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Data Paper (Biosciences)
Standardised inventories of spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) of Macaronesia II: The native forests and dry habitats of Madeira archipelago (Madeira and Porto Santo islands)
expand article infoJagoba Malumbres-Olarte‡,§, Mário Boieiro, Pedro Cardoso§,|,, Rui Carvalho, Luís Carlos Fonseca Crespo¶,§, Rosalina Gabriel, Nuria Macías Hernández§,#, Octávio S. Paulo¤, Fernando Pereira, Carla Rego, Alejandra Ros-Prieto, Isamberto Silva«, Ana Vieira¤, François Rigal»,, Paulo A. V. Borges‡,˄
‡ CE3C – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and Universidade dos Açores, Angra do Heroísmo, Azores, Portugal
§ LIBRe – Laboratory for Integrative Biodiversity Research, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
| IUCN SSC Spider & Scorpion Specialist Group, Helsinki, Finland
¶ Biodiversity Research Institute UB, Departament Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences (Arthropods), Barcelona, Spain
# Island Ecology and Evolution Research Group, IPNA-CSIC, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
¤ Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Biologia Animal e Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Computational Biology and Population Genomics Group, Lisbon, Portugal
« Instituto das Florestas e da Conservação da Natureza, Funchal, Portugal
» Environment and Microbiology Team, Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, Pau Cedex, France
˄ IUCN - SSC Mid-Atlantic Island Invertebrates Specialist Group, Angra do Heroísmo, Azores, Portugal
Open Access

Abstract

Background

Here we present the data obtained from the samples collected as part of a large research project (MACDIV) which aims at understanding the drivers of spider (Araneae) community assembly in Macaronesian islands. To obtain the data, we applied the sampling protocol COBRA (Conservation Oriented Biodiversity Rapid Assessment), in twelve 50 m x 50 m native forest plots and five dry habitat plots on the island of Madeiraand in 5 dry habitat plots on the island of Porto Santo. Through this publication, we contribute to the knowledge of the arachnofauna of the Madeiran archipelago.

New information

From the samples that we collected, we obtained a total of 14,902 specimens, of which 49% were adults (7,263). We identified these specimens to 87 species and 18 morphospecies (undescribed), belonging to 26 families. Species of the family Linyphiidae dominated the samples, with 24 (morpho)species. Out of the 105 recorded (morpho)species, 34 were endemic, 26 native non-endemic, 22 introduced and 23 species of unknown origin. We report seven new records of possibly recently introduced species in the Madeiran archipelago. We also present 21 new records for Madeira island and 32 for Porto Santo (33 for the whole archipelago).

Keywords

Arthropoda, Araneae, Madeira, Porto Santo, native forest, dry habitat, exotic species, standardised sampling

Introduction

The north Atlantic archipelago of Madeira is composed of the volcanic islands of Madeira, Porto Santo and the Desertas, as well several islets. At approximately 700 km from the African coast and at more than 400 km from the Canary Islands, it is the second most isolated Macaronesian archipelago, after the Azores. This intermediate distance, combined with an geological age of 5-27 My, has allowed frequent colonisation rates and enough diversification time to generate diverse species communities (Fernández-Palacios 2010, Fernández-Palacios et al. 2011). Since its settlement in the XV Century by the Portuguese, the archipelago has gone through a profound environmental transformation. Nevertheless, the main island of the archipelago, i.e. Madeira, still preserves a considerable area of unique native laurel forest (laurisilva), covering 20% of the island (Boieiro et al. 2015, Boieiro et al. 2018).

The laurisilva is indeed a unique and iconic ecosystem, that is often seen as representative of the Macaronesian archipelagos as a whole and contains a great deal of endemic species (Boieiro et al. 2010, Boieiro et al. 2013, Borges et al. 2008). However, the archipelago is also the home of more open habitats, such as scrublands and thermophilous grasslands, present in drier conditions than those where laurisilva is found. Although these often overlooked dry habitats may not be as species-rich as forests, they do contribute to the endemic fauna of the archipelago, which represent 20% of all the species (Borges et al. 2008). Moreover, Madeiran dry habitats may also contain a substantial number of unknown species that have eluded recent taxonomic, conservation and faunistic research, including IUCN Red List assessments (Martín et al. 2008, Martín et al. 2010, Silva et al. 2008, Cardoso et al. 2017), as well as unrecorded exotic species (Silva et al. 2008).

The need for an update in many taxa is exemplified by spiders. Although, according to the last available checklist (Cardoso and Crespo 2008), the spider fauna of Madeira archipelago is composed of 183 species (including 58 endemic species), new taxa have been discovered since then (e.g. Crespo et al. 2009, Crespo et al. 2014).

This publication is the second of a series on Macaronesian spider fauna (see Malumbres-Olarte et al. 2019) and provides habitat, biogeographic and colonisation information on the species collected in 12 native forest plots and 10 native dry habitat plots on the islands of Madeira and Porto Santo through the project MACDIV.

Sampling methods

Study extent: 

We established twenty-two 50 m × 50 m plots, grouped according to habitat and between-plot distances. Twelve plots were located in areas covered with laurisilva and grouped in two sets of six. Within each set, plots were placed at increasing distances from a first, reference plot (Table 1): 0.1, 1, 5, 10 and 20 km (Fig. 1). The remaining 10 plots were located in areas of open dry habitat, five on Madeira island and five on Porto Santo, also at increasing distances from a reference plot (0.1, 1, 5 and 10 km). This design allowed for testing of distance decay patterns on beta diversity on a log scale. We set up the forest plots in well-preserved native forest areas, where native tree species, such as Clethra arborea, Laurus novocanariensis, Ocotea foetens and Persea indica, were dominant (Neves et al. 1996, Menezes et al. 2005) (Fig. 2). We set the dry plots in grasslands at low-altitude, where the vegetation cover was dominated by herbaceous species and several shrubs, like Echium spp, Euphorbia piscatoria and Globularia salicina (Medeiros et al. 2010) (Fig. 3).

Coordinates and habitat type of sampling plots.

Plot name (island)

Habitat

Longitude

Latitude

Madeira d1

Dry

-16.70261

32.74633

Madeira d2

Dry

-16.70307

32.74691

Madeira d3

Dry

-16.71886

32.74618

Madeira d4

Dry

-16.75788

32.72623

Madeira d5

Dry

-16.8138

32.66138

Madeira f1

Forest

-16.9371

32.79582

Madeira f2

Forest

-16.93654

32.79801

Madeira f3

Forest

-16.9347

32.80462

Madeira f4

Forest

-16.90233

32.78108

Madeira f5

Forest

-16.88654

32.73302

Madeira f6

Forest

-17.15781

32.82816

Madeira f7

Forest

-17.15871

32.82706

Madeira f8

Forest

-17.15336

32.82306

Madeira f9

Forest

-17.11369

32.79154

Madeira f10

Forest

-17.05499

32.7746

Porto_Santo 1

Dry

-16.30453

33.09135

Porto_Santo 2

Dry

-16.30536

33.0921

Porto_Santo 3

Dry

-16.32426

33.09041

Porto_Santo 4

Dry

-16.36452

33.07376

Porto_Santo 5

Dry

-16.38267

33.03804

Figure 1.

Location of plots on Madeira and Porto Santo islands. MF: Madeira forest habitat plots. MD: Madeira dry habitat plots. PSD: Porto Santo dry habitat plots. Numbers correspond to plot numbers.

aMadeira and Porto Santo Islands  
bArchipelago of Madeira  
cMadeira forest habitat plots 6-12  
dMadeira forest habitat plots 1-6  
eMadeira dry habitat plots 1-5  
fPorto Santo dry habitat plots 1-5  
Figure 2.  

Forest habitat Plot 3 of Madeira island (Credit: Jagoba Malumbres-Olarte).

Figure 3.  

Dry habitat Plot 1 of the island of Porto Santo (Credit: Jagoba Malumbres-Olarte).

Sampling description: 

We applied two versions of the optimised and standardised COBRA protocol (Conservation Oriented Biodiversity Rapid Assessment) (Cardoso 2009): the protocol for temperate forests (which we applied in forest plots) and the protocol for open habitats (applied to dry habitat plots). The COBRA protocols have been proposed as part of standard inventorying and monitoring programmes on island and continental ecosystems and have already been used for a number of studies on spiders and beetles (Cardoso 2009, Borges et al. 2018, Malumbres-Olarte et al. 2017, Malumbres-Olarte et al. 2018, Crespo et al. 2018). The forest COBRA protocol consisted of: four night aerial samples (1 hour / sample), two day sweeping samples and two night sweeping samples (1 hour / sample), two day beating samples and two night beating samples (1 hour / sample) and 12 pitfall samples (4 traps / sample). In addition, we collected the following samples to also cover beetle diversity (beetle data will be included in future publications): two diurnal active aerial searching under bark, lichens and bryophytes (ABS) (1 hour / sample) and two diurnal active aerial searching in decaying trunks, dead wood on the ground and under stones (GWS) (1 hour / sample). The protocol for dry open areas was composed of: four night ground samples (1 hour / sample) and four day sweeping samples and four night sweeping samples (1 hour / sample). Sampling occurred in August 2016 (forest habitat plots of Madeira) and April 2017 (dry habitat plots of Madeira and Porto Santo).

Geographic coverage

Description: 

Madeira and Porto Santo islands, Madeira, Macaronesia, Portugal

Coordinates: 

32.66138 and 33.0921 Latitude; -17.15871 and -16.30453 Longitude.

Taxonomic coverage

Taxa included:
Rank Scientific Name Common Name
order Araneae Spiders

Temporal coverage

Data range: 
2016-8-01 - 2017-4-30.
Notes: 

Sampling in the native forest occurred in August 2016. Sampling in dry habitats occurred in April 2017.

Collection data

Collection name: 
Dalberto Teixeira Pombo insect collection at the University of Azores
Collection identifier: 
DTP
Specimen preservation method: 
All specimens were preserved in 96% ethanol
Curatorial unit: 
Dalberto Teixeira Pombo insect collection at the University of Azores (Curator: Paulo A. V. Borges)

Usage rights

Use license: 
Open Data Commons Attribution License

Data resources

Data package title: 
MACDIV_COBRA_Madeira_Forest_and_Dry
Number of data sets: 
1
Data set name: 
MACDIV_COBRA_Madeira_Forest_and_Dry
Data format: 
Darwin Core Archive
Data format version: 
version 1
Description: 

The following data table includes all the records for which a taxonomic identification of the species was possible. The dataset submitted to GBIF is structured as a sample event dataset, with two tables: event (as core) and occurrences. The data in this sampling event resource have been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwCA), which is a standardised format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 562 records (eventID). One extension data table also exists with 3281 occurrences. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated in the IPT link. This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for downloading in the downloads section.

Column label Column description
Table of Sampling Events Table with sampling events data (beginning of table)
id Unique identification code for sampling event data
eventID Identifier of the events, unique for the dataset
samplingProtocol The sampling protocol used to capture the species
sampleSizeValue The numeric amount of time spent in each sampling
sampleSizeUnit The unit of the sample size value
samplingEffort The amount of time of each sampling
eventDate Date or date range the record was collected
eventTime Time of the day the record was collected
startDayOfYear The earliest ordinal day of the year on which the event occurred
endDayOfYear The latest ordinal day of the year on which the event occurred
year Year of the event
month Month of the event
day Day of the event
habitat The surveyed habitat
fieldNumber The code given to each sample
locationID Identifier of the location
islandGroup Name of archipelago
island Name of the island
country Country of the sampling site
countryCode ISO code of the country of the sampling site
stateProvince Name of the region of the sampling site
locationRemarks Details on the locality site
decimalLatitude Approximate centre point decimal latitude of the field site in GPS coordinates
decimalLongitude Details on the locality site
Details on the locality site The reference point for the various coordinate systems used in mapping the earth
coordinateUncertaintyInMetres Uncertainty of the coordinates of the centre of the sampling plot
coordinatePrecision Precision of the coordinates
georeferenceSources A list (concatenated and separated) of maps, gazetteers or other resources used to georeference the Location, described specifically enough to allow anyone in the future to use the same resources.
Table of Species Occurrence Table with species abundance data (beginning of new table)
id Unique identification code for species abundance data
type Type of the record, as defined by the Public Core standard
licence Reference to the licence under which the record is published
institutionID The identity of the institution publishing the data
collectionID The identity of the collection publishing the data
institutionCode The code of the institution publishing the data
collectionCode The code of the collection where the specimens are conserved
datasetName Name of the dataset
basisOfRecord The nature of the data record
dynamicProperties The name of the scientific project funding the sampling
occurrenceID Identifier of the record, coded as a global unique identifier
catalogNumber Record number of the specimen in the collection
recordedBy Name of the person who performed the sampling of the specimens
individualCount Total number of individuals captured
organismQuantityType The unit of the identification of the organisms
sex The sex and quantity of the individuals captured
lifeStage The life stage of the organisms captured
establishmentMeans The process of establishment of the species in the location, using a controlled vocabulary: 'naturalised', 'introduced', 'endemic', "unknown"
occurrenceStatus Information about the presence/absence of the species
eventID A unique identifier of an occurrence
identifiedBy Name of the person who made the identification
dateIdentified Date on which the record was identified
scientificName Complete scientific name including author and year
kingdom Kingdom name
phylum Phylum name
class Class name
order Order name
family Family name
genus Genus name
specificEpithet Specific epithet
taxonRank Lowest taxonomic rank of the record
scientificNameAuthorship Name of the author of the lowest taxon rank included in the record

Additional information

Results

We collected a total of 14,902 specimens – of which 49% were adults (7,263) - belonging to 105 (morpho) species and 26 families (Tables 2, 3, 4) - 87 species and 18 morphospecies (undescribed) (Malumbres-Olarte et al. 2019b). The number of species per plot oscillated between 19-32, with the minimum in the dry Plot 4 of Porto Santo (PS4) and the maximum number in Plot 3 of Madeiran forest (MF3). Out of the recorded (morpho)species, 34 were endemic, 26 native non-endemic, 22 introduced and 23 species of unknown origin. We report seven new records of introduced species in the Madeiran archipelago. On Madeira island, we recorded 88 (morpho)species, of which 26 were endemic, 26 native non-endemic, 19 introduced and 17 species of unknown origin. On Porto Santo island, we recorded 48 (morpho)species, of which 12 were endemic species, 7 native non-endemic species, 14 introduced species and 15 species of unknown origin. We present 21 new records for Madeira island and 32 for Porto Santo (33 for the whole archipelago).

Abundance, biogeographic category and previous records of (morpho)species in six of the forest plots on Madeira island. Abbreviations: Plot names: Madeira forest (MF); Madeira dry habitat (MD); Porto Santo dry habitat (PSD). Biogeographic category (Biog. cat): Endemic (END); Introduced (INT); Macaronesian (MAC); Native non-endemic (NAT); Unknown (UK). Previous records (Prev. Rec.): Madeira (M), Porto Santo (PS), Not recorded (No). Reference for previous records: List of Madeiran Fauna (LMF) (Borges et al. 2008), World Spider Catalogue (WSC) (Natural History Museum Bern 2019).

Family

Species

Biog.Cat.

Prev. Rec.

MF1

MF2

MF3

MF4

MF5

MF6

Agelenidae

Eratigena feminea (Simon, 1870)

UK

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Agelenidae

Synaphris saphrynis Lopardo, Hormiga & Melic, 2007

UK

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Agelenidae

Tegenaria domestica (Clerck, 1757)

I

M

0

0

1

0

0

1

Araneidae

Agalenatea redii (Scopoli, 1763)

I

M, PS

0

0

0

0

0

0

Araneidae

Araniella maderiana (Kulczyński, 1905)

N

M, PS

0

0

0

2

0

0

Araneidae

Argiope trifasciata (Forskål, 1775)

UK

M, PS

0

0

0

0

0

0

Araneidae

Cyclosa maderiana Kulczyński, 1899

N

M

0

0

0

0

1

0

Araneidae

Cyrtophora citricola (Forskål, 1775)

I

M

0

0

0

0

0

0

Araneidae

Mangora acalypha (Walckenaer, 1802)

I

M

0

0

0

0

0

0

Araneidae

Neoscona crucifera (Lucas, 1838)

I

M, PS

1

1

5

3

7

2

Araneidae

Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757)

I

M, PS

0

0

0

0

0

0

Cheiracanthiidae

Cheiracanthium albidulum (Blackwall, 1859)

E

M, PS

15

5

28

2

8

12

Clubionidae

Porrhoclubiona decora (Blackwall, 1859)

N

M, PS

1

0

0

2

0

3

Dictynidae

Lathys affinis (Blackwall, 1862)

E

M, PS

0

1

8

0

11

0

Dictynidae

Nigma puella (Simon, 1870)

UK

M, PS

0

0

0

0

0

0

Dysderidae

Dysdera coiffaiti Denis, 1962

E

M

0

1

1

0

0

0

Dysderidae

Dysdera crocata C.L.Koch, 1838

I

M, PS

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Drassodes lutescens (C.L.Koch, 1839)

UK

M

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Haplodrassus sp. 158

E

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Haplodrassus sp. 164

UK

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Haplodrassus omissus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872)

N

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Heser hispanus Senglet, 2012

UK

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Macarophaeus cultior (Kulczyński, 1899)

E

No

0

0

2

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Micaria pallipes (Lucas, 1846)

UK

M

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Setaphis carmeli (O.P.-Cambridge, 1872)

UK

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Trachyzelotes holosericeus (Simon, 1878)

UK

M

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Trachyzelotes lyonneti (Audouin, 1826)

UK

M, PS

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Zelotes aeneus (Simon, 1878)

I

No (LMF), M (WSC)

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Zelotes tenuis (L.Koch, 1866)

I

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Zimirina lepida (Blackwall, 1859)

E

M

0

0

0

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Agyneta canariensis Wunderlich, 1987

N

No (LMF), M (WSC)

0

0

0

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Agyneta fuscipalpa (C.L.Koch, 1836)

I

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Canariellanum sp. 21

E

No

0

0

0

0

0

10

Linyphiidae

Centromerus variegatus Denis, 1962

E

M

0

0

0

2

0

0

Linyphiidae

Ceratinopsis sp. 111

E

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Ceratinopsis acripes (Denis, 1962)

N

M

3

1

2

2

4

2

Linyphiidae

Ceratinopsis infuscata (Denis, 1962)

E

M

0

0

0

1

2

0

Linyphiidae

Ceratinopsis sp. 233

E

No

0

0

1

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Ceratinopsis sp. 58

E

No

0

0

1

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Diplocephalus graecus (O.P.-Cambridge, 1873)

I

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Entelecara schmitzi Kulczyński, 1905

UK

M

2

5

5

0

5

0

Linyphiidae

Frontinellina dearmata (Kulczyński, 1899)

E

M

6

4

3

7

62

0

Linyphiidae

Frontiphantes fulgurenotatus (Schenkel, 1938)

E

M

0

0

1

0

3

4

Linyphiidae

Lepthyphantes mauli Wunderlich, 1992

E

M

0

0

1

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Microctenonyx subitaneus (O.P.-Cambridge, 1875)

UK

M

0

0

0

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Microlinyphia johnsoni (Blackwall, 1859)

N

M, PS

3

6

7

12

21

8

Linyphiidae

Ostearius melanopygius (O.P.-Cambridge, 1880)

I

M

0

0

0

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Palliduphantes schmitzi (Kulczyński, 1899)

N

M

5

0

1

10

0

17

Linyphiidae

Parapelecopsis nemoralioides (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1884)

I

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Pelecopsis inedita (O.P.-Cambridge, 1875)

I

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Tenuiphantes sp. 259

E

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Tenuiphantes tenebricoloides (Schenkel, 1938)

E

M

0

0

0

1

1

0

Linyphiidae

Tenuiphantes tenuis (Blackwall, 1852)

I

M, PS

50

35

53

43

34

66

Linyphiidae

Turinyphia maderiana (Schenkel, 1938)

E

M

0

0

0

0

5

1

Liocranidae

Mesiotelus cf. grancanariensis Wunderlich, 1992

N

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Lycosidae

Hogna insularum (Kulczyński, 1899)

E

M, PS

0

0

0

0

0

0

Lycosidae

Hogna schmitzi Wunderlich, 1992

E

PS

0

0

0

0

0

0

Lycosidae

Pardosa proxima (C.L.Koch, 1847)

N

M, PS

0

0

0

0

0

0

Mimetidae

Ero aphana (Walckenaer, 1802)

N

M, PS

0

0

1

0

0

1

Mysmenidae

Trogloneta madeirensis Wunderlich, 1987

E

M

0

2

3

4

1

13

Nesticidae

Eidmannella pallida (Emerton, 1875)

I

M

0

0

0

0

0

0

Oecobiidae

Oecobius similis Kulczyński, 1909

N

M, PS

0

0

0

0

0

0

Oonopidae

Gamasomorpha insularis Simon, 1907

UK

M

0

0

0

0

0

0

Oonopidae

Oonops cf. pulcher Templeton, 1835

UK

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Oonopidae

Opopaea concolor (Blackwall, 1859)

N

M

0

0

0

0

0

0

Oonopidae

Orchestina sp. 160

E

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Oxyopidae

Oxyopes sp. 80

UK

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Philodromidae

Philodromus insulanus Kulczyński, 1905

E

M

0

0

0

0

0

0

Philodromidae

Philodromus MAD266

UK

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Philodromidae

Thanatus vulgaris Simon, 1870

UK

M, PS

0

0

0

0

0

0

Pholcidae

Pholcus madeirensis Wunderlich, 1987

E

M

3

1

7

0

0

0

Salticidae

Chalcoscirtus sublestus (Blackwall, 1867)

N

M

0

0

0

0

0

0

Salticidae

Macaroeris cf. desertensis Wunderlich, 1992

E

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Salticidae

Macaroeris cf. diligens (Blackwall, 1867)

E

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Salticidae

Macaroeris diligens (Blackwall, 1867)

N

M, PS

3

0

1

1

2

0

Salticidae

Macaroeris sp. 8

E

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Salticidae

Pellenes maderianus Kulczyński, 1905

N

M

0

0

0

0

0

0

Scytodidae

Scytodes velutina Heineken & Lowe, 1832

UK

M

0

0

0

0

0

0

Segestriidae

Ariadna maderiana Warburton, 1892

E

M, PS

0

0

0

0

0

0

Segestriidae

Segestria florentina (Rossi, 1790)

I

M, PS

0

0

0

0

0

0

Tetragnathidae

Meta stridulans Wunderlich, 1987

E

M

8

7

9

1

2

15

Theridiidae

Cryptachaea blattea (Urquhart, 1886)

I

No

3

0

13

9

3

0

Theridiidae

Dipoenata longitarsis (Denis, 1962)

E

M

0

0

0

1

0

0

Theridiidae

Echinotheridion gibberosum (Kulczyński, 1899)

N

M

37

28

63

4

32

7

Theridiidae

Enoplognatha diversa (Blackwall, 1859)

I

M, PS

0

0

0

0

0

0

Theridiidae

Enoplognatha sattleri Bösenberg, 1895

N

M

0

0

0

0

1

0

Theridiidae

Episinus maderianus Kulczyński, 1905

N

M

182

59

160

42

33

84

Theridiidae

Kochiura aulica (C.L.Koch, 1838)

N

M, PS

0

0

0

0

0

0

Theridiidae

Laseola sp. 268

E

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Theridiidae

Macaridion barreti (Kulczyński, 1899)

N

M

55

63

112

1

60

15

Theridiidae

Paidiscura orotavensis (Schmidt, 1968)

N

M

0

13

1

2

0

0

Theridiidae

Rhomphaea nasica (Simon, 1873)

I

M

0

1

2

0

0

1

Theridiidae

Rugathodes madeirensis Wunderlich, 1987

E

M

48

2

2

156

8

96

Theridiidae

Steatoda grossa (C.L.Koch, 1838)

I

M, PS

0

0

0

0

0

0

Theridiidae

Steatoda nobilis (Thorell, 1875)

N

M, PS

1

1

4

0

1

0

Theridiidae

Theridion hannoniae Denis, 1945

UK

M

0

0

0

0

0

0

Theridiidae

Theridion musivivum Schmidt, 1956

N

M, PS

0

0

0

0

0

0

Theridiidae

Theridion sp. 89

E

No

4

2

2

2

11

1

Thomisidae

Misumena cf. nigromaculata Denis, 1963

E

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Thomisidae

Misumena spinifera (Blackwall, 1862)

N

M, PS

1

1

2

0

0

1

Thomisidae

Thomisus onustus Walckenaer, 1805

I

No

0

0

0

0

0

0

Thomisidae

Xysticus nubilus Simon, 1875

UK

M, PS

0

0

0

0

0

0

Uloboridae

Hyptiotes flavidus (Blackwall, 1862)

N

M

13

3

3

11

40

0

Uloboridae

Uloborus walckenaerius Latreille, 1806

UK

M

0

0

0

0

0

0

Zodariidae

Zodarion styliferum (Simon, 1870)

UK

M

0

0

0

0

0

0

Species richness

21

22

32

24

25

21

Abundance, biogeographic category and previous records of (morpho)species in five of the forest plots and two of the dry habitat plots on Madeira island. Abbreviations: Madeira forest plot (MF), Madeira dry plot (MD).

Family

Species

MF7

MF8

MF9

MF10

MF11

MF12

MD1

MD2

Agelenidae

Eratigena feminea (Simon, 1870)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Agelenidae

Synaphris saphrynis Lopardo, Hormiga & Melic 2007

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Agelenidae

Tegenaria domestica (Clerck, 1757)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Araneidae

Agalenatea redii (Scopoli, 1763)

0

0

0

0

0

0

7

22

Araneidae

Araniella maderiana (Kulczyński, 1905)

3

0

3

0

0

1

0

0

Araneidae

Argiope trifasciata (Forskål, 1775)

0

0

0

0

0

0

10

17

Araneidae

Cyclosa maderiana Kulczyński, 1899

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

Araneidae

Cyrtophora citricola (Forskål, 1775)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Araneidae

Mangora acalypha (Walckenaer, 1802)

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

Araneidae

Neoscona crucifera (Lucas, 1838)

2

1

1

1

1

2

0

0

Araneidae

Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Cheiracanthiidae

Cheiracanthium albidulum (Blackwall, 1859)

34

11

36

9

15

43

0

0

Clubionidae

Porrhoclubiona decora (Blackwall, 1859)

2

0

3

2

0

1

1

2

Dictynidae

Lathys affinis (Blackwall, 1862)

6

1

2

2

0

3

0

0

Dictynidae

Nigma puella (Simon, 1870)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Dysderidae

Dysdera coiffaiti Denis, 1962

3

1

2

0

0

0

0

0

Dysderidae

Dysdera crocata C.L.Koch, 1838

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

5

Gnaphosidae

Drassodes lutescens (C.L.Koch, 1839)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Haplodrassus sp. 158

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Haplodrassus sp. 164

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Haplodrassus omissus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872)

0

0

0

0

0

0

13

1

Gnaphosidae

Heser hispanus Senglet, 2012

0

0

0

0

0

0

35

23

Gnaphosidae

Macarophaeus cultior (Kulczyński, 1899)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Micaria pallipes (Lucas, 1846)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Setaphis carmeli (O.P.-Cambridge, 1872)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Trachyzelotes holosericeus (Simon, 1878)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Trachyzelotes lyonneti (Audouin, 1826)

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

2

Gnaphosidae

Zelotes aeneus (Simon, 1878)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Zelotes tenuis (L.Koch, 1866)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gnaphosidae

Zimirina lepida (Blackwall, 1859)

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

Linyphiidae

Agyneta canariensis Wunderlich, 1987

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Agyneta fuscipalpa (C.L.Koch, 1836)

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

9

Linyphiidae

Canariellanum sp. 21

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Centromerus variegatus Denis, 1962

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Ceratinopsis sp. 111

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

Linyphiidae

Ceratinopsis acripes (Denis, 1962)

2

1

1

1

4

6

0

0

Linyphiidae

Ceratinopsis infuscata (Denis, 1962)

0

2

8

0

1

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Ceratinopsis sp. 233

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Ceratinopsis sp. 58

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Diplocephalus graecus (O.P.-Cambridge, 1873)

0

0

0

0

0

0

103

375

Linyphiidae

Entelecara schmitzi Kulczyński, 1905

1

0

2

5

2

7

0

0

Linyphiidae

Frontinellina dearmata (Kulczyński, 1899)

7

1

4

8

32

43

0

0

Linyphiidae

Frontiphantes fulgurenotatus (Schenkel, 1938)

14

0

1

0

2

1

0

0

Linyphiidae

Lepthyphantes mauli Wunderlich, 1992

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Microctenonyx subitaneus (O.P.-Cambridge, 1875)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

6

Linyphiidae

Microlinyphia johnsoni (Blackwall, 1859)

2

3

4

8

8

27

0

0

Linyphiidae

Ostearius melanopygius (O.P.-Cambridge, 1880)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Palliduphantes schmitzi (Kulczyński, 1899)

3

0

0

5

1

3

0

0

Linyphiidae

Parapelecopsis nemoralioides (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1884)

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

3

Linyphiidae

Pelecopsis inedita (O.P.-Cambridge, 1875)

0

0

0

0

0

0

10

15

Linyphiidae

Tenuiphantes sp. 259

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Linyphiidae

Tenuiphantes tenebricoloides (Schenkel, 1938)

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

Linyphiidae

Tenuiphantes tenuis (Blackwall, 1852)

31

58

13

49

25

56

0

4

Linyphiidae

Turinyphia maderiana (Schenkel, 1938)

0

2

0

1

4

0

0

0

Liocranidae

Mesiotelus cf. grancanariensis Wunderlich, 1992

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

Lycosidae

Hogna insularum (Kulczyński, 1899)

0

0

0

0

0

0

60

49

Lycosidae

Hogna schmitzi Wunderlich, 1992

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Lycosidae

Pardosa proxima (C.L.Koch, 1847)

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

Mimetidae

Ero aphana (Walckenaer, 1802)

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

Mysmenidae

Trogloneta madeirensis Wunderlich, 1987

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

Nesticidae

Eidmannella pallida (Emerton, 1875)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

Oecobiidae

Oecobius similis Kulczyński, 1909

0

0

0

0

0

0

8

10

Oonopidae

Gamasomorpha insularis Simon, 1907

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

Oonopidae

Oonops cf. pulcher Templeton, 1835

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Oonopidae

Opopaea concolor (Blackwall, 1859)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

Oonopidae

Orchestina sp. 160

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Oxyopidae

Oxyopes sp. 80

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Philodromidae

Philodromus insulanus Kulczyński, 1905

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Philodromidae

Philodromus MAD266

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Philodromidae

Thanatus vulgaris Simon, 1870

0

0

0

0

0

0

6

6

Pholcidae

Pholcus madeirensis Wunderlich, 1987

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Salticidae

Chalcoscirtus sublestus (Blackwall, 1867)

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

Salticidae

Macaroeris cf. desertensis Wunderlich, 1992

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Salticidae

Macaroeris cf. diligens (Blackwall, 1867)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Salticidae

Macaroeris diligens (Blackwall, 1867)

4

1

8

5

0

1

0

0

Salticidae

Macaroeris sp. 8

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

5

Salticidae

Pellenes maderianus Kulczyński, 1905

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

Scytodidae

Scytodes velutina Heineken & Lowe, 1832

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Segestriidae

Ariadna maderiana Warburton, 1892

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Segestriidae

Segestria florentina (Rossi, 1790)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Tetragnathidae

Meta stridulans Wunderlich, 1987

3

1

3

10

2

1

0

0

Theridiidae

Cryptachaea blattea (Urquhart, 1886)

2

3

5

3

6

3

1

0

Theridiidae

Dipoenata longitarsis (Denis, 1962)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Theridiidae

Echinotheridion gibberosum (Kulczyński, 1899)

39

3

9

1

22

71

0

0

Theridiidae

Enoplognatha diversa (Blackwall, 1859)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Theridiidae

Enoplognatha sattleri Bösenberg, 1895

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Theridiidae

Episinus maderianus Kulczyński, 1905

64

14

41

38

18

11

0

0

Theridiidae

Kochiura aulica (C.L.Koch, 1838)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Theridiidae

Laseola sp. 268

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Theridiidae

Macaridion barreti (Kulczyński, 1899)

14

0

17

19

19

119

0

0

Theridiidae

Paidiscura orotavensis (Schmidt, 1968)

3

1

1

15

2

0

0

0

Theridiidae

Rhomphaea nasica (Simon, 1873)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Theridiidae

Rugathodes madeirensis Wunderlich, 1987

1

1

0

0

5

6

0

0

Theridiidae

Steatoda grossa (C.L.Koch, 1838)

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

4

Theridiidae

Steatoda nobilis (Thorell, 1875)

6

7

2

0

2

0

0

0

Theridiidae

Theridion hannoniae Denis, 1945

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Theridiidae

Theridion musivivum Schmidt, 1956

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

Theridiidae

Theridion sp. 89

4

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

Thomisidae

Misumena cf. nigromaculata Denis, 1963

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

Thomisidae

Misumena spinifera (Blackwall, 1862)

1

0

4

0

0

2

0

0

Thomisidae

Thomisus onustus Walckenaer, 1805

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Thomisidae

Xysticus nubilus Simon, 1875

0

0

0

0

0

0

9

2

Uloboridae

Hyptiotes flavidus (Blackwall, 1862)

10

1

5

2

15

8

0

0

Uloboridae

Uloborus walckenaerius Latreille, 1806

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

Zodariidae

Zodarion styliferum (Simon, 1870)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Species richness

26

21

24

22

22

24

22

26

Abundance of (morpho)species in three of the plots on Madeira island and in the plots on Porto Santo island. Abbreviations: Madeira dry plot (MD), Porto Santo plot (PS).

Family

Species

MD3

MD4

MD5

PSD1

PSD2

PSD3

PSD4

PSD5

Total

Agelenidae

Eratigena feminea (Simon, 1870)

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

Agelenidae

Synaphris saphrynis Lopardo, Hormiga & Melic, 2007

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

19

19

Agelenidae

Tegenaria domestica (Clerck, 1757)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

Araneidae

Agalenatea redii (Scopoli, 1763)

2

28

19

1

1

0

0

0

80

Araneidae

Araniella maderiana (Kulczyński, 1905)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

9

Araneidae

Argiope trifasciata (Forskål, 1775)

1

38

4

0

0

0

0

1

71

Araneidae

Cyclosa maderiana Kulczyński, 1899

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

Araneidae

Cyrtophora citricola (Forskål, 1775)

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

Araneidae

Mangora acalypha (Walckenaer, 1802)

1

7

22

1

0

0

0

0

33

Araneidae

Neoscona crucifera (Lucas, 1838)

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

28

Araneidae

Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757)

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

Cheiracanthiidae

Cheiracanthium albidulum (Blackwall, 1859)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

218

Clubionidae

Porrhoclubiona decora (Blackwall, 1859)

10

7

3

3

3

0

0

9

52

Dictynidae

Lathys affinis (Blackwall, 1862)

0

0

0

16

18

2

0

0

70

Dictynidae

Nigma puella (Simon, 1870)

0

0

15

0

0

0

0

0

15

Dysderidae

Dysdera coiffaiti Denis, 1962

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

8

Dysderidae

Dysdera crocata C.L.Koch, 1838

5

8

18

2

0

3

0

0

43

Gnaphosidae

Drassodes lutescens (C.L.Koch, 1839)

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

Gnaphosidae

Haplodrassus sp. 158

0

0

0

18

7

0

25

18

68

Gnaphosidae

Haplodrassus sp. 164

0

0

0

6

5

0

5

2

18

Gnaphosidae

Haplodrassus omissus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872)

6

0

0

0

1

0

13

1

35

Gnaphosidae

Heser hispanus Senglet, 2012

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

59

Gnaphosidae

Macarophaeus cultior (Kulczyński, 1899)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

Gnaphosidae

Micaria pallipes (Lucas, 1846)

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

3

Gnaphosidae

Setaphis carmeli (O.P.-Cambridge, 1872)

0

0

0

1

1

6

0

0

8

Gnaphosidae

Trachyzelotes holosericeus (Simon, 1878)

1

0

0

7

4

1

0

0

13

Gnaphosidae

Trachyzelotes lyonneti (Audouin, 1826)

0

7

1

4

0

17

0

2

37

Gnaphosidae

Zelotes aeneus (Simon, 1878)

0

0

0

4

0

0

2

1

7

Gnaphosidae

Zelotes tenuis (L.Koch, 1866)

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

Gnaphosidae

Zimirina lepida (Blackwall, 1859)

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

5

Linyphiidae

Agyneta canariensis Wunderlich, 1987

3

0

0

28

7

3

0

5

46

Linyphiidae

Agyneta fuscipalpa (C.L.Koch, 1836)

2

66

15

8

1

23

10

13

150

Linyphiidae

Canariellanum sp. 21

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

10

Linyphiidae

Centromerus variegatus Denis, 1962

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

Linyphiidae

Ceratinopsis sp. 111

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

Linyphiidae

Ceratinopsis acripes (Denis, 1962)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

29

Linyphiidae

Ceratinopsis infuscata (Denis, 1962)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

14

Linyphiidae

Ceratinopsis sp. 233

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

Linyphiidae

Ceratinopsis sp. 58

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

Linyphiidae

Diplocephalus graecus (O.P.-Cambridge, 1873)

33

2

6

12

3

76

1

9

620

Linyphiidae

Entelecara schmitzi Kulczyński, 1905

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

34

Linyphiidae

Frontinellina dearmata (Kulczyński, 1899)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

177

Linyphiidae

Frontiphantes fulgurenotatus (Schenkel, 1938)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

26

Linyphiidae

Lepthyphantes mauli Wunderlich, 1992

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

Linyphiidae

Microctenonyx subitaneus (O.P.-Cambridge, 1875)

3

0

0

2

3

8

0

4

26

Linyphiidae

Microlinyphia johnsoni (Blackwall, 1859)

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

110

Linyphiidae

Ostearius melanopygius (O.P.-Cambridge, 1880)

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

2

Linyphiidae

Palliduphantes schmitzi (Kulczyński, 1899)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

45

Linyphiidae

Parapelecopsis nemoralioides (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1884)

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

9

Linyphiidae

Pelecopsis inedita (O.P.-Cambridge, 1875)

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

28

Linyphiidae

Tenuiphantes sp. 259

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

Linyphiidae

Tenuiphantes tenebricoloides (Schenkel, 1938)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

Linyphiidae

Tenuiphantes tenuis (Blackwall, 1852)

5

0

14

0

1

2

0

1

540

Linyphiidae

Turinyphia maderiana (Schenkel, 1938)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

13

Liocranidae

Mesiotelus cf. grancanariensis Wunderlich, 1992

0

0

0

20

5

0

1

2

29

Lycosidae

Hogna insularum (Kulczyński, 1899)

54

0

1

6

4

32

34

32

272

Lycosidae

Hogna schmitzi Wunderlich, 1992

0

0

0

7

2

0

0

5

14

Lycosidae

Pardosa proxima (C.L.Koch, 1847)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

Mimetidae

Ero aphana (Walckenaer, 1802)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

Mysmenidae

Trogloneta madeirensis Wunderlich, 1987

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

25

Nesticidae

Eidmannella pallida (Emerton, 1875)

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

3

Oecobiidae

Oecobius similis Kulczyński, 1909

82

0

152

5

8

28

1

0

294

Oonopidae

Gamasomorpha insularis Simon, 1907

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

Oonopidae

Oonops cf. pulcher Templeton, 1835

2

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

3

Oonopidae

Opopaea concolor (Blackwall, 1859)

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

Oonopidae

Orchestina sp. 160

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

2

Oxyopidae

Oxyopes sp. 80

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

2

Philodromidae

Philodromus insulanus Kulczyński, 1905

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

Philodromidae

Philodromus MAD266

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

Philodromidae

Thanatus vulgaris Simon, 1870

10

5

0

2

8

0

8

4

49

Pholcidae

Pholcus madeirensis Wunderlich, 1987

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

11

Salticidae

Chalcoscirtus sublestus (Blackwall, 1867)

2

1

20

3

3

1

1

1

34

Salticidae

Macaroeris cf. desertensis Wunderlich, 1992

0

0

0

7

1

0

2

7

17

Salticidae

Macaroeris cf. diligens (Blackwall, 1867)

0

0

0

3

7

5

1

26

42

Salticidae

Macaroeris diligens (Blackwall, 1867)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

26

Salticidae

Macaroeris sp. 8

8

4

4

1

0

0

0

0

27

Salticidae

Pellenes maderianus Kulczyński, 1905

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

6

Scytodidae

Scytodes velutina Heineken & Lowe, 1832

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

3

Segestriidae

Ariadna maderiana Warburton, 1892

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

2

Segestriidae

Segestria florentina (Rossi, 1790)

0

3

6

0

0

1

0

0

10

Tetragnathidae

Meta stridulans Wunderlich, 1987

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

62

Theridiidae

Cryptachaea blattea (Urquhart, 1886)

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

53

Theridiidae

Dipoenata longitarsis (Denis, 1962)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

Theridiidae

Echinotheridion gibberosum (Kulczyński, 1899)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

316

Theridiidae

Enoplognatha diversa (Blackwall, 1859)

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

4

Theridiidae

Enoplognatha sattleri Bösenberg, 1895

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

Theridiidae

Episinus maderianus Kulczyński, 1905

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

746

Theridiidae

Kochiura aulica (C.L.Koch, 1838)

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

Theridiidae

Laseola sp. 268

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

Theridiidae

Macaridion barreti (Kulczyński, 1899)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

494

Theridiidae

Paidiscura orotavensis (Schmidt, 1968)

0

0

0

1

2

19

0

17

77

Theridiidae

Rhomphaea nasica (Simon, 1873)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

Theridiidae

Rugathodes madeirensis Wunderlich, 1987

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

325

Theridiidae

Steatoda grossa (C.L.Koch, 1838)

1

2

4

0

0

0

0

0

13

Theridiidae

Steatoda nobilis (Thorell, 1875)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

24

Theridiidae

Theridion hannoniae Denis, 1945

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

Theridiidae

Theridion musivivum Schmidt, 1956

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

Theridiidae

Theridion sp. 89

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

28

Thomisidae

Misumena cf. nigromaculata Denis, 1963

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

Thomisidae

Misumena spinifera (Blackwall, 1862)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

12

Thomisidae

Thomisus onustus Walckenaer, 1805

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

2

Thomisidae

Xysticus nubilus Simon, 1875

16

38

4

12

10

7

0

3

101

Uloboridae

Hyptiotes flavidus (Blackwall, 1862)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

111

Uloboridae

Uloborus walckenaerius Latreille, 1806

1

4

7

0

0

0

0

0

13

Zodariidae

Zodarion styliferum (Simon, 1870)

16

13

810

0

0

0

2

9

850

Species richness

30

21

24

31

27

22

19

26

7462

The most widespread (morpho)species were Tenuiphantes tenuis (Blackwall, 1852) (introduced), Porrhoclubiona decora (Blackwall, 1859) (native non-endemic), Neoscona crucifera (Lucas, 1838) (introduced), Microlinyphia johnsoni (Blackwall, 1859) (native non-endemic), Cryptachaea blattea (Urquhart, 1886) (introduced), Cheiracanthium albidulum (Blackwall, 1859) (endemic), Ceratinopsis acripes (Denis, 1962) (native non-endemic), Meta stridulans Wunderlich, 1987 (endemic), Echinotheridion gibberosum (Kulczyński, 1899) (native non-endemic), Episinus maderianus Kulczyński, 1905, (native non-endemic) and Paidiscura orotavensis (Schmidt, 1968) (native non-endemic). The five most abundant species were Zodarion styliferum (Simon, 1870) (11%, unknown origin), Episinus maderianus Kulczyński, 1905 (9%, native non-endemic), Diplocephalus graecus (O.P.-Cambridge, 1873) (8%, introduced), Tenuiphantes tenuis (Blackwall, 1852) (7%, introduced) and Macaridion barreti (Kulczyński, 1899) (7%, native non-endemic).

Taxonomic and biogeographic classification

In this section, we point out, explain and discuss the identification of some of the species and morphospecies found – the ones for which information is limited and ordered as in Tables 2, 3 and 4 – and their classification as endemic, native non-endemic, introduced and unknown.

Synaphris saphrynis

This species is known from Spain and Selvagens Islands. It is also present on Bugio island (Desertas), as one of the authors (L. Crespo) identified a specimen collected by M. Boieiro et al. in 2011/12 (unpublished record). The limited number of available records does not allow us to infer its total distribution with certainty.

Haplodrassus omissus

Although Haplodrassus omissus had not been recorded previously in Madeira, it does not come as a surprise to be present there, given its known distribution across the Mediterranean basin and the Canary Islands.

Haplodrassus sp. 164

This morphospecies is present in Porto Santo and, possibly, in other locations of the Madeira archipelago. Haplodrassus MS 164 belongs to the dalmatensis group.

Haplodrassus sp. 158

The morphospecies Haplodrassus MS158 belongs to a different group from that of Haplodrassus MS164, as its genitalia is more similar to species such as H. deserticola, which is present in the Canary Islands or H. minor, which has been recorded from Europe to Turkey, according to the World Spider Catalogue. It is possible that more species of this group are present in the Madeira archipelago.

Macarophaeus cultior

Macarophaeus cultior may be a single-island endemic from Madeira. Although the World Spider Catalog and the Banco de Datos de Biodiversidad de Canarias (based on Oromí et al. (2002)) shows records from the Canary Islands (Oromí et al. (2002), according to Wunderlich (Wunderlich 2011), there are no new records or mentions of M. cultior in this archipelago.

Zelotes aeneus

We classified this species as introduced, because of its distribution throughout Europe up to Azerbaijan.

Agyneta canariensis

We have considered this species as native non-endemic, because it is present in the Canary Islands, Selvagens and Madeira.

Canariellanum sp. 21

We considered this species as a new endemic species of a genus so far restricted to the Canary Islands.

Ceratinopsis spp.

Given the morphological mismatch of this morphospecies with other described species from the region, we have considered it as endemic to the island of Madeira.

Tenuiphantes sp. 259

This morphospecies is probably a new Tenuiphantes from the archipelago of Madeira and we, therefore, considered it endemic.

Tenuiphantes tenebricoloides

This species has been found and cited several times from the forests of Madeira island. There is a citation from the Canary Islands by Denis (Denis 1941) that was based on a single female specimen that has not been revised since then. Furthermore, the species has not been cited again from the Canary Islands and, according to J. Wunderlich – who described a very similar species, T. canariensis, from the Canary Islands – Denis probably misidentified the species, given the resemblance in the female epigyne between T. tenebricoloides and T. canariensis, Therefore, we considered T. tenebricoloides as a Madeiran endemic (Wunderlich 1987). Future molecular phylogenetic work might resolve the relationship between these two species.

Mesiotelus cf. grancanariensis

The species Mesiotelus grancanariensis has been cited from the south west coast of Portugal and across the entire archipelago of Madeira – in treeless dry habitats and along the central mountain chain of Madeira. Hence the classification of this species as a native species.

Oonops cf. pulcher

Although it is possible that this species is an undescribed cryptic species native to Madeira, based on morphological characters, it is very likely to be Oonops pulcher and, therefore, introduced.

Orchestina sp. 160

We classified this morphospecies as archipelago-endemic, based on previous findings by L. Crespo in areas with dry habitats of Porto Santo and Desertas.

Oxyopes sp. 80

Since this morphospecies has not been described or cited before, it is very likely endemic to the Madeiran archipelago.

Philodromus sp. 266

This morphospecies has not been described or cited before, hence our classification as endemic.

Macaroeris cf. desertensis , Macaroeris cf. diligens and Macaroeris sp. 8

We considered Macaroeris cf. desertensis , Macaroeris cf. diligens and Macaroeris sp. 8 as most likely new undescribed species and, therefore, endemic to the Madeiran archipelago.

Lasaeola sp. 268

Based on the morphological features of this morphospecies, we considered it as a new species and, therefore, an archipelago endemic.

Rhomphaea nasica

Rhomphaea nasica is known to be present in Africa and on the remote island of St. Helena. Specimens of this species have also been identified in modified habitats such as the Funchal Botanical Garden (Madeira Island). Therefore, we considered this species as introduced.

Theridion hannoniae

This species has a Mediterranean distribution and, in the Madeiran archipelago, it is usually found in dry, relatively disturbed areas. We classified this species as of unknown biogeographic category, given the impossibility of knowing whether it arrived at the Madeiran archipelago naturally or with human intervention.

Theridion sp. 89

This morphospecies is most likely a new species, so we considered it to be single-island endemic, probably from laurel forest.

Misumena cf. nigromaculata

Here we considered this morphospecies to be a new endemic species given the little information on Misumena nigromaculata, whose female has been described only once and whose male is unknown.

Xysticus nubilus

Xysticus nubilus has a Mediterranean distribution and is usually found in dry habitats in the Madeiran archipelago. Therefore, as with Theridion hannoniae, we classified it as of unknown biogeographic category in Madeira.

Hyptiotes flavidus

Although the distribution of this species is largely Mediterranean, given that it is usually found in laurel forests, we classified it as native to Madeira.

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the project FCT MACDIV financed by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia – ref. FCT-PTDC/BIABIC/0054/2014, that also supported the Open Access of the manuscript. We are grateful to the Madeira Natural Park for the logistic support as well as permission for the collection of specimens.

Author contributions

PAVB, PC and FR conceived the study design and sampling programme. JM-O, PAVB, PC, LCFC, RG, FP, RC, CR, MB, and FR performed spider sampling. PAVB and LCFC performed spider identification. JM-O analysed the data and JM-O and PAVB led the writing. All authors commented on the final version of the manuscript.

References