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Data paper
Fauna Europaea: Neuropterida (Raphidioptera, Megaloptera, Neuroptera)
expand article infoUlrike Aspöck, Horst Aspöck§, Agostino Letardi|, Yde de Jong,#
‡ Natural History Museum Vienna, 2nd Zoological Department, Burgring 7, 1010, Vienna, Austria
§ Institute of Specific Prophylaxis and Tropical Medicine, Medical Parasitology, Medical University (MUW), Kinderspitalgasse 15, 1090, Vienna, Austria
| ENEA, Technical Unit for Sustainable Development and Agro-industrial innovation, Sustainable Management of Agricultural Ecosystems Laboratory, Rome, Italy
¶ University of Amsterdam - Faculty of Science, Amsterdam, Netherlands
# University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland
Open Access

Abstract

Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education.

For Neuropterida, data from three Insect orders (Raphidioptera, Megaloptera, Neuroptera), comprising 15 families and 397 species, are included.

Keywords

Biodiversity Informatics, Fauna Europaea, Raphidioptera, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, Europe, Taxonomy, Taxonomic indexing

Introduction

In 1998 the European Commission published the European Community Biodiversity Strategy, providing a framework for development of Community policies and instruments in order to comply with the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Strategy recognises the current incomplete state of knowledge at all levels concerning biodiversity, which is a constraint on the successful implementation of the Convention. Fauna Europaea contributes to this Strategy by supporting one of the main themes: to identify and catalogue the components of European biodiversity into a database to serve as a basic tool for science and conservation policies.

With regard to biodiversity in Europe, science and policies depend on knowledge of its components. The assessment of biodiversity, monitoring changes, sustainable exploitation of biodiversity, and much legislative work depend upon a validated overview of taxonomic biodiversity, in which Fauna Europaea plays a major role, providing a web-based information infrastructure with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level and some additional optional information. In this sense the Fauna Europaea database provides a unique reference for many user-groups such as scientists, governments, industries, conservation communities and educational programs.

Fauna Europaea kicked-off in 2000 as an EC-FP5 four years project, delivering its first release in 2004 (Jong et al. 2014). After fourtheen years of steady progress, in order to improve the dissemination of the Fauna Europaea results and to increase the acknowledgement of the Fauna Europaea contributors, novel e-Publishing tools have been applied to prepare data papers of all major taxonomic groups (see below).

Neuropterida is a fairly small group of Insecta, with about 6,500 described species, most of which live in arboreal habitats, but many species are eremial and several live in freshwater habitats. This paper includes a complete list of European taxa of the genus- and family-groups belonging to the Raphidioptera, Megaloptera, and Neuroptera. Recent research suggests that our current appreciation of species diversity of Neuropterida in Europe is still provisional: on the one hand, cryptic, unrecognised taxa are expected to emerge; on the other, the status of some taxa currently treated as one species deserves revisiting. Moreover, a small but constant number of species new for Europe is revealing, mostly on the geographic boundaries of European territory.

Barcoding of European Neuropterida has just begun, one may assume that forthcoming barcode data may lead to various changes of the status of some taxa.

Until the middle of the 20th century the Neuropterida fauna of Europe was rather insufficiently known, and of large regions even largely unknown. The publication of a book on the Neuropterida of Europe (Aspöck et al. 1980) led to a considerable intensification of Neuropterida research in Europe (and adjacent regions) and to a steadily increasing number of publications. Twenty years later another comprehensive review (an annotated catalogue of the Neuropterida of the Western Palaearctic) appeared (Aspöck et al. 2001), which formed the basis for the first version of the catalogue of Neuropterida in Fauna Europaea.

Data-papers & gap-analysis

In order to improve the dissemination and citation of Fauna Europaea and to increase the acknowledgement of the Fauna Europaea contributors, a special Biodiversity Data Journal Series has been compiled using novel e-Publishing tools, called Contributions on Fauna Europaea, preparing data-papers of all major Fauna Europaea taxonomic groups. This work was initiated during the ViBRANT project and is further supported by the recently started EU BON project. This paper holds the first publication of the Fauna Europaea Neuropterida data sector as a BDJ data paper.

In the EU BON project also further steps will be made on implementing Fauna Europaea as a basic tool and standard reference for biodiversity research in Europe and to evaluate the status of the European taxonomic expertise. The Fauna Europaea data-papers will contribute to a quality assessement on biodiversity data by providing estimates on gaps in taxonomic information and knowledge (see Table 1).

Taxonomic specialists per family in Neuropterida and their responsibilities. The actual numbers of databased species are given per family. For most families is also given an indication of the actual number of known/described species (showing a potential information gap) plus an estimate of the total number of existing species (i.e., described/known plus undescribed/undiscovered) for Europe.

TAXONOMY EUROPE
FAMILY SPECIALIST(S) DATABASED SPECIES (Fauna Europaea) TOTAL DESCRIBED SPECIES (information-gap) TOTAL ESTIMATED SPECIES (knowledge-gap)
Ascalaphidae Profs Ulrike Aspöck & Horst Aspöck and Dr Agostino Letardi 18 20 ~20
Berothidae Profs Ulrike Aspöck & Horst Aspöck and Dr Agostino Letardi 2 2 ~2
Chrysopidae Profs Ulrike Aspöck & Horst Aspöck and Dr Agostino Letardi 73 74 ~80
Coniopterygidae Profs Ulrike Aspöck & Horst Aspöck and Dr Agostino Letardi 59 ~75
Dilaridae Profs Ulrike Aspöck & Horst Aspöck and Dr Agostino Letardi 10 ~12
Hemerobiidae Profs Ulrike Aspöck & Horst Aspöck and Dr Agostino Letardi 61 62 ~70
Inocelliidae Profs Ulrike Aspöck & Horst Aspöck and Dr Agostino Letardi 7 7 ~7
Mantispidae Profs Ulrike Aspöck & Horst Aspöck and Dr Agostino Letardi 5 6 ~6
Myrmeleontidae Profs Ulrike Aspöck & Horst Aspöck and Dr Agostino Letardi 58 60 ~70
Nemopteridae Profs Ulrike Aspöck & Horst Aspöck and Dr Agostino Letardi 7 7 ~7
Nevrorthidae Profs Ulrike Aspöck & Horst Aspöck and Dr Agostino Letardi 3 4
Osmylidae Profs Ulrike Aspöck & Horst Aspöck and Dr Agostino Letardi 3 3 ~3
Raphidiidae Profs Ulrike Aspöck & Horst Aspöck and Dr Agostino Letardi 74 76 ~80
Sialidae Profs Ulrike Aspöck & Horst Aspöck and Dr Agostino Letardi 10 6 ~8
Sisyridae Profs Ulrike Aspöck & Horst Aspöck and Dr Agostino Letardi 7 7 ~7

General description

Purpose: 

Fauna Europaea is a database of the scientific names and distribution (at national or -in same cases- regional level) of all living, currently known multicellular European land and fresh-water animal species assembled by a large network of experts, using advanced electronic tools for data collations and validation routines. An extended description of the Fauna Europaea project backgrounds, progress and functioning can be found in Jong et al. 2014. A basic outline is given in the sections below.

Neuropterida is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, covering 397 species (Fig. 1). The data were collated by a network of 3 specialists (Table 1).

Figure 1.

FaEu Neuropterida species per family. See Table 1 for family statistics.

Addititional information: 

The Neuropterida, with about 6,500 described (and possibly 10,000 existing) species, comprise three orders: Raphidioptera, with 241 described valid species in two families; Megaloptera, with about 380 species in two families; and Neuroptera, with at least 6,000 species in 17 families. The small number of species, the heterogeneity of the taxa, the vicariant distribution patterns, and the rich fossil records suggest that the ‘golden age’ of the Neuropterida passed long ago (Aspöck and Aspöck 2007). There are spectacular living fossils among the recent fauna, that is the whole order Raphidioptera, which seems to have hardly changed since the Mesozoic, and, for example, the enigmatic Nevrorthidae among Neuroptera (Fig. 2). Most Neuropterida have terrestrial larvae, only the larvae of Megaloptera and the larvae of neuropteran Nevrorthidae and Sisyridae are truly aquatic (Aspöck 2002).

Figure 2.

Nevrorthus apatelios H. Aspöck, U. Aspöck & Hölzel 1977, photo Peter Sehnal in Aspöck and Aspöck 2010.

The basic reference for Neuropterida in Fauna Europaea has been the catalogue of the Western Palaearctic at the beginning of the third millennium (Aspöck et al. 2001). Several European faunal reviews have been published in the following years at a multi-national level (eg. Jedlička et al. 2004), as a national checklist (eg. Letardi et al. 2013), or as a macro area contribution (eg. Letardi et al. 2008, Popov and Letardi 2010), but most of the faunal data published after the above catalogue are scattered in a huge amount of publications. More than 400 papers with faunal data regarding European Neuropterida published between 2000 and 2013 have been analyzed in order to extract potential new reports (Suppl. material 1).

Project description

Title: 

This BDJ data paper includes the taxonomic indexing efforts in Fauna Europaea on European Neuropterida covering the first two versions of Fauna Europaea worked on between 2000 and 2013 (up to version 2.6).

Personnel: 

The taxonomic framework of Fauna Europaea includes partner institutes, providing taxonomic expertise and information, and expert networks taking care about data collation.

Every taxonomic group is covered by at least one Group Coordinator responsible for the supervision and integrated input of taxonomic and distributional data of a particular group. For Neuropterida the responsible Group Coordinators are Profs Ulrike & Horst Aspöck and Dr Agostino Letardi.

The Fauna Europaea checklist would not have reached its current level of completion without the input from several groups of specialists. The formal responsibility of collating and delivering the data of relevant families has resided with the below appointed Taxonomic Specialists (see Table 1), while Associate Specialists deserve credit for their important contributions at various levels, including particular geographic regions or (across) taxonomic groups (see Table 2). Details on the Fauna Europaea expert network for Neuropterida can be found here: http://www.faunaeur.org/experts.php?id=681.

Data management tasks are taken care about by the Fauna Europaea project bureau. During the project phase (until 2004) a network of principal partners took care about diverse management tasks: Zoological Museum Amsterdam (general management & system development), Zoological Museum of Copenhagen (data collation), National Museum of Natural History in Paris (data validation) and Museum and Institute of Zoology in Warsaw (NAS extension). Since the formal project ending (2004-2013) all tasks are taken over by the Zoological Museum Amsterdam.

Study area description: 

The area study covers the European mainland (Western Palearctic), including the Macaronesian islands, excluding the Caucasus, Turkey, Arabian Peninsula and Northern Africa (see: Geographic coverage).

Design description: 

Standards. Group coordinators and taxonomic specialists have to deliver the (sub)species names according to strict standards. The names provided by FaEu are scientific names. The taxonomic scope includes issues like, (1) the definition of criteria used to identify the accepted species-group taxa, (2) the hierarchy (classification scheme) for the accommodation of the all accepted species and (3), relevant synonyms, and (4) the correct nomenclature. The Fauna Europaea 'Guidelines for Group Coordinators and Taxonomic Specialists', include the standards, protocols, scope, and limits that provide the instructions for all more then 400 specialists contributing to the project.

Data management. The data records could either be entered offline into a preformatted MS-Excel worksheet or directly into the Fauna Europaea transaction database using an online browser interface (see Fig. 3). Since 2013 the data servers are hosted at the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin.

Figure 3.

Fauna Europaea on-line (browser interfaces) and off-line (spreadsheets) data entry tools.

Data set. The Fauna Europaea basic data set consists of: accepted (sub)species names (including authorship), synonyms names (including authorship), taxonomic hierarchy / classification, misapplied names (including misspellings and alternative taxonomic views), homonym annotations, expert details, European distribution (at country level), Global distribution (only for European species), taxonomic reference (optional), occurrence reference (optional).

Funding: 

Fauna Europaea was funded by the European Commission under the Fifth Framework Programme and contributed to the Support for Research Infrastructures work programme with Thematic Priority Biodiversity (EVR1-1999-20001) for a period of four years (1 March 2000 - 1 March 2004), including a short 'NAS extension', allowing EU candidate accession countries to participate. Follow-up support was given by the EC-FP5 EuroCAT project (EVR1-CT-2002-20011), by the EC-FP6 ENBI project (EVK2-CT-2002-20020), by the EC-FP6 EDIT project (GCE 018340), by the EC-FP7 PESI project (RI-223806) and by the EC-FP7 ViBRANT project (RI-261532). Continuing management and hosting of the Fauna Europaea services was supported by the University of Amsterdam (Zoological Museum Amsterdam) and SARA/Vancis. Recently the hosting of Fauna Europaea was taken over by the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin, supported by the EC-FP7 EU BON project (grant agreement №308454).

Sampling methods

Study extent: 

See spatial coverage and geographic coverage descriptions.

Sampling description: 

Fauna Europaea data have been assembled by principal taxonomic specialists, based on their individual expertise, Which includes studies of the literature, collection research, and field observations. In total no less than 476 experts contributed taxonomic and/or faunistic information for Fauna Europaea. The vast majority of the experts are from Europe (including EU non-member states). As a unique feature, Fauna Europaea funds were set aside for paying/compensating for the work of taxonomic specialists and group coordinators (around five Euro per species).

To facilitate data transfer and data import, sophisticated on-line (web interfaces) and off-line (spreadsheets) data-entry routines were built, well integrated within an underlying central Fauna Europaea transaction database (see Fig. 3). This included advanced batch data import routines and utilities to display and monitor the data processing within the system. In retrospect, it seems that the off-line submission of data was probably the best for bulk import during the project phase, while the on-line tool was preferred to enter modifications in later versions. This data management system works well until its replacement in 2013.

A first release of the Fauna Europaea index via the web-portal has been presented at 27th of September 2004, the most recent release (version 2.6.2) was launched at 29 August 2013. An overview of Fauna Europaea releases can be found at: http://www.faunaeur.org/about_fauna_versions.php.

Quality control: 

Fauna Europaea data are unique in a sense that they are fully expert based. Selecting leading experts for all groups included a principal assurance of the systematic reliability and consistency of the Fauna Europaea data.

Further all Fauna Europaea data sets have been intensively reviewed at regional and thematic validation meetings, at review sessions at taxonomic symposia (for some groups), by Fauna Europaea Focal Points (during the FaEu-NAS and PESI projects) and by various end-users sending annotations using the web form at the web-portal. Additional validation on gaps and correct spelling was effected by the validation office at the MNHN in Paris.

Checks on technical and logical correctness of the data were implemented in the data entry tools, including around "Taxonomic Integrity Rules". This validation tool proved to be of huge value for both the experts and project management, and significantly contribute(d) to preparation of a remarkably clean and consistent data set.

This thorough reviewing makes Fauna Europaea the most scrutinised data sets in its domain. In general, after the initial release, we expected to get taxonomic data for 99.3% of the known European fauna, the faunistic coverage being less complete, but nevertheless holding 90-95% of the total fauna (Jong et al. 2014). Recognised gaps in Neuropterida includes species of several families, but the larger estimate gaps concern Chrysopidae and Coniopterygidae in particular. To our present knowledge, the taxonomic coverage for Neuropterida is near 100% (see Table 1), but the distribution by country is still largely incomplete, especially for the Coniopterygidae.

To optimise the use and implementation of a uniform and correct nomenclature, a cross-referencing of the Fauna Europaea Neuropterida data-set with relevant nomenclators and taxonomic catalogues, including Neuropterida Species of the World, is recommended, following the global efforts on establishing a so-called 'Global Names Architecture' (e.g. Pyle and Michel 2008).

Step description: 

By evaluating team structure and life cycle procedures (data-entry, validation, updating, etc.), clear definitions of roles of users and user-groups, according to the taxonomic framework were established, including ownership and read and writes privileges, and their changes during the project life-cycle. In addition, guidelines on common data exchange formats and codes have been issued (see also the 'Guidelines' document).

Geographic coverage

Description: 

Species and subspecies distributions in Fauna Europaea are registered at least at country level, meaning political countries. For this purpose the FaEu geographical system basically follows the TDWG standards. The covered area includes the European mainland (Western Palearctic), plus the Macaronesian islands (excl. Cape Verde Islands), Cyprus, Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya. Western Kazakhstan and the Caucasus are excluded (see Fig. 4 and coordinates below).

Figure 4.

Fauna Europaea geographic coverage ('minimal Europe').

The focus is on species (or subspecies) of European multicellular animals of terrestrial and freshwater environments. Species in brackish waters, occupying the marine/freshwater or marine/terrestrial transition zones, are generally excluded.

The following additional species of Neuropterida have been recorded in Europe since the last version (August 2013):

Ascalaphidae:

Ascalaphus festivus (Rambur, 1842) has been found in Sardinia (Pantaleoni et al. 2013).

Deleproctophylla bleusei Kimmins, 1949, occurs in the southeast of Spain, has been overlooked (misidentified) so far (Monserrat et al. 2014).

Chrysopidae:

A new species of Chrysoperla Steimann, C. heidarii, has been described by Henry et al. 2014 from Eastern Aegean islands (Samos, Greece), Lesser Caucasus Mountains (Armenia and Georgia), and northern Iran. A previous synonym of Chrysopa pallens Rambur, 1838, has been considered as valid species as Chrysopa gibeauxi (Leraut, 1989) by Tillier et al. 2014 and has been found in France, Poland, Finland and North Korea.

Coniopterygidae:

A new species of the genus Helicoconis Enderlein, H. tatrica (emendation of H. tatricus; Helicoconis is feminine), has been described by Vidlička (Vidlička 2014) from Slovakia.

Hemerobiidae:

Hemerobius bolivari Banks, 1910, a species, widely distributed in South America, has been introduced to Portugal (Monserrat et al. 2013). We do not think that it is really an "invasive" species, but an introduced Neozoon.

Mantispidae:

A new species of the genus Mantispa Illiger, M. incorrupta, has been described by Monserrat (Monserrat 2014a) from Central Spain.

Myrmeleontidae:

A new species of Myrmeleon Linneaus, M. tschernovi, has been described by Krivokhatsky (Krivokhatsky et al. 2014) from Kaliningrad Province, Russia. Nedroledon anatolicus was found in Macedonia (Kacirek 2013).

Nevrorthidae:

A new species of Nevrorthus Costa, N. reconditus, has been described by Monserrat & Gavira (Monserrat and Gavira 2014) from the south of Spain.

Sialidae:

Two of the species in Fauna Europaea – Sialis gonzalezi Vshivkova, 1985, and S. dorochovae Vshivkova, 1985, are confirmed or at least probably synonyms (Aspöck et al. 2001, Monserrat 2014b); two other species – S. abhasica Vshivkova, 1985, and S. klingstedti Vshivkova, 1985, are possibly valid. Thus, Europe may harbour 8 species of the genus Sialis Latreille.

Coordinates: 

Mediterranean (N 35°) and Arctic Islands (N 82°) Latitude; Atlantic Ocean (Mid-Atlantic Ridge) (W 30°) and Urals (E 60°) Longitude.

Taxonomic coverage

Description: 

The Fauna Europaea database contains the scientific names of all living European land and freshwater animal species, including numerous infra-groups and synonyms. More details about the conceptual background of Fauna Europaea and standards followed are described in the project description papers.

This data paper covers the Neuropterida content of Fauna Europaea, including 15 families 397 species, 21 subspecies and 12 (sub)species synonyms (see Fig. 1). Higher ranks are given below, the species list can be download (see: Data resources). Some additional notes on the Taxonomic coverage of Neuroptida in Fauna Europaea:

Ascalaphidae: Presently there are 18 species in the list plus 1 subspecies (Libelloides rhomboideus cretensis) in addition to the species and nominate subspecies. The current number of species of Ascalaphidae recorded from Europe is (at least) 20, since Ascalaphus festivus and Deleproctophylla bleusei are not yet in the database.

Chrysopidae: The current in FaEu is 73, however, there is 1 additional (nominal) subspecies: Pseudomallada flavifrons nigropunctata.

Raphidiidae: The number of species in the database is 74, in addition there are, however, 7 subspecies (in addition to the nominate subspecies). Of these 7 subspecies 2, namely Raphidia (Raphidia) ophiopsis alcoholica and Raphidia (Raphidia) ophiopsis mediterranea, have received the status of species. Thus, the current number of species of Raphidiidae recorded in Europe (in the sense of FaEu) is 76 plus 5 subspecies.

Sialidae: In the database there are 8 species, 2 of which are proven (Sialis gonzalezi) or probable (Sialis dorochovae) synonyms. However, 2 possibly valid species (Sialis abchasica, Sialis klingstedti) have been recorded from European parts of Russia. Thus, the real number of species of Sialidae occurring in Europe may be 8, hardly more.

Taxa included:
Rank Scientific Name Common Name
kingdom Animalia
subkingdom Eumetazoa
phylum Arthropoda
subphylum Hexapoda
class Insecta
order Megaloptera
family Sialidae alderfly
genus Sialis Latreille, 1802
order Neuroptera lacewing
suborder Hemerobiiformia
family Berothidae beaded lacewing
subfamily Berothinae
genus Isoscelipteron Costa, 1863
family Chrysopidae green lacewing
subfamily Chrysopinae
tribe Belonopterygini
genus Italochrysa Principi, 1946
tribe Chrysopini
genus Atlantochrysa Hölzel, 1970
genus Brinckochrysa Tjeder, 1966
genus Chrysopa Leach in Brewster, 1815
genus Chrysoperla Steinmann, 1964
genus Chrysotropia Navás, 1911
genus Cunctochrysa Hölzel, 1970
genus Nineta Navás, 1912
genus Peyerimhoffina Lacroix, 1920
genus Pseudomallada Tsukaguchi, 1995
genus Rexa Navás, 1919
genus Suarius Navás, 1914
subfamily Nothochrysinae
genus Hypochrysa Hagen, 1866
genus Nothochrysa McLachlan, 1868
family Coniopterygidae dustywing
subfamily Aleuropteryginae
tribe Aleuropterygini
genus Aleuropteryx Löw, 1885
tribe Conwentziini
genus Conwentzia Enderlein, 1905
genus Hemisemidalis Meinander, 1972
genus Semidalis Enderlein, 1905
tribe Fontenelleini
genus Helicoconis Enderlein, 1905
genus Vartiana H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck, 1965
subfamily Coniopteryginae
tribe Coniopterygini
genus Coniopteryx Curtis, 1834
genus Nimboa Navás, 1915
genus Parasemidalis Enderlein, 1905
family Dilaridae pleasing lacewing
subfamily Dilarinae
genus Dilar Rambur, 1838
family Hemerobiidae brown lacewing
subfamily Drepanepteryginae
genus Drepanepteryx Leach in Brewster, 1815
subfamily Hemerobiinae
genus Hemerobius Linnaeus, 1758
genus Wesmaelius Krüger, 1922
subfamily Megalominae
genus Megalomus Rambur, 1842
subfamily Microminae
genus Micromus Rambur, 1842
subfamily Notiobiellinae
genus Psectra Hagen, 1866
subfamily Sympherobiinae
genus Sympherobius Banks, 1904
family Mantispidae mantisfly
subfamily Mantispinae
genus Mantispa Illiger in Kugelann, 1798
genus Nampista Navás, 1914
family Osmylidae
subfamily Osmylinae
genus Osmylus Latreille, 1802
family Sisyridae spongilla fly
genus Sisyra Burmeister, 1839
suborder Myrmeleontiformia
family Ascalaphidae owlfly
subfamily Ascalaphinae
genus Bubopsis McLachlan, 1898
genus Deleproctophylla Lefèbvre, 1842
genus Libelloides Schäffer, 1763
genus Puer Lefèbvre, 1842
family Myrmeleontidae antlion
subfamily Myrmeleontinae
tribe Acanthaclisini
genus Acanthaclisis Rambur, 1842
genus Synclisis Rambur, 1842
tribe Dendroleontini
genus Dendroleon Brauer, 1866
genus Tricholeon Esben-Petersen, 1925
tribe Glenurini
genus Gymnocnemia Schneider, 1845
genus Megistopus Rambur, 1842
genus Nedroledon Navás, 1914
tribe Myrmecaelurini
genus Aspoeckiana Hölzel, 1969
genus Lopezus Navás, 1913
genus Myrmecaelurus Costa, 1855
genus Nohoveus Navás, 1919
genus Solter Navás, 1912
tribe Myrmeleontini
genus Euroleon Esben-Petersen, 1918
genus Myrmeleon Linnaeus, 1767
tribe Nemoleontini
genus Creoleon Tillyard, 1918
genus Delfimeus Navás, 1912
genus Deutoleon Navás, 1927
genus Distoleon Banks, 1810
genus Macronemurus Costa, 1855
genus Nemoleon Navás, 1909
genus Neuroleon Navás, 1909
genus Noaleon Holzel 1972
tribe Nesoleontini
genus Cueta Navás, 1911
subfamily Palparinae
tribe Palparini
genus Palpares Rambur, 1842
family Nemopteridae spoonwing
subfamily Crocinae
genus Josandreva Navás, 1906
genus Pterocroce Withycombe, 1923
subfamily Nemopterinae
genus Lertha Navás, 1910
genus Nemoptera Latreille, 1802
suborder Nevrorthiformia
family Nevrorthidae
genus Nevrorthus Costa, 1863
order Raphidioptera snakefly
family Inocelliidae
genus Fibla Navás, 1915
genus Inocellia Schneider, 1843
genus Parainocellia H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck, 1968
family Raphidiidae
genus Atlantoraphidia H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck, 1968
genus Calabroraphidia Rausch, H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck, 2004
genus Dichrostigma Navás, 1909
genus Harraphidia Steinmann, 1963
genus Hispanoraphidia H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck, 1968
genus Italoraphidia H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck, 1968
genus Ohmella H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck, 1968
genus Ornatoraphidia H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck, 1968
genus Parvoraphidia H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck, 1968
genus Phaeostigma Navás, 1909
genus Puncha Navás, 1915
genus Raphidia Linnaeus, 1758
genus Subilla Navás, 1916
genus Tjederiraphidia H. Aspöck, U. Aspöck & Rausch, 1985
genus Turcoraphidia H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck, 1968
genus Ulrike H. Aspöck, 1968
genus Venustoraphidia H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck, 1968
genus Xanthostigma Navás, 1909

Temporal coverage

Living time period: 
Currently living.
Notes: 

Currently living multicellular, terrestrial and freshwater animals in stable populations, largely excluding (1) rare / irregular immigrants, (2) alien / invasive species, (3) accidental or deliberate releases of exotic (pet)species, (4) domesticated animals, (5) non-native species imported and released for bio-control or (6) non-native species largely confined to hothouses.

Usage rights

Use license: 
Open Data Commons Attribution License
IP rights notes: 

Fauna Europaea data are licensed under CC BY SA version 4.0. The property rights of experts over their data is covered under the SMEBD conditions. For more copyrights and citation details see: http://www.faunaeur.org/copyright.php

Data resources

Data package title: 
Fauna Europaea - Neuropterida
Number of data sets: 
2
Data set name: 
Fauna Europaea - Neuropterida version 2.6.2 - species
Character set: 
UTF-8
Data format: 
CSV
Column label Column description
datasetName The name identifying the data set from which the record was derived (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/datasetName).
version Release version of data set
versionIssued Issue data of data set version.
rights Information about rights held in and over the resource (http://purl.org/dc/terms/rights).
rightsHolder A person or organization owning or managing rights over the resource (http://purl.org/dc/terms/rightsHolder).
accessRights Information about who can access the resource or an indication of its security status (http://purl.org/dc/terms/accessRights).
taxonID An identifier for the set of taxon information (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/taxonID)
parentNameUsageID An identifier for the name usage of the direct parent taxon (in a classification) of the most specific element of the scientificName (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/parentNameUsageID).
scientificName The full scientific name, with authorship and date information if known (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/scientificName).
acceptedNameUsage The full name, with authorship and date information if known, of the currently valid (zoological) taxon (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/acceptedNameUsage).
originalNameUsage The original combination (genus and species group names), as firstly established under the rules of the associated nomenclaturalCode (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/originalNameUsage).
family The full scientific name of the family in which the taxon is classified (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/family).
familyNameId An identifier for the family name.
genus The full scientific name of the genus in which the taxon is classified (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/genus).
subgenus The full scientific name of the subgenus in which the taxon is classified. Values include the genus to avoid homonym confusion (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/subgenus).
specificEpithet The name of the first or species epithet of the scientificName (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/specificEpithet).
infraspecificEpithet The name of the lowest or terminal infraspecific epithet of the scientificName, excluding any rank designation (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/infraspecificEpithet).
taxonRank The taxonomic rank of the most specific name in the scientificName (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/infraspecificEpithet).
scientificNameAuthorship The authorship information for the scientificName formatted according to the conventions of the applicable nomenclaturalCode (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/scientificNameAuthorship).
authorName Author name information
namePublishedInYear The four-digit year in which the scientificName was published (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/namePublishedInYear).
Brackets Annotation if authorship should be put between parentheses.
nomenclaturalCode The nomenclatural code under which the scientificName is constructed (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/nomenclaturalCode).
taxonomicStatus The status of the use of the scientificName as a label for a taxon (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/taxonomicStatus).
resourceDescription An account of the resource, including a data-paper DOI (http://purl.org/dc/terms/description)
Data set name: 
Fauna Europaea - Neuropterida version 2.6.2 - hierarchy
Character set: 
UTF-8
Data format: 
CSV
Column label Column description
datasetName The name identifying the data set from which the record was derived (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/datasetName).
version Release version of data set.
versionIssued Issue data of data set version.
rights Information about rights held in and over the resource (http://purl.org/dc/terms/rights).
rightsHolder A person or organization owning or managing rights over the resource (http://purl.org/dc/terms/rightsHolder).
accessRights Information about who can access the resource or an indication of its security status (http://purl.org/dc/terms/accessRights).
taxonName The full scientific name of the higher-level taxon
scientificNameAuthorship The authorship information for the scientificName formatted according to the conventions of the applicable nomenclaturalCode (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/scientificNameAuthorship).
taxonRank The taxonomic rank of the most specific name in the scientificName (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/infraspecificEpithet).
taxonID An identifier for the set of taxon information (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/taxonID)
parentNameUsageID An identifier for the name usage of the direct parent taxon (in a classification) of the most specific element of the scientificName (http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/parentNameUsageID).
resourceDescription An account of the resource, including a data-paper DOI (http://purl.org/dc/terms/description)

Acknowledgements

Fauna Europaea was funded by the European Commission under the Fifth Framework Programme and contributed to the Support for Research Infrastructures work programme with Thematic Priority Biodiversity (EVR1-1999-20001) for a period of four years (1 March 2000 - 1 March 2004), including a short 'NAS extension', allowing EU candidate accession countries to participate. Follow-up support was given by the EC-FP5 EuroCAT project (EVR1-CT-2002-20011), by the EC-FP6 ENBI project (EVK2-CT-2002-20020), by the ECFP6 EDIT project (GCE 018340), by the EC-FP7 PESI project (RI-223806) and by the ECFP7 ViBRANT project (RI-261532). Continuing management and hosting of the FaunaEuropaea services was supported by the University of Amsterdam (Zoological Museum Amsterdam) and SARA/Vancis. Recently the hosting of Fauna Europaea is taken over by the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin, supported by the EC-FP7 EU BON project (grant agreement №308454).

References

Supplementary material

Suppl. material 1: references 2000-2013
Authors:  Letardi A.
Data type:  bibliography
Brief description: 

data base of papers used to update Neuroperida in Fauna Europaea vers. 2.6.2