Biodiversity Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
Print
Data Paper (Biosciences)
Standardised inventories of spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) of Macaronesia I: The native forests of the Azores (Pico and Terceira islands)
expand article infoJagoba Malumbres-Olarte‡,§, Pedro Cardoso§,|,, Luís Carlos Fonseca Crespo¶,§, Rosalina Gabriel, Fernando Pereira, Rui Carvalho, Carla Rego, Rui Nunes, Maria Teresa Ferreira, Isabel R. Amorim, François Rigal#,, Paulo A. V. Borges‡,¤
‡ cE3c – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and Universidade dos Açores, Rua Capitão João d’Ávila, São Pedro, 9700-042 , Angra do Heroísmo, Azores, Portugal
§ LIBRe – Laboratory for Integrative Biodiversity Research, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
| IUCN SSC Spider & Scorpion Specialist Group, Helsinki, Finland
¶ Biodiversity Research Institute UB, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences (Athropods), Av. Diagonal 645, E-08028, Barcelona, Spain
# CNRS/ L'Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour/ E2S UPPA, Institut Des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico – Chimie pour L'environnement et les Materiaux – MIRA*, UMR5254, 64000, Pau, France
¤ IUCN SSC Mid-Atlantic Islands Specialist Group, Angra do Heroísmo, Azores, Portugal
Open Access

Abstract

Background

The data presented here come from samples collected as part of two recent research projects (NETBIOME - ISLANDBIODIV and FCT - MACDIV) which aimed at understanding the drivers of community assembly in Macaronesian islands. We applied the sampling protocol COBRA (Conservation Oriented Biodiversity Rapid Assessment, Cardoso 2009) in sixteen 50 m x 50 m native forest plots in the Azorean Islands of Pico (6 plots) and Terceira (10 plots) to assess spider diversity. Through this publication, we contribute to the knowledge of the arachnofauna of the Azores and, more specifically, to that of the islands of Pico and Terceira.

New information

The collected samples yielded 8,789 specimens, of which 45% were adults (3,970) belonging to 13 families, 36 species and three morphospecies that have yet to be described. Species of the family Linyphiidae dominated the samples, with 17 species and two morphospecies that have yet to be described (48% of the taxa). Out of the identified (morpho)species, 16 were introduced, 13 Azorean endemic (three of which were undescribed) and seven native (five of them Macaronesian endemics). We report the first record of the introduced species Haplodrassus signifer and Agyneta decora in Pico Island.

Keywords

Arthropoda, Araneae, Azores, Terceira, Pico, native forest, exotic species, standardised sampling

Introduction

Despite six centuries of disturbance and land use changes, the Azorean islands still contain areas covered by unique native forest (Triantis et al. 2010). This forest accounts for about 5% of the total area of the archipelago and is mainly present on the islands of Flores, Pico and Terceira (Gaspar et al. 2010). From a conservation perspective, the importance of these forests resides in their being home to numerous endemic arthropod species, many of which have been given different status of conservation concern following the IUCN Red List criteria (see for the insects Borges et al. 2017, Borges et al. 2018a). Furthermore, many species – mainly arthropods – await discovery and taxonomic description, despite the high rate of taxonomic descriptions in the last decades (Lobo and Borges 2010). For instance, 24 out of the known 26 endemic spiders have been described since 1989 (Borges and Wunderlich 2008, Borges et al. 2010, Crespo et al. 2013, Crespo et al. 2014).

Indeed, the effective, appropriate and efficient conservation of ecologically valuable areas requires knowing the identity and colonisation status of species (i.e. endemic, native non-endemic or introduced), often provided by large-scale projects such as the EU NETBIOME funded ISLANDBIODIV (Understanding biodiversity dynamics in tropical and subtropical islands in an aid to science based conservation action) and the Portuguese FCT funded MACDIV (Macaronesian Islands as a testing ground to assess biodiversity drivers at multiple scales). Both ISLANDBIODIV and MACDIV aim to unveil the diversity patterns in vascular plants, springtails, beetles and spiders at local and regional scales in Macaronesian islands (see Emerson et al. 2016, Cicconardi et al. 2017, Borges et al. 2018b). Here we present the information on the species collected in the Azorean forest plots that are part of the ISLANDBIODIV and MACDIV projects.

Sampling methods

Study extent: 

On each of the Azorean islands of Pico and Terceira, we established six and ten 50 m x 50 m plots along a longitudinal distance of 20 km and 13 km, respectively. In Pico, each plot is located at increasing distances from a first, reference plot (Table 1): 0.1, 1, 5, 10 and 20 km (Fig. 1), covering the three existing forest fragments in order to test distance decay patterns on beta diversity in a log scale within project MACDIV. In Terceira, the 10 plots were randomly distributed in the four main fragments of native forest also to test patterns of alpha and beta diversity (see Cicconardi et al. 2017, Borges et al. 2018b). All plots were located in mid to high elevation native forest dominated by Juniperus brevifolia, Laurus azorica and Ilex perado subsp. azorica trees (see Borges et al. 2018b for more details on the surveyed habitats) (Fig. 2).

Coordinates of sampling plots.

Plot

Longitude

Latitude

Pico 1

-28.2017136846

38.437588

Pico 2

-28.2117989478

38.437737

Pico 3

-28.2259599451

38.434491

Pico 4

-28.257662125

38.4561062785

Pico 5

-28.2733451278

38.4876669302

Pico 6

-28.4228543692

38.4998686917

Terceira 1

-27.1971972222

38.7320583333

Terceira 2

-27.2005772537

38.7364977463

Terceira 3

-27.2271119278

38.7334147054

Terceira 4

-27.2193222222

38.7617777778

Terceira 5

-27.3074033132

38.7355657746

Terceira 6

-27.3313027778

38.7520777778

Terceira 7

-27.233098

38.75214

Terceira 8

-27.3198583333

38.7471444444

Terceira 9

-27.2899410553

38.7372469297

Terceira 10

-27.2072466047

38.7501938461

Figure 1.  

Figure 1. Location of plots in Pico (left) and Terceira (right) islands.

Figure 2.  

The native forest of Azores: Terra-Brava at Terceira Island - Plot Terceira 1 (Credit: Paulo A. V. Borges).

Sampling description: 

We sampled all plots using the optimised and standardised COBRA (Conservation Oriented Biodiversity Rapid Assessment) protocol for temperate forests (Cardoso 2009). Different variants of the COBRA protocol for spiders and beetles have already been applied in oceanic islands (Emerson et al. 2016) and for spiders on tropical forests (Malumbres-Olarte et al. 2016, Malumbres-Olarte et al. 2018). Although originally developed and optimised for mainland temperate and Mediterranean habitats, COBRA protocols have been recently proposed as the standard protocols for inventorying and monitoring spiders and beetles in island forest ecosystems (Borges et al. 2018c). The COBRA protocol, when applied to temperate forests, consists of: four night aerial samples (1 hour / sample), two day sweeping samples and two night sweeping samples (1 hour / sample), two day beating samples and two night beating samples (1 hour / sample) and 12 pitfall samples (4 traps / sample). Specifically for islands, we added two sampling methodologies to also cover beetle diversity (Borges et al. 2018c): two diurnal active aerial searching under bark, lichens and bryophytes (ABS) (1 hour / sample) and two diurnal active aerial searching in decaying trunks, dead wood on the ground and under stones (GWS) (1 hour / sample). We collected all samples in July 2016 (Pico, MACDIV) and in June-September 2012 (Terceira, ISLANDBIODIV).

Geographic coverage

Description: 

Pico and Terceira Islands, the Azores, Macaronesia, Portugal

Coordinates: 

38.434491 and 38.7617777778 Latitude; -28.4228543692 and -27.1971972222 Longitude.

Taxonomic coverage

Taxa included:
Rank Scientific Name Common Name
order Araneae Spiders

Temporal coverage

Single date: 
2012-6-01; 2016-9-26.

Collection data

Collection name: 
Dalberto Teixeira Pombo insect collection at the University of Azores
Collection identifier: 
DTP
Specimen preservation method: 
All specimens were preserved in 96% ethanol
Curatorial unit: 
Dalberto Teixeira Pombo insect collection at the University of Azores (Curator: Paulo A. V. Borges)

Usage rights

Use license: 
Open Data Commons Attribution License
IP rights notes: 

CC-BY 4.0

Data resources

Data package title: 
MACDIV_COBRA_Azores_Forest
Number of data sets: 
1
Data set name: 
MACDIV_COBRA_Azores_Forest
Data format: 
Darwin Core Archive
Data format version: 
version 1
Description: 

The following data table includes all the records for which a taxonomic identification of the species was possible. The dataset submitted to GBIF is structured as a sample event dataset, with two tables: event (as core) and occurrences. The data in this sampling event resource have been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwCA), which is a standardised format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 423 records (eventID). One extension data table also exists. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated in the IPT link. This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for downloading in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.

In Suppl. material 1, we provide a file with two tables, one with the samping event data and the other with the species abundance data.

Column label Column description
Table of Sampling Events Table with sampling events data (beginning of table)
id Unique identification code for sampling event data
eventID Identifier of the events, unique for the dataset
samplingProtocol The sampling protocol used to capture the species
sampleSizeValue The numeric amount of time spent in each sampling
sampleSizeUnit The unit of the sample size value
samplingEffort The amount of time of each sampling
eventDate Date or date range the record was collected
eventTime Time of the day the record was collected
startDayOfYear The earliest ordinal day of the year on which the event occurred
endDayOfYear The latest ordinal day of the year on which the event occurred
year Year of the event
month Month of the event
day Day of the event
habitat The surveyed habitat
fieldNumber The code given to each sample
locationID Identifier of the location
islandGroup Name of archipelago
island Name of the island
country Country of the sampling site
countryCode ISO code of the country of the sampling site
stateProvince Name of the region of the sampling site
municipality Name of the municipality
locality Name of the locality
minimumElevationInMetres Minimum elevation in metres
maximumElevationInMetres Maximum elevation in metres
locationRemarks Details on the locality site
verbatimCoordinates The Verbatim coordinates
decimalLatitude Approximate centre point decimal latitude of the field site in GPS coordinates
decimalLongitude Approximate centre point decimal longitude of the field site in GPS coordinates
geodeticDatum The reference point for the various coordinate systems used in mapping the earth
coordinateUncertaintyInMetres Uncertainty of the coordinates
coordinatePrecision Precision of the coordinates
georeferenceSources A list (concatenated and separated) of maps, gazetteers or other resources used to georeference the Location, described specifically enough to allow anyone in the future to use the same resources.
Table of Species Abundances Table with species abundance data (beginning of new table)
id Unique identification code for species abundance data
type Type of the record, as defined by the Public Core standard
licence Reference to the licence under which the record is published
institutionID The identity of the institution publishing the data
collectionID The identity of the collection publishing the data
institutionCode The code of the institution publishing the data
collectionCode The code of the collection where the specimens are conserved
datasetName Name of the dataset
basisOfRecord The nature of the data record
dynamicProperties The name of the scientific project funding the sampling
occurrenceID Identifier of the record, coded as a global unique identifier
catalogNumber Record number of the specimen in the collection
recordedBy Name of the person who performed the sampling of the specimens
individualCount Total number of individuals captured
organismQuantity Total number of individuals captured, as numeric
organismQuantityType The unit of the identification of the organisms
sex The sex and quantity of the individuals captured
lifeStage The life stage of the organisms captured
establishmentMeans The process of establishment of the species in the location, using a controlled vocabulary: 'native non-endemic', 'introduced', 'endemic'
occurrenceStatus Information about the presence/absence of the species
eventID A unique identifier of an occurrence
identifiedBy Name of the person who made the identification
dateIdentified Date on which the record was identified
scientificName Complete scientific name including author and year
kingdom Kingdom name
phylum Phylum name
class Class name
order Order name
family Family name
genus Genus name
specificEpithet Specific epithet
taxonRank Lowest taxonomic rank of the record
scientificNameAuthorship Name of the author of the lowest taxon rank included in the record

Additional information

Results

We collected 3,930 adult specimens (45% of all specimens), which we identified to 36 species and three morphospecies, belonging to 13 families (Tables 2, 3). Of the 39 taxa, 19 belonged to the family Linyphiidae (17 species and two morphospecies) and six species to Theridiidae. The remaining families were represented by one or two taxa. The most widespread species were Gibbaranea occidentalis Wunderlich, 1989 (endemic), Lathys dentichelis (Simon, 1883) (native), Acorigone acoreensis (Wunderlich, 1992) (endemic), Tenuiphantes miguelensis (Wunderlich, 1992) (Macaronesian), Macaroeris cata (Blackwall, 1867) (native) and Sancus acoreensis (Wunderlich, 1992) (endemic), which were present in all plots of both islands. Three additional species were present in 15 out of the 16 plots: Canariphantes acoreensis, Microlinyphia johnsoni and Savigniorrhipis acoreensis. Plots had between 15-23 (morpho)species of spiders, with the Terceiran Plot 8 having the maximum of 23 (morpho)species, followed by Plot 3 of Terceira (21 species).

Abundance, biogeographic category and previous records of (morpho)species in each of the plots on Pico island. Abbreviations: Biogeographic category (Biog. cat): Endemic (END); Introduced (INT); Macaronesian (MAC); Native (NAT); Unknown (UK). Previous records (Prev. Rec.): Pico (P), Terceira (T), unrecorded (UR).

Family Species Biog.Cat. Prev.Rec. Pico 1 Pico 2 Pico 3 Pico 4 Pico 5 Pico 6
Araneidae Gibbaranea occidentalis Wunderlich, 1989 END P, T 12 4 4 7 14 23
Clubionidae Cheiracanthium erraticum (Walckenaer, 1802) INT P, T 0 0 1 0 0 1
Dictynidae Lathys dentichelis (Simon, 1883) MAC P, T 23 31 10 6 7 1
Dictynidae Nigma puella (Simon, 1870) INT P, T 0 0 0 0 6 0
Dysderidae Dysdera crocata C. L. Koch, 1838 INT P, T 0 0 0 1 3 0
Gnaphosidae Haplodrassus signifer (C. L. Koch, 1839) INT T 0 1 0 0 0 0
Linyphiidae Linyphiidae morphospecies 1220 UK UR 0 0 0 0 0 0
Linyphiidae Linyphiidae morphospecies 1265 UK UR 3 0 0 0 0 0
Linyphiidae Acorigone acoreensis (Wunderlich, 1992) END P, T 6 5 7 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Agyneta decora (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871) INT T 0 0 0 0 0 0
Linyphiidae Canariphantes acoreensis (Wunderlich, 1992) END P, T 2 12 0 7 6 6
Linyphiidae Erigone atra Blackwall, 1833 INT P, T 0 1 1 1 0 2
Linyphiidae Erigone autumnalis Emerton, 1882 INT P, T 0 0 2 0 0 0
Linyphiidae Erigone dentipalpis (Wider, 1834) INT P, T 0 0 2 0 0 0
Linyphiidae Mermessus bryantae (Ivie & Barrows, 1935) INT P, T 0 0 0 0 0 0
Linyphiidae Microlinyphia johnsoni (Blackwall, 1859) MAC P, T 5 5 3 35 0 7
Linyphiidae Minicia floresensis Wunderlich, 1992 END P, T 18 4 7 0 0 0
Linyphiidae Oedothorax fuscus (Blackwall, 1834) INT P, T 0 1 0 4 0 0
Linyphiidae Palliduphantes schmitzi (Kulczynski, 1899) MAC P, T 1 0 0 2 0 9
Linyphiidae Porrhomma borgesi Wunderlich, 2008 END P, T 0 0 0 0 0 0
Linyphiidae Prinerigone vagans (Audouin, 1826) INT P, T 0 0 0 0 0 0
Linyphiidae Savigniorrhipis acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992 END P, T 15 31 10 15 0 13
Linyphiidae Tenuiphantes miguelensis (Wunderlich, 1992) MAC P, T 4 5 10 102 107 73
Linyphiidae Tenuiphantes tenuis (Blackwall, 1852) INT P, T 2 1 8 4 3 5
Linyphiidae Walckenaeria grandis (Wunderlich, 1992) END P, T 13 3 0 0 0 0
Lycosidae Pardosa acorensis Simon, 1883 END P, T 28 8 24 1 0 0
Mimetidae Ero furcata (Villers, 1789) INT P, T 0 0 0 0 1 0
Pisauridae Pisaura acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992 END P, T 1 1 0 0 0 0
Salticidae Macaroeris cata (Blackwall, 1867) NAT P, T 12 8 13 1 5 3
Salticidae Neon acoreensis Wunderlich, 2008 END P, T 0 0 0 0 4 0
Tetragnathidae Metellina sp. 133 UK T 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tetragnathidae Metellina merianae (Scopoli, 1763) INT P, T 4 4 2 17 51 8
Tetragnathidae Sancus acoreensis (Wunderlich, 1992) END P, T 35 38 19 14 11 50
Theridiidae Lasaeola oceanica Simon, 1883 END P, T 0 0 12 0 8 2
Theridiidae Neottiura bimaculata (Linnaeus, 1767) INT P, T 0 0 0 0 2 0
Theridiidae Rugathodes acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992 END P, T 39 61 69 0 0 19
Theridiidae Steatoda nobilis (Thorell, 1875) MAC P, T 0 0 0 0 4 0
Theridiidae Theridion melanurum Hahn, 1831 INT P, 0 0 0 0 19 1
Thomisidae Xysticus cor Canestrini, 1873 NAT P, T 3 6 10 1 0 2
Species richness 19 20 19 17 17 18

Abundance, biogeographic category and previous records of (morpho)species in each of the plots on Terceira island.

Species Plot 1 Plot 2 Plot 3 Plot 4 Plot 5 Plot 6 Plot 7 Plot 8 Plot 9 Plot 10 Total
Gibbaranea occidentalis Wunderlich, 1989 33 25 49 30 4 32 39 22 42 52 392
Cheiracanthium erraticum (Walckenaer, 1802) 0 1 0 3 3 10 0 3 0 1 23
Lathys dentichelis (Simon, 1883) 17 12 19 27 15 8 11 13 24 27 251
Nigma puella (Simon, 1870) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6
Dysdera crocata C. L. Koch, 1838 1 0 4 0 0 0 6 0 2 0 17
Haplodrassus signifer (C. L. Koch, 1839) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Linyphiidae morphospecies 1220 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2
Linyphiidae morphospecies 1265 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
Acorigone acoreensis (Wunderlich, 1992) 6 6 2 6 12 3 9 12 3 2 82
Agyneta decora (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871) 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 7
Canariphantes acoreensis (Wunderlich, 1992) 9 13 12 10 22 3 6 8 4 1 121
Erigone atra Blackwall, 1833 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 7
Erigone autumnalis Emerton, 1882 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 4
Erigone dentipalpis (Wider, 1834) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Mermessus bryantae (Ivie & Barrows, 1935) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Microlinyphia johnsoni (Blackwall, 1859) 4 30 2 8 11 13 9 5 6 5 148
Minicia floresensis Wunderlich, 1992 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 4 0 5 41
Oedothorax fuscus (Blackwall, 1834) 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 7
Palliduphantes schmitzi (Kulczynski, 1899) 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 14
Porrhomma borgesi Wunderlich, 2008 0 1 2 2 1 0 0 4 1 1 12
Prinerigone vagans (Audouin, 1826) 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
Savigniorrhipis acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992 26 63 23 22 11 56 16 16 15 35 367
Tenuiphantes miguelensis (Wunderlich, 1992) 18 13 11 18 4 36 5 39 10 24 479
Tenuiphantes tenuis (Blackwall, 1852) 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 28
Walckenaeria grandis (Wunderlich, 1992) 0 0 0 1 10 0 0 28 0 1 56
Pardosa acorensis Simon, 1883 0 4 1 1 22 0 1 23 0 0 113
Ero furcata (Villers, 1789) 4 2 5 1 0 0 3 0 3 3 22
Pisaura acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992 2 3 3 1 0 0 1 2 4 9 27
Macaroeris cata (Blackwall, 1867) 6 9 1 15 2 16 5 3 14 10 123
Neon acoreensis Wunderlich, 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 5
Metellina sp. 133 6 11 33 4 8 4 14 2 2 1 85
Metellina merianae (Scopoli, 1763) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 86
Sancus acoreensis (Wunderlich, 1992) 37 26 37 26 34 32 56 34 16 41 506
Lasaeola oceanica Simon, 1883 4 2 8 11 3 3 3 0 14 9 79
Neottiura bimaculata (Linnaeus, 1767) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Rugathodes acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992 31 33 78 40 123 0 48 54 35 123 753
Steatoda nobilis (Thorell, 1875) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
Theridion melanurum Hahn, 1831 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20
Xysticus cor Canestrini, 1873 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 4 0 2 32
Species richness 15 20 21 20 18 15 19 23 17 20 39

Four species accounted for 54% of all specimens: Rugathodes acoreensis (753 specimens) (Fig. 3), Sancus acoreensis (506) (Fig. 4), Tenuiphantes miguelensis (479) (Fig. 5) and Gibbaranea occidentalis (392) (Fig. 6). These species occur in different forest micro-habitats: the orb-weaver, G. occidentalis, occurs in both canopy and intermediate understorey; the theridiid, R. acoreensis, is mostly a canopy species; the tetragnathid, S. acoreensis, is usually associated with shrubs; and T. miguelensis is a forest ground linyphiid, building its sheet-webs between small holes in the ground or small crevices in volcanic rocks.

Figure 3.  

Rugathodes acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992 (Credit: Enésima Mendonça, Azorean Biodiversity Portal).

Figure 4.  

Sancus acoreensis (Wunderlich, 1992) (Credit: Pedro Cardoso).

Figure 5.  

Tenuiphantes miguelensis (Wunderlich, 1992) (Credit: Pedro Cardoso).

Figure 6.  

Gibbaranea occidentalis Wunderlich, 1989 (Credit: Paulo A. V. Borges).

Of the 39 collected species, 34 have been recorded previously in both Pico and Terceira islands (Borges et al. 2010). In total, we recorded 13 endemic species, 16 introduced, five Macaronesian, two native and three of unknown biogeographic category but possibly also endemic (which will be subject to a molecular and morphological integrative taxonomic description). Two of the 16 introduced species (Haplodrassus signifer and Agyneta decora) were recorded in Pico for the first time (cf. Borges et al. 2010).

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by two projects: 1) the ERA-Net Net-Biome research framework, financed through Portuguese FCT-NETBIOME grant 0003/2011 (PB); and 2) FCT MACDIV – FCT-PTDC/BIABIC/0054/2014. CR, FR and IRA were supported by grants from Fundação da Ciência e Tecnologia – FCT-SFRH/BPD/91357/2012, FCT-PTDC/BIA-BIC/119255/2010, FCT-SFRH/BPD/102804/2014 respectively. Open Access was financed by the project FCT MACDIV – FCT-PTDC/BIABIC/0054/2014.

Image taken by Enésima Mendonça is open access at AZORESBIOPORTAL led by PAVB. This manuscript is also a contribution to the updated checklist of Azorean arthropods that is being prepared within the newly launched project AZORESBIOPORTAL –PORBIOTA (ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072), financed by FEDER in 85% and by Azorean Public funds by 15% through Operational Program Azores 2020.

Author contributions

PAVB, PC, FR and BCE conceived the study design and sampling programme. PAVB, PC, LCFC, RG, FP, RC, CR, RN, MTF, IRA and FR performed spider sampling. PAVB and LCFC performed spider identification. JM-O analysed the data and JM-O and PAVB led the writing. All authors commented on the final version of the manuscript.

References

Supplementary material

Suppl. material 1: MACDIV_ISLANDBIOD_Spiders_Azores_Base_GBIF 
Authors:  Malumbres-Olarte, J et al.
Data type:  Species abundances and sampling events
Brief description: 

In this contribution, we present detailed data on the distribution and abundance of spider species found in Azores forest plots (six in Pico and 10 in Terceira).