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Data paper
Fauna Europaea: Coleoptera 2 (excl. series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and superfamily Curculionoidea)
expand article infoPaolo Audisio, Miguel-Angel Alonso Zarazaga§, Adam Slipinski|, Anders Nilsson, Josef Jelínek#, Augusto Vigna Taglianti, Federica Turco¤, Carlos Otero«, Claudio Canepari», David Kral˄, Gianfranco Liberti˅, Gianfranco Sama¦, Gianluca Nardiˀ, Ivan Löblˁ, Jan Horak, Jiri Kolibac, Jirí Háva, Maciej Sapiejewski†,₱, Manfred Jäch, Marco Alberto Bologna, Maurizio Biondi, Nikolai B. Nikitsky, Paolo Mazzoldi, Petr Zahradnik, Piotr Wegrzynowicz, Robert Constantin, Roland Gerstmeier, Rustem Zhantiev, Simone Fattorini, Wioletta Tomaszewska, Wolfgang H. Rücker, Xavier Vazquez-Albalate‡‡, Fabio Cassola§§, Fernando Angelini||, Colin Johnson¶¶, Wolfgang Schawaller##, Renato Regalin¤¤, Cosimo Baviera««, Saverio Rocchi»», Fabio Cianferoni»»,˄˄, Ron Beenen˅˅, Michael Schmitt¦¦, David Sassiˀˀ, Horst Kippenbergˁˁ, Marcello Franco Zampetti, Marco Trizzino₵₵, Stefano Chiari, Giuseppe Maria Carpanetoℓℓ, Simone Sabatelli, Yde de Jong₰₰,₱₱
‡ Sapienza Rome University, Department of Biology and Biotechnologies 'C. Darwin', Rome, Italy
§ Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain
| CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia
¶ Umea University, Umea, Sweden
# National Museum Prague, Prague, Czech Republic
¤ Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Australia
« Departamento de Biología Animal, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
» Unaffiliated, San Donato Milanese, Italy
˄ Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
˅ Via Cascina Girola, Uboldo, Italy
¦ Via Raffaello Sanzio 84, Cesena, Italy
ˀ MiPAAF, Corpo Forestale dello Stato, Centro Nazionale per lo Studio e la Conservazione della Biodiversità Forestale “Bosco Fontana” di Verona, Sede di Bosco Fontana, Strada Mantova 29, I-46045, Marmirolo (MN), Italy
ˁ Museum d'Histoire naturelle Geneve, Geneve, Switzerland
₵ K Hádku 1567, Dubeček, CZ-107 00 Praha 10, Prague, Czech Republic
ℓ Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic
₰ Dermestidae World, Prague, Czech Republic
₱ Museum and Institute of Zoology, Warsaw, Poland
₳ Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Wien, Austria
₴ Department of Sciences, University Roma Tre, Roma, Italy
₣ University of L`Aquila, Department of Health, Life and Environmental Sciences, L`Aquila - Coppito, Italy
₮ Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
₦ private, Via G. Galileo 87, Brescia, Italy
₭ Forestry and Game Management Research Institute, Praha, Czech Republic
₲ Unaffiliated, Saint-Lo, France
‽ Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Freising, Germany
₩ C/O Zoological Museum, Sapienza Rome University, Rome, Italy
₸ Von-Ebner-Eschenbach-Straße 12, Neuwied, Germany
‡‡ University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
§§ Via Fulvio Tomassucci 12/20, I-00144, Rome, Italy
|| private, Francavilla Fontana (BR), Italy
¶¶ The Manchester Museum, Manchester, United Kingdom
## Staatliches Museum fuer Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany
¤¤ Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy
«« University of Messina, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Messina, Italy
»» University of Florence, Natural History Museum, Zoological Section 'La Specola', Florence, Italy
˄˄ Institute of Agroenvironmental and Forest Biology, CNR - National Research Council of Italy, Monterotondo Scalo (Rome), Italy
˅˅ Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, Netherlands
¦¦ Ernst Moritz Arndt Universitaet, Greifswald, Germany
ˀˀ c/o Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Milano, Italy
ˁˁ private, Langer Platz 21, D – 91074 Herzogenaurach, Germany
₵₵ Department of Genetics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, United States of America
ℓℓ Department of Sciences, University Roma Tre, Rome, Italy
₰₰ University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland
₱₱ University of Amsterdam - Faculty of Science, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Open Access

Abstract

Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education.

Coleoptera represent a huge assemblage of holometabolous insects, including as a whole more than 200 recognized families and some 400,000 described species worldwide. Basic information is summarized on their biology, ecology, economic relevance, and estimated number of undescribed species worldwide. Little less than 30,000 species are listed from Europe. The Coleoptera 2 section of the Fauna Europaea database (Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga excl. the series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and the superfamily Curculionoidea) encompasses 80 families (according to the previously accepted family-level systematic framework) and approximately 13,000 species. Tabulations included a complete list of the families dealt with, the number of species in each, the names of all involved specialists, and, when possible, an estimate of the gaps in terms of total number of species at an European level. A list of some recent useful references is appended. Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum Amsterdam to Berlin Museum für Naturkunde.

Keywords

Biodiversity Informatics, Coleoptera, Fauna Europaea, Taxonomic indexing.

Introduction

In 1998 the European Commission published the European Community Biodiversity Strategy, providing a framework for the development of Community policies and instruments to comply with the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Strategy recognises the current incomplete state of knowledge at all levels concerning biodiversity, which is a constraint on the successful implementation of the Convention. Fauna Europaea contributes to this Strategy by supporting one of the main themes: to identify and catalogue the components of European biodiversity into a database to serve as a basic tool for science and conservation policies. In regard to biodiversity in Europe, science and policies depend on the knowledge of its components. Biodiversity assessments, monitoring changes, sustainable exploitation of biodiversity, and much legislative work depend upon a validated overview of taxonomic biodiversity, in which Fauna Europaea plays a major role, providing a web-based information infrastructure with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level and some additional optional information (like references and species annotations). Thus the Fauna Europaea database provides a unique reference for many user-groups such as scientists, governments, industries, conservation communities and educational programs.

Fauna Europaea (FaEu) began in 2000 as an EC-FP5 four year project, delivering its first release in 2004 (de Jong et al. 2014). After thirteen years of steady progress to efficiently disseminate Fauna Europaea results and to increase the acknowledgement of the Fauna Europaea contributors, novel e-Publishing tools have been applied to prepare data papers of all major taxonomic groups (see below).

Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section (ca. 13,000 species) have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum, Amsterdam to Berlin Museum für Naturkunde. Adopted systematics follows that used in the first release of the database (2004). Recent changes in family-level systematics of beetles introduced by Bouchard et al. 2011 (although not all were accepted by specialists) are foreseen to be implemented as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration. For example, in Fauna Europaea the classic treatment of Chrysomelidae Galerucinae and Alticinae as separate subfamilies was used instead of the current view of Alticini as a tribe in Galerucinae, and the current families Megalopodidae and Orsodacnidae are not used, the European species being listed in subfamilies Zeugophorinae and Orsodacninae. The same is true for some other families which changed for different reasons their present-day taxonomic rank (e.g., Anobiidae vs. Ptinidae, Carabidae Rhysodinae vs. Rhysodidae, etc.).

Data-papers & gap-analysis

To improve the dissemination and citation of Fauna Europaea and to increase the acknowledgement of the Fauna Europaea contributors, a special Biodiversity Data Journal (BDJ) Series has been compiled, using novel e-Publishing tools, called Contributions on Fauna Europaea, preparing data-papers of all major Fauna Europaea taxonomic groups. This work was initiated during the ViBRANT project and is further supported by the recently started EU BON project. This paper represents the first publication of the Fauna Europaea Coleoptera (excl. Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia) data sector as a BDJ data paper.

Further steps will be made on implementing Fauna Europaea in the EU BON project as a basic tool and standard reference for biodiversity research in Europe, and to evaluate the status of European taxonomic expertise. The Fauna Europaea data-papers will contribute to a quality assessment on biodiversity data by providing estimates on gaps in taxonomic information and knowledge (see Table 1).

Responsible specialists per family in Coleoptera

FAMILY NUMBER OF SPECIES IN FAEU (in case of estimated gaps: potential numbers in brackets) SPECIALIST(S)
Acanthocnemidae 1 Gianfranco Liberti
Aderidae 27 Gianluca Nardi
Alexiidae 32 (≈ 40) Wioletta K. Tomaszewska
Anobiidae 419 (≈ 430) Petr Zahradnik
Anthicidae 314 Gianluca Nardi
Biphyllidae 5 Josef Jelínek (resigned)
Boridae 1 Xavier Vazquez-Albalate
Bostrichidae 42 (≈ 45) Gianluca Nardi
Bothrideridae 106 (≈120) Adam Slipinski
Byturidae 3 Josef Jelínek (resigned)
Carabidae 3738 (≈ 3900) Augusto Vigna Taglianti
Cerambycidae 677 (≈ 680) Gianfranco Sama
Cerylonidae 14 Adam Slipinski
Chrysomelidae 1758 (≈ 1800) Maurizio Biondi, Ron Beenen, Michael Schmitt, Renato Regalin, David Sassi, Stefano Zoia, Horst Kippenberg & Marcello Franco Zampetti
Ciidae 76 (≈ 80) Josef Jelínek & Paolo Audisio
Clambidae 22 Ivan Löbl
Cleridae 68 (≈ 70) Roland Gerstmeier
Coccinellidae 215 (≈ 220) Claudio Canepari
Corylophidae 37 (≈ 40) Paolo Audisio
Crowsoniellidae 1 Paolo Audisio
Cryptophagidae 257 (≈ 260) Carlos Otero
Cucujidae 6 (≈ 8) Adam Slipinski
Cybocephalidae 26 (≈ 30) Josef Jelínek & Paolo Audisio
Dascillidae 381 (390) Manfred Jäch
Dermestidae 197 (≈ 200) Roustem D. Zhantiev
Derodontidae 5 Jirí Háva
Dytiscidae 375 (≈ 400) Anders Nilsson (first release), Saverio Rocchi & Fabio Cianferoni (future updating)
Endecatomidae 1 Gianluca Nardi
Endomychidae 79 (≈ 80) Wioletta K. Tomaszewska
Erotylidae 29 Piotr Wegrzynowicz
Eucinetidae 8 Paolo Audisio
Gietellidae 2 Gianfranco Liberti
Gyrinidae 17 Paolo Mazzoldi
Haliplidae 34 Saverio Rocchi & Fabio Cianferoni
Hydroscaphidae 2 Ivan Löbl
Hygrobiidae 1 Anders Nilsson (first release), Saverio Rocchi & Fabio Cianferoni (future updating)
Jacobsoniidae 2 Ivan Löbl
Kateretidae 29 (30) Paolo Audisio & Josef Jelínek
Laemophloeidae 29 Adam Slipinski
Languriidae 14 Piotr Wegrzynowicz
Latridiidae 192 (≈ 200) Wolfgang H. Rucker
Lyctidae 13 Gianluca Nardi
Lymexylidae 3 Paolo Audisio
Malachiidae 327 (≈ 330) Robert Constantin
Melandryidae 53 Nikolai Nikitsky
Meloidae 181 (≈ 185) Marco Alberto Bologna
Melyridae 18 Gianfranco Liberti
Micromalthidae 1 Paolo Audisio
Monotomidae 34 Josef Jelínek & Paolo Audisio
Mordellidae 256 (≈ 270) Jan Horak
Mycetophagidae 31 Nikolai Nikitsky
Mycteridae 3 Paolo Audisio
Nitidulidae 248 (≈ 250) Paolo Audisio & Josef Jelínek
Nosodendridae 1 Jiri Hava
Noteridae 4 Anders Nilsson (first release), Saverio Rocchi & Fabio Cianferoni (future updating)
Oedemeridae 93 (≈ 95) Xavier Vazquez-Albalate
Passandridae 1 Adam Slipinski
Phalacridae 56 Zdenek Svec
Phloeostichidae 1 Adam Slipinski
Phloiophilidae 1 Gianfranco Liberti
Prionoceridae 1 Gianfranco Liberti
Prostomidae 1 Paolo Audisio
Pyrochroidae 9 Gianluca Nardi
Pythidae 5 Xavier Vazquez-Albalate
Rhipiceridae 2 David Kral
Ripiphoridae 17 Federica Turco & Marco Alberto Bologna
Salpingidae 19 Xavier Vazquez-Albalate
Scirtidae 94 Maciej Sapiejewski (deceased), proposed follow-up Rafal Rita
Scraptiidae 102 (≈ 110) Jan Horak
Silvanidae 40 Adam Slipinski
Sphaeriusidae 3 Ivan Lobl
Sphindidae 4 Josef Jelínek (resigned)
Stenotrachelidae 2 Paolo Audisio
Tenebrionidae 1392 (≈1400) Simone Fattorini
Tetratomidae 10 Nikolai Nikitsky
Thanerocleridae 1 Roland Gerstmeier
Trachypachidae 1 Saverio Rocchi & Fabio Cianferoni
Trogossitidae 25 Jan Kolibac
Zopheridae 128 (≈ 130) Adam Slipinski

General description

Purpose: 

Fauna Europaea is a database of the scientific names and distribution of all living, currently known multicellular European land and fresh-water animal species assembled by a large network of experts. An extended description of the Fauna Europaea project can be found in de Jong et al. 2014. A summary is given in the sections below.

Coleoptera is the largest of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, covering nearly 29,000 species in Europe [its Coleoptera 2 Section includes > 13,000 species (Fig. 1) and is represented by a network of more than 40 specialists (Table 1)].

Figure 1.

FaEu Coleoptera species per family. See Table 1 for family statistics. For full resolution see Suppl. material 1.

Addititional information: 

Coleoptera [Group Coordinators: Paolo Audisio (Coleoptera 2), Miguel Angel Alonso-Zarazaga (Coleoptera 1)]

Coleoptera are the most diverse order of all living animals, and comprise between 360,000 and 400,000 named species worldwide (Chapman 2009; Slipinski et al. 2011; Zhang 2013; Audisio unpublished data), some 100,000 in the Palaearctic Region, and nearly 30,000 in European-Mediterranean areas. Beetles are the dominating insect group in all terrestrial environments, with the single exception of freshwater habitats, where Diptera are represented by a markedly larger number of species. Even using a conservative estimate, there are likely one to three million beetle species on the Earth. Coleoptera are ecologically diverse (Crowson 1981). Most members of the largest ‘basal’ suborder, Adephaga, are predatory in both the larval and imaginal stage, while most members of the huge suborder Polyphaga are phytosaprophagous, mycetophagous, predaceous, phytophagous, or xylophagous. The ‘basal’ suborder Archostemata is represented by a small number of families and species, mostly distributed in tropical areas, and usually associated with saproxylic habitats. The only known W Palaearctic autochtonous species, Crowsoniella relicta Pace from central Italy, exhibits an unknown biology, but it was collected, only once, in hypogeous habitats among tree roots, in carbonatic soils (Ge et al. 2011). In the suborder Adephaga, the largest family is represented by Carabidae, almost all of them having a predaceous life style in terrestrial habitats (relatively few species are seed-eating or myrmecophilous), while other families (e.g., Dytiscidae) inhabit freshwater habitats, where they are mostly predators of other aquatic organisms, only the family Haliplidae includes phytophagous species. The problematic suborder Myxophaga, recently considered questionable from a phylogenetic point of view (Beutel and Haas 2000; Friedrich et al. 2009), is represented by relatively few species mostly associated with mud and wet habitats, chiefly in thermal localities. The huge suborder Polyphaga (including about 90% of Coleoptera worldwide) is a large assemblage of families where both adults and larvae exhibit very diverse life styles. Among members of the large ‘basal’ superfamily Staphylinoidea, there is a prevalence of predaceous beetles. About one-fifth of Staphylinidae however can be characterized as mycetophagous or saprophagous. A smaller part of them (about 10% of European species) may be characterized as phytophagous or myrmecophilous. Most Staphylinoidea are terrestrial, but in a few families (e.g., Hydraenidae) nearly all species are adapted to an aquatic or semi-aquatic life style, even in very peculiar habitats such as hyperhaline marine rock-pools (Antonini et al. 2010; Audisio et al. 2010; Sabatelli et al. 2013). Most Elateroidea are predators, xylosaprophagous, or xylophagous. Cucujoidea are a large and highly diverse superfamily including species which are mostly saprophagous, mycetophagous, predaceous, phytophagous, or xylophagous, with a few families (e.g., Meloidae, Ripiphoridae) known as specialized parasitoids of other insects (Bologna 1991; Bologna et al. 2008; Bologna et al. 2010; Bologna and Di Giulio 2011; Lawrence et al. 2010). Scarabaeoidea include thousands of species mostly associated with dung of vertebrates, or having rhyzophagous or xylosaprophagous larvae, whereas adults are mostly floricolous. Chrysomeloidea include thousands of species within the main families Chrysomelidae and Cerambycidae, mostly phyllophagous and/or floricolous, or with xylophagous larvae (Biondi et al. 2013;Bouchard et al. 2009). Finally, the most speciose superfamily Curculionoidea, feeding on various plant matter, includes many important pests of cultivated crops and forest habitats as well as some important biological control agents of invasive weeds too (e.g., Ceutorhynchini) (Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal 1999; Oberprieler et al. 2007). About 29,000 species of Coleoptera are listed for Europe (including more than 4,000 Adephaga, and little less than 25,000 Polyphaga); the taxonomic composition of this fauna is far better known than that of any other major region. But the species numbers occurring in the Afrotropical, Indo-Malayan and Neotropical regions are markedly higher, each of them with an estimated number of 70-90,000 named species. Most families of Coleoptera (at least in the largest suborder Polyphaga) are, in fact, largely represented in tropical and subtropical countries. However, the number of species annually added to the European beetle fauna (including autochthonous species new to Science, or firstly discovered in Europe) is relatively constant over time, while the introduction of alien species is continuously increasing, chiefly among the guilds associated with fruit, timber, stored and cultivated products, and ornamental plants (DAISIE 2008). The species accumulation curve, as in other large groups of insects such as Diptera, shows no signs of levelling off (Fontaine et al. 2012; Audisio unpublished data). Among the Adephaga, the most species rich families in the European fauna are Carabidae and Dytiscidae, with nearly 3,800 and 400 species respectively. Among the Polyphaga, the most species rich families in the European fauna are Staphylinidae s.l. (ca. 6,000 species), Curculionidae (> 4,500 species), Chrysomelidae (ca. 1,700 species), Tenebrionidae (> 1,400 species), Leiodidae (ca. 1,200 species), Elateridae and Cerambycidae (ca. 700 species each), Cantharidae (> 500 species), Dytiscidae, Hydraenidae, and Buprestidae (> 400 species each). Much remains certainly to be discovered, because especially Curculionidae, Staphylinidae and some small groups (such as, e.g., Bothrideridae, Alexiidae) were poorly studied by modern taxonomists and are much more diverse than suggested by their current count. Coleoptera are among the most important agricultural pests, attacking all parts of living plants as well as stored products such as woody matter, processed fibers and grains (BUSS and Fasulo 2006). Some of them are among the most serious pests of of beehives (Marini et al. 2013), while other groups are active predators or parasitoids (e.g., Carabidae, Coccinellidae, Meloidae, Cleridae) and play a fundamental role in both natural and cultivated environments, as important biological controllers that regulate the number of aphids, scale insects, wood borer species and locusts. On the other hand, beetles are active decomposers and play a major role in recycling organic waste, chiefly vertebrate dung and carcasses, decaying fruit, fungi and dead wood in forest habitats. Many beetles are, in fact, saproxylic, and are considered excellent indicators of woodland quality (Speight 1989; Nieto and Alexander 2010), several being well-known indicators of old-growth forests. Some flagship- and/or umbrella-species of forest habitats are recognized among the large-sized Lucanidae, Cetoniidae, Cerambycidae, and Cucujidae, which also are target species for biodiversity conservation efforts, and priority species included in annexes II and IV of the EU Habitat Directive. Some of them, like the rare but popular Osmoderma eremita, drives most of the European and local policies on invertebrate conservation biology and forest management (Chiari et al. 2013, Chiari et al. 2014). Other beetles are excellent indicators of quality (Trizzino et al. 2013), and several studies have been aimed to the use of this group as a tool for river quality assessment, for the management of lotic ecosystems (Trizzino et al. 2015), and for the evaluation/prediction of Climate Change’s effects. Finally, the use of certain groups of terrestrial Coleoptera such as ground beetles (Carabidae) and darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) in the evaluation of the biological quality of the soil is covered by a vast literature (Kotze et al. 2011).

Several species among those in Coleoptera 2 Section have been also included in European Red Lists, such as the recent (although markedly incomplete) IUCN Saproxylic Beetles Red List of Neto & Alexander (Nieto and Alexander 2010). A number of other national, local, and European red lists have been recently published or are in preparation, and the role of Fauna Europaea as a standard reference for all these initiatives is more and more evident. The same is true for a number of pest species, quarantine species, and alien species (chiefly in Nitidulidae, Chrysomelidae, Coccinellidae, Cryptophagidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae, and others), whose introduction into Europe, as discussed above, is continuously increasing (Buss and Fasulo 2006; DAISIE 2008; Baviera and Audisio 2014; Audisio et al. 2014).

As shown in Table 1, the taxonomic coverage of Coleoptera 2 Section of the FaEu database is generally good, with few remaining gaps (most of them should be filled in the next upcoming phase of data base updating, probably in Summer 2015). However, certain groups like Ciidae, Cybocephalidae, Cryptophagidae, Bothrideridae, Scraptiidae, and Mordellidae, need the activity of a larger number of specialists both in the field and in museum collections, in order to significantly improve our present-day knowledge in taxonomy and distribution, chiefly in the most potentially species-rich countries of southern Europe. Among the specialists' network, almost all explicitly or implicitly confirmed their participation to the project, although financial support to the project was interrupted some ten years ago. Only a couple of specialists resigned (e.g. in Hydroadephaga) and were replaced during the running activity of file updating, or have recently received the aid of "new" specialists and cooperators of the Group Coordinator PA. Generally speaking, the European network of specialists involved in the Coleoptera 2 Section of the Fauna Europaea Project seems to be relatively consolidated, and open to new (welcome) entries, although there is evidence that in most recent years the European beetle taxonomy community, chiefly at a professional level, has been going through a significant "crisis of vocations", only partially and insufficiently facilitated by the scientific support of a lot of (mostly not young) amateur entomologists (Fontaine et al. 2012). A more extensive and better addressed public financial support, at both European and local levels, should be foreseen in the next years, to prevent the risk of a future dramatic "taxonomic impediment" in the scientific management of European insect biodiversity.

Project description

Title: 

This BDJ data paper includes the taxonomic indexing efforts in Fauna Europaea on European Coleoptera covering the first two versions of Fauna Europaea worked on between 2000 and 2013 (up to version 2.6).

Personel: 

The taxonomic framework of Fauna Europaea includes partner institutes, providing taxonomic expertise and information, and expert networks maintaining data collation.

Every taxonomic group is covered by at least one Group Coordinator responsible for the supervision and integrated input of taxonomic and distributional data of a particular group. For Coleoptera 2 the responsible Group Coordinator is Paolo Audisio (versions 1 & 2).

The Fauna Europaea checklist would not have reached its current level of completion without the input from several groups of specialists. The formal responsibility of collating and delivering the data of relevant families has resided with the below appointed Taxonomic Specialists (see Table 1), while Associate Specialists deserve credit for their important contributions at various levels, including particular geographic regions or (across) taxonomic groups.

Data management tasks are taken care primarily by the Fauna Europaea project bureau. During the project phase (until 2004) a network of principal partners managed the diverse management tasks: Zoological Museum Amsterdam (general management & system development), Zoological Museum of Copenhagen (data collation), National Museum of Natural History in Paris (data validation) and Museum and Institute of Zoology in Warsaw (NAS extension). Since the formal project ending (2004-2013) all tasks have been taken over by the Zoological Museum Amsterdam.

Study area description: 

The area studied (Fig. 2) covers the European mainland (Western Palearctic), including the Macaronesian islands, excluding the Caucasus, Turkey, Arabian Peninsula and Northern Africa.

Figure 2.

Fauna Europaea geographic coverage ('minimal Europe').

Design description: 

Standards. Group coordinators and taxonomic specialists deliver the (sub)species names according to strict standards. The names provided by FaEu are scientific names. The taxonomic scope includes issues like, (1) the definition of criteria used to identify the accepted species-group taxa, (2) the hierarchy (classification scheme) for the accommodation of all accepted species and (3), relevant synonyms, and (4) the correct nomenclature. The Fauna Europaea 'Guidelines for Group Coordinators and Taxonomic Specialists', include the standards, protocols, scope, and limits that provide the instructions for all more then 400 specialists contributing to the project.

Data management. The data records could either be entered offline into a preformatted MS-Excel worksheet or directly into the Fauna Europaea transaction database using an online browser interface (see: Fig. 3). Since 2013, the data servers are hosted at the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin.

Figure 3.

Fauna Europaea on-line (browser interfaces) and off-line (spreadsheets) data entry tools.

Data set. The Fauna Europaea basic data set consists of: accepted (sub)species names (including authorship), synonyms (including authorship), taxonomic hierarchy / classification, misapplied names (including misspellings and alternative taxonomic views), homonym annotations, expert details, European distribution (at country level), Global distribution (only for European species), taxonomic reference (optional), and occurrence reference (optional).

Funding: 

Fauna Europaea was funded by the European Commission under the Fifth Framework Programme and contributed to the Support for Research Infrastructures work programme with Thematic Priority Biodiversity (EVR1-1999-20001) for a period of four years (1 March 2000 - 1 March 2004), including a short 'NAS extension', allowing EU candidate accession countries to participate. Follow-up support was given by the EC-FP5 EuroCAT project (EVR1-CT-2002-20011), by the EC-FP6 ENBI project (EVK2-CT-2002-20020), by the EC-FP6 EDIT project (GCE 018340), by the EC-FP7 PESI project (RI-223806) and by the EC-FP7 ViBRANT project (RI-261532). Continuing management and hosting of the Fauna Europaea services was supported by the University of Amsterdam (Zoological Museum Amsterdam) and SARA/Vancis. Recently the hosting of Fauna Europaea was taken over by the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin, supported by the EC-FP7 EU BON project (grant agreement №308454).

Sampling methods

Study extent: 

See spatial coverage and geographic coverage descriptions.

Sampling description: 

Fauna Europaea data have been assembled by principal taxonomic experts, based on their individual expertise, including literature study, collection research, and field observations. No less than 476 experts contributed taxonomic and/or faunistic information for Fauna Europaea. The vast majority of the experts are from Europe (including EU non-member states). As a unique feature, Fauna Europaea funds were set aside for paying/compensating for the work of taxonomic specialists and group coordinators (around five Euro per species).

To facilitate data transfer and data import, sophisticated on-line (web interfaces) and off-line (spreadsheets) data-entry routines have been built, well integrated within an underlying central Fauna Europaea transaction database (see Fig. 3). This includes advanced batch data import routines and utilities to display and monitor the data processing within the system. In retrospect, it seems that the off-line submission of data was probably the best for bulk import during the project phase, while the on-line tool was preferred to enter modifications in later versions. This system works well until it supposed replacement in 2013.

A first release of the Fauna Europaea index via the web-portal has been presented at 27th of September 2004. The most recent release (version 2.6.2) was launched at 29 August 2013. An overview of Fauna Europaea releases can be found here: http://www.faunaeur.org/about_fauna_versions.php.

Quality control: 

Fauna Europaea data are unique in a sense that they are fully expert based. Selecting leading experts for all groups included a principal assurance of the systematic reliability and consistency of the Fauna Europaea data.

Further all Fauna Europaea data sets are intensively reviewed at regional and thematic validation meetings, at review sessions on taxonomic symposia (for some groups), by Fauna Europaea Focal Points (during the FaEu-NAS and PESI projects) and by various end-users sending annotations using the web form at the web-portal. Additional validation on gaps and correct spelling was effected at the validation office in Paris.

In conclusion, we expect to get taxonomic data for 99.3% of the known European fauna. The faunistic coverage is not quite as good, but is nevertheless 90-95% of the total fauna. Recognised gaps in Coleoptera includes some tribes of Staphylinidae, some minor tribes of Curculionidae, and a few minor families of Polyphaga, chiefly in SE Europe and in European Russia.

Checks on technical and logical correctness of the data have been implemented in the data entry tools, including around 50 "Taxonomic Integrity Rules". This validation tool proved to be of huge value for both the experts and project management, and significantly contribute(d) to preparation of a remarkably clean and consistent data set.

This thorough reviewing makes Fauna Europaea the most scrutinised data set in its domain.

Step description: 

By evaluating team structure and life cycle procedures (data-entry, validation, updating, etc.), clear definitions of roles of users and user-groups, according to the taxonomic framework were established, including ownership and read and writes privileges, and their changes during the project life-cycle. In addition, guidelines on common data exchange formats and codes have been issued (see also the 'Guidelines for Experts' document).

Geographic coverage

Description: 

Species and subspecies distributions in Fauna Europaea are registered at least a country level, meaning political countries. For this purpose the FaEu geographical system basically follows the TDWG standards. The covered area includes the European mainland (Western Palearctic), plus the Macaronesian islands (excl. Cape Verde Islands), Cyprus, Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya. Western Kazakhstan and the Caucasus are excluded (see Fig. 2).

The focus is on species (or subspecies) of European multicellular animals of terrestrial and freshwater environments. Species in brackish waters, occupying the marine/freshwater or marine/terrestrial transition zones, are generally excluded.

Coordinates: 

Mediterranean (N 35°) and Arctic Islands (N 82°) Latitude; Atlantic Ocean (Mid-Atlantic Ridge) (W 30°) and Ural (E 60°) Longitude.

Taxonomic coverage

Description: 

The Fauna Europaea database contains the scientific names of all living European lands and freshwater animal species, including numerous infra-groups and synonyms. More details about the conceptual background of Fauna Europaea and standards followed are described in the project description papers (Figs 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9​).

Figure 4.

Scarites buparius (Forster, 1771) – Carabidae – photo by Paolo Audisio

Figure 5.

Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758) – Cerambycidae – photo by Paolo Audisio

Figure 6.

Amphotis marginata (Fabricius, 1781) – Nitidulidae – photo by Christoph Benisch – www.kerbtier.de

Figure 7.

Cucujus haematodes Erichson, 1845 – Cucujidae – photo by Antonio Mazzei

Figure 8.

Temnochila caerulea (Olivier 1790) – Trogossitidae – photo by Antonio Mazzei

Figure 9.

Meloe decorus Brandt & Erichson, 1832 – Meloidae – photo by Christoph Benisch – www.kerbtier.de

This data paper covers the Coleoptera content of Fauna Europaea, including 80 Families 12,425 species, 3,663 subspecies and 6,660 (sub)species synonyms. Higher ranks are given below, the species list can be downloaded from the Fauna Europaea portal (see: Data resources).

Taxa included:
Rank Scientific Name
kingdom Animalia
subkingdom Eumetazoa
phylum Arthropoda
subphylum Hexapoda
class Insecta
order Coleoptera
suborder Adephaga
suborder Archostemata
suborder Myxophaga
suborder Polyphaga
infraorder Bostrichiformia
infraorder Cucujiformia
superfamily Bostrichoidea
superfamily Caraboidea
superfamily Chrysomeloidea
superfamily Clavicornia
superfamily Cleroidea
superfamily Cucujoidea
superfamily Cupedoidea
superfamily Dascilloidea
superfamily Dermestoidea
superfamily Derodontoidea
superfamily Heteromera
superfamily Lymexyloidea
superfamily Sphaeriusoidea
superfamily Tenebrionoidea
family Acanthocnemidae
family Aderidae
family Alexiidae
family Anobiidae
family Anthicidae
family Biphyllidae
family Boridae
family Bostrichidae
family Carabidae
family Cerambycidae
family Cerylonidae
family Chrysomelidae
family Ciidae
family Clambidae
family Cleridae
family Coccinellidae
family Colydiidae
family Corylophidae
family Crowsoniellidae
family Cryptophagidae
family Cucujidae
family Cybocephalidae
family Dascillidae
family Dasytidae
family Dermestidae
family Derodontidae
family Diphyllidae
family Dytiscidae
family Scirtidae
family Endecatomidae
family Endomychidae
family Erotylidae
family Eucinetidae
family Gietellidae
family Gyrinidae
family Haliplidae
family Hydroscaphidae
family Hygrobiidae
family Jacobsoniidae
family Kateretidae
family Laemophloeidae
family Lagriidae
family Languriidae
family Latridiidae
family Lyctidae
family Lymexylidae
family Melandryidae
family Meloidae
family Melyridae
family Micromalthidae
family Monotomidae
family Mordellidae
family Mycetophagidae
family Mycteridae
family Nitidulidae
family Nosodendridae
family Noteridae
family Oedemeridae
family Passandridae
family Phalacridae
family Phloeostichidae
family Phloiophilidae
family Prionoceridae
family Prostomidae
family Pyrochroidae
family Pythidae
family Rhipiceridae
family Rhipiphoridae
family Ripiphoridae
family Salpingidae
family Scirtidae
family Scraptiidae
family Serropalpidae
family Silvanidae
family Sphaeriusidae
family Sphaerosomatidae
family Sphindidae
family Stenotrachelidae
family Tenebrionidae
family Tetratomidae
family Thanerocleridae
family Trachypachidae
family Trogossitidae
family Zopheridae
subfamily Agabinae
subfamily Agleninae
subfamily Agnathinae
subfamily Alfieriellinae
subfamily Alleculinae
subfamily Alticinae
subfamily Anamorphinae
subfamily Anaspidinae
subfamily Anobiinae
subfamily Anthicinae
subfamily Apotominae
subfamily Atomariinae
subfamily Bergininae
subfamily Bostrichinae
subfamily Brachininae
subfamily Broscinae
subfamily Bruchinae
subfamily Calopodinae
subfamily Calyptomerinae
subfamily Carabinae
subfamily Carpophilinae
subfamily Cassidinae
subfamily Cerambycinae
subfamily Ceryloninae
subfamily Chaetomalachinae
subfamily Chilocorinae
subfamily Chlaeniinae
subfamily Chrysomelinae
subfamily Cicindelinae
subfamily Cillaeinae
subfamily Clambinae
subfamily Clerinae
subfamily Coccidulinae
subfamily Coelometopinae
subfamily Colydiinae
subfamily Colymbetinae
subfamily Copelatinae
subfamily Corticariinae
subfamily Corylophinae
subfamily Criocerinae
subfamily Cryptarchinae
subfamily Cryptocephalinae
subfamily Cryptophaginae
subfamily Cryptophaginae
subfamily Cryptophilinae
subfamily Cyclosominae
subfamily Dacninae
subfamily Danaceinae
subfamily Dascillinae
subfamily Dasytinae
subfamily Diaperinae
subfamily Dinoderinae
subfamily Donaciinae
subfamily Dorcatominae
subfamily Dryophilinae
subfamily Dryptinae
subfamily Dytiscinae
subfamily Elaphrinae
subfamily Encaustinae
subfamily Endomychinae
subfamily Enopliinae
subfamily Epilachninae
subfamily Epuraeinae
subfamily Ernobiinae
subfamily Esarcinae
subfamily Eucradinae
subfamily Eumolpinae
subfamily Eustrophinae
subfamily Euxestinae
subfamily Galerucinae
subfamily Gibbiinae
subfamily Gyrininae
subfamily Hallomeninae
subfamily Harpalinae
subfamily Hispinae
subfamily Holoparamecinae
subfamily Hydroporinae
subfamily Hypocoprinae
subfamily Korynetinae
subfamily Laccophilinae
subfamily Lagriinae
subfamily Lamiinae
subfamily Lamprosomatinae
subfamily Latridiinae
subfamily Lebiinae
subfamily Leiestinae
subfamily Lepturinae
subfamily Licininae
subfamily Lissodeminae
subfamily Loricerinae
subfamily Lycoperdininae
subfamily Lyctinae
subfamily Macratriinae
subfamily Malachiinae
subfamily Melaeninae
subfamily Meligethinae
subfamily Meloinae
subfamily Merophysiinae
subfamily Mesocoleopodinae
subfamily Murmidiinae
subfamily Mycetaeinae
subfamily Mycetophaginae
subfamily Nacerdinae
subfamily Nebriinae
subfamily Necydalinae
subfamily Nemognathinae
subfamily Nitidulinae
subfamily Noterinae
subfamily Odacanthinae
subfamily Oedemerinae
subfamily Omophroninae
subfamily Oodinae
subfamily Orsodacninae
subfamily Ortaliinae
subfamily Orthoperinae
subfamily Palorinae
subfamily Panagaeinae
subfamily Parandrinae
subfamily Patrobinae
subfamily Paussinae
subfamily Pedilinae
subfamily Pelecotominae
subfamily Peltinae
subfamily Perigoninae
subfamily Phalacrinae
subfamily Phrenapatinae
subfamily Pimeliinae
subfamily Platyninae
subfamily Pleganophorinae
subfamily Polycaoninae
subfamily Prioninae
subfamily Promecognathinae
subfamily Psoinae
subfamily Psydrinae
subfamily Pterostichinae
subfamily Ptilininae
subfamily Ptilophorinae
subfamily Ptininae
subfamily Pyrochroinae
subfamily Rhadalinae
subfamily Rhysodinae
subfamily Ripidiinae
subfamily Ripiphorinae
subfamily Rypobiinae
subfamily Salpinginae
subfamily Scaritinae
subfamily Scraptiinae
subfamily Scymninae
subfamily Setariolinae
subfamily Siagoninae
subfamily Spondylidinae
subfamily Steropinae
subfamily Sticholotidinae
subfamily Synetinae
subfamily Tarsosteninae
subfamily Telmatophilinae
subfamily Tenebrioninae
subfamily Tetratominae
subfamily Tillinae
subfamily Tomoderinae
subfamily Toraminae
subfamily Trachypachinae
subfamily Trechinae
subfamily Tritominae
subfamily Trogossitinae
subfamily Vesperinae
subfamily Xenoscelinae
subfamily Xyletininae
subfamily Zeugophorinae
subfamily Zopherinae
tribe Abacetini
tribe Aciliini
tribe Adeliini
tribe Adesmiini
tribe Adoxini
tribe Agabini
tribe Akidini
tribe Alfieriellini
tribe Alphitobiini
tribe Amauronioidini
tribe Amblicerini
tribe Anaspidini
tribe Anisodactylini
tribe Anthicini
tribe Apatini
tribe Apenini
tribe Apotomini
tribe Asclerini
tribe Asidini
tribe Atomariini
tribe Belopini
tribe Bembidiini
tribe Berginini
tribe Bidessini
tribe Blaptini
tribe Bolitophagini
tribe Bostrichini
tribe Brachinini
tribe Broscini
tribe Bruchini
tribe Bulaeini
tribe Caenoscelini
tribe Calleidini
tribe Callistini
tribe Calopodini
tribe Carabini
tribe Cassidini
tribe Ceratanisini
tribe Cerocomini
tribe Chilocorini
tribe Chlaeniini
tribe Cicindelini
tribe Clivinini
tribe Clytrini
tribe Cnemeplatiini
tribe Coccidulini
tribe Coccinellini
tribe Coelometopini
tribe Colymbetini
tribe Conaliini
tribe Copelatini
tribe Corsyrini
tribe Corylophini
tribe Cossyphini
tribe Cossyphodini
tribe Crypticini
tribe Cryptocephalini
tribe Cryptophagini
tribe Cybistrini
tribe Cychrini
tribe Cyclosomini
tribe Cymbionotini
tribe Cymindidini
tribe Cynegetini
tribe Cynegetini
tribe Dalyatini
tribe Demetriadini
tribe Dendarini
tribe Diaperini
tribe Dicaelini
tribe Ditomini
tribe Ditylini
tribe Dromiini
tribe Dryptini
tribe Dyschiriini
tribe Dytiscini
tribe Elaphrini
tribe Elenophorini
tribe Endomiini
tribe Epicautini
tribe Epilachnini
tribe Epitragini
tribe Eretini
tribe Erodiini
tribe Esarcini
tribe Eumolpini
tribe Eurychorini
tribe Formicomini
tribe Galerucini
tribe Gloeosomatini
tribe Gyrinini
tribe Harpalini
tribe Helopini
tribe Hydaticini
tribe Hydrocanthini
tribe Hydroporini
tribe Hydrovatini
tribe Hygrotini
tribe Hyperaspidini
tribe Hyphydrini
tribe Hypocoprini
tribe Hypophloeini
tribe Kytorhinini
tribe Laccophilini
tribe Laccornini
tribe Lacnogyini
tribe Lagriini
tribe Lebiini
tribe Leichenini
tribe Lestignathini
tribe Licinini
tribe Lionychini
tribe Litoborini
tribe Loricerini
tribe Luperini
tribe Lyctini
tribe Lyttini
tribe Macrosiagonini
tribe Masoreini
tribe Megacephalini
tribe Melanimini
tribe Meloini
tribe Methlini
tribe Microhorini
tribe Microweiseini
tribe Microweiseini
tribe Mordellini
tribe Mordellistenini
tribe Morionini
tribe Mycetophagini
tribe Mylabrini
tribe Myrmechixenini
tribe Nacerdini
tribe Nebriini
tribe Nemognathini
tribe Nodinini
tribe Noterini
tribe Notiophilini
tribe Notoxini
tribe Noviini
tribe Odacanthini
tribe Oedemerini
tribe Omophronini
tribe Omphreini
tribe Oodini
tribe Opatrini
tribe Orectochilini
tribe Pachybrachini
tribe Pachymerini
tribe Pachypterini
tribe Panagaeini
tribe Parmulini
tribe Patrobini
tribe Paussini
tribe Pedinini
tribe Pelophilini
tribe Pentariini
tribe Perigonini
tribe Phaleriini
tribe Phrenapatini
tribe Pimeliini
tribe Platynaspidini
tribe Platynini
tribe Platynotini
tribe Platyopini
tribe Platyscelini
tribe Pogonini
tribe Pseudotrechini
tribe Psydrini
tribe Psylloborini
tribe Pterostichini
tribe Pycnomerini
tribe Rhaebini
tribe Rhysodini
tribe Ripiphorini
tribe Rypobiini
tribe Scaphidemini
tribe Scaritini
tribe Scaurini
tribe Scraptiini
tribe Scymnini
tribe Sepidiini
tribe Serangiini
tribe Serangiini
tribe Sericoderini
tribe Sermylini
tribe Siagonini
tribe Singilini
tribe Sinoxylini
tribe Somotrichini
tribe Sphodrini
tribe Stenaliini
tribe Stenoderini
tribe Stenolophini
tribe Stenosini
tribe Stenostomatini
tribe Stethorini
tribe Sticholotidini
tribe Stomini
tribe Strongyliini
tribe Stylosomini
tribe Telmatophilini
tribe Tenebrionini
tribe Tentyriini
tribe Teplinini
tribe Tetrabrachini
tribe Thaneroclerini
tribe Trachypachini
tribe Trachyscelini
tribe Trechini
tribe Triboliini
tribe Trogoxylini
tribe Typhaeini
tribe Tytthaspididini
tribe Ulomini
tribe Xyloperthini
tribe Zabrini
tribe Zophosini
tribe Zuphiini
subtribe Acanthoscelidina
subtribe Aepina
subtribe Amblicerina
subtribe Amblystomina
subtribe Anillina
subtribe Aptinina
subtribe Atranopsina
subtribe Aulacophorina
subtribe Bembidiina
subtribe Brachinina
subtribe Broscina
subtribe Bruchina
subtribe Calathina
subtribe Calosomatina
subtribe Carabina
subtribe Caryedonina
subtribe Chlaeniina
subtribe Cicindelina
subtribe Clinidiina
subtribe Clivinina
subtribe Cymindidina
subtribe Diabroticina
subtribe Ditomina
subtribe Dolichina
subtribe Harpalina
subtribe Kytorhinina
subtribe Lionychina
subtribe Luperina
subtribe Mastacina
subtribe Megacephalina
subtribe Molopina
subtribe Myadina
subtribe Odacanthina
subtribe Omoglymmiina
subtribe Oodina
subtribe Panagaeina
subtribe Paussina
subtribe Perileptina
subtribe Pheropsophina
subtribe Poecilina
subtribe Pseudomasoreina
subtribe Psydrina
subtribe Pterostichina
subtribe Reicheiina
subtribe Rhaebina
subtribe Rhysodina
subtribe Scaritina
subtribe Sphodrina
subtribe Synuchina
subtribe Tachyina
subtribe Trechina
subtribe Trechodina
subtribe Trichina
family Byturidae

Temporal coverage

Living time period: 
Currently living.
Notes: 

Currently living multicellular, terrestrial and freshwater animals in stable populations, largely excluding (1) rare / irregular immigrants, (2) alien / invasive species, (3) accidental or deliberate releases of exotic (pet)species, (4) domesticated animals, (5) non-native species imported and released for bio-control or (6) non-native species largely confined to hothouses.

Usage rights

Use license: 
Open Data Commons Attribution License
IP rights notes: 

Fauna Europaea data are licensed under CC BY SA version 4.0. The property rights of experts over their data is covered under the SMEBD conditions. For more copyrights and citation details see: http://www.faunaeur.org/copyright.php

Data resources

Data package title: 
Fauna Europaea - Coleoptera - 2
Alternative identifiers: 
Number of data sets: 
2
Data set name: 
Fauna Europaea - Coleoptera 2 (excl...) version 2.6.2 - species
Character set: 
UTF-8
Data format: 
CSV
Column label Column description
datasetName The name identifying the data set from which the record was derived (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/datasetName).
version Release version of data set.
versionIssued Issue data of data set version.
rights Information about rights held in and over the resource (http://purl.org/dc/terms/rights).
rightsHolder A person or organization owning or managing rights over the resource (http://purl.org/dc/terms/rightsHolder).
accessRights Information about who can access the resource or an indication of its security status (http://purl.org/dc/terms/accessRights).
taxonID An identifier for the set of taxon information (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/taxonID)
parentNameUsageID An identifier for the name usage of the direct parent taxon (in a classification) of the most specific element of the scientificName (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/parentNameUsageID).
scientificName The full scientific name, with authorship and date information if known (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/scientificName).
acceptedNameUsage The full name, with authorship and date information if known, of the currently valid (zoological) taxon (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/acceptedNameUsage).
originalNameUsage The original combination (genus and species group names), as firstly established under the rules of the associated nomenclaturalCode (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/originalNameUsage).
family The full scientific name of the family in which the taxon is classified (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/family).
familyNameId An identifier for the family name.
genus The full scientific name of the genus in which the taxon is classified (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/genus).
subgenus The full scientific name of the subgenus in which the taxon is classified. Values include the genus to avoid homonym confusion (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/subgenus).
specificEpithet The name of the first or species epithet of the scientificName (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/specificEpithet).
infraspecificEpithet The name of the lowest or terminal infraspecific epithet of the scientificName, excluding any rank designation (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/infraspecificEpithet).
taxonRank The taxonomic rank of the most specific name in the scientificName (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/infraspecificEpithet).
scientificNameAuthorship The authorship information for the scientificName formatted according to the conventions of the applicable nomenclaturalCode (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/scientificNameAuthorship).
authorName Author name information
namePublishedInYear The four-digit year in which the scientificName was published (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/namePublishedInYear).
Brackets Annotation if authorship should be put between parentheses.
nomenclaturalCode The nomenclatural code under which the scientificName is constructed (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/nomenclaturalCode).
taxonomicStatus The status of the use of the scientificName as a label for a taxon (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/taxonomicStatus).
resourceDescription An account of the resource, including a data-paper DOI (http://purl.org/dc/terms/description)
Data set name: 
Fauna Europaea - Coleoptera 2 (excl...) version 2.6.2 - hierarchy
Character set: 
UTF-8
Data format: 
CSV
Column label Column description
datasetName The name identifying the data set from which the record was derived (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/datasetName).
version Release version of data set.
versionIssued Issue data of data set version.
rights Information about rights held in and over the resource (http://purl.org/dc/terms/rights).
rightsHolder A person or organization owning or managing rights over the resource (http://purl.org/dc/terms/rightsHolder).
accessRights Information about who can access the resource or an indication of its security status (http://purl.org/dc/terms/accessRights).
taxonName The full scientific name of the higher-level taxon
scientificNameAuthorship The authorship information for the scientificName formatted according to the conventions of the applicable nomenclaturalCode (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/scientificNameAuthorship).
taxonRank The taxonomic rank of the most specific name in the scientificName (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/infraspecificEpithet).
taxonID An identifier for the set of taxon information (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/taxonID)
parentNameUsageID An identifier for the name usage of the direct parent taxon (in a classification) of the most specific element of the scientificName (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/parentNameUsageID).
resourceDescription An account of the resource, including a data-paper DOI (http://purl.org/dc/terms/description)

Acknowledgements

Many people have generously shared their expertise and contributed to the FaEu Coleoptera index by supplying miscellaneous taxonomic and/or faunistic data to one or more of the taxonomic specialists, and supporting in several ways the activity of the group coordinator PA and of the involved taxonomic specialists: we thanks all for their kind and generous co-operation.

Author contributions

Authors Paolo Audisio and Yde de Jong organized and wrote the main text of the paper, which has been reviewed, corrected and improved by all other co-authors.

References

Supplementary material

Suppl. material 1: FaEu Coleoptera 2 stats
Authors:  Yde de Jong & Paolo Audisio
Data type:  png
Brief description: 

This is a high-resolution version of Figure 3.