Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic Paper
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Taxonomic Paper
Arthropoda; Crustacea; Decapoda of deep-sea volcanic habitats of the Galapagos Marine Reserve, Tropical Eastern Pacific
expand article infoCamila Arnés-Urgellés, Salome Buglass, Shane T. Ahyong§, Pelayo Salinas-de-León‡,|, Mary K. Wicksten, Leigh Marsh‡,#
‡ Charles Darwin Research Station, Charles Darwin Foundation, Av. Charles Darwin s/n, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos, Ecuador
§ Australian Museum Research Institute, 1 William St., Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia and School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Kensington, Sydney, Australia
| Pristine Seas, National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C., United States of America
¶ Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America
# Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, Waterfront Campus, Southampton, United Kingdom
Open Access

Abstract

Background

The deep-sea biome (> 200 m depth) is the world’s last great wilderness, covering more than 65% of the earth’s surface. Due to rapid technological advances, deep-sea environments are becoming more accessible to scientific research and ocean exploration around the world and, in recent years, this is also true for the Galapagos Islands. Deep-sea habitats cover the largest proportion of Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR), yet to date, no comprehensive baseline exists on the biodiversity of the benthic fauna associated with volcanic seafloor formations within this region. Closing this knowledge gap is essential to provide information for decision-making for the management of marine resources within the GMR and assessing any potential changes in biodiversity resulting from climate-driven alterations that deep-sea environments are expected to experience. In 2015, the Charles Darwin Foundation’s Seamounts of the GMR Research Project, together with the Galapagos National Park Directorate (GNPD) and Ocean Exploration Trust (OET), conducted a joint expedition on board the EV Nautilus. Using Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), the aim of the expedition was to characterise the geological formations and biological communities present on seamounts, lava flows and other deep-sea habitats (> 200 m) within the GMR.

New information

We provide the first comprehensive image inventory for the phylum Arthropoda from 260 to 3400 m of depth within the GMR. Past studies on deep-sea macroinvertebrates in the GMR have been limited to voucher samples collected from dredging (restricted to soft bottom environments) or by submersibles (only allowing limited biological sampling). The image inventory, presented here, is based on high-definition video transects conducted by the Hercules ROV on board the EV Nautilus. Images of macroinvertebrate morphospecies were captured, catalogued and identified, thus providing the first known image inventory of in-situ macroinvertebrate species from the deep-sea region of the GMR.

We present 32 distinct morphospecies occurrences within the class Malacostraca and order Decapoda. We also report 17 different families, three species that are new records to the GMR, in-situ images of two new species to science recently described and one possible new squat lobster, as well as interesting behavioural observations.

Keywords

Deep-sea, Galapagos Marine Reserve, macroinvertebrate, Arthropoda, seamounts, volcanic seascapes

Introduction

The Galapagos archipelago is a volcanic island chain located in the Tropical Eastern Pacific, south of the Galapagos Spreading Center and forms part of the western end of the Carnegie Ridge (White et al. 1993). The archipelago originated approximately 10 Myr from the active volcanism of a melting anomaly (or “hotspot”) in the Earth’s upper mantle in the eastward-moving Nazca Plate (Glass et al. 2007). Resulting from this region’s active volcanic history, both the terrestrial and marine environments of the archipelago are defined by complex and diverse lava formations (Sinton et al. 1996, Hoernle et al. 2000), with the seafloor on and around the Galapagos platform being a heterogeneous seascape shaped by seamounts, lava flows, slopes, rift zones and hydrothermal vents (Geist et al. 2008). Therefore, these environments are likely to host rich deep-sea invertebrate communities (McClain and Barry 2010, Souza Júnior et al. 2014). To date, however, relatively little is known about the life and physical environments of these deep ocean seascapes compared to their shallow water counterparts.

The Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR) covers approximately 138,000 km2 and was established in 1998 (Fig. 1) to protect the archipelago’s marine biodiversity by banning large-scale commercial exploitation of marine resources (Henry and Roberts 2017). While deep-sea environments cover by far the largest proportion of the GMR, the technological challenges of studying deep waters mean that most baseline studies on biodiversity are limited to coastal and shallow pelagic ecosystems (Glynn and Wellington 1983, James 1991). However, there are notable historical exceptions. In the late 1890s, the Albatross Expedition pioneered the collection and study of deep-sea fauna in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (Agassiz 1905). Employing dredging methods, benthic sampling was mostly unsuccessful owing to the volcanic nature of the seafloor in the region. Still, some samples were retrieved, but only for soft bottom environments (Bergh and Agassiz 1894, Grove and Lavenberg 1997). Nearly one hundred years later, in 1986, the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institutes submersible, Johnson SeaLink, collected the first targeted collections at a maximum depth of 915 m (Pomponi et al. 1988), with subsequent expeditions in the following years (Banks et al. 2014). Since these expeditions, research efforts have been made to list and describe the biodiversity of Galapagos’ deep-sea environment (Agassiz 1905, Pomponi et al. 1988, Manning 2016), especially on cnidarians (Cairns 1991, Cairns 2018), chordates (McCosker and Smith 1997, Grove and Lavenberg 1997, Barnett et al. 2006, McCosker et al. 2012), echinoderms (Pawson and Ahearn 2000) and isopods (Faxon 1895, Wetzer 1990). Nonetheless, to date, there are no comprehensive image inventories of the deep-sea macrofauna within this region.

Figure 1.  

Map of the Galapagos Marine Reserve with the EV Nautilus dives locations.

In recent decades, the use of Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), equipped with effective sampling gear and high-resolution recording technologies, has greatly accelerated exploration and surveying of deep-sea habitats (Danovaro et al. 2014) and the use of such deep-submergence technology has contributed to our knowledge of deep-water decapod crustacea in both the western (Komai and Tsuchida 2014) and southern (Poupin et al. 2012) Pacific. In the same way, the Nautilus expedition conducted in 2015 marks the future of deep-sea exploration in the GMR and we hope that this inventory, based on in-situ images of the Arthropoda, will facilitate the standardisation of the morphospecies and will be useful for targeted specimen collections during future deep-sea studies in the GMR and the Eastern Tropical Pacific.

Being the first organisms to colonise the islands, even before the appearance of macroscopic plants, the terrestrial arthropods from the Galapagos Islands have been a subject of interest for many years (Peck 1990, Peck 1994). By studying these terrestrial organisms, ecologists and geologists gain a better understanding on how the terrestrial environment of the islands came into being at its present state (Peck et al. 1998). There were intensive collections of arthropods in the intertidal and shallow subtidal regions of the Galapagos Islands during 1931-1938, performed by the ship Velero III of the Allan Hancock Foundation, University of Southern California (Meredith and Hancock 1939). These collections resulted in work on brachyurans by Garth (1946), Garth (1991) and records of carideans in various taxonomic publications. James (1991) published a series of accounts of various Galapagos invertebrates but these also were from shallow waters. However, after the initial descriptions in the 1890s of the collections of the Albatross Expediton (Faxon 1893, Faxon 1895), deep-sea marine arthropods of the Galapagos received very little attention, compared to their terrestrial and shallow-water counterparts.

Materials and methods

Study sites

In June 2015, the EV Nautilus conducted a 10-day collaborative research expedition (NA064) between the Ocean Exploration Trust (OET), the Charles Darwin Foundation (CDF) and the Galapagos National Park Directorate (GNPD) to explore the deep-sea environments of the GMR. All methods were carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations by the GNPD under research permits PC-26-15 & PC-45-15. All experimental protocols were reviewed and approved by a GNPD’s committee which evaluates animal care during research activities. We conducted a total of six exploratory dives to the far north, west and central part of the Galapagos archipelago (Fig. 1, Table 1).

Table 1.

EV Nautilus Sampling sites details.

Dive

Geographical location

Feature

Depth range (m)

ROV Bottom time

Latitude, Longitude

H1435

East of Wolf

Seamount

1120-290

16 h 48

1.2105, -91.0836

H1436

East of Darwin

Seamount

2090-930

11 h 14

1.6584, -91.6731

H1440

North of Darwin

Seamount

1960-1190

11 h 21

1.8535, -92.1064

H1441

West of Fernandina

Lava flows

3370-3300

13 h 34

-0.3763, -91.9043

H1442

West of Fernandina

Lava flows

3010-2940

18 h 25

-0.3763, -91.7619

H1443

West of Santiago

Seamount

640-250

18 h 16

-0.3824, -90.8091

ROV dives began at the base of each feature and conducted a general upslope transect, following sonar and visual surveys along this transect. Dives H1435, H1436 and H1440 explored three seamounts around the most northern islands of the archipelago, which are part of the Wolf-Darwin volcanic lineament that extends to the Galapagos Spreading Center (Harpp and Geist 2002). All seamounts, located in this area, are conically shaped with small summit craters and relatively flat tops. These are also the youngest seamounts of the Galapagos platform estimated to be less than 1 million years old (Sinton et al. 1996, Harpp and Geist 2002). The deepest ROV transects were conducted during dives H1441 and H1442, which targeted the lava flows and abyssal plains to the west of Fernandina Island. These lava flows are part of the hotspot found beneath the Island where the largest and most active volcano of the Galapagos platform is located (Sinton et al. 1996).

The final dive, H1443, explored two small conically-shaped shallow seamounts located in the central part of the Archipelago, between the islands of Santiago and Isabela. Seamounts from this part of the platform were once centred over the hotspot and are estimated to be between 5 to 6 million years old (Sinton et al. 1996, Harpp and Geist 2002).

ROV operations

Seafloor exploration was carried out using the two-body ROV system, Argus and Hercules, each rated to 4000 m water depth. Video and still images of the sites were taken using "Insite Pacific Zeus Plus" HD colour video cameras on both vehicles, each equipped with a 10× mechanical zoom lens. All in-situ images used for the inventory were obtained by Hercules’ mounted camera system. Additionally, environmental parameters were also recorded using Hercules’ telemetry sensors, which included oxygen concentration (Aanderaa Oxygen Optode 3830), temperature and salinity (Seabird FastCat 49Plus).

While the majority of the species analysed for this study were identified from image only, a few specimens were opportunistically collected using the ROV’s hydraulic manipulators. After recovery of the ROV, the collected specimens were preserved following standardised protocols and this information is specified in the 'preparations' and 'notes' sections for each organism listed on the species checklist below.

Video transects image analysis

Each ROV dive ranged in duration from 11 to 18 hours. For the subsequent review of morphospecies, each dive was spilt into 2-hour segments. In-situ images of organisms were captured and extracted from video transects analyses using VLC software (Version 3.0.4) by “non-expert analysts”. To avoid reviewer bias in capturing unique morphospecies, five “non-expert analysts” were assigned random video segments from all six ROV dives. Only organisms that appear to be larger than 3 cm were captured and considered for further identification. All images were then tentatively classified under their common names (i.e. squat lobsters, crabs, shrimps, etc.) and only images that appeared in sufficient detail to be determined beyond phyla were sent to taxonomic experts for further identification. Taxonomists identified all images to the lowest taxonomic level possible. To identify the species, taxonomists consulted published literature (e.g. Wicksten 1989) to find out which species were previously reported in the vicinity of the Galapagos Islands. Images were compared to specimens (where available) or photographs with existing illustrations and images from monographs, species descriptions or expedition reports. Many identifications remain tentative because the characteristic features of a species are on the hidden ventral surface or are too small to see in the photograph.

The open nomenclature identification qualifiers presented here are modified from Sigovini et al. (2016). These qualifiers are being developed as part of an initiative by the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK (Dr Tammy Horton, pers. Comm.), to standardise taxonomic nomenclature for image-based faunal analyses.

Below is a brief overview of each qualifier assigned to the different Arthropoda morphospecies. We assigned the qualifier, based on the original comments provided by each taxonomist.

indet. (indeterminabilis) The sign 'indet.' is to be used as an abbreviation of indeterminabilis and to indicate that the specimen is indeterminable beyond a certain taxonomic level due to the lack of diagnostic characters visible in the image. This qualifier can also be used at higher taxonomic ranks and in conjunction with inc. (below) to indicate a difference between the uncertainties of the IDs at higher taxonomic ranks. We also used this term for some of the very poor-quality images.

inc. (incerta) the usage of this qualifier is to be restricted to the meaning of 'uncertain identification' and to be equated to the question mark. Since the latter may be considered as a 'wildcard' by some software, in data stored in digital form, it may be substituted by 'sp. inc.', 'gen. inc.' etc.

stet. (stetit) Use the term stetit after the taxon name to explicitly express the identifier choice of not proceeding further.

A total of 32 distinct morphospecies of arthropods were identified, belonging to 17 families, 19 genera and 13 confirmed species of the class Malacostraca, order Decapoda.

The occurrence dataset presented here can also be found at Deep-sea OBIS node https://doi.org/10.15468/szdxtb via GBIF.org

Systematic account of Arthropoda species from the Galapagos Marine Reserve; EV Nautilus NA064 Expedition 2015

Suborder Dendrobranchiata Bate, 1888

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Superfamily Penaeoidea Rafinesque, 1815

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  1. scientificName:
    Penaeoidea
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:106683
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Rafinesque, 1815
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    West
    ; verbatimLocality:
    West of Fernandina
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    3397
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    3397
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -0.3921
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.8793
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    100
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    07-03-15
    ; eventTime:
    4:07:38 PM
    ; habitat:
    Lava Flow
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    in water column
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1964/44925955814_f60b782df6_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mary Wicksten
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Penaeoidea fam. indet.
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2020). Penaeoidea Rafinesque, 1815. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=106683 on 2020-07-08
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1441_160738_Penaeoidea_fam_indet.
Notes: 

This shrimp could belong to the genus Benthesicymus (Benthesicymidae) or perhaps a shrimp of the family Aristeidae. It has a short rostrum with teeth and elongate pleopods. The image shows possible white corneas, seen previously amongst the Benthesicymidae. It is not possible to tell if the shrimp in the photograph has true white eyes or the white colour is a reflection from the strobe light. Fig. 2

Figure 2.  
Penaeoidea fam. indet.

Suborder Pleocyemata Burkenroad, 1963

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Infraorder Anomura Macleay, 1838

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Superfamily Chirostyloidea Ortmann, 1892

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Heteroptychus nautilus Baba & Wicksten, 2019

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  1. scientificName:
    Heteroptychus nautilus
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:1332462
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Chirostylidae
    ; genus:
    Heteroptychus
    ; specificEpithet:
    nautilus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Baba & Wicksten, 2019
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Wolf
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    1049
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    1049
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.2157
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.0924
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    30
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-27-15
    ; eventTime:
    2:38:26 AM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image | 75% ETOH
    ; behavior:
    associated with octocorallia
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1980/45600650492_d3cc781b0d_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong | Keiji Baba
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    Image ID confirmed from morphology
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Heteroptychus nautilus
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Heteroptychus nautilus Baba & Wicksten, 2019. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1332462 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1435_023826_Heteroptychus_nautilus
Notes: 

This is an image of the holotype being sampled. Described in Baba and Wicksten (2019) (Sample NA064-009-01-01-A). Fig. 3

Figure 3.  
Heteroptychus nautilus

Uroptychus bellus Faxon, 1893

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  1. scientificName:
    Uroptychus bellus
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:392056
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Chirostylidae
    ; genus:
    Uroptychus
    ; specificEpithet:
    bellus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Faxon, 1893
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Southeast
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Galapagos Platform
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    473
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    473
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -0.3804
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.8179
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    15
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    07-06-15
    ; eventTime:
    3:43:19 AM
    ; habitat:
    Volcanic Cone
    ; preparations:
    Image | 75% ETOH
    ; behavior:
    associated with antipatharia
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1901/43833022820_8a5e3d5686_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong | Mary Wicksten
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    Image ID confirmed from morphology
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Uroptychus bellus
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Uroptychus bellus Faxon, 1893. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=392056 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1443_034319_Uroptychus_sp_inc_bellus
Notes: 

Uroptychus bellus from morphology (Sample NA064-130-01-01-A). Described in Baba and Wicksten (2019). Fig. 4

Figure 4.  

Uroptychus bellus

Genus Uroptychus Henderson, 1888

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  1. scientificName:
    Uroptychus
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:106833
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Chirostylidae
    ; genus:
    Uroptychus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Henderson, 1888
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Wolf
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    812
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    812
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.2243
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.1028
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    25
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-27-15
    ; eventTime:
    7:14:07 AM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    associated with octocorallia
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1925/45600648622_c59bfa2e89_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Uroptychus compressus sp. inc.
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Uroptychus Henderson, 1888. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=106833 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1435_071407_Uroptychus_sp_inc_compressus
Notes: 

Species of Uroptychus are characteristic inhabitants of the soft coral Chrysogorgia. Uroptychus compressus has been reported in the area of study. Fig. 5

Figure 5.  

Uroptychus compressus sp. inc.

Eumunida subsolanus Baba & Wicksten, 2019

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  1. scientificName:
    Eumunida subsolanus
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:1332450
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Eumunididae
    ; genus:
    Eumunida
    ; specificEpithet:
    subsolanus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Baba & Wicksten, 2019
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Wolf
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    515
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    515
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.2271
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.1099
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    15
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-27-15
    ; eventTime:
    08:57:33 AM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on sea floor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1944/43833019450_3f3d6792d3_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Eumunida subsolanus
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Eumunida subsolanus Baba & Wicksten, 2019. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1332450 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1435_085733_Eumunida_subsolanus
  2. scientificName:
    Eumunida subsolanus
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:1332450
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Eumunididae
    ; genus:
    Eumunida
    ; specificEpithet:
    subsolanus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Baba & Wicksten, 2019
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Southeast
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Galapagos Platform
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    444
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    444
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -0.3766
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.8176
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    15
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    07-06-15
    ; eventTime:
    1:57:27 AM
    ; habitat:
    Volcanic Cone
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    associated with hexacorallia
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1936/30710228737_be8e868f29_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Eumunida subsolanus
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Eumunida subsolanus Baba & Wicksten, 2019. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1332450 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1443_015727_Eumunida_subsolanus
  3. scientificName:
    Eumunida subsolanus
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:1332450
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Eumunididae
    ; genus:
    Eumunida
    ; specificEpithet:
    subsolanus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Baba & Wicksten, 2019
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Southeast
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Galapagos Platform
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    421
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    421
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -0.3740
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.8150
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    15
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    07-05-15
    ; eventTime:
    20:15:11 PM
    ; habitat:
    Volcanic Cone
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on sea floor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1948/44926105094_597fb494b2_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Eumunida subsolanus
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Eumunida subsolanus Baba & Wicksten, 2019. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1332450 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1443_201511_Eumunida_subsolanus
  4. scientificName:
    Eumunida subsolanus
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:1332450
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Eumunididae
    ; genus:
    Eumunida
    ; specificEpithet:
    subsolanus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Baba & Wicksten, 2019
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Southeast
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Galapagos Platform
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    422
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    422
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -0.3740
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.8150
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    15
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    07-05-15
    ; eventTime:
    20:13:43 PM
    ; habitat:
    Volcanic Cone
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on sea floor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1966/43833012570_3e6c428cf9_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Eumunida subsolanus
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Eumunida subsolanus Baba & Wicksten, 2019. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1332450 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1443_201343_Eumunida_subsolanus
Notes: 

In-situ images of Eumunida subsolanus described in Baba and Wicksten (2019), which is a new species discovered as a result of the NA064 expedition. Fig. 6

Figure 6.
Eumunida subsolanus
aSingle Eumunida subsolanus on a rock.  
bTwo Eumunida subsolanus amongst a coral garden.  
cSingle Eumunida subsolanus 
dEumunida subsolanus consuming prey.  

Sternostylus defensus (Benedict, 1902)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Sternostylus defensus
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:1310473
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Sternostylidae
    ; genus:
    Sternostylus
    ; specificEpithet:
    defensus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Benedict, 1902)
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Far North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Northwest of Darwin
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    1210
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    1210
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.8779
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -92.128
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    35
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    07-02-15
    ; eventTime:
    5:35:34 AM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    associated with antipatharia
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://live.staticflickr.com/65535/48419070577_79a7040fb0_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Sternostylus defensus
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Sternostylus defensus (Benedict, 1902). Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1310473 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1443_022005_Sternostylus_defensus
Notes: 

This observation is a new record for Galapagos. Fig. 7

Figure 7.  

Sternostylus defensus

Genus Sternostylus Baba, Ahyong & Schnabel, 2018

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Sternostylus
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:1310469
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Sternostylidae
    ; genus:
    Sternostylus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Baba, Ahyong & Schnabel, 2018
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Southeast
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Galapagos Platform
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    445
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    445
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -0.3766
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.8176
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    15
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    07-06-15
    ; eventTime:
    1:46:22 AM
    ; habitat:
    Volcanic Cone
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    associated with octocorallia
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1958/45600653072_11699d38c5_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Sternostylus sp. indet.
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Sternostylus Baba, Ahyong & Schnabel, 2018. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1310469 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1443_014622_Sternostylus_sp_indet.
Notes: 

This species is possibly new to science. Fig. 8

Figure 8.  

Sternostylus sp. indet.

Superfamily Galatheoidea Samouelle, 1819

Material    Download as CSV 

Genus Janetogalathea Baba & Wicksten, 1997

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Janetogalathea
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:387304
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Galatheidae
    ; genus:
    Janetogalathea
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Baba & Wicksten, 1997
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Southeast
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Galapagos Platform
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    419
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    419
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -0.3723
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.816
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    15
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    07-05-15
    ; eventTime:
    10:55:38 PM
    ; habitat:
    Volcanic Cone
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1917/45600635422_79c52754ac_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Janetogalathea californiensis sp. inc.
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Janetogalathea Baba & Wicksten, 1997. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=387304 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1443_225538_Janetogalathea_sp_inc_californiensis
Notes: 

This crustacean looks much like J. californiensis (Baba and Wicksten 1997). If so, it constitutes a major range extension, because previous records of the species are no further south than the Gulf of California, Mexico. To date, there is only one species known of Janetogalathea, but the animal in the photograph differs from those previously described, because of the slender fingers of the chelae, without spines. This might be a variant of J. californiensis or something undescribed. Fig. 9

Figure 9.  

Janetogalathea californiensis sp. inc.

Genus Munida Leach, 1820

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Munida
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:106835
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Munididae
    ; genus:
    Munida
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Leach, 1820
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Wolf
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    1148
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    1148
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.2141
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.0905
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    35
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-27-15
    ; eventTime:
    12:28:08 AM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1912/45600632152_bd316e3674_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Munida sp. indet. 1
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Munida Leach, 1820. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=106835 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1435_002808_Munida_sp_indet_1
Notes: 

Appears to possess hirsute chelae. Fig. 10

Figure 10.  
Munida sp. indet. 1

Genus Munida Leach, 1820

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Munida
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:106835
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Munididae
    ; genus:
    Munida
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Leach, 1820
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Southeast
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Galapagos Platform
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    639
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    639
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -0.3793
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.811
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    20
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    07-05-15
    ; eventTime:
    5:52:40 PM
    ; habitat:
    Volcanic Cone
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://live.staticflickr.com/65535/48491312261_ef3ccf11e8_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Munida sp. indet. 2
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Munida Leach, 1820. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=106835 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1443_175240_Munida_sp_indet_2
Notes: 

This species can be distinguished as different from the one shown in Fig. 9, because that one has hirsute chelae, not seen in Fig. 11.

Figure 11.  

Munida sp. indet. 2

Munidopsis albatrossae Pequegnat & Pequegnat, 1973

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Munidopsis albatrossae
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:378083
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Munidopsidae
    ; genus:
    Munidopsis
    ; specificEpithet:
    albatrossae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Pequegnat & Pequegnat, 1973
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    West
    ; verbatimLocality:
    West of Fernandina
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    3392
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    3392
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -0.3801
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.8972
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    100
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    07-03-15
    ; eventTime:
    10:13:31 AM
    ; habitat:
    Lava Flow
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1958/30710222157_df94121666_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Munidopsis albatrossae
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Munidopsis albatrossae Pequegnat & Pequegnat, 1973. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=378083 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1441_101331_Munidopsis_albatrossae
Notes: 

No further observations or comments. Fig. 12

Figure 12.  

Munidopsis albatrossae

Munidopsis hystrix Faxon, 1893

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Munidopsis hystrix
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:392539
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Munidopsidae
    ; genus:
    Munidopsis
    ; specificEpithet:
    hystrix
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Faxon, 1893
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Southeast
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Galapagos Platform
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    631
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    631
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -0.3793
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.811
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    20
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    07-05-15
    ; eventTime:
    5:57:08 PM
    ; habitat:
    Volcanic Cone
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    associated with octocorallia
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1921/44926034384_1718f9d80d_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Munidopsis hystrix
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Munidopsis hystrix Faxon, 1893. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=392539 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1443_175708_Munidopsis_hystrix
  2. scientificName:
    Munidopsis hystrix
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:392539
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Munidopsidae
    ; genus:
    Munidopsis
    ; specificEpithet:
    hystrix
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Faxon, 1893
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Southeast
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Galapagos Platform
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    639
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    639
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -0.3793
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.811
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    20
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    07-05-15
    ; eventTime:
    5:52:40 PM
    ; habitat:
    Volcanic Cone
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    associated with octocorallia
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1975/30710170107_0f0263a1bd_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Munidopsis hystrix
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Munidopsis hystrix Faxon, 1893. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=392539 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1443_175240_Munidopsis_hystrix
Notes: 

No further observations or comments. Fig. 13

Figure 13.

Munidopsis hystrix

aMunidopsis hystrix on octocoral.  
bTwo Munidopsis hystrix.  

Munidopsis mina Benedict, 1902

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Munidopsis mina
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:392562
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Munidopsidae
    ; genus:
    Munidopsis
    ; specificEpithet:
    mina
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Benedict, 1902
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Wolf
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    871
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    871
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.2222
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.1007
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    25
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-27-15
    ; eventTime:
    5:59:07 AM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    associated with porifera
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1939/43833004130_f68f757688_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Munidopsis mina
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Munidopsis mina Benedict, 1902. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=392562 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1435_055907_Munidopsis_mina
Notes: 

No further observations or comments. Fig. 14

Figure 14.  

Munidopsis mina

Genus Munidopsis Whiteaves, 1874

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Munidopsis
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:106836
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Munidopsidae
    ; genus:
    Munidopsis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Whiteaves, 1874
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Wolf
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    640
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    640
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.2265
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.1076
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    20
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-27-15
    ; eventTime:
    8:27:43 AM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1957/30710220427_3a57d44d62_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Munidopsis sp. indet. 1
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Munidopsis Whiteaves, 1874. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=106836 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1435_082743_Munidopsis_sp_indet_1
Notes: 

Munidopsis sp. indet. 1 (Fig. 15), Munidopsis sp. indet. 2 (Fig. 16), Munidopsis sp. indet. 3 (Fig. 17) and Munidopsis sp. indet. 4 (Fig. 18). These images were taken at too great a distance to see fine details of the antennae, spines of the anterior carapace or other distinguishing features. However, all can be determined to belong to different species by the shape of the chelae, the colour and the length of the pereopods. Fig. 15

Figure 15.  

Munidopsis sp. indet. 1

Genus Munidopsis Whiteaves, 1874

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Munidopsis
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:106836
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Munidopsidae
    ; genus:
    Munidopsis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Whiteaves, 1874
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Far North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Darwin
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    1280
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    1280
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.672
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.6846
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    40
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-28-15
    ; eventTime:
    6:19:13 AM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1960/44736656285_64523ed732_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Munidopsis sp. indet. 2
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Munidopsis Whiteaves, 1874. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=106836 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1436_061913_Munidopsis_sp_indet_2
Notes: 

Munidopsis sp. indet. 1 (Fig. 15), Munidopsis sp. indet. 2 (Fig. 16), Munidopsis sp. indet. 3 (Fig. 17) and Munidopsis sp. indet. 4 (Fig. 18). These images were taken at too great a distance to see fine details of the antennae, spines of the anterior carapace or other distinguishing features. However, all can be determined to belong to different species by the shape of the chelae, the colour and the length of the pereopods. Fig. 16

Figure 16.  

Munidopsis sp. indet. 2

Genus Munidopsis Whiteaves, 1874

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Munidopsis
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:106836
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Munidopsidae
    ; genus:
    Munidopsis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Whiteaves, 1874
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Far North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Darwin
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    1269
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    1269
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.672
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.6847
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    40
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-28-15
    ; eventTime:
    6:58:26 AM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    associated with octocorallia
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1901/30710211497_5a59874c5c_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Munidopsis sp. indet. 3
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Munidopsis Whiteaves, 1874. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=106836 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1436_065826_Munidopsis_sp_indet_3
Notes: 

Munidopsis sp. indet. 1 (Fig. 15), Munidopsis sp. indet. 2 (Fig. 16), Munidopsis sp. indet. 3 (Fig. 17) and Munidopsis sp. indet. 4 (Fig. 18). These images were taken at too great a distance to see fine details of the antennae, spines of the anterior carapace or other distinguishing features. However, all can be determined to belong to different species by the shape of the chelae, the colour and the length of the pereopods. Fig. 17

Figure 17.  

Munidopsis sp. indet. 3

Genus Munidopsis Whiteaves, 1874

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Munidopsis
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:106836
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Munidopsidae
    ; genus:
    Munidopsis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Whiteaves, 1874
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Far North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Darwin
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    1177
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    1177
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.6733
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.6855
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    35
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-28-15
    ; eventTime:
    8:00:21 AM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    associated with porifera
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1938/45651075701_81007ae0bd_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Munidopsis sp. indet. 4
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Munidopsis Whiteaves, 1874. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=106836 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1436_080021_Munidopsis_sp_indet_4
Notes: 

Munidopsis sp. indet. 1 (Fig. 15), Munidopsis sp. indet. 2 (Fig. 16), Munidopsis sp. indet. 3 (Fig. 17) and Munidopsis sp. indet. 4 (Fig. 18). These images were taken at too great a distance to see fine details of the antennae, spines of the anterior carapace or other distinguishing features. However, all can be determined to belong to different species by the shape of the chelae, the colour and the length of the pereopods. Fig. 18

Figure 18.  
Munidopsis sp. indet. 4

Superfamily Lithodoidea Samouelle, 1819

Material    Download as CSV 

Lithodes panamensis Faxon, 1893

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Lithodes panamensis
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:550632
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Lithodidae
    ; genus:
    Lithodes
    ; specificEpithet:
    panamensis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Faxon, 1893
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Wolf
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    788
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    788
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.2251
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.1036
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    25
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-27-15
    ; eventTime:
    7:33:21 AM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1974/44926128274_ca5a32e2a4_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Lithodes panamensis
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Lithodes panamensis Faxon, 1893. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=550632 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1435_073321_Lithodes_panamensis
Notes: 

No further observations or comments. Fig. 19

Figure 19.  

Lithodes panamensis

Genus Paralomis White, 1856

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Paralomis
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:106848
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Lithodidae
    ; genus:
    Paralomis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    White, 1856
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Southeast
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Galapagos Platform
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    441
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    441
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -0.3727
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.8161
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    15
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    07-05-15
    ; eventTime:
    9:08:59 PM
    ; habitat:
    Volcanic Cone
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1962/44926125524_e1902e449a_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Paralomis sp. indet.
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Paralomis White, 1856. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=106848 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1443_210859_Paralomis_sp_indet.
Notes: 

No further observations or comments. Fig. 20

Figure 20.  

Paralomis sp. indet.

Superfamily Paguroidea Latreille, 1802

Material    Download as CSV 

Probeebei mirabilis Boone, 1926

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Probeebei mirabilis
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:368012
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Parapaguridae
    ; genus:
    Probeebei
    ; specificEpithet:
    mirabilis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Boone, 1926
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    West
    ; verbatimLocality:
    West of Fernandina
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    3393
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    3393
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -0.3789
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.8991
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    100
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    07-03-15
    ; eventTime:
    9:51:46 AM
    ; habitat:
    Lava Flow
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1931/45651016991_4ccd4af5d8_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Probeebei mirabilis
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    Lemaitre, R.; McLaughlin, P. (2019). World Paguroidea & Lomisoidea database. Probeebei mirabilis Boone, 1926. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=368012 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1441_095146_Probeebei_mirabilis
Notes: 

No further observations or comments. Fig. 21

Figure 21.  

Probeebei mirabilis

Tylaspis anomala Henderson, 1885

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Tylaspis anomala
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:368016
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Parapaguridae
    ; genus:
    Tylaspis
    ; specificEpithet:
    anomala
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Henderson, 1885
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Far North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Darwin
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    2075
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    2075
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.6592
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.6739
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    60
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-28-15
    ; eventTime:
    1:21:01 AM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1921/45651006891_6c828df1f0_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Tylaspis anomala
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    Lemaitre, R.; McLaughlin, P. (2019). World Paguroidea & Lomisoidea database. Tylaspis anomala Henderson, 1885. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=368016 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1436_012101_Tylaspis_anomala
Notes: 

This observation is a new record for Galapagos. Notice that a sea anemone has overgrown the abdomen of the crab, a common association found in this family of hermit crabs. Fig. 22

Figure 22.  
Tylaspis anomala

Infraorder Brachyura Linnaeus‎, ‎1758

Material    Download as CSV 

Superfamily Cancroidea Latreille, 1802

Material    Download as CSV 

Genus Metacarcinus A. Milne-Edwards, 1862

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Metacarcinus
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:439213
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Cancridae
    ; genus:
    Metacarcinus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    A. Milne-Edwards, 1862
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Wolf
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    327
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    327
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.2319
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.1137
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    10
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-27-15
    ; eventTime:
    12:29:25 PM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1913/31778740868_c9cf226f55_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Metacarcinus edwardsii sp. inc.
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Metacarcinus A. Milne-Edwards, 1862. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=439213 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1435_122925_Metacarcinus_sp_inc_edwardsii
Notes: 

It is very clear from the form of the carapace and chelipeds that this is a member of the Cancridae and subtle details of the carapace margins visible in other photos correspond best to Metacarcinus. Fig. 23

Figure 23.  
Metacarcinus edwardsii sp. inc.

Superfamily Goneplacoidea MacLeay, 1838

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Family Mathildellidae Karasawa & Kato, 2003

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  1. scientificName:
    Mathildellidae
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:439044
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Mathildellidae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Karasawa & Kato, 2003
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Wolf
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    640
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    640
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.2261
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.1076
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    15
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-27-15
    ; eventTime:
    8:27:40 AM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1976/31778722608_435173cc58_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Mathildellidae gen. indet.
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Mathildellidae Karasawa & Kato, 2003. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=439044 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1435_082740_Mathildellidae_gen_indet.
  2. scientificName:
    Mathildellidae
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:439044
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Mathildellidae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Karasawa & Kato, 2003
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Wolf
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    512
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    512
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.2271
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.1099
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    15
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-27-15
    ; eventTime:
    8:59:54 AM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1962/44926123184_df7f396d15_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Mathildellidae gen. indet.
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Mathildellidae Karasawa & Kato, 2003. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=439044 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1435_085954_Mathildellidae_gen_indet.
Notes: 

Appears to be a goneplacoid crab. The overall habitus, aspects of the shape and colouration of the claws and shape of the carapace all fit well with Mathildellidae, based on the author's (S.Ahyong) extensive examination of many species of this group. Fig. 24

Figure 24.

Mathildellidae gen. indet

aMathildellidae gen. indet. on rocks.  
bMathildellidae gen. indet. feeding on a sponge.  

Superfamily Homoloidea De Haan, 1839

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Genus Paromola Wood-Mason in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Paromola
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:106869
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Homolidae
    ; genus:
    Paromola
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Wood-Mason in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Wolf
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    330
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    330
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.2341
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.1142
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    10
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-27-15
    ; eventTime:
    2:00:39 PM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1957/31778735478_806fcb3334_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Paromola rathbunae sp. inc.
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Paromola Wood-Mason in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=106869 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1435_140039_Paromola_sp_inc_rathbunae
  2. scientificName:
    Paromola
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:106869
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Homolidae
    ; genus:
    Paromola
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Wood-Mason in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Wolf
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    364
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    364
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.2289
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.1122
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    10
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-27-15
    ; eventTime:
    10:57:59 AM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1905/44926138884_4c0525a590_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Paromola rathbunae sp. inc.
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Paromola Wood-Mason in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=106869 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1435_105759_Paromola_sp_inc_rathbunae
  3. scientificName:
    Paromola
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:106869
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Homolidae
    ; genus:
    Paromola
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Wood-Mason in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Wolf
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    317
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    317
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.2334
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.1143
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    10
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-27-15
    ; eventTime:
    1:38:48 PM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1908/31778730058_6476463bd8_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Paromola rathbunae sp. inc.
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Paromola Wood-Mason in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=106869 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1435_133848_Paromola_sp_inc_rathbunae
  4. scientificName:
    Paromola
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:106869
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Homolidae
    ; genus:
    Paromola
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Wood-Mason in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Wolf
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    316
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    316
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.2334
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.1143
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    10
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-27-15
    ; eventTime:
    1:38:40 PM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1943/44926133174_b2fdece71d_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Paromola rathbunae sp. inc.
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Paromola Wood-Mason in Wood-Mason & Alcock, 1891. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=106869 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1435_133840_Paromola_sp_inc_rathbunae
Notes: 

This observation is a new record for Galapagos. Fig. 25

Figure 25.

Paromola rathbunae sp. inc.

aSingle Paromola rathbunae sp. inc. with a sponge.  
bSingle Paromola rathbunae sp. inc.  
cAggregation of Paromola rathbunae sp. inc.  
dAggregation of Paromola rathbunae sp. inc.  

Superfamily Majoidea Samouelle, 1819

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Lophorochinia parabranchia Garth, 1969

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  1. scientificName:
    Lophorochinia parabranchia
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:441461
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Epialtidae
    ; genus:
    Lophorochinia
    ; specificEpithet:
    parabranchia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Garth, 1969
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Wolf
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    445
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    445
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.2274
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.1108
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    15
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-27-15
    ; eventTime:
    9:15:49 AM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1954/45600657542_2583e69769_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Shane Ahyong
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Lophorochinia parabranchia
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Lophorochinia parabranchia Garth, 1969. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=441461 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1435_091549_Lophorochinia_parabranchia
Notes: 

No further observations or comments. Fig. 26

Figure 26.  
Lophorochinia parabranchia

Infraorder Caridea ‎Dana‎, 1852

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Superfamily Campylonotoidea Sollaud, 1913

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Genus Bathypalaemonella Balss, 1914

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  1. scientificName:
    Bathypalaemonella
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:107004
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Bathypalaemonellidae
    ; genus:
    Bathypalaemonella
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Balss, 1914
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Wolf
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    872
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    872
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.2222
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.1007
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    25
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-27-15
    ; eventTime:
    5:47:49 AM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    associated with antipatharia
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1937/45651139141_a79abd964d_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mary Wicksten
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Bathypalaemonella sp. indet.
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Bathypalaemonella Balss, 1914. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=107004 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1435_054749_Bathypalaemonella_sp_indet.
Notes: 

This could be Bathypalaemonella delsolari (Wicksten and Mendez 1983), the only species of this genus reported in the eastern Pacific. However, further identification would require a specimen as characteristic features of the chelipeds cannot be seen in the photograph. Fig. 27

Figure 27.  
Bathypalaemonella sp. indet.

Superfamily Nematocarcinoidea Smith, 1884

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Genus Nematocarcinus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881

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  1. scientificName:
    Nematocarcinus
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:107015
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Nematocarcinidae
    ; genus:
    Nematocarcinus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    A. Milne-Edwards, 1881
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Far North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    East of Darwin
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    1607
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    1607
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.6687
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.6815
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    06-28-15
    ; eventTime:
    4:09:40 AM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image | 75% ETOH
    ; behavior:
    in water column
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1953/45651136511_6395079c62_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mary Wicksten | Tim Shank
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    Image ID confirmed from genetics
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Nematocarcinus sp. indet.
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Nematocarcinus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=107015 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1436_040940_Nematocarcinus_sp_indet.
Notes: 

Reported from Peru (Sample NA064-022-01-01-A). Genetics could not provide idenfication beyond genus. The images were taken too far away to see features of the teeth on the rostrum or the relative length of the rostrum to the carapace and so neither Fig. 27 nor Fig. 28 can be identified beyond Nematocarcinus. Furthermore, it cannot be determined whether they are the same species or not. Species of Nematocarcinus have elongate, thread-like legs, barely visible in Fig. 28.

Figure 28.  

Nematocarcinus sp. indet.

Genus Nematocarcinus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Nematocarcinus
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:107015
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Nematocarcinidae
    ; genus:
    Nematocarcinus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    A. Milne-Edwards, 1881
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    West
    ; verbatimLocality:
    West of Fernandina
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    3407
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    3407
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -0.3823
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.8946
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    100
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    07-03-15
    ; eventTime:
    11:56:38 AM
    ; habitat:
    Lava Flow
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1950/45651134551_4a81276830_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mary Wicksten
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Nematocarcinus sp. indet.
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Nematocarcinus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=107015 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1441_115638_Nematocarcinus_sp_indet.
Notes: 

The elongate, thread-like legs of this shrimp are easy to see in this photograph. However, as previously stated, the images were taken too far away to see features of the teeth on the rostrum or the relative length of the rostrum to the carapace and so neither Fig. 27 nor Fig. 28 can be identified beyond Nematocarcinus. Furthermore, it cannot be determined whether they are the same species or not. Fig. 29.

Figure 29.  

Nematocarcinus sp. indet.

Superfamily Pandaloidea Haworth, 1825

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Plesionika trispinus Squires & Barragan, 1976

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  1. scientificName:
    Plesionika trispinus
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:515523
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Pandalidae
    ; genus:
    Plesionika
    ; specificEpithet:
    trispinus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Squires & Barragan, 1976
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Southeast
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Galapagos Platform
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    468
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    468
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -0.3783
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.8177
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    15
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    07-06-15
    ; eventTime:
    2:42:18 AM
    ; habitat:
    Volcanic Cone
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    on seafloor
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1974/31778746558_4a30c6259a_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mary Wicksten
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Plesionika trispinus
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Plesionika trispinus Squires & Barragan, 1976. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=515523 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1443_024218_Plesionika_trispinus
Notes: 

Key identifying features unclude rostrum and colour pattern. Fig. 30

Figure 30.  

Plesionika trispinus

Family Pandalidae Haworth, 1825

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Pandalidae
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:106789
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Pandalidae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Haworth, 1825
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Southeast
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Galapagos Platform
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    638
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    638
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -0.3796
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.8107
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    20
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    07-05-15
    ; eventTime:
    5:49:32 PM
    ; habitat:
    Volcanic Cone
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    in water column
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1921/45600678172_5d263d61ed_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mary Wicksten
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Heterocarpus gen. inc
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Pandalidae Haworth, 1825. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=106789 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1443_174932_Pandalidae_gen_inc_Heterocarpus
Notes: 

Robust body, living on mud, could indicate Heterocarpus gen. inc. Fig. 31

Figure 31.  

Pandalidae Heterocarpus gen. inc.

Superfamily Pasiphaeoidea Dana, 1852

Material    Download as CSV 

Family Pasiphaeidae Dana, 1852

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Pasiphaeidae
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:106790
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Pasiphaeidae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Dana, 1852
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Southeast
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Galapagos Platform
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    458
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    458
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -0.375
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.8144
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    15
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    07-05-15
    ; eventTime:
    7:04:11 PM
    ; habitat:
    Volcanic Cone
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    in water column
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1922/31778742258_204d4c43a9_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mary Wicksten
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Pasiphaeidae gen. indet.
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Pasiphaeidae Dana, 1852. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=106790 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1443_190411_Pasiphaeidae_stet.
Notes: 

Translucent, carries eggs so must be Caridea, elongate body, however, cannot see legs to be sure. Fig. 32

Figure 32.  

Pasiphaeidae gen. indet.

Infraorder Polychelida Scholtz & Richter, 1995

Material    Download as CSV 

Pentacheles laevis Bate, 1878

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Pentacheles laevis
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; scientificNameID:
    urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:382979
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Malacostraca
    ; order:
    Decapoda
    ; family:
    Polychelidae
    ; genus:
    Pentacheles
    ; specificEpithet:
    laevis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Bate, 1878
    ; locationID:
    MRGID8403
    ; waterBody:
    Pacific Ocean
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Galapagos
    ; locality:
    Far North
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Northwest of Darwin
    ; minimumDepthInMeters:
    1336
    ; maximumDepthInMeters:
    1336
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.8838
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -92.1331
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    40
    ; eventID:
    NA064
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Remotely Operated Vehicles
    ; eventDate:
    07-02-15
    ; eventTime:
    8:41:49 AM
    ; habitat:
    Seamount
    ; preparations:
    Image only
    ; behavior:
    in water column
    ; recordedBy:
    CDF Volunteer
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; associatedMedia:
    https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1928/30710128297_f510ddf041_o.png
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mary Wicksten
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; identificationRemarks:
    ID from imagery only
    ; identificationQualifier:
    Pentacheles laevis
    ; language:
    en
    ; bibliographicCitation:
    WoRMS (2019). Pentacheles laevis Bate, 1878. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=382979 on 2019-08-23
    ; institutionCode:
    CDF
    ; collectionCode:
    Arthropoda
    ; datasetName:
    Video transect framegrabs
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
    ; occurrenceID:
    H1440_084149_Pentacheles_laevis
Notes: 

See discussion for more detailed comments on this observation. Fig. 33

Figure 33.  

Pentacheles laevis

Discussion

Here we provide the first and most complete image inventory of arthropods found in the deep waters of the GMR to date. Of particular interest was the presence of three species that are new records to the GMR; Sternostylus defensus, Tylaspis anomala and Paromola rathbunae sp. inc. (Figs 7, 22, 25), in-situ imagery of two new species recently described, Heteroptychus nautilus and Eumunida subsolanus (Baba and Wicksten 2019) (Figs 3, 6) and at least one species of squat lobster that is possibly new to science, Sternostylus sp. indet. (Fig. 8). Based on the occurrences presented here, these morphospecies could be targeted on future expeditions.

The species of Eumunida subsolanus (Fig. 6) and the unidentified mathildellid crab (Fig. 24), to the best of our knowledge, represent the first records of their respective families for the eastern Pacific and the latter is also the first record for the family Eumunididae in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (Baba and Wicksten 2019). The mathildellid crab appears to represent either Mathildella or Neopilumnoplax, species of which have been previously recorded from seamounts and deep-sea ridges in the Indo-West Pacific and tropical Atlantic (Ahyong 2008, Ahyong and Ng 2016).

Overall, we observed many different types of arthropod behaviour and associations. For example, we found species from the genera Heteroptychus, Uroptychus, Eumunida and Sternostylus displaying a preference for gorgonians and black corals as hosts (Figs 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) (Buhl-Mortensen and Mortensen 2004, Clark et al. 2010, Guilloux et al. 2010, Baillon et al. 2014). This also occurred in shrimps, such as Bathypalaemonella sp. indet. usually found in lush sponge and coral gardens (Fig. 27). This mutualistic relationship consists of the arthropods gaining food, habitat and protection from potential predators, while enhancing coral survival by cleaning them from sediment particles (Buhl-Mortensen and Mortensen 2004, Guilloux et al. 2010).

We also recorded two rarely-observed deep-water hermit crabs Probeebei mirabilis and Tylaspis anomala (Figs 21, 22), the latter displaying the behaviour of carrying a sea anemone as observed for specimens from New Caledonia (Lemaitre 1998). The hermit crab-anemone mutualistic relationship is very common in both shallow and deep-sea environments (Hazlett 1981, Jonsson et al. 2001, Mercier and Hamel 2008). Tylaspis anomala was recorded for the first time at the GMR (Fig. 22).

The brachyuran crab Paromola rathbunae sp. inc. was found carrying a sponge using its fifth pereiopods (Fig. 25a, b). This is commonly observed in several crustacean families, including homolids; however, most of these reports are from the Atlantic Ocean (Braga-Henriques et al. 2011, Capezzuto et al. 2012). Paromola is well documented from sponge and coral gardens (Capezzuto et al. 2012). In the Nautilus expedition, we found a large aggregation of homolid crabs all carrying different shaped-sponges (Fig. 25c, d). To our knowledge, a large group of homolid crabs, such as the one presented here, has not been previously reported for the Tropical Eastern Pacific (Muñoz et al. 2011, Smith et al. 2011, Hendrickx and Wicksten 2016). Paromola rathbunae sp. inc. is also a new record for the GMR.

The polychelid lobster, Pentacheles laevis (Fig. 33), although already recorded from the Galapagos Islands (Galil 2000), was observed for the first time in-situ. Such observations of Polychelidae are rare and, to date, individuals have been observed only on the surface of, or more often, buried in the substrate (Ahyong 2009). Our observations of P. laevis actively swimming were the first such records for the family. The observed individual was not engaged in the typical ‘caridoid’ escape behaviour (i.e. rapid backward propulsion by pleonic flexion) of most decapods. Instead, the polychelid was swimming forwards using the pleopods and with a straightened pleon in typical ‘natantian’ fashion – a plesiomorphic trait not exhibited by other lobsters and crayfish or most other reptant decapods. Although the polychelids had long been placed amongst the achelate lobsters (Palinura), the ‘natantian’ swimming mode, observed here, is consistent with the basal position of polychelids amongst reptantian decapods as determined by many phylogenetic analyses (e.g. Scholtz 1995, Dixon et al. 2003, Ahyong and O’Meally 2004, Bracken-Grissom et al. 2014).

Since the 1950s, fisheries have been shifting towards deeper waters in most parts of the world, threatening deep-sea biodiversity and resulting in over-exploitation of seamount faunas (Morato Gomes and Pauly 2004, Morato et al. 2006, Clark et al. 2010). As a result, the last havens for commercial species are being exploited and, with only little over 4% of the world’s deep-sea having been studied (Morato Gomes and Pauly 2004), we might be losing species that are still waiting to be discovered (Mora et al. 2011). This study highlights the importance of assessing deep-sea communities within protected areas and we strongly emphasise the need to publish taxonomic inventories, since these studies serve as a reference for understanding species ecology and for developing future conservation measures.

Acknowledgements

This research was conducted under research permits PC-26-15 & PC-45-15 from the Galapagos National Park Directorate. The Seamounts of the GMR Research Project started in 2015 supported by a grant from the Helmsley Charitable Trust. This deep-sea exploration project was led by the Charles Darwin Research Station in collaboration with the Galapagos National Park Directorate, Ocean Exploration Trust and Rhode Island University. We thank the Government of Ecuador, via the Ecuadorian Navy and its Oceanographic Institute (INOCAR) for their support and permission to operate in their territorial waters. We would like to acknowledge the following people for their participation and contribution to this project: Etienne Rastoin, Elena Perez, Samuel Fischer, Belén Yanez and Patricia Marti-Puig. This publication is contribution number 2347 of the Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands.

References