Biodiversity Data Journal : Data paper
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Data paper

A database of life-history traits of European amphibians

expand article infoAudrey Trochet‡,§, Sylvain Moulherat|, Olivier Calvez§, Virginie M Stevens§, Jean Clobert§, Dirk S Schmeller¶,#
‡ Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, CNRS, ENFA, UMR5174 EDB (Laboratoire Évolution & Diversité Biologique), Toulouse, France
§ Station d'Ecologie Expérimentale du CNRS at Moulis, Moulis, France
| TerrOïko, Revel, France
¶ Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Conservation Biology, Leipzig, Germany
# Université de Toulouse; UPS, INPT; Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement (Ecolab); CNRS, Toulouse, France
Open Access

Abstract

In the current context of climate change and landscape fragmentation, efficient conservation strategies require the explicit consideration of life history traits. This is particularly true for amphibians, which are highly threatened worldwide, composed by more than 7400 species, which is constitute one of the most species-rich vertebrate groups. The collection of information on life history traits is difficult due to the ecology of species and remoteness of their habitats. It is therefore not surprising that our knowledge is limited, and missing information on certain life history traits are common for in this species group. We compiled data on amphibian life history traits from literature in an extensive database with morphological and behavioral traits, habitat preferences and movement abilities for 86 European amphibian species (50 Anuran and 36 Urodela species). When it were available, we reported data for males, females, juveniles and tadpoles. Our database may serve as an important starting point for further analyses regarding amphibian conservation.

Keywords

Amphibians, life history traits, Europe

Introduction

Amphibians are ectotherms, and all aspects of their life history are strongly influenced by the external environment, including weather and climate. Amphibians are currently the most threatened taxonomic group worldwide (Temple and Cox 2009, IUCN 2011). The major threats acting on amphibian populations are habitat loss and habitat fragmentation, pollution, global change or disease exposure (Beebee and Griffith 2005, Blaustein and Kiesecker 2002, Houlahan et al. 2000, Stuart et al. 2004). Habitat fragmentation is actually recognized as the major treat of amphibian decline (Chanson et al. 2008, Marsh and Trenham 2001) by its strong impact on population functioning, in particular in amphibians. Indeed, habitat fragmentation can decrease the size of habitat patches, and also the distances between habitat patches (Fahrig 2003, Chanson et al. 2008, Reh and Seitz 1990). Consequently, this loss of connectivity should negatively affect population functioning, by limiting dispersal events between patches and by increasing inbreeding risk (Sjögren-Gulve 1994).

The impact of global warming on amphibian populations has been reported several times (Beebee 2002, Blaustein et al. 2001, Blaustein and Kiesecker 2002, Corn 2003, Houlahan et al. 2000, Araujo et al. 2006, Alford et al. 2006). For example, the breeding phenology of anurans adapted to breeding in early spring might be shifted to even earlier breeding in recent years in response to warmer spring temperatures (Beebee 1995, Parmesan 2006, Klaus and Lougheed 2013). These responses may not be universal among amphibians and remain a matter of debate (Beebee 2002, Corn 2003, Reading 1998). It is undoubted that rising temperatures, changes in precipitation and UV-radiation are considered stressful and might be associated with disease outbreaks in amphibian populations (Blaustein and Kiesecker 2002, Kiesecker and Blaustein 1995, Walker et al. 2010). UV-B may, however, also enhance tadpole growth in some species (Pahkala et al. 2003), but with not yet anticipated effects on survival of metamorphs and population dynamics.

Our database on life history traits of 86 European Amphibian species is an important prerequisite for understanding change in amphibian life history, community composition and migration behavior. Such data is important to inform the Essential Biodiversity Variables (Pereira et al. 2013), develop new indicators and ultimately inform the decision-making process to improve amphibian conservation.

General description

Purpose: 

Our database summarizes life history traits, including morphology, reproductive strategies, movement abilities, habitat preferences, distribution and IUCN status for all European amphibian species (N=86), all in all 44 traits subdivided into 253 modalities. Our database comprises information from 304 scientific publications assembled by searching Web of Science®, Amphibiaweb (AmphibiaWeb 2012) and herpetological books. The IUCN status, from 1 (least concern) to 6 (extinct in the wild), and their population trends (-1: decreasing, 0: stable or +1: increasing) were extracted from the IUCN red list website (IUCN 2011). In total, we were able to compile data for 50 Anurans and 36 Urodela (Fig. 1). When several values were available for a continuous trait, we averaged them across studies (i.e. between populations). When they are available, data for males, females, juveniles (larvae) and tadpoles were reported. Summary of mean data, range and missing values are given in Table 2.

Table 1.

Details on species used in our database. For each species, synonyms and family were given. Information about spatial distribution (if the species is an invasive species or not, and if it lives out of Europe) was reported. List of references associated (Suppl. material 2), number of publications used and the percent of missing values for each species were also given.

Anurans/ Urodela Species Synonyms Family Invasive Species (Yes/No) Species living out of Europe References Number of publications used % of missing values
A Alytes cisternasii - Discoglossidae No No 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 7 11.46
A Alytes dickhilleni - Discoglossidae No No 4, 8 2 26.09
A Alytes muletensis - Discoglossidae No No 4, 7, 9 3 21.34
A Alytes obstetricans - Discoglossidae No No 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 12 5.14
A Anaxyrus americanus Bufo americanus Bufonidae Yes Yes 7, 137, 228, 229 4 13.83
U Atylodes genei - Plethodontidae No No 4, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142 6 22.53
A Bombina bombina - Bombinatoridae No Yes 4, 6, 18, 19, 20, 21 6 3.56
A Bombina pachypus - Bombinatoridae No No 6, 19 2 50.59
A Bombina variegata - Bombinatoridae No No 4, 11, 13, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33 16 7.11
A Bufo bufo - Bufonidae No Yes 4, 5, 6, 11, 13, 14, 15, 19, 26, 30, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 48, 49, 50 24 1.98
A Bufo mauritanicus - Bufonidae No Yes 12, 48 2 30.83
U Calotriton arnoldi - Salamandridae No No 139, 142, 143 3 54.15
U Calotriton asper Euproctus asper Salamandridae No No 4, 11, 13, 139, 140, 141, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151 14 7.91
U Chioglossa lusitanica - Salamandridae No No 4, 139, 140, 141, 152, 156, 157, 158 8 10.28
A Discoglossus galganoi Discoglossus hispanicus Discoglossidae No No 4, 7, 49 3 15.81
A Discoglossus jeanneae - Discoglossidae No No 4, 50, 51 3 24.11
A Discoglossus montalentii - Discoglossidae No No 11, 52 2 22.92
A Discoglossus pictus - Discoglossidae No Yes 4, 6, 11, 53, 54, 55 6 13.44
A Discoglossus sardus - Discoglossidae No No 4, 11, 52, 56, 57 5 18.97
A Epidalea calamita Bufo calamita Bufonidae No Yes 4, 11, 13, 15, 25, 26, 56, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 66 14 1.19
U Euproctus montanus - Salamandridae No No 4, 7, 139, 141, 157 5 17.79
U Euproctus platycephalus - Salamandridae No No 4, 139, 141, 157, 158 5 13.44
A Hyla arborea - Hylidae No Yes 4, 5, 11, 13, 15, 58, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73 14 2.37
A Hyla intermedia Hyla italica Hylidae No No 4, 57, 58, 67, 74 5 39.13
A Hyla meridionalis - Hylidae No Yes 7, 11, 12, 13, 58, 75 6 9.88
A Hyla sarda - Hylidae No No 11, 26, 57, 67 4 13.04
U Lissotriton boscai Triturus boscai Salamandridae No No 4, 139, 140, 141, 159, 161, 162, 163, 164 9 15.02
U Lissotriton helveticus Triturus helveticus Salamandridae No No 4, 11, 13, 15, 26, 59, 139, 140, 141, 150, 163, 164, 165, 166 14 7.91
U Lissotriton italicus Triturus italicus Salamandridae No No 4, 139, 159, 167 4 18.18
U Lissotriton montandoni Triturus montandoni Salamandridae No No 4, 139, 140, 141, 159, 168, 169 7 18.18
U Lissotriton vulgaris Triturus vulgaris Salamandridae No Yes 4, 11, 14, 15, 18, 19, 26, 44, 59, 139, 140, 141, 150, 164, 169, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184 28 5.53
A Lithobates catesbeianus Rana catesbeiana Ranidae Yes Yes 4, 5, 11, 13, 15, 26, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81 12 4.35
A Lithobates sylvaticus Rana sylvatica Ranidae Yes Yes 5, 7, 230, 231, 232 5 13.44
U Lyciasalamandra helverseni Mertensiella luschani helverseni Salamandridae No No 139, 182 2 49.80
U Lyciasalamandra luschani Mertensiella luschani Salamandridae No Yes 4, 140, 184, 185, 186, 187 6 14.62
U Mesotriton alpestris Triturus alpestris, Ichthyosaura alpestris Salamandridae No No 4, 11, 14, 15, 19, 26, 59, 140, 141, 142, 151, 164, 165, 176, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192 19 6.72
A Pelobates cultripes - Pelobatidae No No 4, 6, 11, 13, 56, 82, 83 7 11.46
A Pelobates fuscus - Pelobatidae No Yes 4, 5, 6, 11, 19, 26, 84, 85, 86, 87 10 5.14
A Pelobates syriacus Pelobates transcaucasicus Pelobatidae No Yes 4 1 17.00
A Pelodytes ibericus - Pelodytidae No No 4, 88, 89 3 17.79
A Pelodytes punctatus - Pelodytidae No No 4, 11, 13, 15, 58, 89 6 13.04
A Pelophylax bedriagae Rana bedriagae Ranidae No Yes 4, 90 2 23.32
A Pelophylax bergeri Rana bergeri Ranidae No No 4 1 22.13
A Pelophylax cerigensis Rana cerigensis Ranidae No No 4, 91 2 31.23
A Pelophylax cretensis Rana cretensis Ranidae No No 4, 92 2 31.23
A Pelophylax epeiroticus Rana epeirotica Ranidae No No 4, 93, 94, 95, 96 5 24.51
A Pelophylax esculentus Rana esculenta Ranidae No Yes 4, 6, 14, 15, 18, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102 11 5.14
A Pelophylax grafi Rana grafi Ranidae No No 4, 26, 97 3 23.72
A Pelophylax hispanicus Rana hispanica Ranidae No No 4, 51 2 51.78
A Pelophylax kurtmuelleri Rana kurtmuelleri Ranidae No No 4, 51 2 28.85
A Pelophylax lessonae Rana lessonae Ranidae No Yes 4, 6, 14, 15, 26, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 103, 104, 105 13 4.35
A Pelophylax perezi Rana perezi Ranidae No No 4, 5, 26, 97, 106 5 15.81
A Pelophylax ridibundus Rana ridibunda Ranidae No Yes 4, 14, 15, 58, 97, 99, 100, 102, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112 14 3.95
A Pelophylax shqipericus Rana shqiperica Ranidae No No 4, 113 2 34.78
U Pleurodeles waltl Salamandridae No Yes 4, 7, 12, 140, 141, 142, 177, 193 8 13.83
U Proteus anguinus Siren anguina Proteidae No No 4, 140, 141, 142, 148, 149, 194 7 14.23
A Pseudepidalea viridis Bufo viridis, Bufotes viridis Bufonidae No Yes 4, 11, 12, 26, 30, 51, 58, 90, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119 13 5.93
A Rana arvalis - Ranidae No Yes 4, 11, 15, 19, 58, 120 6 6.72
A Rana dalmatina Rana agilis Ranidae No Yes 4, 11, 13, 15, 30, 46, 58, 121, 122, 123 10 3.56
A Rana graeca - Ranidae No No 4, 58 2 12.65
A Rana iberica - Ranidae No No 4, 5, 58, 123 4 12.25
A Rana italica - Ranidae No No 4, 51 2 23.72
A Rana latastei - Ranidae No No 4, 58, 124, 125 4 15.02
A Rana pyrenaica - Ranidae No No 4, 11, 13, 26, 126, 127 6 17.39
A Rana temporaria - Ranidae No Yes 4, 5, 11, 13, 14, 15, 19, 26, 44, 58, 120, 121, 126, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133 19 2.37
U Salamandra algira - Salamandridae No Yes 12, 140 2 32.02
U Salamandra atra - Salamandridae No No 4, 11, 140, 141, 142, 151, 195, 196 8 18.58
U Salamandra corsica - Salamandridae No No 26, 140, 197 3 22.92
U Salamandra lanzai - Salamandridae No No 11, 26, 140, 198, 199, 200 6 17.79
U Salamandra salamandra - Salamandridae No No 11, 13, 14, 15, 19, 140, 141, 142, 151, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205 15 9.88
U Salamandrina perspicillata - Salamandridae No No 140, 142, 206, 207, 208, 209 6 58.89
U Salamandrina terdigitata Molge tridactyla Salamandridae No No 4, 140, 141, 208 4 24.51
U Speleomantes ambrosii - Plethodontidae No No 4, 139, 140 3 14.62
U Speleomantes flavus - Plethodontidae No No 4, 139, 140 3 39.13
U Speleomantes imperialis - Plethodontidae No No 4, 139, 140 3 17.00
U Speleomantes italicus - Plethodontidae No No 4, 139, 140, 141 4 16.21
U Speleomantes sarrabusensis - Plethodontidae No No 4 1 44.27
U Speleomantes strinatii - Plethodontidae No No 4, 11, 26, 140, 211 5 15.02
U Speleomantes supramontis - Plethodontidae No No 4, 139, 140 3 39.13
U Triturus carnifex - Salamandridae No No 4, 18, 36, 140, 160, 176, 197, 212, 213, 214 10 8.70
U Triturus cristatus - Salamandridae No Yes 4, 11, 15, 18, 19, 26, 44, 56, 59, 140, 141, 142, 151, 160, 165, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 181, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219 26 4.35
U Triturus dobrogicus - Salamandridae No No 4, 18, 85, 140, 160, 176, 177, 220 8 26.09
U Triturus karelinii - Salamandridae No Yes 4, 140, 142, 160, 176, 177, 221, 222, 223 9 40.71
U Triturus marmoratus - Salamandridae No No 4, 11, 13, 18, 26, 56, 140, 142, 160, 164, 215, 216, 217, 224, 225 15 10.67
U Triturus pygmaeus - Salamandridae No No 4, 140, 141, 160, 224, 226, 227 7 18.18
A Xenopus laevis Bufo laevis Pipidae Yes Yes 5, 11, 26, 134, 135, 136 6 11.86
Table 2.

Mean and range (min-max) of several traits recorded in Anura and Urodela species from our database. Number of missing values is also reported.

Anura (N=50)

Urodela (N=36)

Mean

Range

(min–max)

Number of missing values

Mean

Range

(min–max)

Number of missing values

Body mass (in g)

32.34

2.31–307.23

19

6.68

0.98–35.23

10

Snout-to-vent length in adults (in mm)

61.89

35.18–141.00

0

63.64

33.31–169.90

4

Snout-to-vent length in males (in mm)

56.01

34.70–134.74

9

59.19

31–129.75

7

Snout-to-vent length in females (in mm)

62.14

35.65–150.00

10

61.72

38.12–155.25

7

Total length in adults (in mm)

61.89

35.18–141.00

0

126.15

67.28–257.00

1

Foot length (in mm)

27.73

5.37–65.95

25

7.56

6.50–9.09

31

Tibia length (in mm)

26.89

13.15–56.81

19

18.88

4.81–32.94

34

Hind limb length (in mm)

90.40

45.28–188.98

25

19.71

10.68–41.00

8

Metamorphosis size (in mm)

20.83

9.50–95.00

14

38.76

20.00–70.00

5

Number of eggs

4875.70

20–25000

0

164.06

2–1400

0

Survival rates in adults

0.64

0.34–0.80

44

0.63

0.42–0.79

27

Sexual maturity (in years)

2.18

1–4

12

3.35

1.5–7

8

Movement ability (in m)

5422.73

150–15000

26

481.08

21–1500

23

Figure 1.  

Proportion of (a) Anura (N=50) and (b) Urodela species (N=36) within IUCN categories used in our database. Data were extracted in 2013 from information found on the IUCN website (IUCN 2011). IUCN categories: LC = least concern, NT = near threatened, VU = vulnerable, EN = endangered, CR = critically endangered.

Because habitat fragmentation is currently the most threat affecting amphibian populations, movement specific data could help for conservation plans. By this way, we first selected traits related to movement abilities. Then, the costs associated with movements, and particularly with dispersal, might constrain the allocation of resources among all components of an individual’s life, and could lead to relationships between movement abilities and several other traits. Indeed, and compared to relationships found between movement and life history traits in other groups (in mammals and birds: Bowman 2003, Bowman et al. 2002, Sutherland et al. 2000), we then reported traits that could be related to movement abilities, always in order to help for amphibian management.

Geographic coverage

Description: 

Our database included all amphibian species present in Europe (Frost et al. 2006, IUCN 2011). Four invasive species were included in the database (Anaxyrus americanus, Lithobates catesbeianus, Lithobates sylvaticus and Xenopus laevis). A particularity is that Bufotes viridis has been recently split in several species. To avoid biased data, we considered all populations to represent identical entities and therefore argued that they shared identical traits. By this way, we reported only traits referring to Bufotes viridis (formerly Bufo viridis) and we did not take into account traits related to new splited species.

Taxonomic coverage

Description: 

We based our taxonomic coverage on European species described on the IUCN website (IUCN 2011) and from the Amphibian Tree of Life (Frost et al. 2006). More details on species are given in Table 1.

Taxa included:
Rank Scientific Name Common Name
species Alytes cisternasii Iberian Midwife Toad
species Alytes dickhilleni Betic Midwife Toad
species Alytes muletensis Mallorcan Midwife Toad
species Alytes obstetricans Common Midwife Toad
species Anaxyrus americanus American Toad
species Atylodes genei Sardinian Cave Salamander
species Bombina bombina Fire-bellied Toad
species Bombina pachypus Appenine Yellow-bellied Toad
species Bombina variegata Yellow–bellied Toad
species Bufo bufo Common Toad
species Bufo mauritanicus Mauritanian Toad
species Calotriton arnoldi -
species Calotriton asper Pyrenean Brook Salamander
species Chioglossa lusitanica Golden-striped Salamander
species Discoglossus galganoi Iberian Painted Frog
species Discoglossus jeanneae Spanish Painted Frog
species Discoglossus montalentii Corsican Painted Frog
species Discoglossus pictus Painted Frog
species Discoglossus sardus Tyrrhenian Painted Frog
species Epidalea calamita Natterjack Toad
species Euproctus montanus Corsican Brook Salamander
species Euproctus platycephalus Sardinian Brook Salamander
species Hyla arborea European Tree Frog
species Hyla intermedia Italian Tree Frog
species Hyla meridionalis Mediterranean Tree Frog
species Hyla sarda Tyrrhenian Tree Frog
species Lissotriton boscai Iberian Newt
species Lissotriton helveticus Palmate Newt
species Lissotriton italicus Italian Newt
species Lissotriton montandoni Carpathian Newt
species Lissotriton vulgaris Smooth Newt
species Lithobates catesbeianus American Bullfrog
species Lithobates sylvaticus Wood Frog
species Lyciasalamandra helverseni -
species Lyciasalamandra luschani -
species Mesotriton alpestris Alpine Newt
species Pelobates cultripes Western Spadefoot
species Pelobates fuscus Common Spadefoot
species Pelobates syriacus Eastern Spadefoot
species Pelodytes ibericus Sapillo Moteado Ibérico
species Pelodytes punctatus Parsley Frog
species Pelophylax bedriagae Levant Water Frog
species Pelophylax bergeri Italian Pool Frog
species Pelophylax cerigensis Karpathos Frog
species Pelophylax cretensis Cretan Frog
species Pelophylax epeiroticus Epirus Water Frog
species Pelophylax esculentus Edible Frog
species Pelophylax grafi Rana De Graf
species Pelophylax hispanicus Italian Edible Frog
species Pelophylax kurtmuelleri Balkan Water Frog
species Pelophylax lessonae Pool Frog
species Pelophylax perezi Perez's Frog
species Pelophylax ridibundus Eurasian Marsh Frog
species Pelophylax shqipericus Albanian Water Frog
species Pleurodeles waltl Sharp-ribbed Salamander
species Proteus anguinus Proteus
species Pseudepidalea viridis Green Toad
species Rana arvalis Altai Brown Frog
species Rana dalmatina Agile Frog
species Rana graeca Greek Stream Frog
species Rana iberica Iberian Frog
species Rana italica Italian Stream Frog
species Rana latastei Italian Agile Frog
species Rana pyrenaica Pyrenean Frog
species Rana temporaria European Common Frog
species Salamandra algira North African Fire Salamander
species Salamandra atra Golden Salamander
species Salamandra corsica Corsican Fire Salamander
species Salamandra lanzai Lanza's Alpine Salamander
species Salamandra salamandra Common Fire Salamander
species Salamandrina perspicillata -
species Salamandrina terdigitata Spectacled Salamander
species Speleomantes ambrosii Ambrosi's Cave Salamander
species Speleomantes flavus Monte Albo Cave Salamander
species Speleomantes imperialis Imperial Cave Salamander
species Speleomantes italicus Italian Cave Salamander
species Speleomantes sarrabusensis -
species Speleomantes strinatii North-west Italian Cave Salamander
species Speleomantes supramontis Supramonte Cave Salamander
species Triturus carnifex Italian Crested New
species Triturus cristatus Northern Crested Newt
species Triturus dobrogicus Danube Crested Newt
species Triturus karelinii Southern Crested Newt
species Triturus marmoratus Marbled Newt
species Triturus pygmaeus Southern Marbled Newt
species Xenopus laevis Platanna

Usage rights

Use license: 
Creative Commons CCZero

Data resources

Data package title: 
European amphibians database
Number of data sets: 
1
Data set name: 
Database fo life-history traits for European amphibians
Data format: 
xls
Description: 

Summary of morphometric and life-history traits for 86 European amphibian species (Suppl. material 1). Values expected for the life-histories have been averaged between studies (i.e. between populations). DD (data deficient) means that data were not available in the literature.

Column label Column description
Sexual dimorphism Sexual dimorphism
Body mass (in g) Body mass (in g)
Snout-to-vent length (in mm) Snout-to-vent length (in mm)
Total length (in mm) Total length (in mm)
Proportion head length/body length Proportion head length/body length
Foot length (in mm) Foot length (in mm)
Hind limb length (in mm) Hind limb length (in mm)
Tibia length (in mm) Tibia length (in mm)
Proportion forelimb/hindlimb length Proportion forelimb/hindlimb length
Discs Discs
Webbing Webbing
Number of toes/fingers Number of toes/fingers
Tubercle Tubercle
Coloration Coloration
Activity Activity
Survival rates Survival rates
Sexual maturity (in years) Sexual maturity (in years)
Mating systems Mating systems
Number of eggs/offspring Number of eggs/offspring
Egg laying mode Egg laying mode
Eggs and larvae characteristics Eggs and larvae characteristics
Clutch position Clutch position
Breeding season Breeding season
Parental care Parental care
Active or passive feeding Active or passive feeding
Food of juveniles Food of juveniles
Food of adults Food of adults
Metabolism Metabolism
Defense Defense
Communication Communication
Territoriality Territoriality
Home range Home range
Movement event Movement event
Dispersal active or passive Dispersal active or passive
Sex biased dispersal Sex biased dispersal
Mode of displacement Mode of displacement
Dispersal Dispersal
Migration Migration
Habitat Habitat
Topography Topography
Biogeographical region Biogeographical region
Distribution Distribution
IUCN status IUCN status
Population trend Population trend
Major threats Major threats

Additional information

Conclusion

Our database is the first comprehensive trait database in European amphibians. After an extensive research effort, our database highlighted the lack of data about amphibian traits and more generally, on amphibian’s biology. Improve our knowledge on amphibians should certainly help for their management, which might strongly enhance their conservation plans. Morphological traits, which are easy to collect, are still unavailable for many species. Data about movement abilities (both dispersal and migration) were the least informed data of all database. In particular, we showed that movement traits, which are difficult to collect, were unknown for a majority of threatened species. This database could be an essential support for management and conservation plans, and should be more efficient when all data will be available.

Acknowledgements

This study was financed by SCALES (“Securing the Conservation of biodiversity across Administrative Levels and spatial, temporal, and Ecological Scales”; Henle et al. 2010), a large-scale collaborative research project funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (contract no. 226852 Programme).

Author contributions

AT collected the data. SM, OC, JC, VMS and DSS participated in the data collection.

References

Supplementary materials

Suppl. material 1: Database for life history traits for European amphibians 
Authors:  Trochet A, Moulherat S, Calvez O, Schmeller DS, Clobert J, Stevens VM
Data type:  life history traits
Brief description: 

Summary of morphometric and life-history traits for 86 European amphibian species. Values expected for the life-histories have been averaged between studies (i.e. between populations). NA means that data were not available in the literature.

Suppl. material 2: References cited in the database for life-history traits for European amphibians 
Authors:  Trochet A, Moulherat S, Calvez O, Schmeller DS, Clobert J, Stevens VM
Data type:  xls