Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic Paper
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Taxonomic Paper
Bee species checklist of the San Francisco Peaks, Arizona
expand article infoLindsie M McCabe, Paige R Chesshire, David R Smith§, Atticus Wolf, Jason Gibbs|, Terry L Griswold, Karen W Wright#, Neil S Cobb
‡ Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, United States of America
§ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southwest Forest Science Complex, Flagstaff, United States of America
| Department of Entomology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
¶ USDA-ARS, Pollinating Insects Research Unit, Logan, United States of America
# Department of Entomology, Texas A&M, College Station, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

Background

Here we present a checklist of the bee species found on the C. Hart Merriam elevation gradient along the San Francisco Peaks in northern Arizona. Elevational gradients can serve as natural proxies for climate change, replacing time with space as they span multiple vegetation zones over a short geographic distance. Describing the distribution of bee species along this elevation gradient will help predict how bee communities might respond to changing climate. To address this, we initiated an inventory associated with ecological studies on pollinators that documented bees on the San Francisco Peaks. Sample sites spanned six life zones (vegetation zones) on the San Francisco Peaks from 2009 to 2019. We also include occurrence data from other studies, gathered by querying the Symbiota Collection of Arthropods Network (SCAN) portal covering the San Francisco Peaks region (hereafter referred to as “the Peaks”).

New information

Our checklist reports 359 bee species and morphospecies spanning five families and 46 genera that have been collected in the Peaks region. Prior to our concerted sampling effort there were records for 155 bee species, yet there has not been a complete list of bee species inhabiting the Peaks published to date. Over a 10-year period, we documented an additional 204 bee species inhabiting the Peaks. Our study documents range expansions to northern Arizona for 15 species. The majority of these are range expansions from either southern Arizona, southern Utah, or the Rocky Mountain region of Colorado. Nine species are new records for Arizona, four of which are the southernmost record for that species. An additional 15 species are likely undescribed.

Keywords

Northern Arizona, Southwestern, United States, Bee Diversity, Faunistics, Elevation Gradient, Anthophila

Introduction

The North American Southwest has one of the highest biodiversity of bee species worldwide (Michener 1979), with Arizona in particular harboring over 1,500 bees spanning six different families (SCAN 2019). This is largely due to the wide habitat diversity within such a short geographic distance, ranging from desert ecosystems to high-elevation mountain environments. The elevational gradients that characterize “Sky Islands” (i.e. isolated mountain tops) are key biodiversity hotspots in the Southwest (Bowers and McLaughlin 1996). Due to the isolated nature of sky islands, the biota of these unique geographic areas is acutely susceptible to climate change.

In northern Arizona, the San Francisco Peaks region (hereafter referred to as “the Peaks”) is one of the northern most sky islands and is characterized by the C. Hart Merriam elevational gradient, ranging from 785 to 3,850 meters (Merriam 1890). This range of life zones includes habitats of low-elevation desert ecosystems, high-elevation forest types, and environments above-tree-line. This variation is created by a steep gradient of temperature and precipitation. Elevational gradients are attractive for studies of global climate change by exchanging time for space and are useful in a comparative sense for understanding latitudinal patterns (Blois et al. 2013). Despite inherent constraints in using elevational gradients as proxies for latitudinal gradients or climate change, they remain a focus of research interests in understanding ecological patterns and processes and are a high priority for conservation.

There have been multiple checklists published within the last year summarizing the bee species found in various regions of North America, including areas in the southern and western US (Messinger and Griswold 2002, Carril et al. 2018, Parys et al. 2018, Stephenson et al. 2018, Delphia et al. 2019, Meiners et al. 2019). However, there are no published checklists for northern Arizona. This is the first checklist published for the Peaks and is of special interest because it includes distributions of native bees along an elevational gradient with diverse habitats. More localized studies are necessary in order to obtain baseline knowledge on distributions and species richness of North American bee communities (Jamieson et al. 2019). If species trends and distributions are known regionally, we can better predict how native bee ranges and population statuses may be affected with changing climate.

Materials and methods

Study site and collection methods

Research was conducted on the San Francisco Peaks in northern Arizona (Fig. 1). A total of fifty-eight sites were established across six distinct life zones (Table 1). The Peaks is the northern most mountain habitat in Arizona, consisting of a range of habitats from desert to alpine environments. Our study area consisted of six vegetation zones classified by the dominant vegetation type: desert shrub, desert grassland, pinyon-juniper forest, ponderosa pine forest, mixed conifer forest (dominated by aspens), and spruce-fir forest. We conducted three complementary studies 1) cup sampling from 2009–2012, 2) cup sampling from 2013–2016 and 3) flower sampling from 2016–2018. We also did qualitative (non-standardized) sampling along the Peaks in 2019. We created a reference collection of all bee species collected during the study.

List of all 58 NAU sites including latitude, longitude, years sampled and life zone.

Lifezone Site Years Sampled lat lon
desert shrub DS1 2009 - 2012 35.6927 -111.4260
desert grassland DG1 2009 - 2012 35.5810 -111.6560
pinyon-juniper PJ1 2016 - 2018 35.4641 -111.5915
pinyon-juniper PJ2 2016 - 2018 35.4737 -111.5932
pinyon-juniper PJ3 2016 - 2018 35.4762 -111.6031
pinyon-juniper PJ4 2016 - 2018 35.4862 -111.5998
pinyon-juniper PJ5 2016 35.4875 -111.6101
pinyon-juniper PJ6 2016 - 2018 35.4947 -111.6178
pinyon-juniper PJ7 2016 35.5138 -111.6237
pinyon-juniper PJ8 2009 - 2012 & 2016-2018 35.3539 -111.7306
ponderosa pine PP1A 2013 - 2015 35.3511 -111.7992
ponderosa pine PP2A 2013 - 2015 35.3453 -111.8041
ponderosa pine PP3A 2013 - 2015 35.3474 -111.8147
ponderosa pine PP1 2015 - 2018 35.3857 -111.7367
ponderosa pine PP2 2015 - 2018 35.4163 -111.6714
ponderosa pine PP3 2015 - 2018 35.3876 -111.6874
ponderosa pine PP4 2016 - 2018 35.4270 -111.6963
ponderosa pine PP5 2009 - 2012 & 2016 - 2019 35.3539 -111.7306
ponderosa pine PP6 2016 - 2018 35.3889 -111.7251
ponderosa pine PP7 2016 - 2018 35.3979 -111.7233
ponderosa pine PP8 2016 - 2018 35.3879 -111.6869
ponderosa pine PP1F 2013 - 2015 35.3861 -111.7365
ponderosa pine PP2F 2013 - 2015 35.3897 -111.7245
ponderosa pine PP3F 2013 - 2015 35.3879 -111.6861
ponderosa pine Ken1A 2015 35.4263 -111.8199
ponderosa pine Ken1B 2015 35.4290 -111.8221
ponderosa pine Ken1C 2015 35.4317 -111.8240
mixed conifer MC1 2013 - 2019 35.3285 -111.7380
mixed conifer MC2 2009 - 2018 35.3539 -111.7306
mixed conifer MC3 2013 - 2018 35.3290 -111.7390
mixed conifer MC4 2016 - 2018 35.3543 -111.7320
mixed conifer MC5 2016 - 2019 35.3803 -111.6858
mixed conifer MC6 2016 - 2018 35.3757 -111.7321
mixed conifer MC7 2016 35.3790 -111.6942
mixed conifer MC8 2016 35.3799 -111.6889
mixed conifer MC1F 2013 - 2015 35.3751 -111.7331
mixed conifer MC2F 2013 - 2015 35.3798 -111.6847
mixed conifer MC3F 2013 - 2015 35.3795 -111.6937
mixed conifer Ken2A 2015 35.4225 -111.8278
mixed conifer Ken2B 2015 35.4252 -111.8313
mixed conifer Ken2C 2015 35.4243 -111.8338
spruce-fir SF1A 2013 - 2015 35.3403 -111.6475
spruce-fir SF2A 2013 - 2015 35.3386 -111.6506
spruce-fir SF3A 2013 - 2015 35.3392 -111.6509
spruce-fir SF1 2015 - 2018 35.3585 -111.7080
spruce-fir SF2 2015 - 2018 35.3387 -111.6511
spruce-fir SF3 2015 - 2019 35.3322 -111.6561
spruce-fir SF4 2016 - 2018 35.3602 -111.7189
spruce-fir SF5 2016 - 2018 35.3589 -111.7181
spruce-fir SF6 2016 - 2019 35.3568 -111.7173
spruce-fir SF7 2016 35.3469 -111.7035
spruce-fir SF8 2016 35.3463 -111.7066
spruce-fir SF1F 2013 - 2015 35.3423 -111.6436
spruce-fir SF2F 2013 - 2015 35.3405 -111.6490
spruce-fir SF3F 2013 - 2015 35.3373 -111.6529
spruce-fir Ken3A 2015 35.4149 -111.8361
spruce-fir Ken3B 2015 35.4167 -111.8389
spruce-fir Ken3C 2015 35.4194 -111.8396
Figure 1.  

Map of collection instances on the San Francisco Peaks with life zones coded by color (dark red = desert shrub, orange = desert grassland, yellow = pinyon-juniper, green = ponderosa pine, dark green = mixed conifer, blue = spruce-fir and white = alpine). Black dots indicate our 58 survey plots from 2009–2019. Black triangles represent any unique collection instance gathered through SCAN, GBIF & iDigBio.

Cup Sampling: 2009–2012 (Sites: DS1, DG1, PJ8, PP5, MC2): Pollinators were sampled from 2009-2012 at five life zones ranging from desert shrub to mixed conifer, with one site established at each life zone. At each site we placed one pollinator cup array, which consisted of 30 pollinator cups (i.e. elevated pan traps). Each cup was filled with 50/50 water/propylene glycol about 2/3 of the way full. The pollinator cups were 12 oz. plastic stadium cups (10 white, 10 fluorescent yellow and 10 fluorescent blue). White, yellow and blue colors accounted for all of the major flora colors in this area (Campbell and Hanula 2007). The outside diameter of the cup opening was 8 cm, and the cups were 10.7 cm deep (McCabe et al. 2019b, Smith et al. 2014). Cups were suspended 30 cm above the ground in specially built holders made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes (Smith et al. 2014) to approximate the height of most flowering plants (Cane et al. 2000). Traps were placed in three rows of 10 (where each row was a single color), 10-m apart. Each cup within the row was placed 3-m apart. Traps were set once per month for 7 to 8 days. Cups did not become filled to the top with specimens throughout this time frame, so bees were consistently collected for the full 7 to 8 days. The two lower elevation sites, desert shrub and desert grassland, were sampled from April through October as freezing temperatures abated earlier at these sites than at higher elevations. Traps were set from May through October at the higher elevation sites (pinyon-juniper, ponderosa pine, and mixed conifer).

Cup Sampling: 2013–2014 (Sites: PP1A-PP3A, PP1F-PP3F, MC1-MC3, MC1F-MC3F, SF1A-SF3A, SF1F-SF3F): Bees were sampled using pollinator cups at three life zones on the Peaks: ponderosa pine, mixed conifer and spruce-fir. We sampled at three unique sites at each life zone and set up pollinator arrays in two distinct locations per site: one array was placed in a meadow habitat and one was placed in a forest habitat. An array consisted of nine pollinator cups (three rows, each row with three cups of the same color). Details on our method of pollinator cup trapping is described above. Each year pollinator cups were set up during two seasons: dry pre-monsoon (June) and monsoon (August). During the monsoon season of 2013, 50% of the pre-monsoon cups were lost to animal damage at our Peaks sites at the spruce-fir elevation.

Cup Sampling: 2015 (PP1-PP3, PP1A-PP3A, PP1F-PP3F, MC1-MC3, MC1F-MC3F, SF1-SF3, SF1A-SF3A, SF1F-SF3F): Cup sampling methods were identical to those used in 2013-2014, however we added an additional three sites at both ponderosa pine and spruce-fir (PP1-PP3, SF1-SF3). In addition, we established pollinator cup arrays on Kendrick Mountain, a neighboring mountain within the Peaks region, where we sampled at three life zones: ponderosa pine, mixed conifer, and spruce-fir, with three sites at each life zone (KEN1A-KEN3A, KEN1B-KEN3B, KEN1C-KEN3C). Cup sampling methods and array design were identical to that used for the cup sampling on the Peaks. Each year, for both mountains, pollinator cups were set up during two seasons: dry pre-monsoon (June) and monsoon (August).

Cup Sampling: 2016 (PJ1-PJ8, PP1-PP8, MC1-MC8, SF1-SF8): Cup sampling methods were identical to those used in 2013-2015, however there were differences in the sampling sites. Some sites were reused from previous years (PJ8, PP1-PP3, MC1-MC3, SF1-SF3). An additional five sites were established at each of the three higher life zones (PP4-PP8, MC4-MC8, SF4-SF8), and seven new sites were established at the pinyon juniper ife zone (PJ1-PJ7). This led to a total of 32 sites, with eight sites per life zone.

Flower Sampling: 2016–2018 (Sites: PJ1-PJ8, PP1-PP8, MC1-MC8, SF1-SF8): In 2016, transect plots were established at four life zones: pinyon-juniper, ponderosa pine, mixed conifer, and spruce-fir. Eight sites were established at each life zone that were at least 1 km apart, with each site containing three 60-meter × 1-meter transects. Five sites were re-used from previous sampling years (PJ8, PP5, MC1, MC2, and MC3). Using modified hand vacuums (Lance et al. 2017), insects were collected directly from flowers for 15 minutes at each transect. Sampling periods occurred every two weeks from June to August. In 2017 and 2018, the transects established at each site were expanded to 60-meter × 2-meter plots, and insects were collected from flowers for 30 minutes at each transect.

Flower Sampling: 2019: Qualitative sampling was done in 2019. Bees were collected off of flowering plants using sweep nets near the base of Mount Eldon (considered ponderosa pine life zone) as well as near Snowbowl Ski Resort (considered mixed conifer and spruce-fir life zones). A few additional specimens were collected at sites used in previous years (PP5, MC1, MC5, SF3, SF6). Latitude and longitude decimal points for all 2019 sampling locations are provided (Suppl. material 1).

A total of 6,324 cups and 128 flower sampling hours were used in this data set.

Species identification

All bees collected in samples were curated and initially identified in the Northern Arizona University (NAU) pollinator ecology lab. Bees were identified using DiscoverLife.org and published identification guides. Classification for species of Andrena and Melissodes followed LaBerge (1969), LaBerge (1986), LaBerge (1967)with modifications from Karen Wright's work, and all other species followed the classification of Michener (2000). Genus-level identifications were done using the Bee Genera IDnature guide from DiscoverLife.org (Ascher and Pickering 2011) and The Bee Genera of North and Central America (Michener et al. 1994). Species-level identification was done using published literature (Sandhouse 1924, Michener 1938, Michener 1939, Michener 1947, Hurd and Linsley 1951, Timberlake 1952, Stephen 1954, Timberlake 1954, Hurd and Michener 1955, Snelling 1966, LaBerge 1967, LaBerge 1969, Roberts 1972, Daly 1973, McGinley 1986, LaBerge 1986, Michener et al. 1994, Michener 2000, Sipes 2002, Rightmyer 2008, Gibbs 2010, Rightmyer et al. 2010, Sheffield et al. 2011, Koch 2012, De Silva and Packer 2012, Gonzalez and Griswold 2013, Robertson et al. 2014, Williams et al. 2014) and confirmed by Terry Griswold, Harold Ikerd (Andrenidae), Jason Gibbs (Lasioglossum) and Karen Wright (Melissodes). Vouchers were deposited in the Colorado Plateau Museum of Arthropod Biodiversity, ARS Pollinating Insect Research Unit, Wallis Roughley Museum of Entomology, and Texas A&M University Insect Collection.

For those genera or subgenera where taxonomic information was lacking, we classified bees with similar morphological distinctions into morphospecies. Each morphospecies is classified by the genus (and subgenus if determined) followed by a unique three-digit number. Male and female specimens of the same morphospecies were combined. Species that were morphologically different were treated as unique morphospecies. All morphospecies listed are all potentially undescribed taxa.

We established a reference collection of bee species that is currently stored in the Colorado Plateau Museum of Arthropod Biodiversity at NAU. All specimens were digitally cataloged in the Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network (SCAN) online data portal. Identification of the 65 species that were not collected by the NAU lab and confirmed by NAU, the Logan Bee Lab, Jason Gibbs or Karen Wright need further consideration, especially in instances/localities where they have not been collected for 20+ years. These 65 taxa are noted with the year that they were last collected on the Peaks. Further, one-third of these taxa (20 species) were not assigned to a life zone due to a lack of precision in the latitude and longitude coordinates. These 20 species were removed from further analysis (Suppl. material 2). There were additional 68 species that had records with imprecise latitude and longitude removed, however we could still assign life zone designations to these 68 species because there were other sampling instances where the localities were accurate (Suppl. material 2).

Range

To determine species ranges, we used occurrence records from four main databases: SCAN, iDigBio (Integrated Digitized Biocollections), GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility), and DiscoverLife. Species were deemed a new record for Arizona if there were not any previous records documented within the Arizona state boundaries on any of the four data portals mentioned above. We examined published literature to verify that these species were not previously recorded within the Arizona state boundary (Sandhouse 1924, Michener 1939, Sandhouse 1941, Timberlake 1969, LaBerge 1973, Roberts 1973, Krombein et al. 1979). Species were deemed a new record in northern Arizona if there were no records north of the Phoenix metropolitan area. We provide a KML map that defines our study area on the Peaks that is outlined in black (Fig. 1). We also provide a Darwin Core Archive (DwC) file of all records from our study area (Suppl. material 3).

Species were assigned "notes" if 1) they had not been recorded in our study range prior to our 10-year NAU study or 2) they were not collected in our 10-year NAU study but were collected in previous years from other sampling events (followed by the year that the species was last collected). Records obtained through SCAN, GBIF and iDigBio databases provided this information.

Andrenidae (n = 72)

Andrena (Andrena) coconina LaBerge, 1980

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1952

Andrena (Andrena) frigida Smith, 1853

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1986

Andrena (Belandrena) 001

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Andrena (Callandrena sensu lato) helianthi (Robertson, 1891)

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Andrena (Callandrena sensu lato) pecosana Cockerell, 1913

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Andrena (Callandrena sensu lato) sonorensis LaBerge, 1967

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1976

Andrena (Callandrena) auripes LaBerge, 1967

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Andrena (Callandrena) micheneriana LaBerge, 1978

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Andrena (Callandrena) perpunctata LaBerge, 1967

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Andrena (Callandrena) simulata Smith, 1879

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Andrena (Callandrena) tegularis LaBerge, 1967

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Andrena (Cnemidandrena) apacheorum Cockerell, 1897

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Andrena (Cnemidandrena) costillensis Cockerell, 1914

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Andrena (Cnemidandrena) nubecula Smith, 1853

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Andrena (Diandrena) 001 Fabricius, 1775

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Andrena (Euandrena) algida Smith, 1853

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Andrena (Holandrena) cressonii (Robertson, 1891)

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Distribution: 

Our record is the first documentation of this species in northern Arizona. Species occurs in neighboring areas.

Andrena (Holandrena) moquiorum Viereck & Cockerell, 1914

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1902

Andrena (Melandrena) commoda Smith, 1879

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Andrena (Melandrena) crinita Bouseman & LaBerge, 1979

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Andrena (Melandrena) platyrhina Cockerell, 1930

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Andrena (Plastandrena) argemonis Cockerell, 1896

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Andrena (Plastandrena) crataegi Robertson, 1893

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Andrena (Plastandrena) prunorum Cockerell, 1896

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Andrena (Simandrena) angustitarsata (Viereck, 1904)

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Andrena (Thysandrena) medionitens Cockerell, 1902

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Andrena (Thysandrena) w-scripta Viereck 1904

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Andrena (Trachandrena) amphibola (Viereck, 1904)

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Distribution: 

Our records are the first documentation of this species in Arizona and the southernmost extension of its range. Species occurs in neighboring areas.

Andrena (Trachandrena) cyanophila Cockerell, 1906

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Andrena (Trachandrena) mariae (Robertson, 1891)

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Distribution: 

Our record is the first documentation of this species in Arizona. Species occurs in neighboring areas.

Andrena (Trachandrena) miranda Smith, 1879

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Andrena (Trachandrena) striatifrons (Cockerell, 1897)

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Andrena (Trachandrena) 001 Robertson, 1902

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Andrena 001 Fabricius, 1775

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Andrena 003 Fabricius, 1775

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Andrena 004 Fabricius, 1775

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Andrena 005 Fabricius, 1775

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Andrena 006 Fabricius, 1775

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Calliopsis (Calliopsima) chlorops Cockerell, 1899

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Calliopsis (Calliopsima) rozeni Shinn, 1965

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1951

Calliopsis (Calliopsis) teucrii Cockerell, 1899

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1961

Calliopsis (Hypomacrotera) callops (Cockerell and Porter, 1899)

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Calliopsis (Nomadopsis) puellae (Cockerell, 1933)

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Calliopsis (Nomadopsis) timberlakei (Rozen, 1958)

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Calliopsis (Nomadopsis) zebrata (Cresson, 1878)

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Calliopsis 001 Smith, 1899

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Macrotera (Macroteropsis) latior (Cockerell, 1896)

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Perdita (Epimacrotera) giliae Timberlake, 1954

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1964

Perdita (Perdita) gutierreziae Cockerell, 1896

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1965

Perdita (Perdita) sphaeralceae Cockerell, 1896

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1967

Perdita (Perdita) zebrata Cresson, 1878

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1952

Perdita 001 Smith, 1853

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Perdita 002 Smith, 1853

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Perdita 003 Smith, 1853

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Perdita 004 Smith, 1853

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Perdita 005 Smith, 1853

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Perdita 006 Smith, 1853

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Perdita 007 Smith, 1853

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Perdita 008 Smith, 1853

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Perdita 009 Smith, 1853

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Perdita 010 Smith, 1853

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Protandrena (Heterosarus) neomexicanus Cockerell, 1906

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1958

Protandrena (Heterosarus) 001 Robertson, 1904

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Protandrena (Heterosarus) 002 Robertson, 1904

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Protandrena (Heterosarus) 003 Robertson, 1904

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Protandrena (Heterosarus) 004 Robertson, 1904

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Protandrena (Heterosarus) 005 Robertson, 1904

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Protandrena (Pterosarus) albitarsis (Cresson, 1872)

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1934

Protandrena (Pterosarus) atricornis (Cresson, 1878)

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Last collected on the Peaks in 1934

Protandrena (Pterosarus) boylei (Cockerell, 1896)

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Last collected on the Peaks in 1934

Protandrena (Pterosarus) illustris (Timberlake, 1967)

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Last collected on the Peaks in 1934

Protandrena (Pterosarus) porterae (Cockerell, 1900)

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1934

Apidae (n = 95)

Anthophora (Anthophoroides) californica (Cresson, 1869)

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Anthophora (Anthophoroides) marginata (Smith, 1854)

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1950

Anthophora (Clisodon) terminalis (Cresson, 1869)

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Anthophora (Lophanthophora) affabilis Cresson, 1878

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Anthophora (Lophanthophora) coptognatha Timberlake, 1951

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Anthophora (Lophanthophora) porterae Cockerell, 1900

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Anthophora (Lophanthophora) ursina Cresson, 1869

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Anthophora (Micranthophora) exigua Cresson, 1879

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Anthophora (Micranthophora) mortuaria Timberlake, 1937

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Anthophora (Micranthophora) petrophila Cockerell, 1905

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Anthophora (Mystacanthophora) montana (Cresson, 1869)

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Anthophora (Mystacanthophora) urbana (Cresson, 1878)

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Anthophora (Pyganthophora) lesquerellae (Cockerell, 1896)

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Anthophora (Pyganthophora) vannigera Timberlake, 1951

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Apis (Apis) mellifera Linnaeus, 1758

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Bombus (Bombias) nevadensis Cresson, 1874

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Bombus (Bombus) occidentalis Greene, 1858

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Bombus (Cullumanobombus) morrisoni Cresson, 1878

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Bombus (Cullumanobombus) rufocinctus (Cresson, 1863)

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Bombus (Psithyrus) insularis (Smith, 1861)

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Bombus (Psithyrus) variabilis (Cresson, 1872)

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1934

Bombus (Pyrobombus) bifarius Cresson, 1878

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Bombus (Pyrobombus) centralis Cresson, 1864

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Bombus (Pyrobombus) flavifrons Cresson, 1863

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Bombus (Pyrobombus) huntii Greene, 1860

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Bombus (Pyrobombus) melanopygus Nylander, 1848

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Bombus (Pyrobombus) sylvicola Kirby, 1837

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Distribution: 

Our record is the first documentation of this species in northern Arizona. Species occurs in neighboring areas.

Bombus (Subterraneobombus) appositus Cresson, 1878

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Bombus (Thoracobombus) californicus Smith 1854

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Bombus (Thoracobombus) fervidus (Fabricius, 1798)

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Centris (Paracentris) rhodopus Cockerell, 1897

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1936

Ceratina (Ceratinula) arizonensis Cockerell, 1898

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Ceratina (Zadontomerus) apacheorum Daly, 1973

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Ceratina (Zadontomerus) nanula Cockerell, 1897

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Ceratina (Zadontomerus) neomexicana Cockerell, 1901

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Ceratina (Zadontomerus) pacifica H.S. Smith, 1907

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Ceratina 001 Latreille, 1802

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Diadasia (Coquillettapis) australis (Cresson, 1878)

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Diadasia (Coquillettapis) diminuta (Cresson, 1878)

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Diadasia (Coquillettapis) enavata (Patton)

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Diadasia (Coquillettapis) rinconis Cockerell, 1897

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Diadasia (Dasiapis) ochracea (Cockerell, 1903)

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Epeolus compactus Cresson, 1878

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Epeolus flavofasciatus (Smith, 1879)

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1961

Epeolus interruptus Robertson, 1900

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Epeolus pusillus Cresson, 1864

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Ericrocis lata (Cresson, 1878)

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1936

Eucera (Synhalonia) fulvitarsis subsp. annae (Cresson, 1878)

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Distribution: 

Our records are the first documentation of this species in Arizona. Species occurs in neighboring areas.

Eucera (Synhalonia) lutziana (Cockerell, 1933)

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Distribution: 

Our records are the first documentation of this species in Arizona and the southernmost extension of its range. Species occurs in neighboring areas.

Eucera (Synhalonia) primiveris (Timberlake, 1969)

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Eucera (Synhalonia) speciosa (Cresson, 1878)

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Distribution: 

Our records are the first documentation of this species in Arizona and the southernmost extension of its range. Species occurs in neighboring areas.

Eucera (Synhalonia) territella (Cockerell, 1905)

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Eucera (Synhalonia) 001 Patton

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Eucera (Tetraloniella) crenulaticornis (Cockerell, 1898)

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Eucera (Tetraloniella) lippiae (Cockerell, 1904)

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1934

Eucera (Tetraloniella) ochraea (LaBerge, 2001)

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1952

Eucera 001 Scopoli, 1770

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Eucera 002 Scopoli, 1770

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Eucera 003 Scopoli, 1770

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Exomalopsis (Stilbomalopsis) solani Cockerell, 1896

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Exomalopsis (Stilbomalopsis) solidaginis Cockerell, 1898

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Holcopasites stevensi (Crawford, 1915)

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Melecta (Melecta) bohartorum Linsley, 1939

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Melecta (Melecta) pacifica (Cresson, 1878)

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Melissodes (Callimelissodes) glenwoodensis Cockerell, 1905

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Melissodes (Eumelissodes) confusus Cresson, 1878

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Melissodes (Eumelissodes) druriellus (Kirby, 1802)

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Melissodes (Eumelissodes) fasciatellus LaBerge, 1961

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Melissodes (Eumelissodes) montanus (Cresson, 1878)

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Melissodes (Eumelissodes) pallidisignatus Cockerell, 1905

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Melissodes (Eumelissodes) perpolitus LaBerge, 1961

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Melissodes (Eumelissodes) saponellus Cockerell, 1908

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Distribution: 

Our records are the first documentation of this species in northern Arizona. Species occurs in neighboring areas.

Melissodes (Eumelissodes) semilupinus Cockerell,1905

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Melissodes (Eumelissodes) tristis Cockerell, 1894

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Melissodes (Eumelissodes) verbesinarum Cockerell, 1905

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Melissodes (Heliomelissodes) rivalis Cresson, 1872

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Melissodes (Melissodes) communis Cresson, 1878

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Melissodes (Melissodes) gilensis Cockerell, 1896

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Melissodes (Callimelissodes) coloradensis Cresson, 1878

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1938

Melissodes (Callimelissodes) compositus Tucker, 1909

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1950

Melissodes (Eumelissodes) agilis Cresson, 1878

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1966

Melissodes (Eumelissodes) bimatris LaBerge, 1961

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 2002

Melissodes (Eumelissodes) coreopsis Robertson, 1905

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1934

Melissodes (Eumelissodes) grindeliae Cockerell, 1898

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1964

Melissodes (Eumelissodes) menuachus Cresson, 1868

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1939

Melissodes (Melissodes) paroselae Cockerell,1905

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1936

Nomada texana (Cresson, 1872)

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1952

Nomada utahensis Moalif, 1988

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1951

Nomada zebrata Cresson, 1878

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1955

Svastra (Epimelissodes) obliqua (Say, 1837)

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Triepeolus 001 Robertson, 1901

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Triepeolus 003 Robertson, 1901

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Triepeolus rhododontus Cockerell, 1921

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Xeromelecta (Melectomorpha) californica (Cresson, 1878)

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Xylocopa (Xylocopoides) californica Cresson, 1864

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Colletidae (n = 21)

Colletes bryanti Timberlake, 1951

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Colletes compactus Cresson, 1868

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Colletes eulophi Robertson, 1891

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1952

Colletes gilensis Cockerell, 1897

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Colletes kincaidii Cockerell, 1898

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Colletes paniscus subsp. paniscus Viereck, 1903

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Colletes scopiventer Swenk, 1908

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Colletes simulans Cresson, 1868

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1939

Colletes wickhami Timberlake, 1943

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Colletes wootoni Cockerell, 1897

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1950

Colletes 001 Latreille, 1802

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Colletes 002 Latreille, 1802

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Colletes 003 Latreille, 1802

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Colletes 004 Latreille, 1802

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Colletes 005 Latreille, 1802

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Hylaeus (Hylaeus) annulatus (Linnaeus, 1758)

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Hylaeus (Hylaeus) rudbeckiae (Cockerell and Casad, 1895)

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Hylaeus (Paraprosopis) cookii (Metz, 1911)

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Hylaeus (Paraprosopis) wootoni (Cockerell, 1896)

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Hylaeus (Prosopis) episcopalis subsp. episcopalis (Cockerell, 1896)

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Hylaeus (Prosopis) insolitus Snelling, 1966

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1950

Halictidae (n = 45)

Agapostemon (Agapostemon) angelicus Cockerell, 1924

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Agapostemon (Agapostemon) melliventris (Cresson, 1874)

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Agapostemon (Agapostemon) texanus Cresson, 1872

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Dieunomia (Dieunomia) apacha Cresson, 1868

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Dieunomia (Epinomia) micheneri (Cross, 1958)

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Dieunomia (Epinomia) nevadensis (Cresson, 1874)

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Halictus (Nealictus) farinosus (Smith, 1853)

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Halictus (Odontalictus) ligatus (Say, 1837)

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Halictus (Seladonia) confusus (Smith, 1853)

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Distribution: 

Our record is the first documentation of this species in Arizona. Species occurs in neighboring areas.

Halictus (Seladonia) tripartitus (Cockerell, 1895)

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) aff. comulum

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) hudsoniellum (Cockerell, 1919)

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) hyalinum (Crawford, 1907)

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) microlepoides (Ellis, 1914)

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) obnubilum (Sandhouse, 1924)

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) occidentale (Crawford, 1902)

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) pallidellum (Ellis, 1914)

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) cf. perdifficile

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) aff. perparvum

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) ruidosense species-group

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) semicaeruleum (Cockerell, 1895)

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) new tegulare species-group

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) cf. viridatulum

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) 001

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) 002

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) 003

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) 004

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) 005

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) 006

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Lasioglossum (Dialictus) 007

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Lasioglossum 008 Curtis, 1833

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Lasioglossum (Hemihalictus) ruficorne (Crawford, 1907)

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Lasioglossum (Lasioglossum) desertum (Smith, 1879)

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Lasioglossum (Lasioglossum) egregium (Vachal, 1904)

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Lasioglossum (Lasioglossum) sisymbrii (Cockerell, 1895)

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Lasioglossum (Lasioglossum) trizonatum (Cresson, 1874)

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Lasioglossum (Sphecodogastra) boreale (Svensson, Ebmer and Sakagami, 1977)

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Nomia (Acunomia) foxii Dalla Torre, 1896

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1952

Nomia (Acunomia) tetrazonata Cockerell, 1910

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1936

Protodufourea eickworti Bohart and Griswold, 1997

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Sphecodes pecosensis (Cockerell, 1904)

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Sphecodes 001 Latreille, 1804

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Sphecodes 002 Latreille, 1804

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Sphecodes 003 Latreille, 1804

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Sphecodes 004 Latreille, 1804

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Megachilidae (n = 126)

Anthidiellum (Loyolanthidium) notatum Latreille, 1809

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1986

Anthidium (Anthidium) atripes Cresson, 1879

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Anthidium (Anthidium) clypeodentatum Swenk, 1914

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Anthidium (Anthidium) cockerelli Schwarz, 1928

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Anthidium (Anthidium) dammersi Cockerell, 1937

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Anthidium (Anthidium) duomarginatum Gonzalez and Griswold, 2013

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Anthidium (Anthidium) emarginatum (Say, 1824)

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Anthidium (Anthidium) illustre (Cresson, 1879)

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Anthidium (Anthidium) maculifrons Smith, 1854

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Anthidium (Anthidium) maculosum Cresson, 1878

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Anthidium (Anthidium) mormonum Cresson, 1878

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Anthidium (Anthidium) palmarum Cockerell, 1904

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Anthidium (Anthidium) porterae Cockerell, 1900

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Anthidium (Anthidium) schwarzi Gonzalez and Griswold, 2013

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Ashmeadiella (Arogochila) timberlakei Michener, 1936

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Distribution: 

Our records are the first documentation of this species in Arizona. Species occurs in neighboring areas.

Ashmeadiella (Ashmeadiella) aridula Cockerell, 1910

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Ashmeadiella (Ashmeadiella) bucconis (Say, 1837)

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Ashmeadiella (Ashmeadiella) cactorum subsp. basalis (Cockerell, 1897)

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Ashmeadiella (Ashmeadiella) californica (Ashmead, 1897)

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Ashmeadiella (Ashmeadiella) gillettei Titus, 1904

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Ashmeadiella (Ashmeadiella) meliloti (Cockerell, 1897)

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Ashmeadiella (Ashmeadiella) opuntiae (Cockerell, 1897)

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Ashmeadiella (Ashmeadiella) sonora Michener, 1939

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Ashmeadiella (Ashmeadiella) vandykiella Michener, 1949

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Distribution: 

Our record is the first documentation of this species in northern Arizona. Species occurs in neighboring areas.

Ashmeadiella 002 Michener, 1939

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Atoposmia (Eremosmia) enceliae (Cockerell, 1935)

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Coelioxys (Boreocoelioxys) moestus Cresson, 1864

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Coelioxys (Boreocoelioxys) octodentatus Say, 1824

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Notes: 

Last collected on the Peaks in 1950

Coelioxys (Boreocoelioxys) porterae Cockerell, 1900

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1971

Coelioxys (Boreocoelioxys) rufitarsis Smith, 1854

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Coelioxys (Coelioxys) sodalis Cresson, 1878

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1971

Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys) gilensis Cockerell, 1898

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Coelioxys (Synocoelioxys) apacheorum Cockerell, 1900

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1961

Coelioxys (Synocoelioxys) erysimi Cockerell, 1912

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1971

Coelioxys 001 Latrielle, 1809

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Coelioxys 002 Latrielle, 1809

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Coelioxys 003 Latrielle, 1809

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Dianthidium (Adanthidium) arizonicum (Rohwer, 1916)

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1967

Dianthidium (Adanthidium) texanum (Cresson, 1878)

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Dianthidium (Dianthidium) concinnum (Cresson, 1872)

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Dianthidium (Dianthidium) cressonii (Dalla Torre, 1896)

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Dianthidium (Dianthidium) curvatum (Smith, 1854)

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Dianthidium (Dianthidium) desertorum Timberlake, 1943

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Dianthidium (Dianthidium) heterulkei subsp. fraternum Schwarz, 1940

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Dianthidium (Dianthidium) parvum subsp. parvum (Cresson, 1878)

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Dianthidium (Dianthidium) platyurum Cockerell, 1923

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Dianthidium (Dianthidium) pudicum (Cresson, 1879)

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Dianthidium (Dianthidium) singulare (Cresson, 1879)

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Dianthidium (Dianthidium) subparvum Swenk, 1914

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Dianthidium (Dianthidium) ulkei (Cresson, 1878)

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Heriades (Neotrypetes) cressoni Michener, 1938

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Heriades (Neotrypetes) gracilior Cockerell, 1897

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Heriades (Neotrypetes) micropthalma Michener, 1954

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1934

Heriades (Neotrypetes) texana Michener, 1938

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1947

Heriades (Neotrypetes) timberlakei Michener, 1938

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Heriades 002 Spinola, 1808

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Hoplitis (Alcidamea) grinnelli (Cockerell, 1910)

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1986

Hoplitis (Alcidamea) paroselae Michener, 1947

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Hoplitis (Alcidamea) truncata subsp. mescalerium (Cresson, 1878)

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1961

Hoplitis (Proteriades) zuni (Parker, 1977)

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Distribution: 

Our records are the first documentation of this species in northern Arizona. Species occurs in neighboring areas.

Hoplitis 001 Klug, 1916

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Lithurgopsis apicalis (Cresson, 1875)

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Lithurgopsis planifrons (Friese, 1908)

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Megachile (Argyropile) sabinensis Mitchell, 1934

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Megachile (Chelostomoides) angelarum (Cockerell, 1902)

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Megachile (Chelostomoides) chilopsidis (Cockerell, 1900)

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Megachile (Chelostomoides) lobatifrons (Cockerell, 1924)

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Megachile (Chelostomoides) subexilis (Cockerell, 1908)

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Megachile (Litomegachile) brevis Say, 1837

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1967

Megachile (Litomegachile) lippiae Cockerell, 1900

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Megachile (Litomegachile) onobrychidis Cockerell, 1908

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Megachile (Litomegachile) snowi Mitchell, 1927

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1950

Megachile (Litomegachile) texana Cresson, 1878

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1950

Megachile (Megachile) lapponica Thomson 1872

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Distribution: 

Our records are the first documentation of this species in Arizona and the southernmost extension of its range. Species occurs in neighboring areas.

Megachile (Megachile) montivaga (Cresson, 1878)

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Megachile (Megachile) relativa Cresson, 1878

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Megachile (Megachiloides) manifesta Cresson, 1878

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1951

Megachile (Megachiloides) mucorosa Cockerell, 1908

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Megachile (Megachiloides) sublaurita Mitchell, 1927

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Megachile (Phaenosarus) agustini Cockerell, 1905

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Megachile (Phaenosarus) fortis Cresson, 1872

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Megachile (Pseudocentron) sidalceae Cockerell, 1897

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Megachile (Sayapis) fidelis Cresson, 1878

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Megachile (Sayapis) inimica subsp. sayi Cresson, 1872

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Megachile (Sayapis) mellitarsis Cresson, 1878

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Megachile (Sayapis) policaris Say, 1831

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Megachile (Sayapis) pugnata subsp. pomonae Say, 1837

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Megachile (Xanthosarus) comata Cresson, 1872

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Megachile (Xanthosarus) frigida Smith, 1853

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Megachile (Xanthosarus) latimanus (Say, 1823)

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Distribution: 

Our records are the first documentation of this species in northern Arizona. Species occurs in neighboring areas.

Megachile (Xanthosarus) melanophaea Smith, 1853

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Megachile (Xanthosarus) mucida Cresson, 1878

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Megachile (Xanthosarus) perihirta Cockerell, 1898

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1990

Megachile 001 Latreille

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Megachile 002 Latreille

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Osmia (Cephalosmia) montana Cresson, 1864

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Osmia (Cephalosmia) subaustralis Cockerell, 1900

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Osmia (Helicosmia) coloradensis Cresson, 1878

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Osmia (Cephalosmia) 001 Sladen, 1916

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Osmia (Cephalosmia) 002 Sladen, 1916

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Osmia (Helicosmia) texana Cresson, 1872

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Osmia (Melanosmia) albolateralis Cockerell, 1906

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1971

Osmia (Melanosmia) brevis Cresson, 1864

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Osmia (Melanosmia) bucephala (Cresson, 1864)

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Distribution: 

Our records are the first documentation of this species in Arizona. Species occurs in neighboring areas.

Osmia (Melanosmia) densa Cresson, 1864

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Notes: 
Last collected on the Peaks in 1971

Osmia (Melanosmia) juxta Cresson, 1864

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