Biodiversity Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
Data Paper (Biosciences)
The data of the Swedish Malaise Trap Project, a countrywide inventory of Sweden's insect fauna
expand article infoDave Karlsson, Mattias Forshage§, Kevin Holston§, Fredrik Ronquist§
‡ Station Linné, Färjestaden, Sweden
§ Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden
Open Access



Despite Sweden's strong entomological tradition, large portions of its insect fauna remain poorly known. As part of the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative, launched in 2002 to document all multi-cellular species occurring in the country, the first taxonomically-broad inventory of the country's insect fauna was initiated, the Swedish Malaise Trap Project (SMTP). In total, 73 Malaise traps were deployed at 55 localities representing a wide range of habitats across the country. Most traps were run continuously from 2003 to 2006 or for a substantial part of that time period. The total catch is estimated to contain 20 million insects, distributed over 1,919 samples (Karlsson et al. 2020). The samples have been sorted into more than 300 taxonomic units, which are made available for expert identification. Thus far, more than 100 taxonomists have been involved in identifying the sorted material, recording the presence of 4,000 species. One third of these had not been recorded from Sweden before and 700 have tentatively been identified as new to science.

New information

Here, we describe the SMTP dataset, published through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Data on the sorted material are available in the "SMTP Collection Inventory" dataset. It currently includes more than 130,000 records of taxonomically-sorted samples. Data on the identified material are published using the Darwin Core standard for sample-based data. That information is divided up into group-specific datasets, as the sample set processed for each group is different and in most cases non-overlapping. The current data are divided into 79 taxonomic datasets, largely corresponding to taxonomic sorting fractions. The orders Diptera and Hymenoptera together comprise about 90% of the specimens in the material and these orders are mainly sorted to family or subfamily. The remaining insect taxa are mostly sorted to the order level. In total, the 79 datasets currently available comprise around 165,000 specimens, that is, about 1% of the total catch. However, the data are now accumulating rapidly and will be published continuously. The SMTP dataset is unique in that it contains a large proportion of data on previously poorly-known taxa in the Diptera and Hymenoptera.


Malaise trap, insect fauna, inventory, survey, all-taxa biodiversity inventory, ATBI, Diptera, Hymenoptera


Sweden has a long entomological tradition, starting even before Linnaeus's groundbreaking work on the Swedish fauna and flora. Nevertheless, large portions of the insect fauna remain poorly known to this day. The Swedish distribution of numerous species is documented only by scattered occurrence records and their ecology is poorly documented or unknown. It has also been clear for some time that further research on neglected insect groups would expand the known Swedish species stock significantly and lead to the discovery of a number of species new to science. These neglected groups include many taxa in the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera; it also includes the lice (Phthiraptera) and even some select groups in more well-known insect orders.

To address these knowledge gaps, an ambitious national insect inventory was started in 2003, the Swedish Malaise Trap Project (Karlsson et al. 2005, Karlsson et al. 2020). Malaise traps were chosen as the trapping method because of their efficiency in catching many of the poorly-known taxa of Diptera and Hymenoptera. A total of 73 Malaise traps were deployed at 55 localities spread out over the country and representing a diverse set of habitats. Most of the traps were run continuously from 2003 to 2006 or a significant portion of that time period. A detailed description of all accounts of the project, from collection through transfer to taxonomic experts and collection storage, was recently published (Karlsson et al. 2020).

The total SMTP catch is estimated to contain 20 million insects, distributed over 1,919 samples (Karlsson et al. 2020). The samples have been sorted into more than 300 taxonomic units, suitable for further processing by experts. Thus far, more than 100 taxonomists have been involved in identifying the sorted material, recording the presence of 4,000 species. One third of these had not been recorded from Sweden before and 700 have tentatively been identified as new to science (Ronquist et al. 2020).

The SMTP data are published through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Data are published both on the sorted taxonomic fractions (the "SMTP Collection Inventory" dataset) and on the identified material of individual groups. The latter data are published using the Darwin Core standard for sample-based data to facilitate biodiversity analyses. The SMTP datasets are unique in that they contain a large proportion of data on previously poorly-known, but species-rich taxa in the Diptera and Hymenoptera. Due to this and the fact that the Swedish insect fauna was better known than most other insect fauna before the start of the inventory, the SMTP data offer biologists one of the best opportunities currently for detailed analysis of the size and composition of temperate insect fauna (Ronquist et al. 2020).

In this paper, we provide background data on the SMTP and describe the rationale behind the data publication strategy. We also provide an overview of the currently available datasets, comprising information on more than 130,000 taxonomically-sorted samples and on the species identity of around 165,000 specimens, that is, about 1% of the total SMTP catch. The species-level data are now accumulating rapidly; more than 600,000 specimens are currently on loan to experts for identification. The data will be published continuously through GBIF as they become available over the coming years.

General description


The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the SMTP data published through GBIF and to describe the data publication strategy.

Additional information: 

The SMTP data fall into two different categories: data on the material sorted to taxonomic fractions and data on the specimens identified to species. The data on the sorted material are available in the "SMTP Collection Inventory" dataset (Holston et al. 2020). It currently includes more than 130,000 records of taxonomically-sorted samples. As the taxonomic order sorting of the SMTP material is now complete, the changes to this dataset over the coming year or two will reflect only the finer levels of sorting as they occur. As samples are processed by taxonomists, however, they will disappear from the sorted material dataset so that it will continuously reflect the SMTP material that is currently available to taxonomic experts.

Data on the identified material are published using the Darwin Core standard for sample-based data. The goal is to make the data easy to use for biodiversity analyses, such as species richness estimation. Such analyses typically require that all species in a specific taxon set are recorded for the same set of samples. As the set of SMTP samples processed for each taxonomic unit is different, the information is divided into group-specific datasets. The taxon coverage of each dataset usually corresponds to one of the taxonomic fractions used in the sorting process. In some cases, several related taxonomic fractions are combined into a single dataset, but only if the same set of samples have been processed for all fractions. The circumscription of SMTP datasets is subject to change, based on discussions with the taxonomists involved in identifying the material, amongst other things.

The taxonomic coverage of each dataset is described in its metadata, in the taxonomic coverage section. The field generalTaxonomicCoverage is used to provide information about subtaxa that may be excluded. For instance, a genus may be excluded from the dataset of a family because it is very difficult to identify to species or because it is so numerous that identification to species would be too time-consuming. As appropriate for sample-based data, the absence of a species from the Occurrence table (the Extension table of the Darwin Core Archive) is significant. Provided that the species belongs to the covered taxon set, it means that the species was not encountered in the processed samples.

The samples processed for the taxa covered by the dataset are listed in the Event table (the Core table of the Darwin Core Archive). The sampling site location and sampling effort (time period in days) of each sample are specified, as well as the associated TrapID and EventID identifiers that are used consistently throughout the SMTP project. These identifiers facilitate analyses that look at patterns across SMTP datasets. For instance, one may be interested in the overlap in spatial or temporal coverage amongst SMTP datasets. The absence of one of the 1,919 samples from the Event table is significant: it means that the sample has not been processed for the taxa covered in the dataset. If a sample is listed in the Event table, but there are no occurrence records tied to it, it means that it has been verified that there are no specimens of the covered taxa in that sample. Note that the SMTP samples processed for the taxa in the dataset are usually an arbitrary subset of all the available SMTP samples. If the subset has been chosen according to a principled method, this will be noted in the metadata fields Methods:sampling and Methods:samplingDescription.

In general, the Occurrence table lists abundance data for the observed species. This may be recorded separately for each sex or as a total number of specimens regardless of sex. In a few cases, the Occurrence table instead lists incidence data or a mix of incidence and abundance data. If so, this is noted in the metadata of the dataset, in the Dataset:additionalInfo field. This field may also contain annotations about the determinations. For instance, in the Phoridae dataset, only the males are determined to species; females are usually determined only to genus.

As far as possible, the species-level taxonomy used for the SMTP data follows the national Swedish checklist Dyntaxa, also available as a checklist through GBIF ( Deviations may occur for several reasons. Manuscript names are used in the SMTP datasets for new species; the ambition is to update these records and match them to new entries in Dynyaxa when the taxa are described. In some cases, specialists involved in identifying SMTP material provide corrections of Dyntaxa species names or concepts. These corrections are forwarded to Dyntaxa curators for review and possible action. The ambition is to synchronise the content in the SMTP datasets and Dyntaxa as soon as the issues have been resolved, but this is currently a manual process and time lags may occur.

The sample-based SMTP datasets are linked through their names; they are named "SMTP X", where "X" refers to the taxon set. For instance, the dataset covering Coleoptera is named "SMTP Coleoptera". The metadata of each dataset include standardised fields describing the SMTP project, further facilitating collective retrieval of all SMTP datasets.

Project description


The Swedish Malaise Trap Project


The project was initially conceived by Fredrik Ronquist, then at Uppsala University and Thomas Pape, then at the Swedish Museum of Natural History. Project managers have been, from the beginning up to now: Johan Liljeblad, Kjell Arne Johanson, Kajsa Glemhorn and Dave Karlsson. The project was initially hosted by the Swedish Museum of Natural History, but the practical coordination of the project was moved to the field station Station Linné in 2006 and the project has been officially hosted by Station Linné since 2010. Questions about the project can be directed to Dave Karlsson, current SMTP project manager and corresponding author of this paper.

Traps were run largely by volunteers. Sorting has been carried out by staff, students and volunteers at Station Linné (for more details, see Karlsson et al. 2020). A large number of taxonomists (and students) have provided species identifications (see for updated lists). Crucial for handling the data on behalf of Station Linné have been Dave Karlsson, Pelle Magnusson, Mattias Forshage, Jessica Mo and Marina Karlsson and important for making them public on behalf of the Swedish Museum of Natural History have been Kevin Holston, Ida Li, Anders Telenius, Veronika Johansson, Manash Shah and Markus Skyttner.

Study area description: 

A wide range of representative terrestrial habitats, distributed over Sweden (Fig. 1; Suppl. material 1)

Figure 1.  

Map of SMTP trap sites colour coded by trapping period

Design description: 

Sites were chosen to represent a broad range of habitats across the country of Sweden (Fig. 1, for more details, see Karlsson et al. 2020).


The SMTP has been funded continuously since 2003 by the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative (Miller 2005, Ronquist and Gärdenfors 2003). Additional support for laboratory technicians has been obtained through the Swedish Public Employment Service and the Swedish Social Insurance Agency.

Sampling methods

Sampling description: 

The project used a standard Townes-style Malaise trap obtained from Sante Traps, Lexington, KY, USA (Fig. 2).

Figure 2.  

Left: Illustration of the Townes-style Malaise trap used by the SMTP. Right: A trap in operation at Norrbotten, Pajala Kommun (Site 49).

The trap sites are described in more detail in Suppl. material 1. Trap locations were chosen to maximise habitat diversity (for more details, see Karlsson et al. 2020). To facilitate analyses, the sites have been classified into different habitat types (Suppl. material 1). A somewhat more detailed characterisation of habitat has been done by noting the dominant plants on each site. Suppl. material 2 provides a list of the 1,919 sampling events, each corresponding to a particular range of dates for a particular trap. Within the SMTP project, we maintain a unique set of identifiers for the traps and another set of identifiers for the collecting events. These identifiers are used consistently in all SMTP datasets to facilitate analyses that combine information from several datasets.

Geographic coverage


The trap sites are spread throughout Sweden (Fig. 1; Suppl. material 1). Individual datasets of identified specimens span different subsets of the 1,919 samples and typically only include some of the trapping sites. Therefore, the geographic coverage varies considerably amongst datasets. As the geographic coverage will increase as data are added to each individual dataset, the actual geographic coverage of the dataset has to be computed from the Event table (the Core table in the Darwin Core Archive). The geographic coverage specified in the metadata of the dataset matches that of the entire project.

Taxonomic coverage


The taxonomic coverage of the entire SMTP catch is quite broad. Malaise traps principally target flying insects (especially Hymenoptera and Diptera), but SMTP material also includes large numbers of other terrestrial arthropods (Araneae, Acari, Collembola) and scattered specimens of other invertebrates (Pulmonata, Lumbricidae etc). There are also single examples of unwanted bycatch of vertebrates (several lizards, a bird, a bat), but these specimens have not been preserved as part of the SMTP material.

The taxonomic coverage of each sample-based SMTP dataset is given as part of the metadata published with the dataset. The current data (Table 1, Suppl. material 3) comprise 79 different data datasets. The datasets are dominated by groups belonging to the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera, mostly at the family or subfamily level. Together, these orders comprise about 90% of the specimens in the SMTP material and they also dominate amongst the datasets that cover large numbers of samples and specimens (Table 1, Suppl. material 3). The remaining insect taxa in the SMTP material are mostly sorted to the order level; there are also substantial datasets for some of these. In total, the 79 data datasets currently available cover around 165,000 specimens, that is, about 1% of the total catch. The data are now accumulating rapidly and will be published continuously, so these numbers are likely to increase considerably over the coming years.

Table 1.

The 79 current datasets of the SMTP. Full version is available as a supplementary file.

Order Dataset Link to Dataset Included Taxa Order
1 Odonata Odonata: all families Odonata
2 Plecoptera Plecoptera: all families Plecoptera
3 Dermaptera Dermaptera: all families Dermaptera
4 Psocoptera Psocoptera: all Psocodea except Phthiraptera Psocoptera
5 Thysanoptera Thysanoptera: all families Thysanoptera
6 Auchenorrhyncha excl Delphacidae Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadidae, Cicadellidae, Ulopidae, Membracidae, Aphrophoridae, Achilidae, Caliscelidae, Cixiidae, Issidae Hemiptera
7 Psylloidea Hemiptera: Sternorhyncha: Psylloidea Hemiptera
8 Coleoptera Coleoptera: all families Coleoptera
9 Trichoptera Trichoptera: all families Trichoptera
10 Microlepidoptera Lepidoptera: Micropteridoidea, Eriocranioidea, Hepialoidea, Nepticuloidea, Adeloidea, Tischerioidea, Tineoidea, Gracillarioidea, Douglasioidea, Yponomeutoidea, Gelechioidea, Tortricoidea, Schreckensteinioidea, Epermenioidea, Urodoidea, Choreutoidea, Alucitoidea, Pterophoroidea, Pyraloidea, Cossoidea Lepidoptera
11 Macrolepidoptera Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea, Papilionoidea, Drepanoidea, Geometroidea, Lasiocampoidea, Bombycoidea, Sphingoidea, Noctuoidea Lepidoptera
12 Strepsiptera Strepsiptera: all families Strepsiptera
13 Mycetophilidae, Keroplatidae Mycetophilidae, Keroplatidae Diptera
14 Small Sciaroidea families Diadocidiidae, Mycetobiidae, Ditomyiidae, Sciarosoma Diptera
15 Dixidae Dixidae Diptera
16 Pachyneuridae Pachyneuridae Diptera
17 Cecidomyiidae: Porricondylinae (s lat) Cecidomyiidae: Porricondylinae, Winnertziinae Diptera
18 Phoridae Phoridae Diptera
19 Dolichopodidae Dolichopodidae Diptera
20 Drosophilidae Drosophilidae Diptera
21 Sepsidae Sepsidae Diptera
22 Heleomyzidae, Odiniidae Heleomyzidae Diptera
23 Chloropidae Chloropidae Diptera
24 Piophilidae Piophilidae Diptera
25 Sciomyzidae Sciomyzidae Diptera
26 Lonchaeidae Lonchaeidae Diptera
27 Milichiidae excl Phyllomyza Milichiidae excl. Phyllomyza Diptera
28 Muscidae Muscidae Diptera
29 Anthomyzidae Anthomyzidae Diptera
30 Tephritidae, Ulidiidae Tephritidae, Ulidiidae Diptera
31 Acartophthalmidae Acartophthalmidae Diptera
32 Lauxaniidae Lauxaniidae Diptera
33 Trixoscelididae Trixoscelididae Diptera
34 Pallopteridae Pallopteridae Diptera
35 Asteiidae Asteiidae Diptera
36 Syrphidae Syrphidae Diptera
37 Dryomyzidae Dryomyzidae Diptera
38 Conopidae Conopidae Diptera
39 Aulacigastridae Aulacigastridae Diptera
40 Clusiidae Clusiidae Diptera
41 Asilidae Asilidae Diptera
42 Therevidae Therevidae Diptera
43 Symphyta Xyelidae, Cephidae, Pamphiliidae, Siricidae, Xiphydriidae, Argidae, Blasticotomidae, Cimbicidae, Diprionidae, Tenthredinidae, Heptamelidae, Orussidae Hymenoptera
44 Platygastridae (s str) Platygastridae Hymenoptera
45 Figitidae excl Charipinae Figitidae: Anacharitinae, Aspicerinae, Eucoilinae, Figitinae Hymenoptera
46 Ismaridae Ismaridae Hymenoptera
47 Heloridae Heloridae Hymenoptera
48 Evaniidae Evaniidae Hymenoptera
49 Gasteruptiidae, Aulacidae Gasteruptiidae, Aulacidae Hymenoptera
50 Eupelmidae Eupelmidae Hymenoptera
51 Omphale Eulophidae: Entedoninae: Omphale Hymenoptera
52 Mymar Mymaridae: Mymar Hymenoptera
53 Ichneumoninae excl Phaeogenini Ichneumonidae: Ichneumoninae: Eurylabini, Goedartiinae, Heresiarchini, Ichneumonini, Listrodromini, Oedicephalini, Platylabini, Zimmeriini Hymenoptera
54 Adelognathinae Ichneumonidae: Adelognathinae Hymenoptera
55 Diplazontinae Ichneumonidae: Diplazontinae Hymenoptera
56 Pimplinae Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae Hymenoptera
57 Rhyssinae Ichneumonidae: Rhyssinae Hymenoptera
58 Poemeniinae Ichneumonidae: Poemeniinae Hymenoptera
59 Xoridinae Ichneumonidae: Xoridinae Hymenoptera
60 Phrudus group Ichneumonidae: Tersilochinae: Phrudus group Hymenoptera
61 Neorhacodes Ichneumonidae: Neorhacodinae Hymenoptera
62 Banchini Ichneumonidae: Banchinae: Banchini Hymenoptera
63 Netelia Ichneumonidae: Tryphoninae: Netelia Hymenoptera
64 Anomaloninae Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae Hymenoptera
65 Brachycyrtinae Ichneumonidae: Brachycyrtinae Hymenoptera
66 Diacritinae Ichneumonidae: Diacritinae Hymenoptera
67 Cheloninae excl Adelius Braconidae: Cheloninae excl. Adelius Hymenoptera
68 Meteorini Braconidae: Euphorinae: Meteorini Hymenoptera
69 Rogadinae Braconidae: Rogadinae Hymenoptera
70 Adelius Braconidae: Cheloninae: Adelius Hymenoptera
71 Pompilidae Pompilidae Hymenoptera
72 Dryinidae, Embolemidae Dryinidae, Embolemidae Hymenoptera
73 Small families of parasitic aculeates Mutillidae, Myrmosidae, Tiphiidae, Methochidae, Sapygidae, Pompilidae Hymenoptera
74 Sphecidae (s lat) Crabronidae, Sphecidae, Ampulicidae Hymenoptera
75 Vespinae Vespidae: Vespinae Hymenoptera
76 Eumeninae Vespidae: Eumeninae Hymenoptera
77 Formicidae Formicidae Hymenoptera
78 Chrysididae Chrysididae Hymenoptera
79 Bethylidae Bethylidae Hymenoptera

The datasets only cover a portion of the available taxonomic fractions from the SMTP material. About 330 taxonomic sorting fractions are currently used (Table 2; see the list at the Station Linné webpage for more details, including older sorting fractions). Around half of these fractions are at present actively being worked on. As new experts become involved in the project, we expect that the taxonomic coverage of the identified material will increase. The taxonomic fractions have changed slightly through the years, reflecting how experts want to work with the material at a given point in time and according to the sorting expertise available in the SMTP lab. These types of changes are likely to continue over the coming years. Similarly, we expect that the taxonomic circumscription of published datasets will change slowly over time.

Table 2.

Sorting fractions in the SMTP.

First Tier Sorting Fraction Second Tier Sorting Fraction Third Tier Sorting Fraction
ARANEAE Agelenidae
ARANEAE Amaurobiidae
ARANEAE Anyphaenidae
ARANEAE Araneidae
ARANEAE Argyronetidae
ARANEAE Atypidae
ARANEAE Clubionidae
ARANEAE Corinnidae (Syn: Phrurolithidae)
ARANEAE Dictynidae
ARANEAE Dysderidae
ARANEAE Eresidae
ARANEAE Gnaphosidae
ARANEAE Hahniidae
ARANEAE Linyphiidae
ARANEAE Liocranidae
ARANEAE Lycosidae
ARANEAE Mimetidae (Syn: Eutichuridae)
ARANEAE Miturgidae
ARANEAE Nesticidae
ARANEAE Oecobiidae
ARANEAE Oonopidae
ARANEAE Oxyopidae
ARANEAE Philodromidae
ARANEAE Pholcidae
ARANEAE Pisauridae
ARANEAE Salticidae
ARANEAE Segestriidae
ARANEAE Sparassidae (Heteropodidae)
ARANEAE Tetragnathidae
ARANEAE Theridiidae
ARANEAE Theridiosomatidae
ARANEAE Thomisidae
ARANEAE Titanoecidae
ARANEAE Uloboridae
ARANEAE Zoridae (Syn: Miturgidae)
BRACHYCERA Acartophthalmidae
BRACHYCERA Acroceridae
BRACHYCERA Agromyzidae
BRACHYCERA Anthomyiidae
BRACHYCERA Anthomyzidae
BRACHYCERA Athericidae
BRACHYCERA Aulacigasteridae
BRACHYCERA Bombyliidae
BRACHYCERA Calliphoridae
BRACHYCERA Campichoetidae
BRACHYCERA Chamaemyiidae
BRACHYCERA Chiropteromyzidae
BRACHYCERA Chloropidae
BRACHYCERA Chyromyidae
BRACHYCERA Coenomyiidae
BRACHYCERA Diastatidae
BRACHYCERA Dolichopodidae
BRACHYCERA Drosophilidae
BRACHYCERA Dryomyzidae
BRACHYCERA Empididae sensu lato (incl. Hybotidae, Atelestidae, Microphoridae, Brachystomatidae)
BRACHYCERA Empididae sensu stricto
BRACHYCERA Gasterophilidae
BRACHYCERA Helcomyzidae
BRACHYCERA Heleomyzidae (incl Borboropsidae)
BRACHYCERA Heterocheilidae (note: junior homonym)
BRACHYCERA Hippoboscidae
BRACHYCERA Hypodermatidae
BRACHYCERA Lauxaniidae
BRACHYCERA Lonchaeidae
BRACHYCERA Lonchopteridae
BRACHYCERA Megamerinidae
BRACHYCERA Micropezidae
BRACHYCERA Milichiidae
BRACHYCERA Mythicomyiidae
BRACHYCERA Nycteribiidae
BRACHYCERA Pallopteridae
BRACHYCERA Periscelididae
BRACHYCERA Phaeomyiidae
BRACHYCERA Piophilidae
BRACHYCERA Pipunculidae
BRACHYCERA Platypezidae
BRACHYCERA Platystomatidae
BRACHYCERA Pseudopomyzidae
BRACHYCERA Rhagionidae
BRACHYCERA Rhinophoridae
BRACHYCERA Sarcophagidae
BRACHYCERA Scathophagidae
BRACHYCERA Scenopinidae
BRACHYCERA Sciomyzidae
BRACHYCERA Sphaeroceridae
BRACHYCERA Stenomicridae
BRACHYCERA Stratiomyidae
BRACHYCERA Strongylophthalmyiidae
BRACHYCERA Tanypezidae
BRACHYCERA Tephritidae
BRACHYCERA Trixoscelididae
BRACHYCERA Xylophagidae
HYMENOPTERA Apiformes (Anthophila)
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Adeliinae (Adelius)
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Agathidinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Alysiinae: Alysiini
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Alysiinae: Dacnusini
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Aphidiinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Brachistinae: Blacini
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Brachistinae:Brachistini
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Braconinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Cardiochilinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Cenocoeliinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Charmontinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Cheloninae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Doryctinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Euphorinae sensu stricto
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Exothecinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Gnamptodontinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Helconinae sensu stricto
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Histeromerinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Homolobinae sensu stricto
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Hormiinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Ichneutinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Lysiterminae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Macrocentrinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Euphorinae: Meteorini
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Microgastrinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Microtypinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Miracini
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Euphorinae: Neoneurini
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Opiinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Orgilinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Pambolinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Proteropini
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Rhysipolinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Rhyssalinae
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Rogadinae sensu stricto
HYMENOPTERA Braconidae Sigalphinae
HYMENOPTERA Ceraphronidae
HYMENOPTERA Chalcidoidea sensu lato Aphelinidae sensu lato (incl. Azotidae & Eriaporidae)
HYMENOPTERA Chalcidoidea sensu lato Chalcididae
HYMENOPTERA Chalcidoidea sensu lato Encyrtidae
HYMENOPTERA Chalcidoidea sensu lato Eulophidae
HYMENOPTERA Chalcidoidea sensu lato Eupelmidae
HYMENOPTERA Chalcidoidea sensu lato Eurytomidae
HYMENOPTERA Chalcidoidea sensu lato Mymaridae
HYMENOPTERA Chalcidoidea sensu lato Ormyridae
HYMENOPTERA Chalcidoidea sensu lato Perilampidae
HYMENOPTERA Chalcidoidea sensu lato Pteromalidae
HYMENOPTERA Chalcidoidea sensu lato Signiphoridae
HYMENOPTERA Chalcidoidea sensu lato Tetracampidae
HYMENOPTERA Chalcidoidea sensu lato Torymidae
HYMENOPTERA Chalcidoidea sensu lato Trichogrammatidae
HYMENOPTERA Chalcidoidea Mymaridae: Mymar
HYMENOPTERA Cynipoidea Charipinae
HYMENOPTERA Cynipoidea Cynipidae
HYMENOPTERA Cynipoidea Figitidae (excl. Charipinae)
HYMENOPTERA Cynipoidea Ibaliidae
HYMENOPTERA Diapriidae: Belytinae
HYMENOPTERA Diapriidae: Diapriinae
HYMENOPTERA Gasteruptiidae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Acaenitinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Adelognathinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Agriotypinae Haliday
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Alomyinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Anomaloninae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Atrophini
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Banchinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Banchini
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Brachycyrtinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Campopleginae (Porizontinae)
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Collyriinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Cremastinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Cryptini Kirby
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Ctenopelmatini
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Cylloceriinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Diacritinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Diplazontinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Ephialtini excl. Polysphincta group (incl. Delomeristini and Perithoini)
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Eucerotinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Euryproctini
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Exenterini (incl. Eclytini)
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Glyptini
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Helictes group (≈Plectiscinae)
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Hemigastrini
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Hybrizontinae (Paxylommatinae)
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Ichneumonini sensu lato
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Idiogrammatini
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Lycorininae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Mesochorinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Mesoleiini
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Metopiinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Microleptinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Neorhacodinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Oedemopsini
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Olethrodotini
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Ophioninae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Orthocentrus group (Orthocentrini)
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Orthopelmatinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Oxytorinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Perilissini
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Phaeogenini
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Phrudini
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Phygadeuontini
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Phytodietini
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Pimplini
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Pionini
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Poemeniinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Polysphincta group (Polysphinctini)
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Rhyssinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Scolobatini
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Sphinctini
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Stilbopinae
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Tersilochinae sensu stricto
HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Tryphonini
HYMENOPTERA Megaspilidae
HYMENOPTERA Mymarommatoidea
HYMENOPTERA Platygastridae
HYMENOPTERA Proctotrupidae
HYMENOPTERA Sparasionidae
HYMENOPTERA Spheciformes (Sphecidae sensu lato)
HYMENOPTERA Symphyta Argidae
HYMENOPTERA Symphyta Blasticotomidae
HYMENOPTERA Symphyta Cephidae
HYMENOPTERA Symphyta Cimbicidae
HYMENOPTERA Symphyta Diprionidae
HYMENOPTERA Symphyta Heptamelidae
HYMENOPTERA Symphyta Tenthredinidae: Nematinae
HYMENOPTERA Symphyta Orussidae
HYMENOPTERA Symphyta Pamphiliidae
HYMENOPTERA Symphyta Siricidae
HYMENOPTERA Symphyta Tenthredinidae (excl. Nematinae)
HYMENOPTERA Symphyta Xiphydriidae
HYMENOPTERA Symphyta Xyelidae
HYMENOPTERA Vanhorniidae
ISOPODA Latreille, 1817
"NEMATOCERA" Anisopodidae
"NEMATOCERA" Bibionidae (incl Pleciidae)
"NEMATOCERA" Bolitophilidae
"NEMATOCERA" Canthyloscelidae (incl Synneuridae)
"NEMATOCERA" Cecidomyiidae
"NEMATOCERA" Ceratopogonidae
"NEMATOCERA" Chaoboridae
"NEMATOCERA" Chironomidae
"NEMATOCERA" Culicidae
"NEMATOCERA" Cylindrotomidae
"NEMATOCERA" Diadocidiidae
"NEMATOCERA" Ditomyiidae
"NEMATOCERA" Keroplatidae
"NEMATOCERA" Limoniidae
"NEMATOCERA" Mycetobiidae
"NEMATOCERA" Mycetophilidae
"NEMATOCERA" Pachyneuridae
"NEMATOCERA" Pediciidae
"NEMATOCERA" Psychodidae
"NEMATOCERA" Ptychopteridae
"NEMATOCERA" Scatopsidae
"NEMATOCERA" Sciaridae
"NEMATOCERA" Simuliidae
"NEMATOCERA" Thaumaleidae
"NEMATOCERA" Tipulidae
"NEMATOCERA" Trichoceridae
ORTHOPTERA sensu stricto (Saltatoria)
NEUROPTERA sensu stricto (Planipennia)
ZYGENTOMA (Thysanura sensu stricto)
Taxa included:
Rank Scientific Name
class Arachnida
class Entognatha
class Insecta

Temporal coverage

Data range: 
2003-6-08 - 2006-11-23; 2007-4-11 - 2009-1-01.

The primary collection phase started in the summer of 2003 and ended in late 2006 and involves 71 of the 73 traps at 53 locations. Single traps were run continuously throughout this period or through substantial parts of it (Karlsson et al. 2020). Two complementary traps were run at two additional sites from 11 April 2007 until 1 January 2009 (Suppl. material 2).

Trap managers were instructed to empty the traps every two weeks. However, during the most intense summer period, some traps had to be emptied more often. Conversely, during the winter, sample periods were often much longer (Suppl. material 2). Individual datasets of identified material span only a subset of the 1,919 samples and the temporal coverage therefore varies.

The temporal coverage of individual sample-based datasets varies considerably, depending on which samples have been processed. The temporal coverage will increase over time as data are added to the dataset. The actual temporal coverage has to be computed from the Event table (the Core table of the Darwin Core Archive); the metadata specify the temporal coverage of the entire project.

Usage rights

Use license: 
Creative Commons Public Domain Waiver (CC-Zero)
IP rights notes: 

All SMTP datasets are released under the most permissive licence possible to facilitate use of the data.

Data resources

Data package title: 
Resource link: 
SMTP Collection Inventory:; SMTP Taxonomic Datasets (available as 79 datasets as published by Station Linné):
Number of data sets: 
Data set name: 
SMTP Collection Inventory
Column label Column description
Scientific name Latin name of species
Country or Area Location of specimen collection
Coordinates Latitude and Longitude
Month & Year Month and year of specimen collection
Basis of Record All records based on preserved specimens
Dataset The dataset containing the record
Individual count The number of individual specimens recorded
Recorded by All records by the Swedish Malaise Trap Project
Collection code Unique identifier for collection
Institution code Code of institution owning record/specimen
Identified by Taxonomic expert who made identification
Publisher All records published by the Swedish Malaise Trap Project
Rank Rank of identification known
Kingdom Level of identification
Phylum Level of identification
Class Level of identification
Order Level of identification
Family Level of identification
Genus Level of identification
Species Level of identification
Data set name: 
SMTP Taxonomic Dataset (broken into 79 subsets)
Column label Column description
Scientific name Latin name of species
Country or Area Location of specimen collection
Coordinates Latitude and Longitude
Month & Year Month and year of specimen collection
Basis of Record All records based on preserved specimens
Dataset The dataset containing the record
Individual count The number of individual specimens recorded
Recorded by All records by the Swedish Malaise Trap Project
Collection code Unique identifier for collection
Institution code Code of institution owning record/specimen
Identified by Taxonomic expert who made identification
Publisher All records published by the Swedish Malaise Trap Project
Rank Rank of identification known
Kingdom Level of identification
Phylum Level of identification
Class Level of identification
Order Level of identification
Family Level of identification
Genus Level of identification
Species Level of identification

Additional information

Availability of material

The SMTP collection is maintained and curated as part of the insect collections of the Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM) in Stockholm, Sweden. Most of the collection is kept in 95% ethanol at -20°C in modern storage facilities at Station Linné (see Karlsson et al. 2020 for details). Reference material identified by experts, as well as any type specimens, are deposited in the insect collections at the NRM.

Data availability

The SMTP data will be continuously published through GBIF and we refer readers to GBIF ( and the national Swedish hubs for natural history collections ( and biodiversity data (, for the most recent versions of the datasets. General project information will be available from the Station Linné web site (


A final thanks to the hundreds, at present and in the past, who have contributed to the SMTP. A special thanks to Emily Hartop who made the illustrations and to Harald Havnås who helped us with the tables in this paper.


Supplementary materials

Suppl. material 1: Trapping site information 
Authors:  Karlsson, D; Forshage, M; Holston, K; Ronquist, F
Data type:  Site
Suppl. material 2: Sampling events 
Authors:  Karlsson, D; Forshage, M; Holston, K; Ronquist, F
Data type:  Unique identifiers
Brief description: 

Each event corresponding to a particular range of dates for a particular trap

Suppl. material 3: The current 79 datasets of the SMTP 
Authors:  Karlsson, D; Forshage, M; Holston, K; Ronquist, F
Data type:  Occurrences
Brief description: 

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