leidy, 1879

Nomenclature: 

Euglypha spinosa Carter, 1865

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Distribution: 

Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993).

Family Cyphoderiidae de Saedeleer, 1934

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Genus Cyphoderia Schlumberger, 1845

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Cyphoderia amphoralis (Wailes and Penard, 1911)

Nomenclature: 

Cyphoderia trochus var. amphoralis Wailes and Penard, 1911

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Todorov et al. 2009); Rila Mt. (Heger et al. 2010, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Cyphoderia ampulla (Ehrenberg, 1840) Leidy, 1878

Nomenclature: 

Difflugia ampulla Ehrenberg, 1840

Difflugia lagena Ehrenberg, 1841

Cyphoderia margaritacea Schlumberger, 1845

Euglypha curvata Perty, 1852

Lagynis baltica Schultze, 1854

Euglypha ampulla Claparède and Lachmann, 1859

Euglypha baltica Wallich, 1864

Euglypha margaritacea Wallich, 1864

Difflugia Seelandica Ehrenberg, 1869

Difflugia adunca Ehrenberg, 1871

Difflugia alabamensis Ehrenberg, 1871

Difflugia uncinnata Ehrenberg, 1871

Difflugia margaritacea Ehrenberg, 1871

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (Golemansky 1974, new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky et al. 2006; Todorov et al. 2009, Heger et al. 2010); Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2004, Todorov 2005, Todorov et al. 2009, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Pateff 1924, Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1985, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, Todorov et al. 2009, Heger et al. 2010, new data).

Cyphoderia major (Penard, 1891)

Nomenclature: 

Cyphoderia margaritacea var. major Penard, 1891

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rila Mt. (Todorov et al. 2009, Heger et al. 2010, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (new data).

Genus Campascus Leidy, 1879

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Campascus minutus Penard, 1899

Nomenclature: 

Campascus triqueter var. minuta Awerintzew, 1906

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990, new data).

Campascus triqueter Penard, 1891

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Distribution: 

Rila Mt. (Golemansky and Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 2000); Vitosha Mt. (Golemansky 1965, Golemansky and Todorov 1990,Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995).

Family Paulinellidae de Saedeller 1934, emend. Adl et al. 2012

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Genus Paulinella Lauterborn, 1895

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Paulinella chromatophora Lauterborn, 1895

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Distribution: 

Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov 2004).

Order INCERTAE SEDIS euglyphid testate amoebae

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Genus Tracheleuglypa Deflandre, 1928

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Tracheleuglypa acolla Bonnet et Thomas, 1955

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Distribution: 

Pirin Mt. (new data); Rhodopes Mt. (Golemansky et al. 2006); Rila Mt. (Todorov and Golemansky 2000, Todorov 2005, new data); Stara Planina Mt. (new data); Vitosha Mt. (Todorov 1993, Todorov and Golemansky 1995, new data).

Tracheleuglypa dentata (Moniez, 1888) Deflandre, 1928

Nomenclature: