Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic Paper
Print
Taxonomic Paper
A checklist of the marine Anthuroidea (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoida) from the reefs of Peninsular Malaysia, with some new distributional data
expand article infoMelvin Chew, Azman Abdul Rahim‡,§
‡ Department of Earth Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
§ Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science & Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
Open Access

Abstract

Background

An up-to-date checklist of the Peninsular Malaysian marine Anthuroidea is presented, based on previous taxonomic or ecological literature and recent collections. The present study, a part of the subproject on the Biodiversity of Sultan Iskandar Marine Park, recognised 24 species in 12 genera and 5 families from Peninsular Malaysia. An extensive list of bibliographical references, detailed information on habitat and distributional records, museum locations of type material are provided for each species. Amongst the listed species, 11 are recently discovered Malaysian species belonging to the genera Amakusanthura Nunomura, 1977, Apanthura Stebbing, 1900, Expanathura Wägele, 1981, Leptanthura G. O. Sars, 1897, Kupellonura Barnard, 1925, Pendanthura Menzies & Glynn, 1968 and Tinggianthura Chew, Rahim & bin Haji Ross, 2014. Our records were limited to shallow subtidal reefs of peninsular Malaysian coast, suggesting that the number of species in the list may rise with an extensive survey.

New information

The up-to-date checklist of marine Anthuroidea of the Peninsular Malaysia comprises 24 species in 12 genera and 5 families, including some new distributional data.

Introduction

Tropical reefs are known to support enormous biodiversity and portray a high priority for conservation action amongst marine ecosystems (Roberts 2002). A faunal inventory of our planet remains an urgent task. A basic taxonomic knowledge is necessary for bio-evolutionary studies, as well as for understanding biogeography. The Isopoda is one of the most successful and rapidly evolving malacostracan orders, displaying a tremendous diversity in marine, terrestrial and continental waters. Although isopods have colonised almost every niche and are the most important group in terms of specific diversity, they have been largely ignored in studies dealing with conservation strategies. According to Wilson (2007), the isopods contain over 10,300 species that are primarily marine, but they can also be found in brackish water and freshwater environments. In addition, more than 3,600 terrestrial species of isopods are known (Schmalfuss 2003). Isopods play an important role in marine food chains due to their scavenging nature in benthic communities Keable (2006). Placed strategically within the Sundaland region of biodiversity hotspot and the coral Indo-Malaysian triangle (Hoeksema 2007, Myers et al. 2000), Malaysia is expected to hold a high diversity of isopods, particularly the anthuroids. The aim of this work is to update the knowledge the anthuroids inhabiting the shallow water reef of the Malaysian Peninsular (MP).

Materials and methods

The material collected was obtained from both west and east coasts of the Peninsular Malaysia. The following collection localities were from the west coast of MP: Pulau Langkawi (6°21'56.05"N, 99°40'31.13"E), Pulau Payar (6°03'23.0"N, 100°01'55.0"E), Pulau Pangkor (4°11'22.32"N, 100°32'50.22"E) and Port Dickson (2°24'57.0"N, 101°51'10.3"E). The following collection localities were from the east coast of MP: Pulau Perhentian (5°52'59.48"N, 102°44'31.66"E), Pulau Tioman (2°54'15.44''N, 104°6'1.08''E), Pulau Seri Buat (2°41'13.59"N, 103°55'25.99"E), Pulau Aur (2°28'17.24"N, 104°30'53.14"E), Pulau Dayang (2°28'40.90"N, 104°30'19.12"E) and Pulau Tinggi (2°17'37.96"N, 104°6'1.97"E) (Fig. 1). See Chew et al. (2016) for an explanation of the biological material collection and Chew et al. (2018) for the identification and morphological study procedures. The identification was done using the specialised literature and identification keys from Kensley (1980),Kensley and Poore (1982),Negoescu 1997,Kensley (2001) and Poore and Lew Ton (2002). Only primary synonyms are included for each species under the "Nomenclature" field. The checklist of the marine anthuroids from MP included an updated list of materials, habitat and distribution records. Materials are located in the following museums: Muzium Zoologi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKMMZ); Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, National University of Singapore (ZRC); Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, Genève (MHNG); Zoologisches Museum Berlin (ZMB); and Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN).

Figure 1.  

Map of collection localities in the Malaysian Peninsular.

Data resources

All Anthuroidea records were cross-checked for their taxonomy in the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS Editorial Board 2020).

Checklist of marine Anthuroidea known to occur in Peninsular Malaysia

Amakusanthura koonyumae Bamber, 1997

Nomenclature: 

Amakusanthura koonyumae Bamber 1997: 81–85, figs. 3-5; Bamber 2008: 860–861.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. island:
    Labas, Pulau Tioman
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°53'13.71", E104°3'54.65"
    ; eventDate:
    18 April 2014
    ; habitat:
    In fine sand to medium sand from around ‘Cerianthus’ at 2 to 3 m depth (Bamber, 1997); amongst coral rubble. Littoral 0.5 to 15 m depth (present study)
    ; eventRemarks:
    C. Melvin
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1571
Distribution: 

HONG KONG―Tolo Channel (type locality), Conic Island Cave. MALAYSIA―Pahang State: Pulau Tioman (new record).

Notes: 

Fig. 2a

Figure 2.  

Habitus of Anthuroidea (females) of the reefs of Peninsular Malaysia: A. Amakusanthura koonyumae Bamber, 1997; B. Apanthura pariensis Negoescu, 1997; C. Apanthura stocki (Müller, 1991); D. Apanthura tiomanae Müller, 1992; E. Mesanthura asiatica Müller, 1993; F. Mesanthura protei Kensley, 1980; G. Mesanthura quadrata Kensley & Schotte, 2000; H. Expanathura collaris (Kensley, 1979); I. Kupellonura gidgee Poore & Lew Ton, 1988; J. Accalathura barnardi (Nierstrasz, 1941); K. Accalathura borradailei (Stebbing, 1904); L. Leptanthura coralliophila Müller, 1992; M. Paranthura astrolabium Kensley, 1979; N. Paranthura setigera Negoescu, 1997; O. Paranthura seychellensis Kensley & Schotte, 2000. All species are illustrated here for the first time.

Apanthura bruscai Müller, 1992

Nomenclature: 

Apanthura bruscai Müller 1992b: 156–161, figs. 1–19.

Material    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. island:
    Pulau Babi Besar
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°50.483', E104°9.566'
    ; habitat:
    Fringing-reef and reef-flat under coral rocks mainly covered with coralline algae, intertidal (Müller 1992a)
    ; modified:
    male, 3.4 mm
    ; datasetID:
    ZMB 26953
Distribution: 

Only known from type locality (Pulau Babi Besar, east coast Peninsular Malaysia).

Notes: 

This species record is based on literature only. No specimen was collected during the present study.

Apanthura pariensis Negoescu, 1997

Nomenclature: 

Apanthura pariensis Negoescu 1997: 186–194, figs. 6–10; Chew et al. 2018: 74–75, fig. 1.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. island:
    Pulau Pangkor
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Perak
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N4°11'22.32", E100°32'50.22"
    ; eventDate:
    15 Apr 2014
    ; habitat:
    Littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth, amongst coral rubble (Chew et al. 2018)
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1583; (1 male) UKMMZ-1584; (43 females, 2 males) UKMMZ-1585
  2. island:
    Pulau Langkawi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Kedah
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N6°21'56.05" E99°40'31.13"
    ; eventDate:
    4 Nov 2013
    ; habitat:
    Intertidal, amongst coral rubble
    ; collectionCode:
    (9 females) UKMMZ-1586
  3. island:
    Pulau Langkawi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Kedah
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N6°21'56.05" E99°40'31.13"
    ; eventDate:
    8 Mac 2015
    ; habitat:
    Intertidal, amongst coral rubble
    ; collectionCode:
    (8 females, 2 males) UKMMZ-1587
Distribution: 

INDONESIA―Pari Island, Java Sea (type locality). MALAYSIA―Perak State: Pulau Pangkor (new record).―Kedah State: Pulau Langkawi (new record).

Notes: 

Fig. 2b

Apanthura stocki (Müller, 1991)

Nomenclature: 

Amakusanthura stocki Müller 1991: 595–600, figs. 30–56.

Apanthura stocki Müller 1992b: 166; Chew et al. 2018: 75-76, fig. 2.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. island:
    Mentinggi, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°16'21.67", E104°7'18.61"
    ; eventDate:
    19 April 2013
    ; habitat:
    Littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth, amongst coral rubble (Chew et al. 2018)
    ; recordedBy:
    C. Melvin
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female, 1 male) UKMMZ-1576
  2. island:
    Kg Pasir Panjang, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°17'37.96", E104°6'1.97"
    ; eventDate:
    18 Dec 2012
    ; habitat:
    Littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth, amongst coral rubble (Chew et al. 2018)
    ; recordedBy:
    C. Melvin
    ; collectionCode:
    (3 females, 1 male) UKMMZ-1577
  3. island:
    Sebirah Kechil, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°18.622', E104°05.616'
    ; eventDate:
    18 Apr 2013
    ; habitat:
    Littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth, amongst coral rubble (Chew et al. 2018)
    ; recordedBy:
    C. Melvin
    ; collectionCode:
    (14 females) UKMMZ-1578
  4. island:
    Pulau Seri Buat
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°41'13.59", E103°55'25.99"
    ; eventDate:
    19 Apr 2014
    ; habitat:
    Littoral 0.5 to 7 m depth, amongst coral rubble (Chew et al. 2018)
    ; recordedBy:
    C. Melvin
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 male) UKMMZ-1579
  5. island:
    Kg Pasir Panjang, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°17'37.96", E104°6'1.97"
    ; eventDate:
    15 Jun 2015
    ; habitat:
    Littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth, amongst coral rubble (Chew et al. 2018)
    ; recordedBy:
    C. Melvin
    ; collectionCode:
    (4 females) UKMMZ-1580
  6. island:
    Pulau Dayang
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°28'40.90", E104°30'19.12"
    ; eventDate:
    26 Jul 2016
    ; habitat:
    Littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth, amongst coral rubble (Chew et al. 2018)
    ; recordedBy:
    C. Melvin
    ; collectionCode:
    (27 females) UKMMZ-1581
  7. island:
    Pulau Aur
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°28'17.24", E104°30'53.14"
    ; eventDate:
    26 Jul 2016
    ; habitat:
    Littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth, amongst coral rubble (Chew et al. 2018)
    ; recordedBy:
    C. Melvin
    ; collectionCode:
    (6 females) UKMMZ-1582
Distribution: 

SRI LANKA―Indian Ocean (type locality); MALAYSIA―Johor State: Pulau Besar; Pulau Tinggi; Pulau Seri Buat (new record).

Notes: 

Fig. 2c

Apanthura tiomanae Müller, 1992

Nomenclature: 

Apanthura tiomanae Müller 1992b: 161–166, figs 20–39.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. island:
    Pulau Tioman
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°54'15.44", E104° 6'1.08"
    ; eventDate:
    18 April 2014
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 7 m depth
    ; recordedBy:
    C. Melvin
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1572
Distribution: 

MALAYSIA―Pahang State: Pulau Tioman (type locality).

Notes: 

Fig. 2d

Cyathura bentotae Müller, 1991

Nomenclature: 

Cyathura bentotae Müller 1991: 603–607, figs. 57–80; Müller 1992b: 166.

Material    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. habitat:
    Fringing-reef and sabellid reef; dead coral substratum, 1 to 3 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (male, 3.4 mm) ZMB 26953; 1 cr (ZMB 26956)
Distribution: 

SRI LANKA―Indian Ocean (type locality); MALAYSIA―Pahang State: Pulau Tioman.

Notes: 

This species record is based on literature only. No specimen was collected during the present study.

Mesanthura albolineata Barnard, 1925

Nomenclature: 

Mesanthura albolineata Barnard 1925: 144, fig. 9c; Wägele 1984: 394–398, figs. 5–7; Negoescu and Wägele 1984: 125; Kensley 1987: 118; Müller 1993: 20.

Material    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. country:
    Singapore
    ; habitat:
    Fringing reef, outer reef-flat, reef-margin and upper coral-slope; dead coral substratum, Acropora sp. and Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758).
    ; collectionCode:
    (2 immature adults, 1 manca) ZMB 26938
Distribution: 

SINGAPORE―(type locality); MALAYSIA―Johor State: Pulau Babi Besar.

Notes: 

This species record is based on literature only. No specimen was collected during the present study.

Mesanthura asiatica Müller, 1993

Nomenclature: 

Mesanthura asiatica Müller 1993: 20–25, figs. 1–25.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. habitat:
    Fringing reef, outer reef-flat, reef-margin and upper coral-slope; dead coral substratum, Acropora sp. and Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758)
    ; collectionCode:
    (female, 4.0 mm) ZMB 26939a.
Paratype:
  1. collectionCode:
    (2 immature adults, 1 preparatory male; 1 manca) ZMB 26939b
Other materials:
  1. island:
    Pulau Tioman
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°54'15.44", E104°6'1.08"
    ; eventDate:
    18 April 2014
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 7 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1588; (1 male) UKMMZ-1589; (6 females, 1 male) UKMMZ-1590
  2. island:
    Kg Pasir Panjang, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°17'37.96", E104°6'1.97"
    ; eventDate:
    16 Jun 2015
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1591
Distribution: 

MALAYSIA―Johor State: Pulau Babi Besar (type locality); Pulau Tinggi (new record);―Pahang State: Pulau Tioman (new record).

Notes: 

Fig. 2e

Mesanthura kiliani Müller, 1993

Nomenclature: 

Mesanthura kiliani Müller 1993: 25–29, figs. 26–42.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. island:
    Pulau Tioman
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; habitat:
    Fringing reef, outer reef-flat, reef-margin and upper coral-slope; dead coral substratum, Acropora sp. and Pocillopora damicornis
    ; collectionCode:
    (female, 7.2 mm) ZMB 26940a
Paratype:
  1. island:
    Pulau Tioman
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; habitat:
    Fringing reef, outer reef-flat, reef-margin and upper coral-slope; dead coral substratum, Acropora sp. and Pocillopora damicornis
    ; collectionCode:
    (2 postmancas, 2 mancas) ZMB 26940b.
Distribution: 

MALAYSIA―Pahang State: Pulau Tioman;―Johor State: Pulau Babi Besar.

Notes: 

This species record is based on literature only. No specimen was collected during the present study.

Mesanthura protei Kensley, 1980

Nomenclature: 

Mesanthura protei Kensley 1980: 30–32, figs. 22–23; Kensley and Poore 1982: 631–632, fig. 6; Wägele 1984: 748–752, figs. 8–10; Müller 1993: 33–39, figs. 61–99.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. island:
    Batu Malang, Pulau Tioman
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°54'15.44", E104° 6'1.08"
    ; eventDate:
    18 April 2014
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 7 m depth
    ; institutionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1592; (14 females) UKMMZ-1593
Distribution: 

MOZAMBIQUE―South of Inhambane (type locality); MADAGASCAR―Abrolhos Islands; THAILAND―Ko-Sichang; KENYA; MALAYSIA―Johor State: Pulau Babi Besar;―Pahang State: Pulau Tioman, (new record).

Notes: 

Fig. 2f

Mesanthura quadrata Kensley & Schotte, 2000

Nomenclature: 

Mesanthura quadrata Kensley and Schotte 2000: 2080–2083, figs. 17–18.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. island:
    Pulau Seri Buat
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°41'13.59", E103°55'25.99"
    ; eventDate:
    19 April 2014
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 7 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1594, (3 immature females) UKMMZ-1595
  2. island:
    Batu Malang, Pulau Tioman
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°54'15.44", E104°6'1.08"
    ; eventDate:
    18 April 2014
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 7 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 immature female) UKMMZ-1596
  3. island:
    Kg Pasir Panjang, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°17'37.96", E104°6'1.97"
    ; eventDate:
    15 June 2015
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1597
  4. island:
    Sebirah Kechil, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°18.622', E104°05.616'
    ; eventDate:
    15 June 2015
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1598
  5. island:
    Kg Pasir Panjang, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°17'37.96", E104°6'1.97"
    ; eventDate:
    13 Oct 2012
    ; habitat:
    Assoc. artificial substrate unit at 3 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (29 juveniles) UKMMZ-1599
  6. island:
    Sebirah Kechil, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°18.622', E104°05.616'
    ; eventDate:
    18 April 2013
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1560
Distribution: 

SEYCHELLES―Mahé beach, Mahé Island (type locality); MALAYSIA―Pahang State: Pulau Seri Buat, (new record); Pulau Tioman, (new record);―Johor State: Pulau Tinggi, (new record).

Notes: 

Fig. 2g

Pendanthura tinggiensis Chew, bin Abdul Rahim & Mohd Yusof, 2016

Nomenclature: 

Pendanthura tinggiensis Chew et al. 2016: 232–238, figs. 2–8.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. island:
    Mentinggi, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°16'21.67", E104° 7'18.61"
    ; eventDate:
    19 April 2013
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble. Littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1541; (1 male) UKMMZ-1542; (39 females) UKMMZ-1543; (2 males) UKMMZ-1544; (10 females) ZRC 2016.0013; (2 males) ZRC 2016.0014
  2. island:
    Kg Pasir Panjang, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°17'35.08", E104° 6'7.13"
    ; eventDate:
    16 Aug 2012
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble. Littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (63 females, 3 males) UKMMZ-1544
  3. island:
    Sebirah Kechil, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°18.622', E104° 05.616'
    ; eventDate:
    18 April 2013
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble. Littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (10 females) UKMMZ-1545
  4. island:
    Kg Pasir Panjang, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°17'35.08", E104° 6'7.13"
    ; eventDate:
    15 June 2015
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble. Littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (37 females) UKMMZ-1546
  5. island:
    Sebirah Kechil, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°18.622', E104° 05.616'
    ; eventDate:
    15 June 2015
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble. Littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (54 females) UKMMZ-1621
Distribution: 

Only known from type locality (Pulau Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia)

Pendanthura tiomanensis Chew, bin Abdul Rahim & Mohd Yusof, 2016

Nomenclature: 

Pendanthura tiomanensis Chew et al. 2016: 238–241, figs. 9–11.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. island:
    Batu Malang, Pulau Tioman
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°54'15.44", E104° 6'1.08"
    ; eventDate:
    18 April 2014
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble. Littoral 0.5 to 7 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1547; (3 females) UKMMZ-1549; (2 females) ZRC 2016.0015
Distribution: 

Only known from type locality (Pulau Tioman, Pahang, Malaysia)

Tinggianthura alba Chew, bin Abdul Rahim & bin Haji Ross, 2014

Nomenclature: 

Tinggianthura alba Chew et al. 2014: 1–11, figs 2–9.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Paratype:
  1. island:
    Kampung Pasir Panjang, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°17'35.08", E104° 6'7.13"
    ; eventDate:
    16 August 2012
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble. Littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (12 females, 2 males, 1 juvenile) UKMMZ-1481; (12 females, 2 males, 1 juvenile) UKMMZ-1482; (12 females, 2 males, 1 juvenile) UKMMZ-1483
Other materials:
  1. island:
    Kampung Pasir Panjang, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°17'35.08", E104° 6'7.13"
    ; eventDate:
    18 Dec 2012
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble. Littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (92 females, 8 males) UKMMZ-1622
  2. island:
    Kampung Pasir Panjang, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°17'35.08", E104° 6'7.13"
    ; eventDate:
    28 Feb 2013
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble. Littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (26 females) UKMMZ-1623
Distribution: 

Only known from type locality (Pulau Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia)

Eisothistos besar Müller 1992

Nomenclature: 

Eisothistos besar Müller 1992c: 370–371, figs. 1–26.

Material    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. island:
    Pulau Babi Besar
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°50.483', E104°9.566'
    ; habitat:
    Fringing reef, outer reef-flat, reef-margin and upper coral-slope; dead coral substratum, Acropora sp. and Pocillopora damicornis
    ; collectionCode:
    (immature adult, 1.7–2.1 mm) MHNG.
Distribution: 

Only known from type locality (Pulau Babi Besar, east coast Peninsular Malaysia)

Notes: 

This species record is based on literature only. No specimen was collected during the present study.

Eisothistos tiomanensis Chew, bin Abdul Rahim & binti Mohd Yusof, 2018

Nomenclature: 

Eisothistos tiomanensis Chew et al. 2018: 76–79, figs. 5–6.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. island:
    Labas, Pulau Tioman
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°53'13.71", E104° 3'54.65"
    ; eventDate:
    18 April 2014
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble. Littoral 0.5 to 15 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 male) UKMMZ-1559
Distribution: 

Only known from type locality (Pulau Tioman, Malaysia).

Expanathura collaris (Kensley, 1979)

Nomenclature: 

Panathura collaris Kensley 1979: 823–827, figs 7–9; Kensley and Poore 1982: 635.

Expanathura collaris Wägele 1981: 89, 121–122; Negoescu 1999: 214–220, figs 9–11; Negoescu and Wägele 1984: 118; Negoescu and Brandt 2001: 121–129, figs 14–18; Poore and Lew Ton 2002: 26–32, figs 16–19, 20a.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. island:
    Sebirah Kechil, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°18.622’, E104° 5.616’
    ; eventDate:
    16 May 2013
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 3 m
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1565; (1 Male) UKMMZ-1566; (54 females, 3 males) UKMMZ-1567
  2. island:
    Mentinggi, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°16’21.67", E104° 7’18.61"
    ; eventDate:
    19 April 2013
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 3 m
    ; collectionCode:
    (12 females) UKMMZ-1568
  3. island:
    Batu Malang, Pulau Tioman
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°54’15.44", E104° 6’1.08"
    ; eventDate:
    18 April 2014
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 7 m
    ; collectionCode:
    (56 females, 9 males) UKMMZ-1569
  4. island:
    Labas, Pulau Tioman
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°53’13.71", E104°3’54.65"
    ; eventDate:
    18 April 2014
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 15 m
    ; collectionCode:
    (35 females, 2 males) UKMMZ-1570
  5. island:
    Pantai Kok, Pulau Langkawi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Kedah
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N6°21’56.05", E99°40’31.13"
    ; habitat:
    Intertidal coral rubble
    ; collectionCode:
    (14 females, 4 males) UKMMZ-1625
  6. island:
    Batu Bonchek, Pulau Dayang
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°28’40.90", E104° 30’19.12"
    ; eventDate:
    26 July 2016
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 3 m
    ; collectionCode:
    (7 females, 1 male) UKMMZ-1568
Distribution: 

FIJI (Type locality); COOK ISLAND; MOOREA―Chesterfield and Melish Reefs, Coral Sea; LORD HOWE ISLAND―Tasman Sea; PAPUA NEW GUINEA; AUSTRALIA―Northern Territory, Queensland; MALAYSIA―Pulau Dayang, Pulau Tinggi, (New record); Pulau Tioman, Malaysia (New record); Pulau Langkawi (New record).

Notes: 

Fig. 2h

Kupellonura gidgee Poore & Lew Ton, 1988

Nomenclature: 

Kupellonura gidgee Poore and Lew Ton 1988: 181, 183, 184, fig 10.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. island:
    Batu Malang, Pulau Tioman
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°54'15.44", E104° 6'1.08"
    ; eventDate:
    18 April 2014
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 7 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1602
Distribution: 

AUSTRALIA―Lizard Island (type locality); MALAYSIA―Pulau Tioman (new record).

Notes: 

Fig. 2i

Accalathura barnardi (Nierstrasz, 1941)

Nomenclature: 

Katanthura barnardi Nierstrasz 1941: 243–247, figs 1–13.

Accalathura barnardi Poore 1980: 59; Poore and Lew Ton 1990: 386, 388, fig 5.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. island:
    Batu Malang, Pulau Tioman
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°54'15.44", E104° 6'1.08"
    ; eventDate:
    18 April 2014
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 7 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1603; (1 male) UKMMZ-1604; (6 females) UKMMZ-1605
  2. island:
    Labas, Pulau Tioman
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°53'13.71", E104° 3'54.65"
    ; eventDate:
    18 April 2014
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 15 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (9 females, 2 males) UKMMZ-1606
  3. island:
    Pulau Seri Buat
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°41'13.59", E103° 55'25.99"
    ; eventDate:
    19 April 2014
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 7 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (6 females) UKMMZ-1607
  4. island:
    Batu Bonchek, Pulau Dayang
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°28'40.90", E104° 30'19.12"
    ; eventDate:
    26 July 2016
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (13 females, 2 males) UKMMZ-1608
  5. island:
    Teluk Rha, Pulau Aur
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°28'17.24", E104° 30'53.14"
    ; eventDate:
    27 July 2016
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 3 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female, 1 males) UKMMZ-1609
Distribution: 

INDONESIA―Solo Strait, Java Sea (type locality); MALAYSIA―Pulau Tioman; Pulau Seri Buat (new record).

Notes: 

Fig. 2j

Accalathura borradailei (Stebbing, 1904)

Nomenclature: 

Calathura borradailei Gardiner 1904: 700, pl. 49A; Chilton 1924: 881.

Accalathura borradailei Barnard 1925: 149; Pillai 1966: 157–158, fig 3.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. island:
    Kampung Pasir Panjang, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°17'37.96", E104° 6'1.97"
    ; eventDate:
    28 February 2013
    ; habitat:
    coral rubble, intertidal
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1610; (1 male) UKMMZ-1611; (35 females, 3 males) UKMMZ-1612
  2. island:
    Kampung Pasir Panjang, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°17'37.96", E104° 6'1.97"
    ; eventDate:
    18 December 2012
    ; habitat:
    coral rubble, intertidal
    ; collectionCode:
    (34 females) UKMMZ-1613
  3. island:
    Kampung Pasir Panjang, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°17'37.96", E104°6'1.97"
    ; eventDate:
    15 June 2015
    ; habitat:
    coral rubble, intertidal
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1614
  4. island:
    Sebirah Kechil, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°18.622', E104° 05.616'
    ; eventDate:
    15 June 2015
    ; habitat:
    coral rubble, intertidal
    ; collectionCode:
    (20 females) UKMMZ-1615
  5. island:
    Batu Bonchel, Pulau Dayang
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°28'40.90", E104° 30'19.12"
    ; eventDate:
    26 July 2015
    ; habitat:
    coral rubble, 0.5 to 3 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (14 females, 1 male) UKMMZ-1616
Distribution: 

MALDIVES―Fadifolu (type locality); THAILAND; INDIA―Chilka Lake; Kollam; MALAYSIA―Pulau Dayang, Pulau Tinggi (new record).

Notes: 

Fig. 2k

Leptanthura coralliophila Müller, 1992

Nomenclature: 

Leptanthura coralliophila Müller 1992a: 181–186, figs 1–19.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. island:
    Pulau Seri Buat
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°41'13.59", E103°55'25.99"
    ; eventDate:
    19 April 2014
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, intertidal to 7 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1617; (1 female) UKMMZ-1618
Distribution: 

MALAYSIA―Pulau Babi Besar (type locality); Pulau Seri Buat.

Notes: 

Fig. 2l

Paranthura astrolabium Kensley, 1979

Nomenclature: 

Paranthura astrolabium Kensley 1979: 830–833, figs. 12–13; Negoescu 1999: 237–242, figs 21–23.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. island:
    Batu Malang, Pulau Tioman
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°54'15.44", E104° 6'1.08"
    ; eventDate:
    18 April 2014
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, intertidal to 7 m
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1619; (18 females 1 male) UKMMZ-1621
  2. island:
    Pulau Seri Buat
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°41'13.59", E103°55'25.99"
    ; eventDate:
    19 April 2014
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, intertidal to 7 m
    ; collectionCode:
    (3 females) UKMMZ-1622
Distribution: 

FIJI―Great Astrolabe Barrier Reef (type locality); Suva Reef; MALAYSIA―Pulau Tioman, Malaysia; Pulau Seri Buat (new record).

Notes: 

Fig. 2m

Paranthura setigera Negoescu, 1997

Nomenclature: 

Paranthura setigera Negoescu 1997: 232–241, figs. 33–38.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. island:
    Kampung Pasir Panjang, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°17'37.96", E 104° 6'1.97"
    ; eventDate:
    18 December 2012
    ; habitat:
    coral rubble, intertidal
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1623; (1 male) UKMMZ-1624; (91 females, 7 males) UKMMZ-1625
  2. island:
    Kampung Pasir Panjang, Pulau Tinggi
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Johor
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°17'37.96", E104° 6'1.97"
    ; eventDate:
    28 Feb 2013
    ; habitat:
    coral rubble, intertidal
    ; collectionCode:
    (26 females) UKMMZ-1626
Distribution: 

INDONESIA―Southeast Bali Island, Sanur beach, Bali Island (type locality); MALAYSIA―Pulau Tinggi (new record).

Notes: 

Fig. 2n

Paranthura seychellensis Kensley & Schotte, 2000

Nomenclature: 

Paranthura seychellensis Kensley and Schotte 2000: 2114–2116, fig 39.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotypes:
  1. island:
    Labas, Pulau Tioman
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°53'13.71", E104° 3'54.65"
    ; eventDate:
    18 April 2014
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 15 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female) UKMMZ-1627; (1 male) UKMMZ-1628; (1 premature female) UKMMZ-1629
  2. island:
    Labas, Pulau Tioman
    ; country:
    Malaysia
    ; stateProvince:
    Pahang
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N2°53'13.71", E104° 3'54.65"
    ; eventDate:
    18 April 2014
    ; habitat:
    Amongst coral rubble, littoral 0.5 to 15 m depth
    ; collectionCode:
    (1 female, 4 males) UKMMZ-1630
Distribution: 

SEYCHELLES―Mahé Beach Mahé Island (type locality); MALAYSIA―Pulau Tioman (new record).

Notes: 

Fig. 2o

Discussion

Currently five families of the marine Anthuroidea are known from the Malaysian Peninsular, comprising 12 genera and 24 species. Of these, 10 species (Apanthura bruscai, A. tiomanae, Mesanthura asiatica, M. kiliani, Pendanthura tinggiensis, P. tiomanensis, Tinggianthura alba, Eisothistos besar, E. tiomanensis and Leptanthura coralliophila) are recently discovered Malaysian species and they contribute about 1.5% of all known Anthuroidea of the world. Clearly, this number is only a fraction of their true diversity, given that habitats like shallow reefs, seagrasses and mangroves have not received much taxonomic attention. More species are yet to be discovered, especially after exploring inaccessible habitats, revealing of cryptic species using molecular methods and exploring east Malaysian (Sabah and Sarawak) waters. The latter is a region of high known marine biodiversity.

The anthuroids of Peninsular Malaysia are similarly taxonomically represented as the adjacent thoroughly studied Indian Ocean region by Kensley and Schotte (2000). In terms of faunistic composition, both the regions show a high proportion of Anthuridae species with 58.3% in the Malaysian region and 45.8% in the Indian Ocean region. It is followed by a small number of Leptanthuridae (12.5% in Malaysia and 20.8% in the Indian Ocean), Paranthuridae (12.5% in Malaysia and 12.5% in the Indian Ocean), Expanathuridae (12.5% in Malaysia and 8.3% in the Indian Ocean) and Hyssuridae (4.2% in Malaysia and 8.3% in the Indian Ocean). Having highlighted the similarity, a minor but crucial difference was also noticed, particularly on the occurrence of Antheluridae species in the Indian Ocean. According to Kensley (2001), most of the Antheluridae species are restricted to deep-water, cool-temperate or polar regions. Although several species are found to inhabit the warmer and shallower seas, particularly the eight species of Anthomuda Schultz, 1979, they are mostly captured from the Indian Ocean (Poore and Lew Ton 1988). The high species diversity, particularly in the family Anthuridae (17 species), can be attributed to the fact that the family is the largest and most widespread (Chew et al. 2014, Song and Min 2015). Some of its species-rich genera, Apanthura and Mesanthura, are recorded with the highest species diversity amongst the Malaysian anthuroid fauna. On the other hand, there is no record of any Antheluridae species occurring in the Malaysian region, most probably due to the fact that they are rare in the warmer seas (Kensley 2001, Poore and Lew Ton 1988).

Currently, all known Malaysian anthuroids are found to be associated with coral rubble. Other habitats, such as sandy and muddy sediments and algal beds, have not been sampled. Due to the fact that they are very well represented in the high spatial complexity coral rubble (Richmond 2011, Kensley 1998), coral rubble samplings were prioritised in the past works, as well as in the present study. From all coral rubble collections around the world, one generally true characteristic is that the Eisothistos species are rare and, if reported, they have usually been collected from breaking open serpulid tubes (Wägele 1981). Moreover, Amakusanthura koonyumae, a species previously known to inhabit sandy substratum (Bamber 1997, Bamber 2008), is now found to be associated with coral rubble of the Malaysian coral reefs.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the following people for their help: S Bahar and A Abu-Hasan who assisted in the field sampling. Appreciations are also extended to the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, the Sultan Iskandar Marine Park and the Department of Fisheries, Malaysia. This work is part of the Ph.D. Thesis of MC in the Post-Graduation Program in Marine Science, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. We gratefully acknowledge Dr. Gary Poore (Museum of Victoria) for his valuable comments and Dr. Sameer Kumar Pati (Zoological Survey of India) which helped to improve the manuscript. This study was supported by the Ministry of Education (Malaysia) under the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS/1/2019/WAB13/UKM/02/3).

Author contributions

MC: Sample collection, wrote the manuscript draft and prepared line drawings. ABAR: Conducted sampling trips, provided generic identification, technical expertise, edited the draft, improved the taxonomic concept of the find, wrote the discussion and prepared the manuscript for the publication.

References