Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic Paper
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Taxonomic Paper
New records and an updated checklist of snakes from Son La Province, Vietnam
expand article infoAnh Van Pham, Thomas Ziegler§,|, Truong Quang Nguyen¶,#
‡ Tay Bac University, Quyet Tam Ward, Son La City, Son La Province, Vietnam
§ AG Zoologischer Garten Köln, Riehler Straße 173, D-50735, Cologne, Germany
| Institute of Zoology, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Street 47b, D–50674, Cologne, Germany
¶ Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Hanoi, Vietnam
# Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Hanoi, Vietnam
Open Access

Abstract

Background

Son La Province is located in north-western Vietnam and the province contains a large area of 440,000 hectares of natural forest. A wide range of elevations and the complexity of landforms have given this province a great diversity of natural habitats and a high level of biodiversity potential. However, the snake fauna of Son La province is still poorly studied. Previous studies documented 56 species of snakes from this province.

New information

As a result of our field surveys in Phu Yen, Song Ma, Thuan Chau and Van Ho districts, we report five species of snakes for the first time from Son La Province, northern Vietnam, namely Boiga cyanea, B. guangxiensis, Lycodon meridionalis (Colubridae), Protobothrops cornutus and P. mucrosquamatus (Viperidae), with novel data about morphological characters. In addition, we provide an updated checklist of 61 snake species from Son La Province. The snake fauna of Son La Province also contains a number of species of conservation concern: 11 species listed in the Red Data Book of Vietnam (2007), four species listed in the IUCN Red List (2020) and four species listed in the Vietnam Governmental Decree No. 06 (2019).

Keywords

Distribution, new records, morphology, taxonomy

Introduction

Son La Province is located in north-western Vietnam with an area of 14,118.9 km2. The province contains a large area of 440,000 hectares of natural forest (The People's Committee of Son La Province 2007). A wide range of elevations (up to 2979 m a.s.l.) and the complexity of landforms have given this province a great diversity of natural habitats and a high level of biodiversity potential. However, the snake fauna of this province is still poorly studied. In their herpetofaunal list of Vietnam, Nguyen et al. (2009) listed 42 species of snakes from the province. Pham et al. (2013)and Pham et al. (2014) documented 11 new provincial records of snakes, based on newly-collected voucher specimens from Son La Province. Since then, several new discoveries of snakes have been reported from this province. In 2015, two snake species were reported for the first time from Vietnam: Sinonatrix yunnanensis Rao & Yang (Le et al. 2015) from Sop Cop Nature Reserve and Parafimbrios lao Teynié, David, Lottier, Le, Vidal & Nguyen (Nguyen et al. 2015) from Copia Nature Reserve, two protected areas located in the western part of Son La Province. Remarkably, a new species of odd-scaled snake was recently described from Copia Nature Reserve in Son La Province, namely Achalinus timi Ziegler, Nguyen, Pham, Nguyen, Pham, Van Schingen, Nguyen & Le (Ziegler et al. 2019).

Based on our recent fieldwork in Son La Province between 2015 and 2017, we herein provide five new records and an updated checklist of snakes from Son La Province.

Materials and methods

Sampling. Four field surveys were conducted in Son La Province, Vietnam: from 28 August to 4 September 2015 in the Phu Yen District; from 24 to 28 June 2016 in the Xuan Nha Nature Reserve of Van Ho District; from 24 to 26 September 2016 in the Thuan Chau District; and from 15 to 19 April 2017 in the Song Ma District (Fig. 1). The coordinates were recorded by using a Garmin GPSmap 60Cx (WGS 84 datum).

Figure 1.  

Map showing the survey sites in Son La Province, north-western Vietnam

Snakes were collected by hand between 08:00 and 22:00 h. After taking photographs in life, snake individuals were euthanised in a closed vessel with a piece of cotton wool containing ethyl acetate (Simmons 2002), fixed in 85% ethanol and then transferred to 70% ethanol for permanent storage. Road-killed snakes were also collected for morphological analysis. Voucher specimens were subsequently deposited in the collections of the Tay Bac University (TBU), Son La Province, Vietnam.

Morphological characters. Measurements, except body and tail lengths, were taken with a slide-calliper to the nearest 0.1 mm in preserved specimens; all measures on body were measured to the nearest millimetre. The number of ventral scales was counted according to Dowling (1951). The number of dorsal scale rows were counted at one head length behind head, at midbody (i.e. at the level of the ventral plate corresponding to half of the total ventral number) and at one head length before vent, respectively. The terminal, pointed scute was not included in the number of subcaudals. Values for symmetric head characters were given in left/right order. The following abbreviations were used: SVL: Snout-vent length, TaL: Tail length.

Taxon treatments

Boiga cyanea (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Boiga cyanea
    ; scientificNameID:
    Boiga cyanea
    ; class:
    Reptilia
    ; order:
    Squamata
    ; family:
    Colubridae
    ; genus:
    Boiga
    ; specificEpithet:
    cyanea
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854)
    ; country:
    Vietnam
    ; countryCode:
    VN
    ; stateProvince:
    Son La
    ; county:
    Song Ma
    ; municipality:
    Pu Bau
    ; locality:
    near Pa Lau Village
    ; verbatimElevation:
    590 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    21°15'07''N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    103°26'04''E
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    WGS84
    ; eventDate:
    16 April 2017
    ; eventRemarks:
    collected by N.B. Sung
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; catalogNumber:
    TBU.2017. 01
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    Reptilia
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen

Description

Morphological characters of the voucher specimen from Son La Province agreed well with the descriptions of Smith (1943), Tillack (2006) and Ziegler et al. (2010): SVL 1100 mm; TaL 380 mm (n = 1); head distinct from neck; eye large, pupil round; rostral broader than high; internasal not in contact with loreal; prefrontal longer than half of frontal; frontal pentagonal; parietals longer than wide; nasal divided; loreal 1/1, not in contact with orbit; preocular 1/1; postoculars 2/2, bordering anterior temporals; anterior temporals 2/2, posterior temporals 3/3; subpralabials 8/8, third to fifth touching the eye, seventh largest; infralabials 11/11, first to fifth bordering chin shields; dorsal scale rows 23-21-15, smooth; ventrals 242; cloacal scale undivided; subcaudals 128, paired.

Colouration in preservative: dorsal surface greenish-grey; belly whitish-grey (Fig. 2).

Figure 2.  

Boiga cyanea (TBU 2017.01, adult female) from Son La Province, Vietnam. Photo: A.V. Pham.

Distribution

In Vietnam, this species has been recorded from Lao Cai Province in the north, southwards to Ho Chi Minh City (Nguyen et al. 2009, Ziegler et al. 2010). Elsewhere, this species is known from India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Malaysia (Nguyen et al. 2009, Ziegler et al. 2010).

Ecology

The voucher specimen was collected at 19:30 h on the ground. The surrounding habitat was secondary forest, composed of small hardwoods, lianes and shrub. Air temperature was 25-30oC and relative humidity was 70-75%.

Boiga guangxiensis Wen, 1998

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Boiga guangxiensis
    ; scientificNameID:
    Boiga guangxiensis
    ; class:
    Reptilia
    ; order:
    Squamata
    ; family:
    Colubridae
    ; genus:
    Boiga
    ; specificEpithet:
    guangxiensis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Wen, 1998
    ; country:
    Vietnam
    ; countryCode:
    VN
    ; stateProvince:
    Son La
    ; county:
    Van Ho
    ; municipality:
    Chieng Xuan
    ; locality:
    near Kho Hong Village
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1090 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    21°43'18''N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    104°40'26''E
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    WGS84
    ; eventDate:
    26 June 2016
    ; eventRemarks:
    collected by A.V. Pham and N.B. Sung
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; catalogNumber:
    TBU. SL.2016.128
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    Reptilia
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen

Description

Morphological characters of the voucher specimen from Son La Province agreed well with the descriptions of Das (2010) and Ziegler et al. (2010): SVL 1395 mm, tail tip lost, TaL 161 mm (n = 1); head distinct from neck; eye large, pupil round; rostral broader than high; internasal not in contact with loreal; prefrontal longer than half of frontal; frontal pentagonal; parietals longer than wide; nasal divided; loreal 1/1, not in contact with orbit; preocular 1/1; postoculars 2/2, bordering anterior temporals; anterior temporals 2/2, posterior temporals 3/3; supralabials 8/9, third to fifth touching the eye, seventh largest; infralabials 12/12, first to third bordering chin shields; dorsal scale rows 23-21-15, smooth; ventrals 262; cloacal scale undivided; subcaudals 55+, paired.

Colouration in life: dorsal surface grey, with dark spots on the anterior body; dorsolateral side light brown on anterior body; belly whitish anteriorly, grey posteriorly (Fig. 3).

Figure 3.  

Boiga guangxiensis (TBU SL.2016. 128, adult female) from Son La Province, Vietnam. Photo: A.V. Pham

Distribution

In Vietnam, this species has been recorded from Lai Chau and Lao Cai provinces in the north, southwards to Kon Tum and Lam Dong provinces (Nguyen et al. 2009). Elsewhere, this species is known from China and Laos (Nguyen et al. 2009).

Ecology

The voucher specimen was collected at 20:50 h on a tree branch, approximately 1.0 m above the ground. The surrounding habitat was disturbed evergreen karst forest of medium hardwood and shrub. Air temperature was 25-30°C and relative humidity was 70-75%.

Lycodon meridionalis (Bourret, 1935)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Lycodon meridionalis
    ; scientificNameID:
    Lycodon meridionalis
    ; class:
    Reptilia
    ; order:
    Squamata
    ; family:
    Colubridae
    ; genus:
    Lycodon
    ; specificEpithet:
    meridionalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Bourret, 1935)
    ; country:
    Vietnam
    ; countryCode:
    VN
    ; stateProvince:
    Son La
    ; county:
    Van Ho
    ; municipality:
    Chieng Xuan
    ; locality:
    near Hua Lat Mountain
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1080 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    20°46'84''N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    104°49'00''E
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    WGS84
    ; eventDate:
    28 June 2016
    ; eventRemarks:
    collected by A.V. Pham and N.B. Sung
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; catalogNumber:
    TBU. SL.2016.144
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    Reptilia
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen

Description

Morphological characters of the voucher specimen from Son La Province agreed well with the descriptions of Orlov and Ryabov (2004), Hecht et al. (2013), Nguyen et al. (2016) and Nguyen et al. (2018): SVL 810 mm, TaL 227 mm (n = 1); head distinct from neck; internasals not in contact with loreal; nasal divided; loreal 1/1, not touching the eye; preocular 1/1; subocular absent; postoculars 2/2; anterior temporals 2/3, posterior temporals 3/3; supralabials 8/8, third to fifth entering orbit; infralabials 10/10; dorsal scale rows 17-17-15, strongly keeled except 5 outermost rows smooth, outer dorsal scales enlarged; ventrals 250 (+ 2 preventrals); cloacal undivided; subcaudals 104, divided.

Colouration in life: dorsal surface black, with 122 narrow yellow cross-bars on body and 35 on tail, bifurcated on the sides, enclosing dark spots; head dark black with symmetrical light markings, the most conspicuous being the one running from the eye to the margin of the snout and another stretching from the hind margin of the parietals; belly cream; lower surface of tail dark brown (Fig. 4).

Figure 4.  

Lycodon meridionalis (TBU SL.2016. 144, adult female) from Son La Province, Vietnam. Photo: N.B. Sung

Distribution

In Vietnam, this species has been reported from Lao Cai and Ha Giang provinces in the north, southwards to Thanh Hoa Province (Nguyen et al. 2009, Ziegler et al. 2014, Nguyen et al. 2018, Nguyen et al. 2016, Nguyen et al. 2018). Elsewhere, the species has been reported from China and Laos (Nguyen et al. 2009, Ziegler et al. 2014, Nguyen et al. 2016, Nguyen et al. 2018).

Ecology

The voucher specimen was found at 09:10 h on the ground. The surrounding habitat was secondary forest composed of medium and small hardwoods, lianes and shrub. Air temperature was 27-32°C and relative humidity was 65-70%.

Protobothrops cornutus (Smith, 1930)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Protobothrops cornutus
    ; scientificNameID:
    Protobothrops cornutus
    ; class:
    Reptilia
    ; order:
    Squamata
    ; family:
    Viperidae
    ; genus:
    Protobothrops
    ; specificEpithet:
    cornutus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Smith, 1930)
    ; country:
    Vietnam
    ; countryCode:
    VN
    ; stateProvince:
    Son La
    ; county:
    Phu Yen
    ; municipality:
    Muong Do
    ; locality:
    near Pap Village
    ; verbatimElevation:
    720 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    21°12'36''N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    104°45'58''E
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    WGS84
    ; eventDate:
    26 August 2015
    ; eventRemarks:
    collected by H.V. Tu and C.A.K.P Kham
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; catalogNumber:
    TBU. MD.2015.110
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    Reptilia
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen

Description

Morphological characters of the voucher specimen from Son La Province agreed well with the description of Herrmann et al. (2004) and Luu et al. (2015): SVL 610 mm, TaL 146 mm (n = 1); body elongated; head triangular, distinct from neck, flat, covered by small scales; snout obtuse; rostral scale triangular, not visible above; nasal single, subrectangular; loreals 3/3, between nasal and preocular scale; loreal pit bordered by second supralabial and two preocular scales; supralabials 10/10, first completely separated from nasal, third supralabial largest, concave in the middle; horns including one enlarged scale and two relatively-enlarged supraoculars; supralabials separated from suboculars by 2 scales; infralabials 13/12, the first pair in contact with each other, the first three pairs in contact with the chin shields; dorsal scale rows 21-21-17, keeled; ventral scales 190; subcaudal scales 71, all paired; cloacal entire.

Colouration in life: dorsal head grey with dark brown marks; one stripe each side from posterior orbit to edge of the labial; dorsal surface grey-brown with serial blotches along the midbody; dorsolateral side light brown; ventral surface greyish-blue (Fig. 5).

Figure 5.  

Protobothrops cornutus (TBU MD.2015.110, adult male) from Son La Province, Vietnam. Photo: H.V. Tu

Distribution

In Vietnam, this species has been reported from Lai Chau and Lao Cai provinces in the north, southwards to Quang Binh and Thua Thien Hue provinces (Nguyen et al. 2009). Elsewhere, the species has been reported from China (Nguyen et al. 2009).

Ecology

The voucher specimen was found at 20:35 h on the ground. The surrounding habitat was secondary forest composed of medium and small hardwoods, lianes and shrub. Air temperature was 25-30°C and relative humidity was 70-80%.

Protobothrops mucrosquamatus (Cantor, 1839)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Protobothrops mucrosquamatus
    ; scientificNameID:
    Protobothrops mucrosquamatus
    ; class:
    Reptilia
    ; order:
    Squamata
    ; family:
    Viperidae
    ; genus:
    Protobothrops
    ; specificEpithet:
    mucrosquamatus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Cantor, 1839)
    ; country:
    Vietnam
    ; countryCode:
    VN
    ; stateProvince:
    Son La
    ; county:
    Phu Yen
    ; municipality:
    Muong Bang
    ; locality:
    near Cai Village
    ; verbatimElevation:
    450 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    21°08'49''N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    104°44'48''E
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    WGS84
    ; eventDate:
    26 October 2016
    ; eventRemarks:
    collected by A.V. Pham and S.V. Cao
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; catalogNumber:
    TBU. SL.2016.423
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    Reptilia
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  2. scientificName:
    Protobothrops mucrosquamatus
    ; scientificNameID:
    Protobothrops mucrosquamatus
    ; class:
    Reptilia
    ; order:
    Squamata
    ; family:
    Viperidae
    ; genus:
    Protobothrops
    ; specificEpithet:
    mucrosquamatus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Cantor, 1839)
    ; country:
    Vietnam
    ; countryCode:
    VN
    ; stateProvince:
    Son La
    ; county:
    Thuan Chau
    ; municipality:
    Muong Bang
    ; locality:
    near Pha Khuong Village
    ; verbatimElevation:
    720 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    21°36'32''N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    103°34'54''E
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    WGS84
    ; eventDate:
    25 September 2016
    ; eventRemarks:
    collected by A.V. Pham T.Q.L. Hoang, L.M. Ha, N.B. Song, D.K.K.S. Vanh, and C.A. Lau
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; catalogNumber:
    TBU. PL.2016.67
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    Reptilia
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen

Description

Morphological characters of the voucher specimens from Son La agreed well with the descriptions of Stuart and Heatwole (2008), Nguyen et al. (2011), Luu et al. (2013), Nemes et al. (2013) and Nguyen et al. (2018): SVL 870 and 950 mm, TaL 220 and 235 mm (n = 2); head triangular, clearly distinct from the neck; nasal undivided; internasals separated from each other by three scales; singe loreal pit; two small scales between the nasal and the shield bordering the anterior region of the loreal pit; postoculars 2/2; supralabials 9-11/9-11, the third large, fourth and fifth separated from the subocular by two scales; temporals small; infralabials 12-13/13-14, the first pair in contact with each other, the first three pairs in contact with the chin shields; dorsal scale rows 27-25-19, rhomboid, strongly keeled throughout, but smooth on the first outer row; ventrals 212-217 (+2 preventrals); cloacal undivided; subcaudals 94 and 99, divided.

Colouration in life: dorsal head brown, paler below; dorsum greyish-brown, with a series of large brown, dark-edged spots; a dark brown line from the eye to the angle of the mouth, edged in black; ventral surface brownish with white blotches; dorsal tail light brown, with a series of conspicuous black spots (Fig. 6).

Figure 6.  

Protobothrops mucrosquamatus (TBU PL.2016. 67, adult male) from Son La Province, Vietnam. Photo: A. V. Pham

Distribution

In Vietnam, this species has been reported from Lao Cai and Ha Giang provinces in the north, southwards to Kon Tum and Gia Lai provinces (Nguyen et al. 2009, Nemes et al. 2013). Elsewhere, the species has been reported from India, Bangladesh, China, Taiwan and Myanmar (Nguyen et al. 2009, Nemes et al. 2013).

Ecology

The voucher specimens were found between 19:00 and 22:30 h on forest paths. The surrounding habitat was secondary forest composed of medium and small hardwoods, lianes and shrub. Air temperature was 22-27°C and relative humidity was 75-85%.

Discussion

Amongst four survey sites in Son La Province, the snake species number recorded in Thuan Chau District was highest (47), followed by Phu Yen District (35 species), Song Ma District (33 species) and Van Ho District (29 species). The forest area in Thuan Chau District (63,260 ha) is larger and the habitat quality is better than those in other districts (forest area of Phu Yen District: 59,493 ha, Song Ma District: 55,814 ha and Van Ho District: 51,528 ha, respectively) (The People's Committee of Son La Province 2007). Our new findings bring the species number of snakes to 61 in Son La Province. The most diverse family is Colubridae with 28 recorded species, followed by Natricidae (10 species), Elapidae (6 species), Viperidae (5 species), Pareatidae (3 species), Xenodermidae and Homalopsidae (2 species), Lamprophiidae, Pseudoxenodontidae, Pythonidae, Typhlopidae and Xenopeltidae (1 species each).

In terms of conservation concern, Son La Province also harbours a high number of threatened snake species: 11 species listed in the Red Data Book of Vietnam (Dang et al. 2007): Python molurus, Coelognathus radiatus, Euprepiophis mandarinus, Gonyosoma prasinus, Oreocryptophis porphyraceus, Elaphe moellendorffi, Ptyas korros, Ptyas mucosa, Bungarus fasciatus, Naja atra and Ophiophagus hannah; four species listed in the IUCN Red List (IUCN 2020): Python molurus, Elaphe moellendorffi, Ophiophagus hannah and Protobothrops cornutus; and four species listed in the Vietnam Governmental Decree No. 06/2019/ND-CP (The Government of Vietnam 2019): Python molurus, Ptyas mucosa, Naja atra and Ophiophagus hannah (see Table 1).

Table 1.

List of snake species recorded from Son La Province, Vietnam [Decree 06 (2019) = The Governmental Decree No 06/2019/ND-CP, dated 22 January 2019 by the Government of Vietnam on the management of endangered wild flora and fauna. Group IB: prohibited exploitation and use for commercial purpose, Group IIB: limited exploitation and use for commercial purpose; RBVN (2007) = Vietnam Red Data Book (Dang et al. 2007). IUCN (2020) = The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. CR = Critically Endangered, EN = Endangered, VU = Vulnerable, NT = Lower Risk/Near Threatened]

Name

Previous record

RBVN 2007

IUCN 2020

Decree 06

2019

Typhlopidae

Indotyphlops braminus (Daudin, 1803)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Pythonidae

Python molurus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Nguyen et al. 2009

CR

VU

IIB

Xenopeltidae

Xenopeltis unicolor Reinwardt, 1827

Nguyen et al. 2009

Colubridae

Calamaria pavimentata Dumeril, Bibron & Dumerin, 1854

Nguyen et al. 2009

Ahaetulla prasina (Boie, 1827)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Boiga cyanea (Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril, 1854)

This study

Boiga guangxiensis Wen, 1998

This study

Boiga multomaculata (Boie, 1827)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Chrysopelea ornata (Shaw, 1802)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Coelognathus radiatus (Boie, 1827)

Nguyen et al. 2009

EN

Dendrelaphis ngansonensis (Bourret, 1935)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Dendrelaphis pictus (Gmelin, 1789)

Pham et al. 2013

Euprepiophis mandarinus (Cantor, 1842)

Nguyen et al. 2009

VU

Gonyosoma frenatum (Gray, 1853)

Pham et al. 2013

Gonyosoma prasinus (Blyth, 1854)

Pham et al. 2014

VU

Liopeltis frenatus (Gunther, 1858)

Pham et al. 2013

Lycodon fasciatus (Anderson, 1879)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Lycodon futsingensis (Pope, 1928)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Lycodon meridionalis (Bourret, 1935)

This study

Lycodon subcinctus Boie, 1827

Nguyen et al. 2009

Oligodon catenatus (Blyth, 1854)

Pham et al. 2014

Oligodon chinensis (Gunther, 1888)

Pham et al. 2014

Oligodon fasciolatus (Günther, 1864)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Oreocryptophis porphyraceus (Cantor, 1839)

Nguyen et al. 2009

VU

Elaphe moellendorffi (Boettger, 1886)

Nguyen et al. 2009

VU

VU

Orthriophis taeniurus (Cope, 1861)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Ptyas korros (Schlegel, 1837)

Nguyen et al. 2009

EN

Ptyas multicinctus (Roux, 1907)

Pham et al. 2014

Ptyas mucosa (Linnaeus, 1758)

Nguyen et al. 2009

EN

IIB

Gonyosoma boulengeri Mocquard, 1897

Nguyen et al. 2009

Sibynophis collaris (Gray, 1853)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Elapidae

Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider, 1801)

Nguyen et al. 2009

EN

Bungarus multicinctus Blyth, 1860

Nguyen et al. 2009

Naja atra Cantor, 1842

Nguyen et al. 2009

EN

IIB

Ophiophagus hannah (Cantor, 1836)

Nguyen et al. 2009

CR

VU

IB

Sinomicrurus kelloggi (Pope, 1928)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Sinomicrurus macclellandi (Reinhardt, 1844)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Homalopsidae

Hypsiscopus plumbea (Boie, 1827)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Myrrophis chinensis (Gray, 1842)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Lamprophiidae

Psammodynastes pulverulentus (Boie, 1827)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Natricidae

Amphiesma stolatum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Hebius bitaeniatum (Wall, 1925)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Hebius boulengeri (Gressitt, 1937)

Pham et al. 2013

Hebius chapaensis Bourret, 1934

Pham et al. 2013

Rhabdophis chrysargos (Schlegel, 1837)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Rhabdophis nigrocinctus (Blyth, 1856)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Rhabdophis subminiatus (Schlegel, 1837)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Sinonatrix percarinata (Boulenger, 1899)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Sinonatrix yunnanensis Rao & Yang, 1998

Le et al. 2015

Fowlea flavipunctatus (Hallwell, 1861)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Pareatidae

Pareas carinatus (Boie, 1828)

Nguyen et al. 2009

Pareas hamptoni (Boulenger, 1905)

Pham et al. 2013

Pareas margaritophorus (Jan, 1866)

Pham et al. 2013

Pseudoxenodontidae

Pseudoxenodon macrops (Blyth, 1854)

Pham et al. 2014

Viperidae

Ovophis monticola (Günther, 1864)

Pham et al. 2013

Protobothrops cornutus (Smith, 1930)

This study

NT

Protobothrops mucrosquamatus (Cantor, 1839)

This study

Trimeresurus albolabris Gray, 1842

Nguyen et al. 2009

Trimeresurus stejnegeri Schmidt, 1925

Nguyen et al. 2009

Xenodermidae

Achalinus timi Ziegler, Nguyen, Pham, Nguyen, Pham, Van Schingen, Nguyen & Le, 2019

Ziegler et al. 2019

Parafimbrios lao Teynié, David, Lottier, Le, Vidal & Nguyen, 2015

Nguyen et al. 2015

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the directorates of Xuan Nha Nature Reserve, the People's Committee of Phu Yen, Song Ma, Thuan Chau and Van Ho districts for support of our fieldwork (Working Permit No. 22/CCKL, issued by the Forest Protection Department of Son La Province on 7 June 2012). We thank C.A.K.P. Kham, H.V. Tu, T.Q.L. Hoang, L.M. Ha, D.K.K.S. Vanh and N.B. Sung (Tay Bac University), S.V. Cao (Phu Yen District) and C.A. Lau (Thuan Chau District) for their assistance in the field and providing photos of snakes. This research was supported by the Ministry of Education and Training (Grant No. CT.2019.06.05). Research of Truong Quang Nguyen is supported by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (Project Code QTBY01.01/19-20).

References