Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic paper
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Taxonomic paper
Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Turkish Thrace, with a new record for Turkey
expand article infoÜmit Davut Şirin, Hakan Çalışkan, Yalçın Şahin
‡ Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Science and Art, Biology Department, Eskişehir, Turkey
Open Access

Abstract

Background

This paper includes 2742 specimens of 18 species of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) collected from 132 lotic sites in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, in the early summer of 2002 and 2003 and the spring of 2005 and 2006.

New information

All species are recorded from this region for the first time, and Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940) is a new record for Turkey. Distributional and taxonomical remarks are given for each species.

Keywords

Black flies, Thrace, Turkey, biodiversity

Introduction

Black flies (Simuliidae) are blood-sucking flies, considered the third most medically and veterinary important arthropod group (Adler et al. 2004). A total of 2,177 living, formally described species of black flies are currently recognized as valid, with new species continuing to be discovered (Adler and Crosskey 2015) The immature stages play an important ecological role in streams and rivers where they often dominate the benthos (Crosskey 1990).

TheTurkish simuliid fauna is not well known, although investigations have increased in the past 15 years. The first report of the family in Anatolia was by Austen (1925) who described Simulium pulchripes from the Asiatic part of Çanakkale Province. After 50 years, a second species, Simulium caucasicum (as Odagmia ornata caucasica), was recorded by Jedlićka (1975) from Çanakkale and Afyon Provinces. In the second edition of Limnofauna Europea (Zwick 1978), three species, Simulium bezzii, S. balcanicum and S. pseudequinum (as mediterraneum), were recognized from Anatolia (“Kl. Asien”) (Crosskey and Zwick 2007). Kazancı and Clergue-Gazeau (1990) published a detailed study of Turkish black flies and recorded 21 species from Anatolia. In a later paper, they added ecological data and species records (Clergue-Gazeau and Kazancı 1992). An outbreak of S. bezzii in eastern Anatolia in Erzurum Province was reported by Özbek et al. (1995). Balık et al. (2002) recorded S. angustitarse from Dikili District of İzmir Province. Ümit Şirin completed his doctoral thesis on black flies in the Upper Sakarya River basin in northwestern Anatolia and published eight new records for Turkey (Sirin and Sahin 2005). An account of the Turkish Simuliidae, with nine new records and a checklist of 40 species, was published by Crosskey and Zwick (2007). A second checklist included 63 species from previous publications and new records was published by Kazancı and Ertunç (2008). Çağlar and İpekdal (2009), however, indicated that 45 species were known from Turkey. The most recent record from Turkey was reported by Kalafat and Şirin (2011). The latest version of the “Inventory of World Blackflies” lists 51 species for Turkey (Adler and Crosskey 2015).

Turkish Thrace, the European part of the country, is divided from Asia Minor by the Turkish straits (Bosporus and Dardanelles). It is bounded by Bulgaria to the north, Greece to the west, the Black Sea to the northeast and Marmara and the Aegean Sea to the south. The largest mountain range is Yıldız, about 1031 m above sea level. The Meriç and Tunca Rivers from Bulgaria and the Arda River from Greece cross the region and empty into the Aegean Sea. Wetlands in the region provide resting and staging areas for birds that migrate between Europe and Asia. Agriculture uses modern technology in the vast lowlands and productive plains of the region. Pollution from agriculture, industry and excessive population growth affects a large portion of the freshwater ecosystems (Erdoğan and Güher 2012).

Most faunal records of Turkish black flies are from Anatolia, the Asian part of the country, and there is only one previous record [Simulium ornatum Meigen s.l. from İstanbul; (Zwick 2007)] dealing with black flies in the European part of Turkey. We report 18 species of black flies from Turkish Thrace, as well as one of from Turkey, for the first time.

Materials and methods

Study material was based on aquatic stages and reared adults from 132 rivers, streams and springs in the region (Fig. 1). The material included 2742 specimens (1168 larvae, 1369 pupae, 204 pharate adults and 47 reared adults) and was deposited in the LAB).

Figure 1.

Map of collecting sites for black flies in Turkish Thrace. Suppl. material 1.

Larvae and pupae were collected into 80% ethanol, and reared flies with their pupal exuviae also were fixed in ethanol. For each species, the numbers of larvae, pupae and adults collected at a sampling site on a given date are recorded in the examined material below. Material was studied according to methods described by Bass (1998), with the aid of a stereomicroscope (Leica MZ 16).

Identifications were made using the keys and descriptions by Rubtsov (1956), Knoz (1965), Terteryan (1968), Crosskey (2002), Bass (1998), Crosskey and Malicky (2001), Yankovsky (1995), Crosskey and Zwick (2007) and Jedlićka et al. (2004). The nomenclature follows that of Adler and Crosskey (2015).

Taxon treatments

Prosimulium rachiliense Djafarov, 1954

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Prosimulium rachiliense Djafarov,1954
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Prosimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Djafarov,1954
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Merkez
    ; locationRemarks:
    46
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°49'48.43"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°10'42.01"E
    ; eventDate:
    04/23/2005
    ; lifeStage:
    43 pupae, 6 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-1
  2. scientificName:
    Prosimulium rachiliense Djafarov,1954
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Prosimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Djafarov,1954
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kofçaz
    ; locationRemarks:
    49
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°55'33.95"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°9'48.15"E
    ; eventDate:
    04/23/2005
    ; lifeStage:
    33 pupae, 6 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-2
  3. scientificName:
    Prosimulium rachiliense Djafarov,1954
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Prosimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Djafarov,1954
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kofçaz
    ; locationRemarks:
    50
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°56'53.66"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°9'42.23"E
    ; eventDate:
    04/23/2005
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 1 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-3
  4. scientificName:
    Prosimulium rachiliense Djafarov,1954
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Prosimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Djafarov,1954
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kofçaz
    ; locationRemarks:
    51
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°56'22.44"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°5'33.09"E
    ; eventDate:
    04/23/2005
    ; lifeStage:
    11 pupae, 6 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-4
  5. scientificName:
    Prosimulium rachiliense Djafarov,1954
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Prosimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Djafarov,1954
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Lalapaşa
    ; locationRemarks:
    53
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°58'26.47"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°0'28.78"E
    ; eventDate:
    04/23/2005
    ; lifeStage:
    12 pupae, 1 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-5
  6. scientificName:
    Prosimulium rachiliense Djafarov,1954
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Prosimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Djafarov,1954
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Şarköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    82
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°41'28.95"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°5'45.01"E
    ; eventDate:
    04/24/2005
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 1 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-6
  7. scientificName:
    Prosimulium rachiliense Djafarov,1954
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Prosimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Djafarov,1954
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Şarköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    83
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°46'21.52"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°3'32.09"E
    ; eventDate:
    04/24/2005
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 2 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-7
  8. scientificName:
    Prosimulium rachiliense Djafarov,1954
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Prosimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Djafarov,1954
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Saray
    ; locationRemarks:
    126
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°26'20.97"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°4'43.83"E
    ; eventDate:
    04/22/2005
    ; lifeStage:
    3 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-8
  9. scientificName:
    Prosimulium rachiliense Djafarov,1954
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Prosimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Djafarov,1954
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kofçaz
    ; locationRemarks:
    127
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°55'2.35"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°7'37.70"E
    ; eventDate:
    04/23/2005
    ; lifeStage:
    14 pupae, 9 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-9
  10. scientificName:
    Prosimulium rachiliense Djafarov,1954
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Prosimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Djafarov,1954
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Lalapaşa
    ; locationRemarks:
    128
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°50'8.01"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°43'49.22"E
    ; eventDate:
    04/23/2005
    ; lifeStage:
    38 pupae, 7 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-10

Notes

This taxon is distributed mainly in Caucasia, Transcaucasia and the Balkan countries including the island of Rhodes, and its occurrence in Turkey has been known previously (Crosskey and Zwick 2007). The first record from Anatolia was by Kazancı and Clergue-Gazeau (1990), as P. pronevitschae, from three different lotic systems. Crosskey and Howard (2004) synonymized pronevitschae with rachiliense. Crosskey and Zwick (2007) reported this species from seven sites in northwestern and southeastern Anatolia. We identified our material as P. rachiliense, using the illustrations and descriptions by Terteryan (1968) and Crosskey and Malicky (2001). Adler and Şirin (2014) chromosomally showed that populations in western Turkey are a cytoform of P. rachiliense, probably different from true P. rachiliense. We compared our larvae and pupae with the material in the study of Adler and Şirin (2014)​, and did not find structural differences.

Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Metacnephia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rubtsov, 1940)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Demirköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    35
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°52'21.65"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°54'3.96"E
    ; eventDate:
    04/22/2005
    ; lifeStage:
    1 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-11
  2. scientificName:
    Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Metacnephia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rubtsov, 1940)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    İğneada
    ; locationRemarks:
    36
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°49'16.69"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°57'8.53"E
    ; eventDate:
    04/22/2005
    ; lifeStage:
    12 pupae, 2 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-12
  3. scientificName:
    Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Metacnephia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rubtsov, 1940)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Merkez
    ; locationRemarks:
    46
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°49'48.43"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°10'42.01"E
    ; eventDate:
    04/23/2005
    ; lifeStage:
    2 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-13
  4. scientificName:
    Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Metacnephia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rubtsov, 1940)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Lalapaşa
    ; locationRemarks:
    53
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°58'26.47"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°0'28.78"E
    ; eventDate:
    04/23/2005
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-14
  5. scientificName:
    Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Metacnephia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rubtsov, 1940)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Lalapaşa
    ; locationRemarks:
    128
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°50'8.01"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°43'49.22"E
    ; eventDate:
    04/23/2005
    ; lifeStage:
    1 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-15

Notes

We report this species for the first time from Turkey. The taxonomy of the genus Metacnephia requires revision. In Turkey, only two species, M. lyra and M. subalpina, of this genus have been known until now (Kazancı and Ertunç 2008). The pupal features of our specimens are similar to those of M. subalpina, reported from four localities in Anatolia, one in the northwestern and three in the eastern and southeastern parts of the country, by Crosskey and Zwick (2007). Metacnephia subalpina was described by Rubtsov (1956) as a variety of M. nigra, but Terteryan (1968) elevated it to species. According to Crosskey and Zwick (2007), the relationship of M. subalpina and M. nigra remains unsettled because of the problem of the true identity of M. nigra; the authors could not resolve the ambiguities. They noted that Yankovsky (1995) (pp. 4, 50) treated subalpina and nigra as synonyms before reverting [Yankovsky (2003)] to treating them as separate species. Crosskey and Zwick (2007) used the name subalpina for their material because it conformed in the shape of the ventral plate and pupal gill with Djafarov’s illustrations of M. subalpina. Another species, Metacnephia uzunovi, described by Kovachev (1985) from Bulgaria, confuses the taxonomic situation by having similar structural characters to M. nigra. We have doubts about its validity. We recognize M. nigra as a species complex, following the recommendation of P.H. Adler (pers. comm.) who noted the similarity with Rubtsov’s (1956, fig. 113) variety, saxicola, of M. nigra. Adler suggested that we use the name M. nigra for our material, with reference to Rubtsov’s (1956) variety saxicola, as a conservative approach that will provide future workers with an idea of the morphology of our material until the correct name of the species can be determined. M. nigra is known from Azerbaijan (Nakhichevan), Romania, Russia (Caucasus) and Turkmenistan (Adler and Crosskey 2015).

Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Boophthora
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (De Geer, 1776)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Saray
    ; locationRemarks:
    23
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°28'49.33"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°57'11.84"E
    ; eventDate:
    24.05.2002 / 09.07.2003
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 3 larvae / 3 pupae, 1 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-16
  2. scientificName:
    Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Boophthora
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (De Geer, 1776)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    İnece
    ; locationRemarks:
    55
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°40'13.00"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°4'7.90"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/29/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 5 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-17
  3. scientificName:
    Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Boophthora
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (De Geer, 1776)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    İnece
    ; locationRemarks:
    56
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°40'42.77"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°59'24.21"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/29/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    9 pupae, 6 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-18
  4. scientificName:
    Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Boophthora
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (De Geer, 1776)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Merkez
    ; locationRemarks:
    57
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°44'12.71"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°39'26.00"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/29/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    8 pupae, 7 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-19
  5. scientificName:
    Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Boophthora
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (De Geer, 1776)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Merkez
    ; locationRemarks:
    61
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°43'25.74"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°33'38.19"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/30/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 3 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-20
  6. scientificName:
    Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Boophthora
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (De Geer, 1776)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Hatipköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    63
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°48'14.99"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°33'13.31"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/30/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 8 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-21
  7. scientificName:
    Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Boophthora
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (De Geer, 1776)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Havsa
    ; locationRemarks:
    67
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°22'5.91"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°40'1.43"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/01/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    8 pupae, 5 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-22
  8. scientificName:
    Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Boophthora
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (De Geer, 1776)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Uzunköprü
    ; locationRemarks:
    68
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°10'9.16"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°40'17.11"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/01/2002
    ; sex:
    3 males, 3 females
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 7 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-23
  9. scientificName:
    Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Boophthora
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (De Geer, 1776)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Uzunköprü
    ; locationRemarks:
    69
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°6'21.69"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°38'11.89"E
    ; eventDate:
    01.06.2002 / 06.07.2003
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    2 pupae, 9 larvae, 1 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-24
  10. scientificName:
    Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Boophthora
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (De Geer, 1776)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Keşan
    ; locationRemarks:
    70
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°5'0.44"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°32'11.32"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/01/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 6 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-25
  11. scientificName:
    Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Boophthora
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (De Geer, 1776)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Keşan
    ; locationRemarks:
    75
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°46'5.97"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°30'42.72"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/02/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 7 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-26
  12. scientificName:
    Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Boophthora
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (De Geer, 1776)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Keşan
    ; locationRemarks:
    79
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°46'47.72"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°41'3.96"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/03/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    8 pupae, 7 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-27
  13. scientificName:
    Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Boophthora
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (De Geer, 1776)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Şarköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    83
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°46'21.52"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°3'32.09"E
    ; eventDate:
    01.06.2002 / 05.07.2003
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae / 2 pupae, 5 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-28
  14. scientificName:
    Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Boophthora
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (De Geer, 1776)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Malkara
    ; locationRemarks:
    93
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°56'45.42"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°53'8.36"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/06/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 8 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-29
  15. scientificName:
    Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Boophthora
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (De Geer, 1776)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Malkara
    ; locationRemarks:
    97
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°0'48.93"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°56'39.41"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/06/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 5 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-30
  16. scientificName:
    Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Boophthora
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (De Geer, 1776)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Hayrabolu
    ; locationRemarks:
    98
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°7'22.32"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°7'49.78"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/06/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 3 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-31
  17. scientificName:
    Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Boophthora
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (De Geer, 1776)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Hayrabolu
    ; locationRemarks:
    100
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°11'28.14"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°12'29.08"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/06/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    7 pupae, 9 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-32
  18. scientificName:
    Simulium (Boophthora) erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Boophthora
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (De Geer, 1776)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Babaeski
    ; locationRemarks:
    103
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°27'8.31"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°2'44.09"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/07/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    8 pupae, 5 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-33

Notes

Simulium erythrocephalum is the most abundant species of the subgenus Boophthora in the western Palearctic and is reported from the Far East of Asia (Adler and Crosskey 2015). Breeding sites of S. erythrocephalum are generally weedy, lowland streams and rivers, such as the Danube (Germany, Serbia), the Spree (Germany), the Warta (Poland), and the Morava (Czech Republich). In Central Europe, it occurs in various flowing-water systems such as lowland streams, outflows from ponds, irrigation constructions and large rivers (Werner and Kampen 2012). It can develop large populations and become a serious pest and nuisance to humans and farm animals (Ignjatović-Ćupına et al. 2006) In Anatolia, it has been recorded by several authors. Sirin and Sahin (2005) found it at two sites in the Sakarya river basin for the first time in Turkey. Kazancı and Ertunç (2008) stated that S. erythrocephalum lives in the Büyük Menderes river basin in southwestern Anatolia. It is recorded by Gazyağcı and Aydenizöz (2011) from the Kızılırmak River in Kırıkkale Province. The latest record for S. erythrocephalum from Turkey was given by Şirin et al. (2014) from Sakarya and Kocaeli Provinces. According to the keys of Knoz (1965) and Bass (1998), the species can be identified by a pair of inconspicuous dorsolateral papillae on each segment of the larva, the pattern of the larval head capsule, the branching pattern of the six pupal gill filaments, and the shape of the pupal cocoon. The male genitalia of our specimens conform to the description by Rubtsov (1956)​.

Simulium (Eusimulium) petricolum (Rivosecchi, 1963)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) petricolum (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Alibeyköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    4
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°9'3.88"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°53'29.90"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/20/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-34
  2. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) petricolum (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Alibeyköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    5
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°9'29.46"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°50'20.95"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/21/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male, 1 male pharate adult, 1 female pharate adult,
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 8 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-35
  3. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) petricolum (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Çatalca
    ; locationRemarks:
    6
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°11'40.48"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°45'45.58"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/21/2002
    ; sex:
    2 males pharate adult, 1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    7 pupae, 13 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-36
  4. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) petricolum (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Çatalca
    ; locationRemarks:
    7
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°12'22.30"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°38'8.26"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/21/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult, 2 females pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 11 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-37
  5. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) petricolum (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Çatalca
    ; locationRemarks:
    8
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°11'46.99"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°36'54.42"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/21/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult, 1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    12 pupae, 3 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-38
  6. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) petricolum (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Vize
    ; locationRemarks:
    29
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°37'42.79"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°38'58.94"E
    ; eventDate:
    25.05.2002 / 08.07.2003
    ; sex:
    3 males pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 8 larvae / 1 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-39
  7. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) petricolum (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Üsküp
    ; locationRemarks:
    39
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°43'1.19"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°22'20.34"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/27/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult, 1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 3 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-40
  8. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) petricolum (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Merkez
    ; locationRemarks:
    46
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°49'48.43"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°10'42.01"E
    ; eventDate:
    28.05.2002 / 23.04.2005
    ; sex:
    2 males pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    10 pupae, 14 larvae / 5 pupae, 8 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-41
  9. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) petricolum (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kofçaz
    ; locationRemarks:
    47
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°52'37.87"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°10'41.95"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/28/2002
    ; sex:
    1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-42
  10. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) petricolum (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kofçaz
    ; locationRemarks:
    48
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°54'8.88"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°10'30.90"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/28/2002
    ; sex:
    1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    8 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-43
  11. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) petricolum (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kofçaz
    ; locationRemarks:
    49
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°55'33.95"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°9'48.15"E
    ; eventDate:
    28.05.2002 / 23.04.2005
    ; sex:
    1 female, 1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 9 larvae / 2 pupae,
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-44
  12. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) petricolum (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Lalapaşa
    ; locationRemarks:
    59
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°51'12.74"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°43'20.06"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/29/2002
    ; sex:
    2 males pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-45
  13. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) petricolum (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Lalapaşa
    ; locationRemarks:
    60
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°50'24.70"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°36'30.45"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/29/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male, 1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    7 pupae, 5 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-46
  14. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) petricolum (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
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  19. scientificName:
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  20. scientificName:
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  21. scientificName:
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  22. scientificName:
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    Diptera
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    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Muratlı
    ; locationRemarks:
    120
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°7'50.39"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°26'7.28"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/10/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male, 2 males pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    8 pupae, 11 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-73
  41. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) petricolum (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Marmara Ereğlisi
    ; locationRemarks:
    121
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°4'27.74"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°54'40.09"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/11/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    7 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-74
  42. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) petricolum (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Rivosecchi, 1963)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Büyükçekmece
    ; locationRemarks:
    123
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°3'23.68"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°26'4.40"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/11/2002
    ; sex:
    3 males pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 8 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-75

Notes

Simulium petricolum is one of three species in the S. aureum species group of the subgenus Eusimulium in Anatolia. The others are S. angustipes and S. velutinum. The first record of S. petricolum from Turkey was published by Kalafat and Şirin (2011). Gazyağcı and Aydenizöz (2011) recorded it from the Kızılırmak River in Kırıkkale Province. It was also reported from eastern Marmara Region by Şirin et al. (2014). Simulium petricolum occurs in southern Europe and especially in the Mediterranean countries (Crosskey and Malicky 2001). According to Crosskey and Malicky (2001), the species is not reliably distinguished from S. velutinum in the aquatic stages, adults being required for positive identification. Our specimens conform in genitalia to the descriptions by Crosskey and Malicky (2001) and Day et al. (2010)

Simulium (Eusimulium) velutinum (Santos Abreu, 1922)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) velutinum (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Çatalca
    ; locationRemarks:
    10
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°13'57.35"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°30'15.57"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/22/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult, 2 females pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    7 pupae, 5 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-76
  2. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) velutinum (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Çatalca
    ; locationRemarks:
    11
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°14'51.86"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°25'50.19"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/22/2002
    ; sex:
    1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    7 pupae, 4 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-77
  3. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) velutinum (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Pınarhisar
    ; locationRemarks:
    38
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°40'11.14"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°26'32.75"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/27/2002
    ; sex:
    2 males, 2 females, 1 male pharate adult, 1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 8 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-78
  4. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) velutinum (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Üsküp
    ; locationRemarks:
    40
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°44'42.71"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°24'13.09"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/27/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male, 2 male pharate adult, 3 females pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae, 12 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-79
  5. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) velutinum (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Lalapaşa
    ; locationRemarks:
    53
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°58'26.47"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°0'28.78"E
    ; eventDate:
    28.05.2002 / 23.04.2005
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult, 2 females pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 4 larvae / 6 pupae, 12 larvae,
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-80
  6. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) velutinum (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Lalapaşa
    ; locationRemarks:
    54
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°55'44.34"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°51'44.57"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/28/2002
    ; sex:
    2 males pharate adult, 3 females pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    8 pupae, 6 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-81
  7. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) velutinum (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Keşan
    ; locationRemarks:
    70
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°5'0.44"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°32'11.32"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/01/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult, 2 females pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    7 pupae, 9 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-82
  8. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) velutinum (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Çanakkale
    ; county:
    Gelibolu
    ; locationRemarks:
    90
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°26'2.76"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°33'22.85"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/05/2002
    ; sex:
    2 males pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 7 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-83
  9. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) velutinum (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Çanakkale
    ; county:
    Gelibolu
    ; locationRemarks:
    91
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°24'36.21"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°30'21.36"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/05/2002
    ; sex:
    2 males pharate adult, 2 females pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 8 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-84
  10. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) velutinum (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Çanakkale
    ; county:
    Gelibolu
    ; locationRemarks:
    92
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°22'47.18"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°27'34.33"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/05/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 9 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-85
  11. scientificName:
    Simulium (Eusimulium) velutinum (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Eusimulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Santos Abreu, 1922)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Kumbağ
    ; locationRemarks:
    108
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°47'52.99"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°21'48.85"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/08/2002
    ; sex:
    2 males pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 3 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-86

Notes

Simulium velutinum occurs in most of Europe but is especially common in the Mediterranean subregion from the Canary Islands (type locality) to Israel and Jordan (Crosskey and Malicky 2001). According to Kazancı and Ertunç (2008)​, S. velutinum also inhabits southwestern Anatolia. Its existence in Turkish Thrace is, therefore, expected. Identification of this species is most reliably based on genitalia: the ventral plate of the male is smaller and more triangular and the spermatheca of the female is without the usual sclerotized nipple-like extension that is found in the other members of the S. aureum group.

Simulium (Nevermannia) cryophilum complex

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Simulium (Nevermannia) cryophilum complex
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Nevermannia
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Kumbağ
    ; locationRemarks:
    106
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°49'39.01"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°23'8.57"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/08/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 6 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-87
  2. scientificName:
    Simulium (Nevermannia) cryophilum complex
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Nevermannia
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Kumbağ
    ; locationRemarks:
    108
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°47'52.99"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°21'48.85"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/08/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae, 5 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-88

Notes

Simulium cryophilum is a member of the S. vernum species-group, which includes more than one-fourth of the nominal species in the western Palearctic. According to Crosskey and Malicky (2001), there are difficulties in identification of the species of the S. vernum group. Another taxonomic difficulty is that S. cryophilum is a composite of at least two chromosomally distinct sibling species (Hunter 1987; Adler et al. 1999). We, therefore, refer to it in Turkey as the S. cryophilum complex. We found it in two streams in the southern part of our study region. The main structural features of our material were in the pupal stage: (1) gill with all four filaments held closely together and about equal in thickness (Bass 1998; Crosskey and Malicky 2001); (2) upper pair of gill filaments branched horizontally (Jedlićka et al. 2004); (3) upper and lower pairs of filaments on short common stalks equal in length (Bass 1998; Jedlićka et al. 2004); (4) thoracic microtubercles dense and rounded and thoracic trichomes simple (Bass 1998); and (5) cocoon fully covering pupa and with a short anteromedian horn. In our larvae, the postgenal cleft was clearly defined and pentagonal, conforming to the description by Bass (1998)​.

Simulium (Simulium) bezzii (Corti, 1914)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) bezzii (Corti, 1914)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Corti, 1914)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Demirköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    35
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°52'21.65"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°54'3.96"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/26/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    2 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-89
  2. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) bezzii (Corti, 1914)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Corti, 1914)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    İğneada
    ; locationRemarks:
    36
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°49'16.69"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°57'8.53"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/26/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 1 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-90
  3. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) bezzii (Corti, 1914)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Corti, 1914)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kofçaz
    ; locationRemarks:
    47
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°52'37.87"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°10'41.95"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/28/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 3 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-91
  4. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) bezzii (Corti, 1914)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Corti, 1914)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kofçaz
    ; locationRemarks:
    48
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°54'8.88"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°10'30.90"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/28/2002
    ; sex:
    2 females
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae, 2 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-92
  5. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) bezzii (Corti, 1914)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Corti, 1914)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kofçaz
    ; locationRemarks:
    49
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°55'33.95"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°9'48.15"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/28/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 1 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-93
  6. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) bezzii (Corti, 1914)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Corti, 1914)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kofçaz
    ; locationRemarks:
    50
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°56'53.66"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°9'42.23"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/28/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 3 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-94
  7. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) bezzii (Corti, 1914)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Corti, 1914)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kofçaz
    ; locationRemarks:
    51
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°56'22.44"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°5'33.09"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/28/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    2 pupae, 2 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-95
  8. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) bezzii (Corti, 1914)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Corti, 1914)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kofçaz
    ; locationRemarks:
    52
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°56'50.96"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°3'41.00"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/28/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-96
  9. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) bezzii (Corti, 1914)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Corti, 1914)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Lalapaşa
    ; locationRemarks:
    53
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°58'26.47"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°0'28.78"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/28/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 2 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-97
  10. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) bezzii (Corti, 1914)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Corti, 1914)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Keşan
    ; locationRemarks:
    80
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°43'36.00"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°42'46.33"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/03/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 2 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-98
  11. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) bezzii (Corti, 1914)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Corti, 1914)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Şarköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    82
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°41'28.95"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°5'45.01"E
    ; eventDate:
    03.06.2002 / 05.07.2003
    ; sex:
    1 male
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae / 1 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-99
  12. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) bezzii (Corti, 1914)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Corti, 1914)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Çanakkale
    ; county:
    Gelibolu
    ; locationRemarks:
    91
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°24'36.21"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°30'21.36"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/05/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 1 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-100

Notes

This species occurs in the southwestern Palearctic from Iberia through central and southern Europe to the Transcaucasus and northern Middle East, and is present in northwestern Africa and most of the larger Mediterranean islands. It is common and widespread in Anatolia (Crosskey and Zwick 2007). Simulium bezzii, like Simulium kerisorum, also known from Turkey, has six pupal gill filaments, in contrast to most other species of the S. bezzii-group, which generally have eight filaments. It can be distinguished by large fenestrations posterior to the cocoon rim. Crosskey and Zwick (2007) stated that S. kerisorum is not a valid species and thought that the Turkish record of Kazancı and Clergue-Gazeau (1990) is questionable. The chromosomes of Simulium bezzii have been studied (mainly by Kachvoryan (1988), as Tetisimulium condici) but not those of S. kerisorum, and cytological comparison of the two nominal taxa is desirable (Crosskey and Zwick 2007​).

Simulium (Simulium) bukovskii Rubtsov, 1940

Material   Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) bukovskii Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    İğneada
    ; locationRemarks:
    36
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°49'16.69"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°57'8.53"E
    ; eventDate:
    04/22/2005
    ; lifeStage:
    8 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-101

Notes

The type locality of Simulium bukovskii is in Crimea (Ukraine) and its distribution ranges from the Balkans to Armenia. It was recorded from Turkey by different authors (Crosskey and Zwick 2007). Furthermore, it is similar to S. degrangei Dorier and Grenier (1960), which is also common in most countries of southern Europe. Crosskey and Zwick (2007)​ emphasized the similarity of the two species and that synonymy should be considered.

Simulium (Simulium) noelleri Friederichs, 1920

Material   Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) noelleri Friederichs, 1920
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Friederichs, 1920
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Meriç
    ; locationRemarks:
    71
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°7'27.26"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°25'32.17"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/01/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 9 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-102

Notes

Simulium (Simulium) noelleri is a well-known simuliid, with a general preference for outlets. It is distinguished by the branching arrangement of the pupal gills (3+3+2 or 3+2+2+1). We encountered it at one locality, an outlet from a small pond. Our pupae have eight gill filaments arranged as 3+3+2, and the apotome pattern of the larval head capsule is like an ill-defined “H”, as described by Bass (1998). Although, S. noelleri is widespread in the Palaearctic, there are rwo records of it in Turkey, from the Sakarya River basin (Sirin and Sahin 2005) and East Marmara Region (Şirin et al. 2014​).

Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Gaziosmanpaşa
    ; locationRemarks:
    1
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°11'6.44"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°58'58.40"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/20/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    8 pupae, 12 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-103
  2. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Gaziosmanpaşa
    ; locationRemarks:
    2
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°11'40.47"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°54'51.58"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/19/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 7 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-104
  3. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Çatalca
    ; locationRemarks:
    9
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°11'4.58"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°38'17.71"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/22/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-105
  4. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Çatalca
    ; locationRemarks:
    12
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°13'3.97"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°21'41.16"E
    ; eventDate:
    22.05.2002 / 22.04.2005
    ; lifeStage:
    10 pupae, 11 larvae / 2 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-106
  5. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kıyıköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    26
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°38'59.36"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°58'2.28"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/24/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    9 pupae, 4 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-107
  6. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kıyıköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    27
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°37'33.39"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°53'35.61"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/24/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 7 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-108
  7. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Vize
    ; locationRemarks:
    28
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°36'22.59"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°42'49.15"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/25/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 3 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-109
  8. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Demirköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    34
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°51'42.45"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°48'14.71"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/26/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 8 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-110
  9. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Armağan
    ; locationRemarks:
    42
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°51'2.67"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°26'27.85"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/27/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 7 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-111
  10. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Dereköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    44
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°51'1.19"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°19'29.05"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/27/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 4 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-112
  11. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Merkez
    ; locationRemarks:
    45
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°47'2.65"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°12'27.76"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/28/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae, 3 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-113
  12. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kofçaz
    ; locationRemarks:
    50
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°56'53.66"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°9'42.23"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/28/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    9 pupae, 7 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-114
  13. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Merkez
    ; locationRemarks:
    57
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°44'12.71"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°39'26.00"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/29/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 9 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-115
  14. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Hatipköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    62
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°47'40.09"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°34'10.89"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/30/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    8 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-116
  15. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Keşan
    ; locationRemarks:
    80
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°43'36.00"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°42'46.33"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/03/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 8 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-117
  16. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Malkara
    ; locationRemarks:
    86
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°48'41.00"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°53'34.24"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/04/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    7 pupae, 4 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-118
  17. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Malkara
    ; locationRemarks:
    87
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°47'19.76"
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°48'15.30"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/04/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 5 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-119
  18. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Çanakkale
    ; county:
    Gelibolu
    ; locationRemarks:
    88
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°41'38.58"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°55'56.44"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/04/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    7 pupae, 7 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-120
  19. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Çanakkale
    ; county:
    Gelibolu
    ; locationRemarks:
    89
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°42'4.87"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°54'53.59"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/04/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 5 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-121
  20. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Malkara
    ; locationRemarks:
    95
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°58'38.79"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°49'16.96"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/06/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 9 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-122
  21. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Babaeski
    ; locationRemarks:
    104
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°25'18.74"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°10'47.04"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/07/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    7 pupae, 8 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-123
  22. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Şarköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    114
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°48'8.19"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°11'3.18"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/09/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    2 pupae, 2 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-124
  23. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Şarköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    115
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°47'10.21"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°9'40.88"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/09/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 5 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-125
  24. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Malkara
    ; locationRemarks:
    117
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°55'58.80"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°12'7.01"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/10/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male
    ; lifeStage:
    7 pupae, 6 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-126
  25. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rubtsov, 1940
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Silivri
    ; locationRemarks:
    122
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°13'57.53"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°7'5.05"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/11/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    8 pupae, 4 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-127

Notes

This species is a member of the S. ornatum species-group, which presents some of the most difficult taxonomic problems among Palearctic simuliids, in part because of the descriptions of many nominal species. Until now, six species of this group (baracorne Smart, 1944, fontanum Terteryan, 1952, kiritshenkoi Rubtsov, 1940, caucasicum Rubtsov, 1940, ornatum Meigen, 1818 (complex), trifasciatum Curtis, 1839) have been recorded from Turkey by different authors, as well as ornatum s.l. Meigen reported from Thrace by Zwick (2007). Our material includes mainly aquatic stages, with only one reared adult, a male from Site 117. We identified this male as S. kiritshenkoi on the basis of the color of the antennae (orange-red) and legs (reddish yellow), as described by Crosskey (2002). The genitalia also conform to the description of Crosskey (2002): ventral plate beak-like process in profile narrow and slightly upturned, and dentate crest slightly overhanging the base of the beak-like process. We also have pupae and larvae from this locality and the taxonomic characters fit the description of S. kiritshenkoi by Rubtsov (1956), Terteryan (1968), Crosskey (2002) and Crosskey and Zwick (2007)​. The pupal characters are as follows: thoracic microtubercles dome-like and fairly sparse, cocoon slipper-shaped and with delicately to strongly perforated weave, gill filaments in four pairs on short common stems. The postgenal cleft of our larvae is comparatively small, subquadrate or slightly pentagonal and extended less than halfway toward the base of the hypostoma.

Simulium (Simulium) reptans (Linnaeus, 1758)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) reptans (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    İğneada
    ; locationRemarks:
    36
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°49'16.69"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°57'8.53"E
    ; eventDate:
    26.05.2002 / 22.04.2005
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 5 larvae / 19 pupae, 5 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-128
  2. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) reptans (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Pınarhisar
    ; locationRemarks:
    38
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°40'11.14"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°26'32.75"E
    ; eventDate:
    07/08/2003
    ; lifeStage:
    7 pupae, 11 larvae / 1 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-129
  3. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) reptans (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Merkez
    ; locationRemarks:
    46
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°49'48.43"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°10'42.01"E
    ; eventDate:
    04/23/2005
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 3 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-130
  4. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) reptans (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Lalapaşa
    ; locationRemarks:
    53
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°58'26.47"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°0'28.78"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/28/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    8 pupae, 7 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-131
  5. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) reptans (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Hatipköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    63
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°48'14.99"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°33'13.31"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/30/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    7 pupae, 8 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-132

Notes

Simulium reptans is one of the most common black flies in the Palaearctic, distributed from China to Portugal and from Lapland to Italy. It is a human- and cattle-biting species (Day et al. 2008). In Turkey, this species were reported from the Büyük Menderes river basin in western Anatolia (Kazancı and Ertunç 2008ile and the va districts of thestanbul (Şirin et al. 2014). Simulium reptans is similar to Simulium galeratum Edwards, especially in the larval stages, and some authors (e.g. Crosskey and Howard 2004) regarded galeratum as a synonym of reptans. However, Day et al. (2008) and Bernotiene and Stunzėnas (2009) showed, by analyzing mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene sequences, that S. galeratum is a distinct species. According to Bass (1998), Knoz (1965) and Jedlićka et al. (2004), the most distinctive pupal character between S. reptans and S. galeratum is the conformation and distribution of microtubercles on the cuticle of the head and thorax; in S. galeratum, the microtubercles are sparse and pointed, but dense in S. reptans, they are dense and rounded. In our study, the pupae have dense, rounded microtubercles. However, the head capsule pigmentation of our larvae conforms to that of S. reptans, as given by Bass (1998)​. We did not observe variation among specimens from the four localities where we collected the species.

Simulium (Simulium) variegatum Meigen, 1818

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) variegatum Meigen, 1818
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Meigen, 1818
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Saray
    ; locationRemarks:
    23
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°28'49.33"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°57'11.84"E
    ; eventDate:
    24.05.2002 / 09.07.2003
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 3 larvae / 2 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-133
  2. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) variegatum Meigen, 1818
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Meigen, 1818
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Saray
    ; locationRemarks:
    24
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°32'57.72"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°2'32.53"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/24/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 6 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-134
  3. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) variegatum Meigen, 1818
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Meigen, 1818
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Saray
    ; locationRemarks:
    25
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°33'36.45"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°3'50.97"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/24/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male
    ; lifeStage:
    9 pupae, 6 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-135
  4. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) variegatum Meigen, 1818
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Meigen, 1818
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kıyıköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    26
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°38'59.36"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°58'2.28"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/24/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    8 pupae, 7 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-136
  5. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) variegatum Meigen, 1818
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Meigen, 1818
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Pınarhisar
    ; locationRemarks:
    31
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°44'18.42"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°37'36.24"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/25/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 4 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-137
  6. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) variegatum Meigen, 1818
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Meigen, 1818
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Pınarhisar
    ; locationRemarks:
    32
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°46'52.34"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°42'18.82"E
    ; eventDate:
    25.05.2002 / 08.07.2003
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 7 larvae / 1 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-138
  7. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) variegatum Meigen, 1818
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Meigen, 1818
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Üsküp
    ; locationRemarks:
    41
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°48'7.98"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°27'14.63"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/27/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae, 1 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-139
  8. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) variegatum Meigen, 1818
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Meigen, 1818
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kofçaz
    ; locationRemarks:
    52
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°56'50.96"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°3'41.00"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/28/2002
    ; sex:
    1 female
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 3 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-140
  9. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) variegatum Meigen, 1818
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Meigen, 1818
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Kumbağ
    ; locationRemarks:
    106
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°49'39.01"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°23'8.57"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/08/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 5 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-141
  10. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) variegatum Meigen, 1818
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Meigen, 1818
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Kumbağ
    ; locationRemarks:
    107
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°48'27.93"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°23'8.49"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/08/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 5 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-142
  11. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) variegatum Meigen, 1818
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Meigen, 1818
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Kumbağ
    ; locationRemarks:
    108
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°47'52.99"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°21'48.85"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/08/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    8 pupae, 3 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-143

Notes

The most diagnostic character of Simulium variegatum is the presence of two large thoracic bulges (patagia) near the pupal gill bases. We observed this feature in all specimens collected from 11 sites. This species is widely distributed in Turkey (Crosskey and Zwick 2007) and also common over most of Europe, western Asia and North Africa (Adler and Crosskey 2015​).

Simulium (Simulium) argyreatum Meigen, 1838

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) argyreatum Meigen, 1838
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Meigen, 1838
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Demirköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    33
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°49'22.89"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°45'48.04"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/25/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 4 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-144
  2. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) argyreatum Meigen, 1838
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Meigen, 1838
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Demirköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    37
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°48'24.50"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°49'21.60"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/26/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-145
  3. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) argyreatum Meigen, 1838
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Meigen, 1838
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Dereköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    43
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°54'58.26"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°21'31.80"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/27/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    9 pupae, 3 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-146
  4. scientificName:
    Simulium (Simulium) argyreatum Meigen, 1838
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Simulium
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Meigen, 1838
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Havsa
    ; locationRemarks:
    67
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°22'5.91"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°40'1.43"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/01/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae, 2 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-147

Notes

This species was reported from the Yedi Göller region in Bolu Province as a new record for Turkey (Kazancı and Ertunç 2008), and then recorded from Eastern Marmara Region (Şirin et al. 2014). It also is known from adjacent Balkan countries such as Bulgaria and Romania. We encountered the species at four localities, and identified it by pupal gill characters, using the keys of Knoz (1965), Jedlićka et al. (2004) and Yankovsky (2003)​: the filaments are directed downward at the base and then curve anteriorly; they lie close together proximally.

Simulium (Trichodagmia) auricoma Meigen, 1818

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Simulium (Trichodagmia) auricoma Meigen, 1818
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Trichodagmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Meigen, 1818
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kofçaz
    ; locationRemarks:
    52
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°56'50.96"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°3'41.00"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/28/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 2 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-148
  2. scientificName:
    Simulium (Trichodagmia) auricoma Meigen, 1818
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Trichodagmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Meigen, 1818
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Çanakkale
    ; county:
    Gelibolu
    ; locationRemarks:
    91
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°24'36.21"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°30'21.36"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/05/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae, 3 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-149

Notes

According to Crosskey and Zwick (2007), Simulium auricoma is spread through southern Europe from the Iberian to the Aegean islands, such as Lesbos and Rhodes, and occurs in mountainous areas. They reported it from Turkey for the first time and emphasized that it shows wide variation in the length, taper and spread of the filaments. Crosskey and Malicky (2001) noted that gill filaments vary from short, stubby, and minimally tapered, to long and gradually tapered; in all forms, the lowermost filament tends to diverge downward from the others. The filaments of our pupae from the two sites are short, stubby, and minimally tapered. The cocoon and genitalia characters of pharate males conform to the description by Crosskey and Malicky (2001)​.


Simulium (Wilhelmia) equinum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) equinum (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Çatalca
    ; locationRemarks:
    16
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°23'13.96"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°22'1.34"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/23/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 8 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-150
  2. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) equinum (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Çatalca
    ; locationRemarks:
    17
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°23'54.45"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°19'8.26"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/23/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    2 pupae, 3 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-151
  3. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) equinum (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Çatalca
    ; locationRemarks:
    18
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°21'27.60"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°13'43.55"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/23/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-152
  4. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) equinum (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Çatalca
    ; locationRemarks:
    19
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°23'5.91"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°11'54.84"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/23/2002
    ; sex:
    2 rearing adults (1 male, 1 female)
    ; lifeStage:
    7 pupae, 3 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-153
  5. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) equinum (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Çatalca
    ; locationRemarks:
    20
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°24'2.09"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°10'3.80"E
    ; eventDate:
    24.05.2002 / 09.07.2003
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae / 2 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-154
  6. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) equinum (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Saray
    ; locationRemarks:
    23
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°28'49.33"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°57'11.84"E
    ; eventDate:
    24.05.2002 / 09.07.2003
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 10 larvae / 2 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-155
  7. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) equinum (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    İnece
    ; locationRemarks:
    55
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°40'13.00"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°4'7.90"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/29/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae, 7 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-156
  8. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) equinum (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    İskender
    ; locationRemarks:
    65
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°35'21.77"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°40'57.69"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/31/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    2 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-157
  9. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) equinum (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Babaeski
    ; locationRemarks:
    103
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°27'8.31"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°2'44.09"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/07/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 12 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-158

Notes

The pupae of Simulium equinum can be identified by the banana-like gill branches. Although S. equinum is found from central and northern Europe to northeastern Asia, it becomes progressively less common throughout the Mediterranean borderlands and islands (Crosskey and Zwick 2007). This species was reported from the Sakarya river system as a new record for Turkey (Sirin and Sahin 2005). Crosskey and Zwick (2007) also found it at a river near Kızılcahamam, Ankara. These authors note that S. equinum typically occurs with other species of the subgenus Wilhelmia. We record this species at nine sites, of which six were with S. pseudequinum and one with S. balcanicum.

Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924)

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Saray
    ; locationRemarks:
    25
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°33'36.45"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°3'50.97"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/24/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    14 pupae, 7 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-159
  2. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Merkez
    ; locationRemarks:
    58
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°46'33.77"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°40'36.82"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/29/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 9 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-160
  3. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Merkez
    ; locationRemarks:
    61
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°43'25.74"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°33'38.19"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/30/2002
    ; sex:
    3 males pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    8 pupae, 11 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-161
  4. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Hatipköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    63
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°48'14.99"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°33'13.31"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/30/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 6 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-162
  5. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Karaağaç
    ; locationRemarks:
    64
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°40'13.71"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°31'20.94"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/31/2002
    ; sex:
    1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 6 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-163
  6. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Keşan
    ; locationRemarks:
    70
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°5'0.44"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°32'11.32"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/01/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 9 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-164
  7. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Keşan
    ; locationRemarks:
    75
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°46'5.97"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°30'42.72"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/02/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae, 5 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-165
  8. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Şarköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    83
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°46'21.52"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°3'32.09"E
    ; eventDate:
    04.06.2002 / 05.07.2003
    ; sex:
    1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    2 pupae / 2 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-166
  9. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Çanakkale
    ; county:
    Gelibolu
    ; locationRemarks:
    90
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°26'2.76"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°33'22.85"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/05/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    1 pupa, 2 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-167
  10. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Malkara
    ; locationRemarks:
    93
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°56'45.42"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°53'8.36"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/06/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae, 9 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-168
  11. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Malkara
    ; locationRemarks:
    97
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°0'48.93"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°56'39.41"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/06/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    8 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-169
  12. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Hayrabolu
    ; locationRemarks:
    100
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°11'28.14"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°12'29.08"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/06/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    8 pupae, 4 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-170
  13. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Babaeski
    ; locationRemarks:
    103
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°27'8.31"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°2'44.09"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/07/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-171
  14. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Merkez
    ; locationRemarks:
    124
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°42'38.22"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°15'46.64"E
    ; eventDate:
    07/08/2003
    ; lifeStage:
    2 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-172
  15. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Çorlu
    ; locationRemarks:
    130
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°12'41.18"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°57'15.98"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/24/2006
    ; lifeStage:
    2 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-173
  16. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Enderlein, 1924)
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Çorlu
    ; locationRemarks:
    131
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°8'45.21"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°38'53.92"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/24/2006
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-174

Notes

Simulium balcanicum was reported from four big river basins, Büyük Menderes, Yeşilırmak, Kızılırmak and Sakarya, in Anatolia according to the checklist of Turkish black flies (Kazancı and Ertunç 2008). Crosskey and Zwick (2007) stated that it is widespread in western Anatolia. Şirin et al. (2014) recorded this species eleven different streams in East Marmara Region. Additionally, S. balcanicum occurs in the adjacent western countries of Turkey, such as Bulgaria, Greece and Romania. Simulium balcanicum is similar to S. lineatum. The diagnostic character separating the two nominal species is in the pupal gill: in S. lineatum all six inner gill tubes arise independently from the gill base, whereas in S. balcanicum the posterior pair of inner gill tubes arises in the form of a fork with a common stem (Crosskey and Zwick 2007). All of our pupae and mature larvae have the balcanicum type of gills. Crosskey and Zwick (2007) doubted that S. lineatum and S. balcanicum are separate species. Because of similarity in the terminalia, the authors predicted that S. balcanicum is not a distinct species, and that the name probably should be synonymized with S. lineatum. They suggested, however, that chromosomal data for both nominal species need to be considered before establishing synonymy. Adler et al. (2012)​ analyzed the polytene chromosomes of these species in the Kızılırmak River and other sites in Europe and revealed that S. lineatum and S. balcanicum are distinct, reproductively isolated species. They stated that chromosomally, these two species have fixed-inversion differences and unique autosomal polymorphisms.

Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921

Materials   Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Kemerburgaz
    ; locationRemarks:
    3
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°9'48.99"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°54'53.02"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/20/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    2 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-175
  2. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Çatalca
    ; locationRemarks:
    12
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°13'3.97"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°21'41.16"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/22/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male, 1 female, 1 male pharate adult, 2 females pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    14 pupae, 13 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-176
  3. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Çatalca
    ; locationRemarks:
    13
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°18'19.33"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°26'3.30"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/23/2002
    ; sex:
    4 males pharate adult, 1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    9 pupae, 21 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-177
  4. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Çatalca
    ; locationRemarks:
    14
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°20'19.18"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°25'28.91"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/23/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae, 2 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-178
  5. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Çatalca
    ; locationRemarks:
    15
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°21'23.18"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°23'55.26"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/23/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    2 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-179
  6. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Çatalca
    ; locationRemarks:
    17
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°23'54.45"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°19'8.26"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/23/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male, 2 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 5 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-180
  7. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Çatalca
    ; locationRemarks:
    20
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°24'2.09"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°10'3.80"E
    ; eventDate:
    07/09/2003
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult, 2 females pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    8 pupae, 4 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-181
  8. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Saray
    ; locationRemarks:
    21
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°26'19.63"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°3'45.95"E
    ; eventDate:
    24.05.2002 / 09.07.2003
    ; lifeStage:
    2 pupae, 4 larvae / 1 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-182
  9. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Saray
    ; locationRemarks:
    22
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°26'35.31"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°1'25.37"E
    ; eventDate:
    24.05.2002 / 09.07.2003
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    9 pupae, 9 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-183
  10. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Saray
    ; locationRemarks:
    23
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°28'49.33"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°57'11.84"E
    ; eventDate:
    24.05.2002 / 09.07.2003
    ; sex:
    3 males pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae, 12 larvae / 3 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-184
  11. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Saray
    ; locationRemarks:
    24
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°32'57.72"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°2'32.53"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/24/2002
    ; sex:
    2 males pharate adult, 1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    9 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-185
  12. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Saray
    ; locationRemarks:
    25
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°33'36.45"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°3'50.97"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/24/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male, 1 female, 1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    9 pupae, 4 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-186
  13. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kıyıköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    27
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°37'33.39"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°53'35.61"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/24/2002
    ; sex:
    2 males pharate adult, 1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-187
  14. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Vize
    ; locationRemarks:
    29
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°37'42.79"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°38'58.94"E
    ; eventDate:
    25.05.2002 / 22.04.2005
    ; sex:
    3 males pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae, 15 larvae / 2 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-188
  15. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Pınarhisar
    ; locationRemarks:
    30
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°41'23.10"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°37'12.44"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/25/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    12 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-189
  16. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Merkez
    ; locationRemarks:
    46
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°49'48.43"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°10'42.01"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/28/2002
    ; sex:
    1 female, 2 males pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae, 8 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-190
  17. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Kofçaz
    ; locationRemarks:
    50
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°56'53.66"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°9'42.23"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/28/2002
    ; sex:
    2 males pharate adult, 1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    9 pupae, 9 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-191
  18. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    İnece
    ; locationRemarks:
    55
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°40'13.00"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°4'7.90"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/29/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult, 1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 8 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-192
  19. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Merkez
    ; locationRemarks:
    58
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°46'33.77"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°40'36.82"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/29/2002
    ; sex:
    3 males pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    9 pupae, 9 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-193
  20. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Merkez
    ; locationRemarks:
    61
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°43'25.74"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°33'38.19"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/30/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult, 3 females pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    7 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-194
  21. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    İskender
    ; locationRemarks:
    65
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°35'21.77"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°40'57.69"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/31/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male, 1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    12 pupae, 14 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-195
  22. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Havsa
    ; locationRemarks:
    67
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°22'5.91"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°40'1.43"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/01/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult, 1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 9 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-196
  23. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Uzunköprü
    ; locationRemarks:
    69
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°6'21.69"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°38'11.89"E
    ; eventDate:
    01.06.2002 / 06.07.2003
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult, 1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 11 larvae / 2 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-197
  24. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Keşan
    ; locationRemarks:
    70
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°5'0.44"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°32'11.32"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/01/2002
    ; sex:
    2 males, 2 females, 2 males pharate adult, 2 females pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 7 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-198
  25. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Uzunköprü
    ; locationRemarks:
    72
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°2'12.05"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°24'7.33"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/01/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    2 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-199
  26. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    İpsala
    ; locationRemarks:
    73
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°58'31.39"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°31'58.38"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/01/2002
    ; lifeStage:
    2 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-200
  27. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Edirne
    ; county:
    Keşan
    ; locationRemarks:
    75
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°46'5.97"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°30'42.72"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/02/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult, 2 females pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 11 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-201
  28. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Şarköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    83
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°46'21.52"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°3'32.09"E
    ; eventDate:
    04.06.2002 / 05.07.2003
    ; sex:
    3 males pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae / 3 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-202
  29. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Çanakkale
    ; county:
    Gelibolu
    ; locationRemarks:
    90
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°26'2.76"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°33'22.85"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/05/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult, 1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    9 pupae, 5 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-203
  30. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Malkara
    ; locationRemarks:
    93
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°56'45.42"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°53'8.36"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/06/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 7 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-204
  31. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Malkara
    ; locationRemarks:
    94
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°59'44.99"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°45'42.54"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/06/2002
    ; sex:
    2 males pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 9 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-205
  32. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Malkara
    ; locationRemarks:
    97
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°0'48.93"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    26°56'39.41"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/06/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult, 3 females pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 7 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-206
  33. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Hayrabolu
    ; locationRemarks:
    100
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°11'28.14"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°12'29.08"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/06/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae, 6 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-207
  34. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Babaeski
    ; locationRemarks:
    101
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°28'3.89"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°1'12.76"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/07/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae, 2 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-208
  35. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Babaeski
    ; locationRemarks:
    103
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°27'8.31"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°2'44.09"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/07/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult, 1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    7 pupae, 8 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-209
  36. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Kumbağ
    ; locationRemarks:
    108
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°47'52.99"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°21'48.85"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/08/2002
    ; sex:
    2 males pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    6 pupae, 15 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-210
  37. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Şarköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    109
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°45'1.14"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°20'0.83"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/08/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    5 pupae, 12 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-211
  38. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Şarköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    110
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°42'53.50"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°17'43.11"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/08/2002
    ; sex:
    1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    2 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-212
  39. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Kumbağ
    ; locationRemarks:
    111
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°52'10.71"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°24'50.36"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/09/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae, 2 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-213
  40. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Şarköy
    ; locationRemarks:
    115
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    40°47'10.21"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°9'40.88"E
    ; eventDate:
    06/09/2002
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult, 1 female pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-214
  41. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    İstanbul
    ; county:
    Çatalca
    ; locationRemarks:
    125
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°22'32.22"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    28°18'17.39"E
    ; eventDate:
    07/09/2003
    ; sex:
    1 male pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    11 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-215
  42. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Tekirdağ
    ; county:
    Çorlu
    ; locationRemarks:
    129
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°17'36.96"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°46'11.22"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/24/2006
    ; lifeStage:
    2 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-216
  43. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Seguy, 1921
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Seguy, 1921
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Lüleburgaz
    ; locationRemarks:
    132
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°29'20.45"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°23'52.49"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/26/2006
    ; lifeStage:
    4 pupae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-217

Notes

Simulium pseudequinum is one of the most common black fly species in the Palearctic Region, from the Canary Islands to China. It is abundantly known from all Mediterranean countries except Egypt (Crosskey and Malicky 2001). In Anatolia, it has a wide distribution and has been reported by many authors [Zwick (1978) (as mediterraneum Puri, 1925), Kazancı and Clergue-Gazeau (1990), Sirin and Sahin (2005), Kazancı and Ertunç (2008), Gazyağcı and Aydenizöz (2011), Şirin et al. (2014)]. We encountered S. pseudequinum at 43 sites, the highest number for any species, and we consider it the most abundant black fly in the region. Crosskey and Malicky (2001) emphasized that in the western Mediterranean area it is reliably recognized in the pupa by the wrinkled bases of the middle group of gill tubes. This character, however, does not suffice in the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, where S. pseudequinum can be confused with S. paraequinum, the two species having virtually identical gills. Simulium pseudequinum can be distinguished by the small spermatheca, resembling an unopened mushroom, and the characteristic shape of the male ventral plate, which is narrow apically with the inner margins resembling an isosceles triangle (Crosskey and Malicky 2001​). In our specimens, the spermatheca of the females and the ventral plate of the males agreed with the description for S. pseudequinum given above.

Simulium (Wilhelmia) paraequinum Puri, 1933

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  1. scientificName:
    Simulium (Wilhelmia) paraequinum Puri, 1933
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Diptera
    ; family:
    Simuliidae
    ; genus:
    Simulium
    ; subgenus:
    Wilhelmia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Puri, 1933
    ; continent:
    Europe
    ; country:
    Turkey
    ; stateProvince:
    Kırklareli
    ; county:
    Üsküp
    ; locationRemarks:
    41
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    41°48'7.98"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    27°27'14.63"E
    ; eventDate:
    05/27/2002
    ; sex:
    5 males pharate adult, 3 females pharate adult
    ; lifeStage:
    3 pupae, 4 larvae
    ; identificationID:
    esoguent-th-ıd-218

Notes

Simulium paraequinum ranges from the Balkans to Pakistan; Anatolia lies centrally in the distribution. This species was recorded first from Anatolia by Kazancı and Clergue-Gazeau (1990) near the southwestern corner of Asia Minor. Crosskey and Zwick (2007) recorded it from five sites in the southern Taurus Mountains and northwestern Anatolia. It also occurs in Greece and Bulgaria, which are boundary countries of Turkish Thrace. This species can be distinguished from S. pseudequinum only by the genitalia of males and females. The genitalia of our pharate males and females collected from only one locality, Site 41, fit the figure and description of S. paraequinum given by Crosskey and Malicky (2001)​. We observed that the length of the gill tubes of our specimens of S. paraequinum were longer than all of those of S. pseudequinum.

Discussion

The simuliid species composition of Turkish Thrace is similar to that of Anatolia and the Balkan Countries, differing only by the presence of Metacnephia nigra in Turkish Thrace. The most two abundant species are respectively Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum recorded at 43 sites and Simulium (Eusimulium) petricolum from 41 sites in the region. It is known that these two species are common in Meditaranean region and can be found in different types of running waters. On the other hand, Simulium (