Biodiversity Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
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Data Paper (Biosciences)
Marine algal flora of Graciosa Island, Azores
expand article infoAna I. Azevedo Neto, Manuela I. Parente§, Andrea Z. Botelho§, Afonso C. L. Prestes, Roberto Resendes|, Pedro Afonso, Nuno V. Álvaro#, David Milla-Figueras, Raul M. A. Neto¤, Ian Tittley«, Ignacio Moreu
‡ cE3c - Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes/Azorean Biodiversity Group & Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade dos Açores, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, São Miguel, Açores, Portugal
§ CIBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, InBIO Laboratório Associado, Pólo dos Açores, Universidade dos Açores, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, São Miguel, Açores, Portugal
| Universidade dos Açores, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Departamento de Biologia, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, São Miguel, Açores, Portugal
¶ IMAR/Okeanos – University of the Azores, Departamento de Oceanografia e Pescas, Universidade dos Açores, Rua Prof. Doutor Frederico Machado, 9901-862 Horta, Faial, Portugal
# Universidade dos Açores, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias, CCMMG (Centro do Clima Meteorologia e Mudanças Globais), IITA-A (Instituto de Investigação e Tecnologias Agrárias e do Ambiente), 9700-042 Angra dp Heroísmo, Terceira, Portugal
¤ N/A, Odivelas, Portugal
« Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, United Kingdom
Open Access

Abstract

Background

The macroalgal flora of Graciosa (central group of Azores archipelago) is poorly known, with only 116 species recorded so far (authors personal data). The published information reflects occasional collections from sporadic field visits to the Island. To overcome this, a thorough investigation under the Expedition “GRACIOSA/2004”, the Campaigns “PADEL/2006”, “MACROBIOLMOL/2014” and “PIMA-BALA/2017” involving sample collecting and presence data recording, was undertaken over an area of 19 km2 encompassing littoral and sublittoral levels down to about 40 m around the Island. This paper lists the taxonomic records and provides information on species ecology and occurrence around the Island improving the knowledge of the Azorean macroalgal flora at both local and regional scales.

New information

A total of 1692 specimens belonging to 250 taxa of macroalgae (and including 55 taxa identified only at the genus level) are registered, comprising 166 Rhodophyta, 36 Chlorophyta and 48 Ochrophyta (Phaeophyceae). From these, 195 are identified to the species level (126 Rhodophyta, 31 Chlorophyta and 38 Ochrophyta) and comprise 156 native, 20 of uncertain origin and 14 introductions to the Island. Predaea feldmannii subsp. azorica Gabriel is an Azorean endemic, whereas Codium elisabethiae O.C. Schmidt, Botryocladia macaronesica Afonso-Carrillo, Sobrino, Tittley & Neto, Phyllophora gelidioides P.Crouan & H.Crouan ex Karsakoff and Laurencia viridis Gil-Rodríguez & Haroun represent Macaronesian endemics. Seventy-nine species are newly recorded to the algal flora of the Island.

Keywords

Macroalgae, Azores, Graciosa Island, new records, endemism, native, uncertain, introduced, occurrence data.

Introduction

Around 400 species of marine macroalgae have been recorded in the isolated mid-Atlantic Azores archipelago so far (Freitas et al. 2019). The Azorean algal flora is cosmopolitan with species shared with Macaronesia sensu lacto, North Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Europe and America. Overall, it shares more species with the east Atlantic flora than with the west (Tittley and Neto 2006, Wallenstein et al. 2009).

Based on extensive analysis encompassing widely-dispersing phyla (as coastal fishes, echinoderms and macroalgae) and less-dispersing phyla (as brachyurans, polychaetes and gastropods), Freitas et al. (2019) suggested that the Azores should be a biogeographical entity of its own and proposed a re-definition of the Lusitanian biogeographical province, in which they consider four ecoregions: the South European Atlantic Shelf, the Saharan Upwelling, the Azores ecoregion and a new ecoregion herein named Webbnesia, which comprises the archipelagos of Madeira, Selvagens and the Canary Islands. In their paper, when comparing the Azorean algal flora to that of the new Webbnesia region, they reported that the Canary Islands, with 689 species, are by far the most diverse archipelago, followed by the Azores (405), Madeira (396) and Cabo Verde (333). The Selvagens are the least diverse one (295 species). When compared to that of other remote oceanic Islands (e.g. the Shetlands and Faroes in the colder North Atlantic and Ascension and Tristan da Cunha in the Southern Atlantic), the algal flora of the Azores can also be considered relatively rich (Tittley 2003, Neto et al. 2005, Tittley and Neto 2005, Tittley and Neto 2006, Wallenstein et al. 2009).

From all Azorean Islands, São Miguel is by far the one with the largest amount of research dedicated to the study of the algal flora. The total number of algal species is at the moment 260, a number that is likely to increase due to ongoing research by authors of the present paper. Most of the remaining Islands have received less attention. To overcome this and to improve the understanding of the archipelago’s macroalgal flora, research has been conducted over the past three decades in all the Islands. Data on the Islands of Pico and Terceira are already available on the recently-published papers by Neto et al. (2020a), Neto et al. (2020b). Table 1summarises the available information at the moment.

Table 1.

Number of macroalgal species on the Azorean Islands (Neto et al. 2020b, c and authors' unpublished data).

Phyllum Santa Maria São Miguel Terceira Graciosa São Jorge Pico Faial Flores Corvo
Rhodophyta 68 168 73 79 35 142 59 59 13
Chlorophyta 20 39 24 21 17 41 16 16 2
Ochrophyta 28 53 16 16 10 42 8 16 4
Total 116 260 113 116 62 225 83 91 19

The present paper presents both physical and occurrence data and information gathered from macroalgae surveys undertaken on Graciosa (central group of the archipelago) by the Island Aquatic Research Group of the Azorean Biodiversity Centre of the University of the Azores (Link: https://ce3c.ciencias.ulisboa.pt/sub-team/island-aquatic-ecology), the MARBE, Marine Biodiversity and Environment Research Group of CIBIO-Açores at the University of the Azores (Link: http://cibio.uac.pt/en/research-groups/marbe-marine-biodiversity-and-environment) and the OKEANOS Centre of the University of the Azores (Link: http://www.okeanos.uac.pt). In these surveys, particular attention was given to the small filamentous and thin sheet-like forms that are often short-lived and fast-growing species, very difficult to identify in the wild, requiring the aid of a microscope.

The paper aims to provide a practical resource for biological studies, such as systematics, diversity and conservation, biological monitoring, climate change and ecology and also for academics, students, government, private organisations and the general public.

General description

Purpose: 

In this contribution, we list taxonomic records for Graciosa and present general information for the occurrence of each taxon around the Island. By doing this, we are contributing to address several biodiversity shortfalls (see Cardoso et al. 2011, Hortal et al. 2015), namely, the need to catalogue the Azorean macroalgae (Linnean shortfall) and to improve the current information on their local and regional geographic distribution (Wallacean shortfall), as well as on species abundances and dynamics in space (Prestonian shortfall).

Project description

Title: 

Marine algal flora of Graciosa Island, Azores

Personnel: 

Collections were undertaken and occurrence data recorded during several years (2004-2017). The main collectors were Amine Sebti, Ana F. Ferreira, Ana I. Neto, André Amaral, Andrea Z. Botelho, Catarina Santos, Daniel Torrão, Daniela Gabriel, David Milla-Figueras, Edgar Rosas-Alquicira, Eunice Nogueira, Francisco Wallenstein, Gonçalo Graça, Inês Machado, João Brum, Jorge Fontes, José M. N. Azevedo, Ian Tittley, Karla Leon Cisneros, Manuela I. Parente, Marlene Terra, Nil Alvaréz-Segura, Nuno Álvaro, Pedro Monteiro, Pedro Raposeiro, Patrícia Madeira, Raquel Torres, Ruben Couto, Rui Sousa, Sara Peres and Sandra Medeiros.

Preliminary in situ identifications were done by Ana I. Neto, Andrea Z. Botelho, Daniela Gabriel, David Milla-Figueras, Edgar Rosas-Alquicira, Francisco Wallenstein, Karla Leon Cisneros, Ian Tittley, Manuela I. Parente, Marlene Terra and Ruben Couto.

Ana I. Neto, Andrea Z. Botelho, David Milla-Figueras, Edgar Rosas-Alquicira, Karla Leon Cisneros, Ian Tittley and Manuela I. Parente were responsible for the final species identification.

Voucher specimen management was mainly done by Afonso Prestes, Ana I. Neto, Andrea Z. Botelho, David Milla-Figueras, Eunice Nogueira, Manuela I. Parente, Natália Cabral and Roberto Resendes.

Study area description: 

The Azores archipelago, located in the North Atlantic, roughly at 38°43′49″N 27°19′10″W (Fig. 1) comprises nine Islands and several Islets spread over 500 km in a WNW direction. The climate is temperate oceanic, with persistent winds, regular and abundant rainfall and high levels of relative humidity mainly during winter and autumn (Morton et al. 1998). The Islands have a restricted coastal extension due to the lack of a continental shelf and deep waters occur within a few kilometres offshore. The tidal range is small (< 2 m, see Hidrográfico 1981) and coasts are subjected to swell and surge most of the year. Shore geomorphology alternates between high cliffs and rocky cobble/boulder beaches (Borges 2004).

Figure 1.  

The Azores, its location in the Atlantic and Graciosa Island highlighted in black (by Nuno V. Álvaro).

Graciosa (in black in Fig. 1) is the second smallest Island of the Azores archipelago. Located in the central group, roughly at 39°0′38″N, 27°59′1″W, about 37 km north of São Jorge and 58 km north-west of Terceira, it has an area of about 62 km2 and a maximum altitude of 402 m at the summit of the Caldeira, located at the south-western tip of the Island (Neto et al. 2009).

With the exception of Serra Branca, bordered by cliffs higher than 200 m and the area between Lagoa and Barra, where the coastline consists of steep cliffs, the remaining coastline of the Island is low (below 50 m), with long stretches of cobble beaches interspaced with lava flows (forming irregular extensions of bedrock), boulder areas and the single sandy beach near the small village of Praia. Between Ponta Branca and Carapacho, there are several bays, of which the bay of Filipe is the largest in size and easily accessible by land. Rock pools are common on the bedrock shores around the Island, creating a shallow subtidal habitat with a rich diversity of marine life (Neto et al. 2009).

As on the remaining Azores Islands, the intertidal and shallow subtidal rocky-shore communities of Graciosa are dominated by macroalgae (Neto et al. 2005). The high intertidal level communities are characterised by a patchy mosaic of algae (principally Fucus spiralis Linnaeus, Gelidium microdon Kützing and Gymnogongrus spp.) and a few animals (mainly chthamalid barnacles) (Fig. 2). Lower, the shore is covered by algal turfs (growth forms of either diminutive algae or diminutive forms of larger species that create a dense, compact mat 20-30 mm thick), either monospecific or composed of several species, for example, calcareous algae (e.g. Ellisolandia and Jania) or by soft algae (e.g. Centroceras clavulatum (C.Agardh) Montagne, Chondracanthus and Laurencia) (Fig. 3). At this level, a few limpets may be seen. The erect, corticated macrophytes Ellisolandia elongata (J.Ellis & Solander) K.R.Hind & G.W.Saunders, Pterocladiella capillacea (S.G.Gmelin) Santelices & Hommersand (Fig. 4) and Treptacantha abies-marina (S.G.Gmelin) Kützing are common in the transition zone to the subtidal, which is usually dominated by large foliose species (Neto et al. 2009). Subtidally, algal communities are characterised by associations of two or three frondose macrophytes (Fig. 5), predominantly the brown seaweeds, for example, Dictyota spp., Halopteris spp. and Zonaria tournefortii (J.V.Lamouroux) Montagne (Neto et al. 2009).

Figure 2.  

The red macrophyte Gelidium microdon, a characteristic species of the Azorean high intertidal level (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 3.  

Algal turf at mid-shore intertidal level (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 4.  

Red macrophytes Asparagopsis armata and Ellisolandia elongata at lower intertidal level (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 5.  

Frondose brown macrophytes (Zonaria tournefortii and Dictyota spp.) together with Asparagopsis armata at subtidal level (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Design description: 

The algae, referred to in this paper, were collected during field studies at littoral and sublittoral levels down to approximately 40 m on the Island of Graciosa. Each sampling location was visited several times. On each occasion, a careful and extensive survey was undertaken to provide good coverage of the area. Both presence recording and physical collections were made by walking over the shores or by scuba diving. The specimens collected were taken to the laboratory for identification and preservation and the resulting vouchers were deposited at the AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha and the Molecular Systematics Laboratory at the Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores.

Funding: 

This study was mainly financed by the following projects/scientific expeditions:

  • Expedition GRACIOSA/2004, Departamento de Biologia da Universidade dos Açores Ilha do Pico, Açores, June 2004;
  • Campaign PADEL/2006, under the project “PADEL: Património natural e desenvolvimento sustentável do litoral dos Açores: a Ilha Graciosa como caso de estudo”. 2006 - 2007. The Azores Regional Government;
  • Campaign MACROBIOMOL/2014, under the project “MACROBIOMOL, Macroalgal biodiversity under molecular lens - towards a better understanding of North Atlantic biogeography” (PTDC/MAR/114 613/2009). 2011 - 2015. Operational Programme COMPETE (ERDF funds), FCT (UID/BIA/50027/2013) and POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006821;
  • Campaign PIMA-BALA/2017, under the projects “PIMA (3/DRAM/2015), Elaboração do programa de implementação da Diretiva-Quadro Estratégia Marinha - Programa invasoras marinhas nos Açores” and “BALA (2/DRAM/2015), Elaboração do programa de implementação da diretiva-quadro estratégia marinha - biodiversidade dos ambientes litorais dos Açores”. ERDF funds, and the Azores Regional Government;
  • Project “ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072 - AZORES BIOPORTAL – PORBIOTA. Operational Programme Azores 2020 (85% ERDF and 15% regional funds);
  • Portuguese National Funds, through FCT –Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, within the projects UID/BIA/00329/2013, 2015- 2019, UID/BIA/00329/2020-2023 and UID/BIA/50027/2019 and POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006821;
  • Portuguese Regional Funds, through DRCT – Direção Regional da Ciência e Tecnologia, within several projects, 2019 and 2020;
  • CIRN/DB/UAc (Research Centre for Natural Resources, Universidade dos Açores, Departamento de Biologia);
  • CIIMAR (Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Porto, Portugal).

Sampling methods

Study extent: 

This study covers a relatively-large area, approximately 19 km2, encompassing littoral and sublittoral levels down to approximately 40 m around the Island of Graciosa (Table 2, Fig. 6).

Table 2.

Location of the sampling sites on Graciosa Island.

Location N0 Location ID Municipality Locality Latitude / Longitude geodeticDatum Littoral zone
1 GRA_SC_BPL Santa Cruz Baixa do Pesqueiro Longo 39,123197, -28,045288 WGS84 Intertidal
2 GRA_SC_BV Santa Cruz Barro Vermelho 39,095344, -28,026032 WGS84 Intertidal
3 GRA_SC_Cb1 Santa Cruz Carapacho|Baía 1 39,011211, -27,960628 WGS84 Subtidal
4 GRA_SC_Cem Santa Cruz Carapacho|Entre-marés 39,010819, -27,961696 WGS84 Intertidal
5 GRA_SC_Cib Santa Cruz Carapacho|Ilhéu de Baixo 39,009987, -27,942812 WGS84 Subtidal
6 GRA_SC_Fop Santa Cruz Folga|porto 39,017394, -27,999973 WGS84 Intertidal
7 GRA_SC_PAp Santa Cruz Porto Afonso|porto 39,065946, -28,06759 WGS84 Intertidal
8 GRA_SC_Pi Santa Cruz Praia|Ilhéu 39,058972, -27,954659 WGS84 Intertidal
9 GRA_SC_Psm Santa Cruz Praia|São Mateus 39,049412, -27,969379 WGS84 Intertidal
10 GRA_SC_SCbf Santa Cruz Santa Cruz|Baixa do Ferreiro 39,092344, -27,988639 WGS84 Subtidal
11 GRA_SC_SCp Santa Cruz Santa Cruz|porto 39,088680, -28,008354 WGS84 Intertidal
12 GRA_SC_SCpf Santa Cruz Santa Cruz|Ponta do Ferreiro 39,088263, -27,996325 WGS84 Intertidal
13 GRA_SC_SCpp Santa Cruz Santa Cruz|Ponta da Pesqueira 39,086693, -27,994449 WGS84 Intertidal
14 GRA_SC_BF Santa Cruz Baía do Filipe 39,022164, -28,012561 WGS84 Subtidal
15 GRA_SC_Cb1 Santa Cruz Carapacho|Baía 1 39,011211, -27,960628 WGS84 Subtidal
16 GRA_SC_Cb2 Santa Cruz Carapacho|Baía 2 39,012446, -27,958205 WGS84 Subtidal
17 GRA_SC_Cem Santa Cruz Carapacho|Entre-marés 39,010819, -27,961696 WGS84 Intertidal
18 GRA_SC_Cib Santa Cruz Carapacho|Ilhéu de Baixo 39,009987, -27,942812 WGS84 Subtidal
19 GRA_SC_Ct Santa Cruz Carapacho|Termas 39,01245, -27,959901 WGS84 Intertidal
20 GRA_SC_F Santa Cruz Fenais 39,044619, -27,963737 WGS84 Intertidal
21 GRA_SC_Fob Santa Cruz Folga|Baía 39,016995, -28,000629 WGS84 Subtidal
22 GRA_SC_PAbc Santa Cruz Porto Afonso|Baía das Caldeirinhas 39,065128, -28,067997 WGS84 Subtidal
23 GRA_SC_PAp Santa Cruz Porto Afonso|porto 39,065946, -28,06759 WGS84 Intertidal
24 GRA_SC_PB Santa Cruz Ponta Branca 39,020325, -28,031507 WGS84 Subtidal
25 GRA_SC_Pbl Santa Cruz Praia|Baía da Lagoa 39,059392, -27,975943 WGS84 Intertidal
26 GRA_SC_Pp Santa Cruz Praia|porto 39,052321, -27,966435 WGS84 Subtidal
27 GRA_SC_SCb Santa Cruz Santa Cruz|Barra 39,088431, -28,005052 WGS84 Subtidal
28 GRA_SC_SCba Santa Cruz Santa Cruz|Barra-Anel 39,088456, -28,001856 WGS84 Intertidal
29 GRA_SC_SCba Santa Cruz Santa Cruz|Barra-Anel 39,088694, -28,001464 WGS84 Subtidal
30 GRA_SC_SCbf Santa Cruz Santa Cruz|Baía da Fonte 39,080207, -27,98857 WGS84 Subtidal
31 GRA_SC_SCbsc Santa Cruz Santa Cruz|Baía de Santa Catarina 39,087896, -27,998773 WGS84 Intertidal
32 GRA_SC_SCbsv Santa Cruz Santa Cruz|Baía Senhora da Vitória 39,071636, -28,067268 WGS84 Intertidal
33 GRA_SC_SCpb Santa Cruz Santa Cruz|Ponta da Barca 39,089915, -27,995677 WGS84 Subtidal
34 GRA_SC_SCt Santa Cruz Santa Cruz|Terreiros 39,092024, -28,013401 WGS84 Intertidal
35 GRA_SC_SCpb Santa Cruz Santa Cruz|Ponta da Barca 39,089915, -27,995677 WGS84 Intertidal
36 GRA_SC_BV Santa Cruz Barro Vermelho 39,095344, -28,026032 WGS84 Intertidal
37 GRA_SC_Cp Santa Cruz Carapacho|Ponta 39,011703, -27,955194 WGS84 Intertidal
38 GRA_SC_PAp Santa Cruz Porto Afonso|porto 39,065946, -28,06759 WGS84 Intertidal
39 GRA_SC_SCap Santa Cruz Santa Cruz|Atrás do porto 39,09, -28,01 WGS84 Intertidal
40 GRA_SC_BB Santa Cruz Baixa do Badejo 39,021049, -27,94005 WGS84 Subtidal
41 GRA_SC_BPLpf Santa Cruz Baixa do Pesqueiro Longo|Picos de Fora 39,02105, -28,047544 WGS84 Subtidal
42 GRA_SC_BV Santa Cruz Barro Vermelho 39,02105, -28,0285 WGS84 Subtidal
43 GRA_SC_BVbpcn Santa Cruz Barro Vermelho|Baixa do Pintado|Costa Norte 39,02105, -28,03465 WGS84 Subtidal
44 GRA_SC_Cib Santa Cruz Carapacho|Ilhéu de Baixo 39,009987, -27,942812 WGS84 Subtidal
45 GRA_SC_Cpr Santa Cruz Carapacho|Ponta da Restinga 39,017723, -27,946526 WGS84 Subtidal
46 GRA_SC_IB Santa Cruz Ilhéu da Baleia 39,095601, -28,046544 WGS84 Subtidal
47 GRA_SC_IP Santa Cruz Ilhéu da Praia 39,055066, -27,957481 WGS84 Subtidal
48 GRA_SC_PB Santa Cruz Ponta Branca 39,020325, -28,031507 WGS84 Subtidal
49 GRA_SC_SCbf Santa Cruz Santa Cruz|Baixa do Ferreiro 39,092344, -27,988639 WGS84 Subtidal
50 GRA_SC_SCpb Santa Cruz Santa Cruz|Ponta da Barca 39,089915, -27,995677 WGS84 Subtidal
Figure 6.  

Sampling locations around Graciosa Island (by Nuno V. Álvaro).

Sampling description: 

Intertidal collections were made during low tide by walking over the shores. Subtidal collections were made by scuba diving around the area. Sampling involved specimen collecting and species-presence recording. For the former, at each location, samples were obtained by scraping (Fig. 7) one or two specimens of all different species found into labelled bags. Species-recording data were gathered by registering all species present in the sampled locations visited (Fig. 8). Complementary data, for example, shore level (high, mid, low), orientation and type of substrate (bedrock, boulders, cobbles, mixed), habitat (tide pool, open rock, gully, crevice, cave) were also recorded.

Figure 7.  

Collecting macroalgae at the rocky intertidal (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG) .

Figure 8.  

Quantitative recording of the presence and coverage of macroalgal species at the intertidal rocky habitat (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Quality control: 

Each sampled taxon was identified by trained taxonomists and involved morphological and anatomical observations of whole specimens by eye or of slide preparations under the microscope for the diagnostic features described in literature.

Step description: 

Specimens were brought back to the laboratory, sorted and studied following standard procedures used in macroalgae identification.

Species identification was based on morphological and anatomical characters and reproductive structures. For small and simple thalli, this required the observation of the entire thallus with the naked eye and/or using dissecting and compound microscopes. For larger and more complex algae, investigation of the thallus anatomy required histological preparations (longitudinal and transverse sections) for the observation of cells, reproductive structures and other diagnostic characters.

As the Azorean algal flora has representatives from several geographical regions, often causing difficulty in identification, floras and keys for the North Atlantic, Tropical Atlantic and Western Mediterranean were used (e.g. Schmidt 1931, Taylor 1967, Taylor 1978, Levring 1974, Dixon and Irvine 1977, Lawson and John 1982, Irvine 1983, Gayral and Cosson 1986, Fletcher 1987, Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón 1989, Burrows 1991, Boudouresque et al. 1992, Cabioc'h et al. 1992, Maggs and Hommersand 1993, Irvine and Chamberlain 1994, Brodie et al. 2007, Lloréns et al. 2012 and Rodríguez-Prieto et al. 2013).

For more critical and taxonomically-difficult taxa, specimens were taken to the Natural History Museum (London) for comparison with collections there.

A reference collection was made for all collected specimens by assigning them a herbarium code number and depositing them at the AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha and the Molecular Systematics Laboratory, University of Azores. Depending on the species and on planned further research, different types of collections were made, namely (i) liquid collections using 5% buffered formaldehyde seawater and then replacing it by the fixing agent Kew (Bridsen and Forman 1999); (ii) dried collections, either by pressing the algae (most species) as described by Gayral and Cosson (1986) or by letting them air-dry (calcareous species); and (iii) silica gel collections for molecular study.

Nomenclatural and taxonomic status used here follow Algaebase (Guiry and Guiry 2020). The database was organised on FileMaker Pro.

Geographic coverage

Description: 

Graciosa Island, Azores, Macaronesia, Portugal (approximately 39°0′38″N, 27°59′1″W).

Coordinates: 

39.002 and 39.104 Latitude; -28.076 and -27.927 Longitude.

Taxonomic coverage

Description: 

All macroalgae were identified to genus or species level. In total, 250 taxa were identified belonging to 31 orders and 66 families, distributed by the phyla Rhodophyta (17 orders and 41 families), Chlorophyta (4 orders and 9 families) and Ochrophyta (10 orders and 16 families).

Taxa included:
Rank Scientific Name Common Name
phylum Rhodophyta Red algae
phylum Chlorophyta Green algae
phylum Ochrophyta Brown algae

Temporal coverage

Living time period: 
2004 - 2017.
Notes: 

The sampling was performed on several occasions in the period between 2004 and 2017.

Collection data

Collection name: 
AZB | Marine macroalgae collection of Graciosa Island (Azores) – Expedition GRACIOSA/2004; AZB | Marine macroalgae collection of Graciosa Island (Azores) – Project PADEL; AZB | Marine macroalgae collection of Graciosa Island (Azores) – Occasional sampling; Marine macroalgae collection of Graciosa Island (Azores)-Project MACROBIOMOL; Marine macroalgae collection of Graciosa Island (Azores)-Campaign PIMA/BALA; Marine macroalgae occurrence in Graciosa Island (Azores) – Project PADEL
Collection identifier: 
5ee0202d-c659-436f-9b78-664df8e2791d; 915baa3f-e5b0-4673-ba80-00c05420e1ef; c1904e12-0389-4e52-b78d-8cd18942fd3d; dc0e952e-51be-4677-8789-a02e57869e7a; fc35e5ae-2143-4b62-87af-ede8db82fc2c; e29a0327-dcd3-4626-831a-4606c7862220
Parent collection identifier: 
AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores; AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores; AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores; MACROBIOMOL Macroalgae collection, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores; PIMA/BALA Macroalgae collection, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores; AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores.
Specimen preservation method: 
Air-dry, Dried and pressed; Liquid (Formalin; fixing agent Kew), Silica.
Curatorial unit: 
AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores.

Usage rights

Use license: 
Creative Commons Public Domain Waiver (CC-Zero)

Data resources

Data package title: 
Marine algal (seaweed) flora of Graciosa Island, Azores
Number of data sets: 
1
Data set name: 
Marine algal (seaweed) flora of Graciosa Island, Azores
Data format: 
Darwin Core Archive
Data format version: 
1.6
Description: 

This data paper presents both physical and occurrence data from macroalgal surveys undertaken on Graciosa Island between 2004 and 2017 (Neto et al. 2020c. The dataset submitted to GBIF is structured as a sample event dataset, with two tables: event (as core) and occurrences. The data in this sampling event resource have been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwCA), which is a standardised format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 50 records (eventID). The extension data table has 1692 occurrences. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated in the IPT link. This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for downloading in the downloads section.

Column label Column description
Table of Sampling Events Table with sampling events data (beginning of table)
eventID Identifier of the event, unique for the dataset
country Country of the sampling site
countryCode Code of the country where the event occurred
stateProvince Name of the region
island Name of the island
municipality Name of the municipality
locality Name of the locality
locationID Identifier of the location
decimalLatitude The geographic latitude of the sampling site
decimalLongitude The geographic longitude of the sampling site
geodeticDatum The spatial reference system upon which the geographic coordinates are based
coordinateUncertaintyInMetres The horizontal distance (in metres) from the given decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude describing the smallest circle containing the whole of the Location
eventDate Time interval when the event occurred
year The year of the event
samplingProtocol Sampling method used during an event
locationRemarks Zonation level
minimumDepthInMetres The minimum depth in metres where the specimen was found
maximumDepthInMetres The maximum depth in metres where the specimen was found
eventRemarks Notes about the event
Table of Species Occurrence Table with species occurrence data (beginning of new table)
occurrenceID Identifier of the record, coded as a global unique identifier
institutionID The identifier for the institution having custody of the object or information referred to in the record
institutionCode The acronym of the institution having custody of the object or information referred to in the record
collectionID An identifier of the collection to which the record belongs
collectionCode The name of the collection from which the record was derived
datasetName The name identifying the dataset from which the record was derived
eventID Identifier of the event, unique for the dataset
kingdom Kingdom name
phyllum Phylum name
class Class name
order Order name
family Family name
genus Genus name
specificEpithet The name of the first or species epithet of the scientificName
infraspecificEpithet The name of the lowest or terminal infraspecific epithet of the scientificName, excluding any rank designation
acceptedNameUsage The specimen accepted name, with authorship
previousIdentifications Previous name of the specimen, with authorship
scientificName The name without authorship applied on the first identification of the specimen
basisOfRecord The specific nature of the data record
habitat Description of the habitat where the specimen was found
recordedBy Person(s) responsible for sampling
catalogNumber Identifying code for a unique sample lot in a biological collection
identifiedBy Person(s) responsible for taxa identification
type The nature of the resource
preparations The preservation method used for the specimen
establishmentMeans The establishment status of the organism in the study region
occurrenceRemarks New record status assignment
licence Reference to the licence under which the record is published

Additional information

This paper accommodates the 1692 specimens of macroalgae recorded from Graciosa Island in 250 taxa with 195 confirmed species and 55 taxa identified only to genus level. The confirmed species (Tables 3, 4) comprise 126 Rhodophyta, 31 Chlorophyta and 38 Ochrophyta (Phaeophyceae). Of these, 79 species are newly recorded to the algal flora of the Island (47 Rhodophyta, 10 Chlorophyta and 22 Ochrophyta). Most species are native, including the Azorean endemic Predaea feldmannii subsp. azorica Gabriel and the Macaronesian endemics Botryocladia macaronesica Afonso-Carrillo, Sobrino, Tittley & Neto, Phyllophora gelidioides P.Crouan & H.Crouan ex Karsakoff, Laurencia viridis Gil-Rodríguez & Haroun and Codium elisabethiae O.C. Schmidt. Fourteen species are introductions to the algal flora and 20 have an uncertain status.

Table 3.

Macroalgae species from Graciosa Island, with information on their relative abundance, origin and status.

Phylum

Species (Accepted Name)

Number of records

Establishment Means

OccurrenceRemarks

Chlorophyta

Anadyomene saldanhae A.B.Joly & E.C.Oliveira

1

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Bryopsis cupressina J.V.Lamouroux

2

Native

Chlorophyta

Bryopsis hypnoides J.V.Lamouroux

9

Native

Chlorophyta

Bryopsis plumosa (Hudson) C.Agardh

9

Native

Chlorophyta

Chaetomorpha linum (O.F.Müller) Kützing

1

Native

Chlorophyta

Chaetomorpha mediterranea (Kützing) Kützing

1

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Chaetomorpha pachynema (Montagne) Kützing

27

Native

Chlorophyta

Cladophora albida (Nees) Kutzing

5

Native

Chlorophyta

Cladophora coelothrix Kützing

1

Native

Chlorophyta

Cladophora conferta P.Crouan & H.Crouan

4

Native

Chlorophyta

Cladophora laetevirens (Dillwyn) Kützing

1

Uncertain

Chlorophyta

Cladophora liebetruthii Grunow

8

Native

Chlorophyta

Cladophora prolifera (Roth) Kützing

15

Native

Chlorophyta

Codium adhaerens C. Agradh

24

Native

Chlorophyta

Codium decorticatum (Woodward) M.Howe

1

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Codium elisabethiae O.C.Schmidt

2

Macaronesian endemism

New record

Chlorophyta

Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot

1

Introduced

New record

Chlorophyta

Codium taylorii P.C. Silva

1

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Codium vermilara (Olivi) Delle Chiaje

11

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Derbesia tenuissima (Moris & De Notaris) P.Crouan & H.Crouan

5

Uncertain

Chlorophyta

Lychaete pellucida (Hudson) M.J.Wynne

5

Native

Chlorophyta

Microdictyon umbilicatum (Velley) Zanardini

11

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Phyllodictyon anastomosans (Harvey) Kraft & M.J.Wynne

5

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh

10

Native

Chlorophyta

Ulva compressa Linnaeus

19

Native

Chlorophyta

Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus

4

Native

Chlorophyta

Ulva linza Linnaeus

1

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Ulva prolifera O.F.Müller

1

Native

Chlorophyta

Ulva rigida C.Agardh

37

Native

Chlorophyta

Valonia macrophysa Kützing

3

Native

Chlorophyta

Valonia utricularis (Roth) C.Agardh

2

Native

Ochrophyta

Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis

2

Native

Ochrophyta

Bachelotia antillarum (Grunow) Gerloff

5

Native

Ochrophyta

Carpomitra costata (Stackhouse) Batters

6

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Cladostephus spongiosum (Hudson) C.Agardh

15

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) Derbès & Solier

39

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Cutleria multifida (Turner) Greville

1

Uncertain

Ochrophyta

Cystoseira compressa (Esper) Gerloff & Nizamuddin

12

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Cystoseira humilis Schousboe ex Kützing

8

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Dictyopteris polypodioides (A.P.de Candolle) J.V.Lamouroux

10

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Dictyota bartayresiana J.V.Lamouroux

1

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Dictyota dichotoma (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux

11

Native

Ochrophyta

Dictyota dichotoma var. intricata (C.Agardh) Greville

1

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Dictyota fasciola (Roth) J.V.Lamouroux

2

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillwyn) Lyngbye

1

Uncertain

New record

Ochrophyta

Feldmannia irregularis (Kützing) Hamel

4

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Feldmannia paradoxa (Montagne) Hamel

4

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Fucus spiralis Linnaeus

15

Uncertain

Ochrophyta

Halopteris filicina (Grateloup) Kützing

15

Native

Ochrophyta

Halopteris scoparia (Linnaeus) Sauvageau

24

Native

Ochrophyta

Hydroclathrus clathratus (C.Agardh) M.Howe in N.L.Britton & C.F.Millspaugh

2

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Hydroclathrus tilesii (Endlicher) Santiañez & Wynne

9

Introduced

New record

Ochrophyta

Laminaria ochroleuca Bachelot de la Pylaie

9

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Leathesia marina (Lyngbye) Decaisne

4

Uncertain

Ochrophyta

Lobophora variegata (J.V.Lamouroux) Womersley ex E.C.Oliveira

3

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Myrionema strangulans Greville

3

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Nemoderma tingitanum Schousboe ex Bornet

4

Native

Ochrophyta

Padina pavonica (Linnaeus) Thivy

14

Native

Ochrophyta

Papenfussiella kuromo (Yendo) Inagaki

16

Introduced

Ochrophyta

Petalonia binghamiae (J.Agardh) K.L.Vinogradova

14

Introduced

Ochrophyta

Ralfsia verrucosa (Areschoug) Areschoug

1

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Sargassum cymosum C.Agardh

5

Native

Ochrophyta

Sargassum desfontainesii (Turner) C.Agardh

1

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Sargassum furcatum Kützing

10

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Sphacelaria cirrosa (Roth) C.Agardh

5

Native

Ochrophyta

Sphaerotrichia divaricata (C.Agardh) Kylin

3

Uncertain

New record

Ochrophyta

Taonia atomaria (Woodward) J.Agardh

4

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Treptacantha abies-marina (S.G.Gmelin) Kützing

25

Native

Ochrophyta

Zonaria tournefortii (J.V.Lamouroux) Montagne

27

Native

Rhodophyta

Acrosorium ciliolatum (Harvey) Kylin

11

Native

Rhodophyta

Aglaothamnion bipinnatum (P.Crouan & H.Crouan) Feldmann & G.Feldmann

3

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Aglaothamnion cordatum (Børgesen) Feldmann-Mazoyer

5

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Aglaothamnion tenuissimum (Bonnemaison) Feldmann-Mazoyer

5

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Ahnfeltiopsis devoniensis (Greville) P.C.Silva & DeCew

6

Native

Rhodophyta

Amphiroa beauvoisii J.V.Lamouroux

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Amphiroa cryptarthrodia Zanardini

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Amphiroa fragilissima (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux

2

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Amphiroa rigida J.V.Lamouroux

3

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Anotrichium furcellatum (J.Agardh) Baldock

1

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Antithamnion diminuatum Wollaston

7

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Antithamnionella spirographidis (Schiffner) E.M.Wollaston

1

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Asparagopsis armata Harvey

14

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Asparagopsis armata Harvey, phase Falkenbergia rufolanosa (Harvey) F.Schmitz

2

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan

6

Native

Rhodophyta

Asteromenia peltata (W.R.Taylor) Huisman & A.J.K.Millar

5

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Bornetia secundiflora (J.Agardh) Thuret

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Botryocladia macaronesica Afonso-Carrillo, Sobrino, Tittley & Neto

1

Macaronesian endemism

New record

Rhodophyta

Callithamnion corymbosum (Smith) Lyngbye

13

Native

Rhodophyta

Callithamnion granulatum (Ducluzeau) C.Agardh

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Callithamnion tetragonum (Withering) S.F.Gray

4

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Callithamnion tetricum (Dillwyn) S.F.Gray

2

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Carradoriella denudata (Dillwyn) A.M.Savoie & G.W.Saunders

8

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Carradoriella elongata (Hudson) A.M.Savoie & G.W.Saunders

17

Native

Rhodophyta

Catenella caespitosa (Withering) L.M.Irvine

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Caulacanthus ustulatus (Mertens ex Turner) Kützing

7

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Centroceras clavulatum (C.Agardh) Montagne

16

Native

Rhodophyta

Ceramium botryocarpum A.W.Griffiths ex Harvey

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Ceramium ciliatum (J.Ellis) Ducluzeau

10

Native

Rhodophyta

Ceramium codii (H.Richards) Mazoyer

3

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Ceramium diaphanum (Lightfoot) Roth

12

Native

Rhodophyta

Ceramium virgatum Roth

31

Native

Rhodophyta

Champia parvula (C.Agardh) Harvey

2

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Chondracanthus acicularis (Roth) Fredericq

17

Native

Rhodophyta

Chondracanthus teedei (Mertens ex Roth) Kützing

10

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Chondria coerulescens (J.Agardh) Sauvageau

4

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Chondria dasyphylla (Woodward) C.Agardh

41

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Corallina ferreyrae E.Y.Dawson, Acleto & Foldvik

6

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Cryptonemia palmetta (S.G.Gmelin) Woelkering, G.Furnari, Cormaci & J.McNeill

2

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Cryptopleura ramosa (Hudson) L.Newton

11

Native

Rhodophyta

Dasya caraibica Børgesen

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Dasya corymbifera J.Agardh

4

Native

Rhodophyta

Dasya hutchinsiae Harvey

4

Native

Rhodophyta

Dermocorynus dichotomus (J.Agardh) Gargiulo, M.Morabito & Manghisi

21

Native

Rhodophyta

Ellisolandia elongata (J.Ellis & Solander) K.R.Hind & G.W.Saunders

23

Native

Rhodophyta

Erythrocystis montagnei (Derbès & Solier) P.C.Silva

7

Native

Rhodophyta

Gaillona hookeri (Dillwyn) Athanasiadis

3

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Gastroclonium reflexum (Chauvin) Kützing

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Gelidium arbuscula Bory ex Børgesen

4

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Gelidium corneum (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux

3

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Gelidium microdon Kützing

17

Native

Rhodophyta

Gelidium pusillum (Stackhouse) Le Jolis

12

Native

Rhodophyta

Gelidium spinosum (S.G.Gmelin) P.C.Silva

12

Native

Rhodophyta

Gigartina pistillata (S.G.Gmelin) Stackhouse

3

Native

Rhodophyta

Grateloupia filicina (J.V.Lamouroux) C.Agardh

10

Native

Rhodophyta

Griffithsia phyllamphora J.Agardh

7

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Gymnogongrus crenulatus (Turner) J.Agardh

8

Native

Rhodophyta

Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Martius

19

Native

Rhodophyta

Gymnothamnion elegans (Schousboe ex C.Agardh) J.Agardh

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Halarachnion ligulatum (Woodward) Kützing

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Halurus equisetifolius (Lightfoot) Kützing

3

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Halurus flosculosus (J.Ellis) Maggs & Hommersand

7

Native

Rhodophyta

Herposiphonia secunda (C.Agardh) Ambronn

7

Native

Rhodophyta

Heterosiphonia crispella (C.Agardh) M.J.Wynne

10

Native

Rhodophyta

Hildenbrandia crouaniorum J.Agardh

3

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Hypnea arbuscula P.J.L.Dangeard

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux

25

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Hypnea spinella (C.Agardh) Kützing

10

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Hypoglossum heterocystideum (J.Agardh) J.Agardh

4

Introduced

New record

Rhodophyta

Jania capillacea Harvey

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Jania longifurca Zanardini

11

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Jania pedunculata var. adhaerens (J.V.Lamouroux) A.S.Harvey, Woelkerling & Reviers

2

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Jania pumila J.V.Lamouroux

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux

5

Native

Rhodophyta

Jania virgata (Zanardini) Montagne

4

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Kallymenia reniformis (Turner) J.Agardh

2

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Laurencia dendroidea J.Agardh

4

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Laurencia minuta Vandermeulen, Garbary & Guiry

1

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Laurencia obtusa (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Laurencia pyramidalis Bory ex Kützing

12

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Laurencia tenera C.K.Tseng

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Laurencia viridis Gil-Rodríguez & Haroun

4

Macaronesian endemism

Rhodophyta

Leptosiphonia brodiei (Dillwyn) A.M.Savoie & G.W.Saunders

1

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Liagora distenta (Mertens ex Roth) J.V.Lamouroux

7

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Liagora viscida (Forsskål) C.Agardh

3

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Lithophyllum incrustans Philippi

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Lomentaria articulata (Hudson) Lyngbye

22

Native

Rhodophyta

Melanothamnus harveyi (Bailey) Díaz-Tapia & Maggs

4

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Meredithia microphylla (J.Agardh) J.Agardh

8

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Mesophyllum expansum (Philippi) Cabioch & M.L.Mendoza

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Mesophyllum lichenoides (J.Ellis) Me.Lemoine

3

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Nemalion elminthoides (Velley) Batters

19

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Nitophyllum punctatum (Stackhouse) Greville

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Osmundea hybrida (A.P.de Candolle) K.W.Nam

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Osmundea oederi (Gunnerus) G.Furnari

5

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Osmundea pinnatifida (Hudson) Stackhouse

10

Native

Rhodophyta

Osmundea truncata (Kützing) K.W.Nam & Maggs

23

Native

Rhodophyta

Palisada patentiramea (Montagne) Cassano, Sentíes, Gil-Rodríguez & M.T.Fujii

2

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Peyssonnelia squamaria (S.G.Gmelin) Decaisne ex J.Agardh

4

Native

Rhodophyta

Phyllophora crispa (Hudson) P.S.Dixon

5

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Phyllophora gelidioides P.Crouan & H.Crouan ex Karsakoff

1

Macaronesian endemism

Rhodophyta

Phymatolithon lenormandii (Areschoug) Adey

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Platoma cyclocolpum (Montagne) F.Schmitz

13

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Pleonosporium borreri (Smith) Nägeli

15

Native

Rhodophyta

Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus) P.S.Dixon

13

Native

Rhodophyta

Polysiphonia ceramiiformis P.Crouan & H.Crouan

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Polysiphonia stricta (Mertens ex Dillwyn) Greville

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Predaea feldmannii subsp. azorica Gabriel

7

Azorean endemism

Rhodophyta

Pterocladiella capillacea (S.G.Gmelin) Santelices & Hommersand

44

Native

Rhodophyta

Pterothamnion crispum (Ducluzeau) Nägeli

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Ptilothamnion pluma (Dillwyn) Thuret

2

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Rhodophyllis divaricata (Stackhouse) Papenfuss

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Rhodymenia holmesii Ardissone

7

Native

Rhodophyta

Rhodymenia pseudopalmata (J.V.Lamouroux) P.C.Silva

12

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Schizymenia apoda (J.Agardh) J.Agardh

3

Native

Rhodophyta

Scinaia interrupta (A.P.de Candolle) M.J.Wynne

30

Native

Rhodophyta

Sphaerococcus coronopifolius Stackhouse

7

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Spyridia filamentosa (Wulfen) Harvey

3

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Stypopodium zonale (J.V.Lamouroux) Papenfuss

2

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Symphyocladia marchantioides (Harvey) Falkenberg

5

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Vertebrata fruticulosa (Wulfen) Kuntze

12

Native

Rhodophyta

Vertebrata hypnoides (Welwitsch) Kuntze

4

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Vertebrata reptabunda (Suhr) Díaz-Tapia & Maggs

5

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Vertebrata tripinnata (Harvey) Kuntze

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Xiphosiphonia pennata (C.Agardh) Savoie & G.W.Saunders

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Xiphosiphonia pinnulata (Kützing) Savoie & G.W.Saunders

2

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Yuzurua poiteaui (J.V.Lamouroux) Martin-Lescanne

5

Native

New record

Table 4.

Main taxonomic figures with information on the species origin and status.

Phyllum Order Family Speci-mens Number Total taxa Total species Native Intro-duced Uncer-tain Macaro-nesian ende-mism Azorean ende-mism New record
Rhodophyta 17 41 1072 166 126 99 10 13 3 1 47
Chlorophyta 4 9 236 36 31 27 1 2 1 10
Ochrophyta 10 16 384 48 38 30 3 5 22
Total 31 66 1692 250 195 156 14 20 4 1 79

Many species were only sporadically recorded around the Island, but 12 were commonly found, namely: the Rhodophyta Ceramium virgatum Roth, Chondria dasyphylla (Woodward) C. Agardh, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J. V. Lamouroux, Pterocladiella capillacea (S. G. Gmelin) Santelices & Hommersand and Scinaia interrupta (A. P. de Candolle) M. J. Wynne; the Chlorophyta Chaetomorpha pachynema (Montagne) Kützing, Codium adhaerens C. Agradh and Ulva rigida C. Agardh; and the Ochrophyta Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) Derbès & Solier in Castagne, Halopteris scoparia (Linnaeus) Sauvageau, Treptacantha abies-marina (S. G. Gmelin) Kützing and Zonaria tournefortii (J. V. Lamouroux) Montagne.

A mismatch regarding the GBIF backbone taxonomy of some of the macroalgae species names was identified as detailed in Suppl. material 1.

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the projects “PADEL: Património natural e desenvolvimento sustentável do litoral dos Açores: a Ilha Graciosa como caso de estudo”, “MACROBIOMOL: Macroalgal biodiversity under molecular lens - towards a better understanding of North Atlantic biogeography”, “PIMA: Elaboração do programa de implementação da Diretiva-Quadro Estratégia Marinha - Programa invasoras marinhas nos Açores”, “BALA: Elaboração do programa de implementação da diretiva-quadro estratégia marinha - biodiversidade dos ambientes litorais dos Açores” and, most recently, by the project “ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072”, funded by the Operational Programme Azores 2020 (85% ERDF and 15% regional funds). We are grateful to the Municipality of Santa Cruz and the Ecoteca of Graciosa for their logistic support during the Campaign PADEL/2006 and PIMA-BALA/2017. Thanks are due to the campaigns teams for their critical involvement in this project (Amine Sebti, Ana F. Ferreira, André Amaral, Catarina Santos, Daniel Torrão, Daniela Gabriel, Edgar Rosas-Alquicira, Eunice Nogueira, Francisco Wallenstein, Gonçalo Graça, Inês Machado, João Brum, José M. N. Azevedo, Karla Leon Cisneros, Marlene Terra, Nil Alvaréz-Segura, Pedro Monteiro, Pedro Raposeiro, Patrícia Madeira, Raquel Torres, Ruben Couto, Rui Sousa, Sara Peres and Sandra Medeiros). The occasional collections made by Ruben Couto are appreciated. Afonso Prestes was supported by a PhD grant (M3.1.a/F/083/2015) awarded by Fundo Regional da Ciência e Tecnologia (FRCT).

Author contributions

  • AIN: Conceptualisation; Methodology; Investigation (field and laboratory work); Resources; Data Curation; Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing
  • MIP: Investigation (field and laboratory work); Data Curation; Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing
  • AZB: Investigation (field and laboratory work); Data Curation
  • ACLP: Investigation (laboratory work); Resources; Paper writing
  • RR: Resources; Data Curation
  • PA: Resources
  • NVA: Investigation (field and laboratory work); Maps elaboration; Paper writing
  • DM-F: Investigation (field and laboratory work); Data Curation
  • RMAN: Data Curation; Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing
  • IT: Methodology; Investigation (field work and laboratory work); Data Curation; Paper writing
  • IM: Data Curation; Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing

References

Supplementary material

Suppl. material 1: DP-GRA-id_14140_normalized.csv 
Authors:  Ana I Neto
Data type:  Macroalgae taxonomic mismatching
Brief description: 

GBIF does not have the more actualised nomenclature for some of the macroalgae species names. Therefore, the matching tools of its platform were applied to the species list, as required by Pensoft's data auditor, to identify the problematic taxonomic situations. The resulting file (DP-GRA-id_14140_normalized.csv) is included here, since the names will not be immediately updated in the GBIF Taxonomic Backbone. A request was already sent to GBIF helpdesk to solve this situation.