Biodiversity Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
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Data Paper (Biosciences)
Trees and shrubs of the tropical dry forest of the Magdalena river upper watershed (Colombia)
expand article infoLuz Piedad Romero-Duque, Jesion H Rosero-Toro§, Mateo Fernández-Lucero|, Andrea Simbaqueba-Gutierrez, Caterinne Pérez#
‡ Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales, Bogotá, Colombia
§ Universidad Surcolombiana, Neiva, Colombia
| Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia
¶ Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Tunja, Colombia
# Independent Consultor, Bogotá, Colombia
Open Access

Abstract

Background

We describe the database of trees and shrubs of tropical dry forest patches of the Magdalena upper river basin in Colombia, preserved in the Herbarium of Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales. The dataset includes 211 taxa, from which 156 were identified to species. We reported 48 families and 137 genera. The most species rich and abundant families were Fabaceae and Rubiaceae and the most abundant species was Talisia stricta (Sapindaceae). We found differences in diversity between north and south zones of the study area.

New information

The Magdalena river upper watershed region is an important tropical dry forest conservation area. Twenty nine species and 4 genera recorded in this study have not been reported in previous reviews of the region. Additionally, Oxandra espintana is reported in literature as critically endangered and Aspidosperma polyneuron is reported as endangered, but there are no studies about their conservation status in the region. Our results suggest the strong need to develop additional inventories of plants that contribute to the knowledge of the plant diversity of this ecosystem in the region and studies of their conservation status.

Keywords

Plant diversity, secondary forests, tropical dry forest.

Introduction

Tropical dry forests (TDF) correspond to a complex and fragile ecosystem. This complexity is due to evaporation exceeding precipitation and there being one or two periods of drought which may last between 4 and 6 months/year, resulting in the defoliation of part of the vegetation by water stress (Janzen 1988, Murphy and Lugo 1986). Therefore, TDF has a great diversity of life forms, mixing deciduous and evergreen species with complex ecophysiological patterns (Dirzo et al. 2011a, Pennington et al. 2009). TDF has higher species richness in Mexico, Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina (Gentry 1995, Olson and Dinerstein 1988), countries located in sites which challenge the pattern of increasing diversity when approaching the Ecuadorian line (Chazdon and Denslow 2002). Additionally, TDF has greater species richness thedrier they are, as in Mexico and Bolivia (Gentry 1995). Moreover, TDF has a high number of endemic species (Linares-Palomino et al. 2011) and provides a wide range of ecosystem services to human beings (Balvanera et al. 2012, Maass et al. 2005).

TDF is one of the most threatened ecosystems by human activity around the world (Hoekstra et al. 2004, Miles et al. 2006). There have been reports of strong erosional processes and loss of natural cover of TDF (Portillo-Quintero and Smith 2018), including its disappearance from some regions of Central and South America (Mares et al. 1985, Janzen 1988). This is because the TDF distribution area coincides with regions suitable for livestock and agriculture (Hoekstra et al. 2004) and where firewood and wood removal activities are practised. Portillo-Quintero and Sánchez-Azofeifa (2010) reported that 72% of TDF has been lost from North and Central America, whereas in South America, 60% has been lost.

Recently, research has paid more attention to TDF. However, studies on its structure and diversity are not evenly distributed in the Neotropics. Most of the studies have been concentrated in a few countries such as Mexico (e.g. López-Martínez et al. 2013, Dzib-Castillo et al. 2014, Palacios-Wassenaar et al. 2018, Silva Aparicio et al. 2018, Silva-Aparicio et al. 2018) and Brazil (e.g. Barbosa et al. 2012, Apgaua et al. 2014, Silva et al. 2014, Lima and Coelho 2015, de Queiroz et al. 2017, Rocha et al. 2017). For larger scales, Dirzo et al. (2011b) developed a regional synthesis for Latin America addressing aspects of the TDF ecology.

Colombia is one of those countries where TDF is the most threatened and least studied. Only 8% of TDF original distribution in the country remains (García et al. 2014). In their review of diversity and conservation status of TDF in Colombia, Pizano and García (2014) state that the available literature in Colombia consists of studies on local scale, concentrated mostly on the Caribbean coast (north of the country) and the Chicamocha (north-west), Cauca and Patia watersheds (south-west). Moreover, the authors state the largest number of samplings has taken place in the Caribbean and in the valley of Cauca river. The Magdalena river upper watershed has been less sampled and most of the samplings have been concentrated in the north area (e.g. Mendoza-C 1999, Figueroa-C and Galeano 2007, Frenández-Méndez et al. 2013, Villanueva et al. 2015, Melo-Cruz et al. 2016, Melo et al. 2017). Additionally, in the Magdalena river upper watershed, only 13% of its potential distribution remains (Romero-Duque et al., data not published). Our goal was to contribute to the knowledge of plant diversity of TDF of the Magdalena river upper watershed. This paper provides a large dataset for occurrences of trees and shrubs.

Project description

Title: 

Diversity and ecosystem services of Tropical dry forest of the upper Magdalena river basin, Colombia.

Personnel: 

Romero-Duque, Luz Piedad. Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales. Bogotá. Colombia.

Balvanera Levy, Patricia. Instituto de Investigación en Ecosistemas y Sostenibilidad. UNAM. Morelia. México.

Jaramillo Luque, Víctor J. Instituto de Investigación en Ecosistemas y Sostenibilidad. UNAM. Morelia. México.

Study area description: 

To determine the study area, we follow the Sánchez-Azofeifa et al. (2005) definition of TDF: "this ecosystem is located in areas with an average temperature of 25ºC, annual precipitation between 700 and 2000 mm and with 3 o more dry months/year (less than 100 mm/month)". Additionally, we considered the suggestion of Repizzo and Devia (2008) which states that, in Colombia, TDF is located below 1000 m asl. The study area is located in the south-western zone of the country, between the Central and Eastern mountain chain, on the geographical axis of the valley of the Magdalena river (Fig. 1). This area has an average annual rainfall of 1307 mm/year, with a bimodal precipitation regime (March-April; September-December) and an average temperature of 27°C. The study area has two zones of precipitation clearly defined. The north zone where precipitation varies from 1161 to 1431 mm/year and the south zone where most of the area varies from 730 to 1314 mm/year (data were obtained from the 30-year time series proportioned by IDEAM) (Table 1)

Description of the sampled sites in the Magdalena river upper watershed (Colombia).

Zone Department Site Latitude Longitude Elevation (m asl) Total rainfal (mm) Mean temperature (ºC)
North Tolima 1 4.709891 -74.876878 300 1388 27
North Tolima 2 5.174831 -74.861015 463 1811 25
North Cundinamarca 3 4.882335 -74.730283 264 1431 28
North Cundinamarca 4 4.536165 -74.772804 395 1161 27
North Cundinamarca 5 4.322327 -74.860534 289 1345 27
North Cundinamarca 6 4.282726 -74.850271 301 1345 27
Sur Huila 7 3.245542 -75.010028 713 730 26
Sur Huila 8 3.219611 -75.187444 417 1314 27
Sur Huila 9 3.244972 -75.1945 374 1314 27
Sur Huila 10 3.256278 -75.056278 549 1314 28
Sur Huila 11 3.204629 -75.166832 413 1314 27
Sur Huila 12 3.040488 -75.312614 507 1216 28
Figure 1.  

Distribution of tropical dry forest patches in the Magadalena river upper watershed (Colombia).

Funding: 

Ecopetrol and Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales.

Sampling methods

Sampling description: 

We selected twelve TDF patches according to their size, accessibility and owner's permission. Half of the patches were in Tolima and Cundinamarca departments (north zone of the study area) and the other half was in Huila department (south zone of the study area). In each site, we established ten 50 m x 2 m transects (0.1 ha), at least 7.5 m apart from each other at each site.

Quality control: 

All the materials were processed following the standardised procedures for herbaria described by Forman and Bridson (1989). Taxonomic identification was made by botanical experts with the help of clues, texts (Gentry 1993, Mabberley 1997, Vargas 2002, Vargas 2012, Pizano and García 2014) and Flora Neotropica), papers (Villanueva et al. 2015, Ballesteros-Correa et al. 2019), web pages (Bernal et al. 2019, UDBC and Tropics) and documents with original botanical descriptions. Scientific names and all taxonomic validation were handled according to the standards of The Plant List (http://www.theplantlist.org) and APGIV (http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/).

Step description: 

According to the criteria of Font Quer (1979), two life forms were recognised: shrub (woody individual less than 5 m tall that branches from the base at 1.5 to 4.9 m) and tree (woody individual that had a shaft of ≥ 5 m in height), all the individuals rooted within the transect and having ≥ 1 cm of DAP, were measured (DBH, height) and were identified as fully as possible to species. We registered data as common name, form of growth, vegetative and reproductive characteristics of aroma, colour, exudate, indument and glands and made their respective photographic records. We packed the material in plastic bags for easy handling and then we put them in botanical presses. We collected flowers (when possible) and stored them in bottles with glycerine. We entered field data with the Darwin Core format and, with the advisory team of SiB Colombia, the database was published.

Geographic coverage

Description: 

Enpoints: 74°50'35"W; 5°18’40"N - 74°34'5"W, 3°53'10"N and 74°43'48"W, 3°17'31"N - 75°56'13"W, 2°2'60"N.

Taxonomic coverage

Description: 

The dataset contains a total of 655 tagged individuals. We found 211 taxa (48 families and 137 genera), from which 156 were identified to species (see data resource). Some individuals of 44 genera remained unidentified. This is mainly related to the lack of appropriate material (e.g. flowers) to provide a definite determination. Three species of Cactaceae family were included in the database.

For the total study area, Fabaceae and Rubiaceae were the most species rich and the most abundant (individuals sampled) families (Table 2). Talisia stricta (Sapindaceae) was the most abundant species recorded (35 individuals). The north zone was the most diverse (species number) (Table 2). We found 177 species, 120 genera and 43 families, whereas, in the south zone, we found 65 species, 47 genera and 26 families (Table 3). These differences could be due to the precipitation being higher in the north zone than in the south zone. Moreover, the north zone is a transition zone between tropical dry forest and tropical humid forest, which would explain the greater diversity, as well as the presence of some species representative of wet and moist forests in tropical dry forests (e.g. species from Bactris, Herrania, Monilicarpa, Posoqueria, Preslianthus, Swartzia and Trichilla genera). These species have been previous reported in tropical dry forest in Colombia (e.g. Pizano and García 2014, Villanueva et al. 2015, Ballesteros-Correa et al. 2019, Bernal et al. 2019).

a. Five families with the most species richness and number of individuals and b. Five most abundant species in tropical dry forest of the Magdalena river upper watershed (Colombia).

Family No. species Family No. Individuals Species No. Individuals
Fabaceae 30 Fabaceae 108 Talisia stricta Triana & Planch. ex Radlk. 35
Rubiaceae 19 Rubiaceae 58 Casearia corymbosa Kunth 22
Euphorbiaceae 12 Sapindaceae 47 Astronium graveolens Jacq. - Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken 20
Bignoniaceae 10 Salicaceae 39 Guatteria Ruiz & Pav. 15
Annonaceae 8 Apocynaceae 27 Swartzia trianae Benth. 1

Total number of families, genera and species of tropical dry forest in north and south zones of Magdalena river upper watershed (Colombia).

Family Genera Species Individuals
North zone 43 120 177 533
South zone 26 47 65 122
Total 48 137 211 655

The frequency distribution of the number of species amongst study sites was very skewed (Fig. 2). Sixty four percent of the species appeared in a single site, whereas 18% of the species appeared in two of the 12 sites. No species appeared in more than 5 sites. Astronium graveolens Jacq., Casearia corymbosa Kunth and Randia armata DC. were present in five sites (Table 4, Fig. 2). Only one species of the sampled species with a higher importance value index (relative abundance, relative density, relative frequency) was shared between north and south zones of the study area (Table 5). Our results coincide with those of Apgaua et al. (2014), Balvanera et al. (2002), Banda-R et al. (2016), amongst others, who reported a high variation in the richness and composition of species amongst TDF sites. Our results confirm the suggestion of Banda-R et al. (2016), about the need for multiple protected areas of TDF in the inter-Andean valleys.

Species distribution amongst the twelve tropical dry forest patches in the Magdalena river upper watershed (Colombia).

Species Study site
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. X
Acacia polyphylla DC. X
Acacia tortuosa (L.) Willd. X
Acalypha diversifolia Jacq. X
Acanthocereus tetragonus (L.) Hummelinck X
Achatocarpus nigricans Triana X X X
Adenocalymma patulum (Miers) L.G.Lohmann X
Albizia guachapele (Kunth) Dugand X
Ampelocera Klotzsch X
Amyris pinnata Kunth X X
Amyris sylvatica Jacq. X X
Anacardiaceae X
Anacardium excelsum (Kunth) Skeels X
Annona edulis (Triana & Planch.) H.Rainer X
Annona L. X
Apeiba glabra Aubl. X
Aphelandra glabrata Willd. ex Nees X X
Apocynaceae X
Ardisia foetida Willd. ex Roem & Schult. X
Ardisia Sw. X
Aspidosperma cuspa S.F.Blake ex Pittier X X X
Aspidosperma desmanthum Benth. ex Müll.Arg. X
Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll.Arg. X X X
Astronium graveolens Jacq. X X X X X X
Astronium Jacq. X
Bactris major Jacq. X
Bactris pilosa Karst. X
Banisteriopsis C.B.Rob. ex Small X
Bauhinia guianensis Aubl. X
Bauhinia L. X
Beilschmiedia sulcata (Ruiz & Pav.) Kosterm. X
Bignoniaceae X
Brownea ariza Benth. X X X
Bunchosia pseudonitida Cuatrec. X X X X
Bunchosia Rich. ex Juss. X
Bursera Jacq. ex L. X
Bursera simaruba Sarg. X X X
Bursera tomentosa Triana & Planch. X X
Byttneria aculeata Jacq. X
Calliandra magdalenae Benth. X
Calliandra riparia Pittier X
Capparidastrum frondosum (Jacq.) Cornejo & Iltis X X X
Capparis L. X
Casearia corymbosa Kunth X X X X X N
Casearia Jacq. X X X
Casearia sylvestris Sw. X X
Casearia tremula (Griseb.) Griseb. ex C.Wright X
Celtis trinervia Lam. X X
Cereus hexagonus Mill. X
Cestrum L. X
Cestrum mutisii Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. X
Chiococca alba Hitchc. X
Chloroleucon mangense Britton & Rose X X
Chomelia spinosa Jacq. X
Chrysochlamys Poepp. & Endl. X
Cinchona L. X X X
Cinnamomum triplinerve (Ruiz & Pav.) Kosterm. X
Citharexylum sulcatum Moldenke X X
Clusia schomburgkiana Benth. ex Engl. X
Coccoloba obovata Kunth X
Colubrina Rich. ex Brongn. X
Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken X X
Cordia bifurcata Roem. & Schult. X
Cordia dentata J.L.M.Poiret X
Cordia L. X
Cordia macrocephala (Desv.) Kunth X
Coutarea hexandra (Jacq.) K.Schum. X
Croton argyrophyllus Kunth X
Croton caracasanus Pittier X
Croton ferrugineus Kunth X X
Croton fragrans Kunth X X
Croton glabellus L. X X
Croton L. X X X
Croton leptostachyus Kunth X
Croton schiedeanus Schltdl. X
Cupania L. X
Cupania latifolia Kunth X X
Cupania papillosa Radlk. X
Cynophalla flexuosa J.Presl X X X
Erythrina L. X
Erythroxylum cassinoides Planch. & Linden X
Erythroxylum hondense Kunth X
Erythroxylum macrophyllum Cav. X X X
Erythroxylum ulei O.E.Schulz X
Esenbeckia Kunth X
Eugenia Mich. ex L. X X X
Eugenia procera Poir. X x
Fabaceae X
Faramea capillipes Müll.Arg. X
Forsteronia G.Mey. X
Garcinia madruno (Kunth) Hammel X
Genipa americana L. X
Guapira costaricana (Standl.) Woodson X X X
Guapira pubescens (Kunth) Lundell X
Guatteria hirsuta Ruiz & Pav X
Guatteria Ruiz & Pav. X X X
Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. X X X X X
Guettarda malacophylla Standl. X X X
Gustavia santanderiensis R.Knuth X X X
Gustavia verticillata Miers X X
Handroanthus chrysanthus (Jacq.) S.O.Grose X
Helianthostylis sprucei Baill. X
Helicostylis Trécul X
Helicteres baruensis Jacq. X X X
Herrania laciniifolia Goudot X
Hiraea Jacq. X X
Hirtella americana L. X
Inga densiflora Benth. X
Jacaranda caucana Pittier X
Jatropha gossypiifolia L. X
Laetia americana L. X
Lunania parviflora Spruce ex Benth. X
Machaerium capote Triana ex Dugand X X X X
Machaerium goudotii Benth. X X
Machaerium microphyllum Standl. X
Machaerium Pers. X X X
Machaonia acuminata Humb. & Bonpl. X
Maclura tinctoria (L.) D.Don ex Steud. X X
Magnoliophyta X X X
Malpighia glabra L. X X
Malpighia L. X
Malpighiaceae X X
Malvaceae X X
Manihot carthagenensis (Jacq.) Müll.Arg. X
Maripa Aubl. X
Marsdenia xerohylica Dugand X
Matayba Aubl. X X
Memora patula Miers X X
Miconia spicellata Bonpl. ex Naudin X
Monilicarpa tenuisiliqua (Jacq.) Cornejo & Iltis X
Morisonia americana L. X
Mouriri colombiana Morley X
Mussatia Bureau ex Baill. X
Myrcia DC. X X X X
Neea divaricata Poepp. & Endl. X X
Neea Ruiz & Pav. X
Ocotea veraguensis (Meisn.) Mez X
Onoseris purpurea X
Ouratea Aubl. X
Oxandra espintana (Spruce ex Benth.) Baill. X
Oxandra venezuelana R.E.Fr. X
Paullinia densiflora Sm. X
Paullinia nitida Kunth X
Petrea rugosa Kunth X X
Picramnia sphaerocarpa Planch. X
Piper marginatum Jacq. X
Piptocoma discolor (Kunth) Pruski X
Pisonia aculeata L. X
Pithecellobium dulce Benth. X X X X
Pithecellobium lanceolatum Benth. X
Platymiscium hebestachyum Benth. X X X X
Platymiscium pinnatum (Jacq.) Dugand X X
Pleonotoma variabilis Miers X
Posoqueria latifolia Roem. & Schult. X
Pouteria Aubl. & Eyma X X X
Pradosia colombiana (Standl.) T.D.Penn. ex T.J.Ayers & Boufford X
Preslianthus detonsus (Triana & Planch.) Iltis & Cornejo X X X
Prosopis juliflora DC. X X
Protium Burm.f. X
Protium sagotianum Marchand X
Pseudobombax septenatum (Jacq.) Dugand X X X
Pseudolmedia laevis (Ruiz & Pav.) J.F.Macbr. X
Psidium guineense Sw. X X
Psychotria carthagenensis Jacq. X
Psychotria micrantha Kunth X
Quadrella odoratissima (Jacq.) Hutch. X X
Raimondia Saff. X
Randia aculeata L. X X X X X
Randia armata DC. X X X X X
Randia calycina Cham. X X X
Randia L. X X
Rollinia A.St.-Hil. X
Rondeletia pubescens Kunth X X X
Rubiaceae X
Ruprechtia ramiflora C.A.Mey. X
Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong X
Schaefferia frutescens Jacq. X
Schnella Raddi X
Securidaca L. X
Senegalia Raf. X X X
Senegalia riparia (Kunth) Britton & Rose X
Sideroxylon celastrinum (Kunth) T.D.Penn. X
Simira cordifolia (Hook.f.) Steyerm. X
Simira rubescens (Benth.) Bremek. ex Steyerm. X
Solanum arboreum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Dunal X X
Solanum L. X X
Sorocea A.St.-Hil. X
Spondias radlkoferi Donn.Sm. X
Stemmadenia grandiflora (Jacq.) Miers X
Stenocereus griseus (Haw.) Buxb. X
Swartzia Schreb. X X X
Swartzia simplex Spreng. X
Swartzia trianae Benth. X X
Tabebuia chrysantha (Jacq.) Nicholson X
Tabebuia Gomes ex DC. X
Tabebuia ochracea (Cham.) Standley X X X
Talisia stricta Triana & Planch. ex Radlk. X X X
Trichilia acuminata C.DC. X X
Trichilia elegans A.Juss. X
Trichilia oligofoliolata M.E.Morales-Puentes X X
Trichilia pallida Sw. X X X X
Triplaris americana L. X X X X
Triumfetta acuminata Kunth X
Trophis P.Browne X
Valeriana L. X
Zanthoxylum fagara Sargent X X X X
Zanthoxylum L. X X X X X
Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. X
Zanthoxylum rigidum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. X X X X
Zygia inaequalis Pittier X
Total general 34 64 21 78 47 36 23 10 7 18 5 11

The ten species with the highest importance value index in north and south zones of the tropical dry forest of Magdalena river upper watershed (Colombia).

Species North Species South
Randia armata DC. 0.74 Guettarda malacophylla Standl. 1.01
Machaerium capote Triana ex Dugand 0.73 Aspidosperma cuspa S.F.Blake ex Pittier 0.74
Bunchosia pseudonitida Cuatrec. 0.72 Casearia corymbosa Kunth 0.74
Astronium graveolens Jacq. 0.66 Helicteres baruensis Jacq 0.72
Casearia corymbosa Kunth 0.63 Zanthoxylum L. 0.72
Talisia stricta Triana & Planch. ex Radlk. 0.57 Guapira costaricana (Standl.) Woodson 0.69
Platymiscium hebestachyum Benth. 0.57 Banisteriopsis C.B.Rob. ex Small 0.38
Pouteria Aubl. & Eyma 0.56 Coutarea hexandra (Jacq.) K.Schum. 038
Casearia Jacq. 0.56 Forsteronia G.Mey. 0.38
Myrcia DC. 0.56 Malpighia L. 0.38
Figure 2.  

Frequency distribution of species according to the number of sites in which they occur. Number of species found within each category is shown above each bar.

Temporal coverage

Notes: 

Sep 2014 – End 2015

Collection data

Collection name: 
Colección biológica U.D.C.A
Collection identifier: 
Registro Nacional de Colecciones Biológicas 51
Parent collection identifier: 
UDCA
Specimen preservation method: 
Drying and Pressing

Usage rights

Use license: 
Creative Commons Public Domain Waiver (CC-Zero)

Data resources

Data package title: 
Lista de árboles y arbustos del Bosque tropical seco del valle alto del río Magdalena, Colombia
Alternative identifiers: 
Number of data sets: 
1
Data set name: 
Lista de árboles y arbustos del Bosque tropical seco del valle alto del río Magdalena, Colombia
Data format: 
Darwin Core Archive DwC-A
Column label Column description
basisOfRecord Specific nature of data record
catalogNumber Identifier for the record within dataset
class Scientific name of the class in which the taxon is classified
collectionCode Name identifying the dataset from which the record was derived
collectionID Identifier for the dataset from which the record was derived
continent Name of the continent in which location occurs
country Name of the country in which location occurs
countryCode Standard code for the country in which location occurs
county Name of the next smaller administrative region than country in which location occurs
dateIdentified Date on which the subject was identified
decimalLatitude Geographic latitude where occurrence was recorded
decimalLongitude Geographic longitude where occurrence was recorded
eventDate Date-time when the occurrence was recorded
family Scientific name of the family in which the taxon is classified
genus Scientific name of the genus in which the taxon is classified
geodeticDatum Ellipsoid, geodetic datum or SRS, upon which the geographic coordinates are based
georeferencedBy List of people's names who determined the georeference for the location
habitat Habitat type where occurrence was registered
identificationQualifier Brief phrase to express the determiner's doubts about the identification
identifiedBy List of people's names who assigned the taxon to the subject
institutionCode Name in use by the institution having custody of the object(s) referred to in the record
institutionID Identifier for the institution having custody of the object(s) referred to in the record
kingdom Scientific name of the kingdom in which the taxon is classified
language Language of the resource
licence Legal document giving official permission to do something with the resource
locality Specific description of the place
locationID Identifier for the set of location information
maximumElevationInMetres Upper limit of the range of elevation
minimumElevationInMetres Lower limit of the range of elevation
municipality Name of the next smaller administrative region than county in which the location occurs
occurrenceID Identifier for the occurrence
order Scientific name of the order in which the taxon is classified
phylum Scientific name of the phylum in which the taxon is classified
previousIdentifications List of previous assignments of names to the organism
recordedBy List of people's names responsible for recording the original occurrence
sampleSizeUnit Unit of measurement of the sample size
sampleSizeValue Measurement of sample size
samplingEffort Amount of effort expended
samplingProtocol Description of the method used
scientificName Name of lowest level taxonomic rank that was determined
scientificNameAuthorship Authorship information for the scientificName
specificEpithet Name of the species epithet
stateProvince Name of the next smaller administrative region than country in which the location occurs
taxonomicStatus Status of the use of the scientificName as a label for a taxon linked to http://www.tropicos.org
taxonRank Taxonomic rank of the most specific name in the scientificName
type Kind of description
verbatimCoordinates The verbatim original spatial coordinates of the Location
verbatimCoordinateSystem The spatial coordinate system for the verbatimLatitude and verbatimLongitude or the verbatimCoordinates of the Location
verbatimElevation The original description of the elevation of the Location
verbatimLocality The original textual description of the place
verbatimSRS The ellipsoid, geodetic datum or SRS upon which coordinates given in verbatimCoordinates are based
verbatimTaxonRank Taxonomic rank of the most specific name in the scientificName as it appears in the original record
vernacularName A common or vernacular name

Acknowledgements

This Study was funded by Univerisidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales and Ecopetrol (Contract number 5212091).

Author contributions

JR-T, MF, AS-G and PC collected, analyed and curated the material. R-D, LP wrote the paper.

References