Biodiversity Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
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Data Paper (Biosciences)
Marine algal flora of Pico Island, Azores
expand article infoAna I. Azevedo Neto, Afonso C. L. Prestes, Nuno V. Álvaro§, Roberto Resendes|, Raul M. A. Neto, Ian Tittley#, Ignacio Moreu
‡ cE3c - Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes/Azorean Biodiversity Group & Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade dos Açores, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, São Miguel, Açores, Portugal
§ Universidade dos Açores, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias, CCMMG (Centro do Clima Meteorologia e Mudanças Globais), IITA-A (Instituto de Investigação e Tecnologias Agrárias e do Ambiente), Angra do Heroísmo, Terceira, Portugal
| Universidade dos Açores, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Departamento de Biologia, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, São Miguel, Açores, Portugal
¶ N/A, Odivelas, Portugal
# Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, United Kingdom
Open Access

Abstract

Background

The seaweed flora of Pico Island (central group of the Azores archipelago) has attracted interest of researchers on past occasions. Despite this, the macroalgal flora of the island cannot be considered well-known as published information reflects only occasional collections. To overcome this, a thorough investigation encompassing collections and presence data recording was undertaken. Research under the Campaigns “AÇORES/89”, “PICO/91”, “PICOBEL/2007” and “LAUMACAT/2011” covered a relatively large area (approximately 39 km2) around the island, encompassing the littoral and sublittoral levels down to about 40 m around the Island.

This paper improves the knowledge of the Azorean macroalgal flora at local and regional scales by listing taxonomic records and providing information on the ecology and occurrence of each species present on the Island’s littoral.

New information

A total of 4043 specimens (including taxa identified only to genus level) belonging to 303 taxa of macroalgae are registered, comprising 197 Rhodophyta, 53 Chlorophyta and 53 Ochrophyta (Phaeophyceae). From these, 225 were identified to species level (142 Rhodophyta, 41 Chlorophyta and 42 Ochrophyta), encompassing 110 new records for the island (69 Rhodophyta, 20 Chlorophyta and 21 Ochrophyta), three Macaronesian endemisms (Botryocladia macaronesica Afonso-Carillo, Sobrino, Tittley & Neto; Laurencia viridis Gil-Rodríguez & Haroun; Codium elisabethiae O. C. Schmidt), 14 introduced and 25 species with an uncertain status.

Keywords

Macroalgae, Azores, Pico Island, new records, endemism, native, introduced, uncertain, occurrence data.

Introduction

The Azorean algal flora, considered cosmopolitan with species shared with Macaronesia, North Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Europe and America (Tittley 2003, Tittley and Neto 2006Wallenstein et al. 2009), has been considered relatively rich when compared to that of other remote oceanic islands (Neto et al. 2005, Tittley and Neto 2005, Wallenstein et al. 2009). Even so, it is worth mentioning that the published information (approximately 400 species, Freitas et al. 2019) reflects data from only a few of the nine islands, since not all of them have been thoroughly investigated. To overcome this and improve the understanding of the archipelago’s seaweed flora, an effort has been made by local investigators over the past three decades and research on the marine macroalgae flora has been conducted on several of the less-studied Azorean islands. This paper comprises both physical and occurrence data and compiles the gathered information from macroalgae surveys developed in Pico Island mainly by the Island Aquatic Research Group of the University of the Azores (https://ce3c.ciencias.ulisboa.pt/sub-team/island-aquatic-ecology). It aims to constitute a practical resource for biological studies, such as systematics, diversity and conservation, biological monitoring, climate change and ecology and also for academics, students, government, private organisations and the general public.

General description

Purpose: 

By listing taxonomic records for Pico and presenting general information for each taxon occurrence on the Island’s littoral, this paper addresses several biodiversity shortfalls (see Cardoso et al. 2011, Hortal et al. 2015), namely the need to catalogue the Azorean macroalgae (Linnean shortfall) and improve the current information on their local and regional geographic distribution (Wallacean shortfall), as well as on species abundances and dynamics in space (Prestonian shortfall).

Project description

Title: 

Marine algal (seaweed) flora of Pico Island, Azores

Personnel: 

Collections were conducted and occurrence data recorded during several years (1989-2018) under the coordination of Ana I. Neto. Main collectors were Abel Sentiés, Ana Costa, Ana I Neto, André Amaral, António Brigos, Catarina Santos, Daniel Torrão, David Villegas, Edgar Rosas-Alquicira, Edward Hehre, Emanuel Xavier, Eunice Nogueira, Francisco Wallenstein, Gustavo Martins, Heather Baldwin, Inês Neto, José M. N. Azevedo, Ian Tittley, Karla Leon Cisneros, Leila Bagaço, Maria Machín-Sánchez, Marlene Terra, Mutue Toyota Fujii, Nuno Álvaro, Patrícia Madeira, Raul Coma, Raul Neto, Richard Fralick, Rita Patarra, Ruben Afonso, Ruben Couto, Sílvia Escarduça and Valeria Cassano.

Several taxonomists contributed for the species identification: Abel Sentiés, Ana I. Neto, Edgar Rosas-Alquicira, Edward Hehre, Francisco Wallenstein, Heather Baldwin, Karla Leon Cisneros, Ian Tittley, Maria Machín-Sánchez, Marlene Terra, Mutue Toyota Fujii, Richard Fralick, Ruben Couto and Valeria Cassano.

Voucher specimen management was mainly undertaken by Afonso Prestes, Ana I. Neto, Eunice Nogueira, Natália Cabral and Roberto Resendes.

Study area description: 

Located in the North Atlantic, roughly at 38°43′49″N, 27°19′10″W, the Azores comprise nine islands and several islets spread over 500 km, in a WNW direction (Fig. 1). The climate is temperate oceanic, with regular and abundant rainfall, high levels of relative humidity and persistent winds, mainly during the winter and autumn seasons (Morton et al. 1998). The islands lack a continental shelf, thus presenting a restricted coastal extension and deep waters occur within a few kilometres offshore. Shore geomorphology varies considerably with high cliffs in some places and rocky cobble/boulder beaches elsewhere (Borges 2004), the tidal range is small (< 2 m, see Hidrográfico 1981) and coasts are subjected to swell and surge most of the year.

Figure 1.  

The Azores, its location in the Atlantic and Pico Island highlighted in black (by Nuno V. Álvaro).

Pico (in black in Fig. 1), of approximately 447 km2 and dominated by its 2351 m tall mountain, is the second largest and the youngest island of the Azores archipelago, composed of basaltic volcanic deposits less than 300,000 years old (Cruz and Oliveira 2001). The Island's coastline is approximately 126 km long, generally devoid of high cliffs and consists mainly of irregular extensions of bedrock, presenting a variety of stack, arch and gully formations due to its recent volcanic origin. Intertidal platforms, occasionally dissected by channels and gullies, are mostly easily accessible by land and exhibit considerable variation in width (Wallenstein et al. 2009). Important features and habitats at this shore level are rock pools. These differ in shape and size and are a stressful environment due to the changes in salinity caused by either evaporation or dilution during low tides. They often recreate a shallow subtidal habitat and contain a rich diversity of marine life. A few shores consist of irregularly rounded boulders or cobles between which coarse sand or gravel may be retained. Sandy shores are rare (Neto pers. observ.).

The rocky-shore communities of Pico, like all over in the Azores, are dominated by macroalgae at both intertidal and shallow subtidal levels (Neto et al. 2005). At intertidal levels, a distinct zonation pattern is evident with a higher zone dominated by invertebrates (littorinids and chthamalid barnacles, in which patches or fringes of the algae Fucus spiralis Linnaeus and Gelidium microdon Kützing can occur (Fig. 2). This is followed by a mid-shore zone covered by algal turfs (growth forms of either diminutive algae or diminutive forms of larger species that create a dense, compact mat 20-30 mm thick, Fig. 3). Depending on the shore, turf can be monospecific (of either Caulacanthus ustulatus (Mertens ex Turner) Kützing, Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh) Montagne or Gymnogongrus) or multispecific and composed of soft algae (e.g. Centroceras clavulatum, Chondracanthus and Laurencia) usually growing as epiphytes over articulate calcareous forms (e.g. Ellisolandia and Jania). The lower zone is mainly dominated by calcareous crusts (first strata), covered by corticated macrophytes (e.g. Ellisolandia elongata (Fig. 4), Pterocladiella capillacea, Treptacantha abies-marina (S.G.Gmelin) Kützing). Mainly during spring and summer, considerable amounts of the introduced Asparagopsis armata Harvey can be seen at this level. Subtidally, algal communities are mainly characterised associations of two or three frondose macrophytes, for example, Dictyota, Halopteris and Zonaria tournefortii (J.V.Lamouroux) Montagne (Fig. 5).

Figure 2.  

Littorinids, chthamalid barnacles and the algae Fucus spiralis and Gelidium microdon at the high intertidal (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 3.  

Mid-shore intertidal levels covered by algal turfs (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 4.  

Ellisolandia elongata at lower intertidal levels (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 5.  

Frondose macrophytes (Halopteris spp., Zonaria tournefortii and Dictyota spp.) at the subtidal level (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Design description: 

The algae referred to in this paper were collected during field studies at littoral and sublittoral levels down to approximately 40 m around Pico Island. Each sampling location was visited several times and, on each occasion, a careful survey was made covering much of the area. Presence/absence data were recorded for all known species and whenever an unknown or potential new species was found, it was collected, assigned an individual registration number and vouchers were deposited at the AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, based at the Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores.

Funding: 

This study was mainly financed by the following projects/scientific expeditions:

  • Campaign AÇORES/89, under the Expedition Azores/89, Departamento de Oceanografia e Pescas da Universidade dos Açores, July 1989;
  • Expedition PICO/91, Ilha do Pico, Açores, Departamento de Biologia da Universidade dos Açores Ilha do Pico, Açores, June 1991;
  • Campaign PICOBEL/2007, under the project “PICOBEL: Coastal benthic communities of Pico Island: characterization and monitoring”. 2007- 2008. The Azores Regional Government;
  • Campaign LAUMACAT/2011 under the project “LAUMACAT: Diversity and phylogenetic relationships on the benthic marine algae with pharmacological potencial: the Laurencia complex (Rhodophyta) in Macaronesian archipelagos, tropical and subtropical Atlantic”. Phase II. 2011 - 2014. General Direction for Research and Management: Research Projects. Spanish Government;
  • Project “ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072 - AZORES BIOPORTAL – PORBIOTA. Operational Programme Azores 2020 (85% ERDF and 15% regional funds);
  • Portuguese National Funds, through FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, within the projects UID/BIA/00329/2013, 2015 - 2018 and UID/BIA/00329/2019 and UID/BIA/00329/2020-2023;
  • Portuguese Regional Funds, through DRCT – Direção Regional da Ciência e Tecnologia, within several projects, since 2013;
  • CIRN/DB/UAc (Research Centre for Natural Resources, Universidade dos Açores, Departamento de Biologia);
  • CIIMAR (Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Porto, Portugal).

Sampling methods

Study extent: 

This study covers a relatively large area, approximately 39 km2, encompassing littoral and sublittoral levels down to approximately 40 m around the island (Table 1, Fig. 6).

Table 1.

Pico Island sampling sites information.

Location N0 Location ID Municipality Locality Latitude / Longitude Littoral zone
1 PIX_LP_LPlac Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Lagoa de Cima 38.398018, -28.254506 Subtidal
2 PIX_LP_LPMbsp Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Maré|Baía de S. Pedro 38.391826, -28.251878 Intertidal
3 PIX_LP_LPMbsp Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Maré|Baía de S. Pedro 38.391602, -28.251087 Subtidal
4 PIX_LP_LPMpb Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Maré|Ponta da Barra 38.389773, -28.25225 Intertidal
5 PIX_SR_CPpi São Roque Cais do Pico|Piscina 38.523888, -28.31165 Intertidal
6 PIX_LP_LPLa Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Lagido 38.39961, -28.255085 Intertidal
7 PIX_LP_LPLa Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Lagido 38.399708, -28.255538 Subtidal
8 PIX_LP_LPMbsp Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Maré|Baía de S. Pedro 38.391602, -28.251087 Subtidal
9 PIX_LP_LPMpb Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Maré|Ponta da Barra 38.390439, -28.251473 Intertidal
10 PIX_LP_LPMpp Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Maré|Poça do Pano 38.390439, -28.251473 Intertidal
11 PIX_LP_LPMpp Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Maré|Poça do Pano 38.390439, -28.251473 Subtidal
12 PIX_LP_CNpo Lajes do Pico Calheta do Nesquim|Porto 38.402234, -28.078158 Subtidal
13 PIX_LP_SCp Lajes do Pico Santa Cruz|Porto 38.405086, -28.185822 Subtidal
14 PIX_MA_SMp Madalena São Mateus|Porto 38.43023, -28.463406 Subtidal
15 PIX_LP_CNpo Lajes do Pico Calheta do Nesquim|Porto 38.40219, -28.079374 Intertidal
16 PIX_LP_CNpo Lajes do Pico Calheta do Nesquim|Porto 38.402234, -28.078158 Subtidal
17 PIX_LP_Fc Lajes do Pico Feteira|Calheta 38.402428, -28.067472 Subtidal
18 PIX_LP_LPc1 Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Controlo 1 38.395374, -28.256297 Intertidal
19 PIX_LP_LPc2 Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Controlo 2 38.392892, -28.255585 Intertidal
20 PIX_LP_LPc3 Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Controlo 3 38.390764, -28.255038 Intertidal
21 PIX_LP_LPc4 Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Controlo 4 38.392892, -28.255585 Intertidal
22 PIX_LP_LPc5 Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Controlo 5 38.392892, -28.255585 Intertidal
23 PIX_LP_LPc6 Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Controlo 6 38.392892, -28.255585 Intertidal
24 PIX_LP_LPfb Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Fabrica baleia 38.398098, -28.255913 Intertidal
25 PIX_LP_LPLa Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Lagido 38.39961, -28.255085 Intertidal
26 PIX_LP_LPMpb Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Maré|Ponta da Barra 38.38958, -28.252883 Subtidal
27 PIX_LP_LPMpp Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Maré|Poça do Pano 38.390439, -28.251473 Intertidal
28 PIX_LP_LPpc Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Ponta do Castelete 38.386303, -28.253616 Subtidal
29 PIX_LP_Pm Lajes do Pico Piedade|Manhenha 38.410566, -28.036926 Intertidal
30 PIX_LP_Pm Lajes do Pico Piedade|Manhenha 38.41154, -28.028848 Subtidal
31 PIX_LP_PN Lajes do Pico Pontas Negras 38.408753, -28.164838 Intertidal
32 PIX_LP_PN Lajes do Pico Pontas Negras 38.406176, -28.158753 Subtidal
33 PIX_LP_Ppc Lajes do Pico Piedade|Porto do Calhau 38.439663, -28.055835 Intertidal
34 PIX_LP_SB Lajes do Pico Santa Bárbara 38.394346, -28.198255 Subtidal
35 PIX_LP_Sbpa Lajes do Pico Santa Bárbara|Ponta do Arrife 38.388247, -28.218223 Subtidal
36 PIX_LP_SCpi Lajes do Pico Santa Cruz|Piscinas 38.404764, -28.187053 Intertidal
37 PIX_LP_Sf Lajes do Pico Silveira|Fonte 38.412468, -28.284707 Subtidal
38 PIX_LP_Sf Lajes do Pico Silveira|Fonte 38.412468, -28.284707 Subtidal
39 PIX_LP_SJp Lajes do Pico São João|Porto 38.413619, -28.335026 Intertidal
40 PIX_LP_SJp Lajes do Pico São João|Porto 38.41324, -28.334801 Subtidal
41 PIX_MA_CA Madalena Cabrito 38.55817, -28.390065 Subtidal
42 PIX_MA_CAC Madalena Cachorro 38.556193, -28.44759 Subtidal
43 PIX_MA_GU Madalena Guindaste 38.445879, -28.502033 Intertidal
44 PIX_MA_MAc Madalena Madalena|Canal 38.535844, -28.549904 Subtidal
45 PIX_MA_MAcm Madalena Madalena|Cais do Mourato 38.558712, -28.481251 Intertidal
46 PIX_MA_MAi Madalena Madalena|Ilhéus 38.535854, -28.545742 Subtidal
47 PIX_MA_MAp Madalena Madalena|Porto 38.534214, -28.530273 Intertidal
48 PIX_MA_MApi Madalena Madalena|Piscina 38.533837, -28.534756 Intertidal
49 PIX_MA_mi Madalena Mirateca 38.448621, -28.511449 Subtidal
50 PIX_MA_MOpc Madalena Monte|Porto do Calhau 38.486345, -28.538979 Intertidal
51 PIX_MA_MOpo Madalena Monte|Pocinho 38.494812, -28.540192 Intertidal
52 PIX_MA_SCp Madalena São Caetano|Porto 38.425816, -28.421585 Intertidal
53 PIX_MA_SCp Madalena São Caetano|Porto 38.425656, -28.421382 Subtidal
54 PIX_MA_SMp Madalena São Mateus|Porto 38.430824, -28.462433 Intertidal
55 PIX_SR_CPpi São Roque Cais do Pico|Piscina 38.523888, -28.31165 Intertidal
56 PIX_SR_CPpi São Roque Cais do Pico|Piscina 38.52502, -28.312802 Subtidal
57 PIX_SR_PrN São Roque Prainha do Norte 38.477785, -28.204158 Intertidal
58 PIX_SR_PrNbc São Roque Prainha do Norte|Baia de Canas 38.462872, -28.184805 Intertidal
59 PIX_SR_PrNca São Roque Prainha do Norte|Canto da Areia 38.462994, -28.19003 Subtidal
60 PIX_SR_SAbc São Roque Santo Amaro|Baía do Canto 38.456384, -28.165936 Intertidal
61 PIX_SR_SAc São Roque Santo Amaro|Caisinho 38.456591, -28.16742 Intertidal
62 PIX_SR_SAnt São Roque Santo António 38.535259, -28.335402 Intertidal
63 PIX_SR_SAnt São Roque Santo António 38.537581, -28.334334 Subtidal
64 PIX_SR_SApm São Roque Santo Amaro|Ponta do Mistério 38.45332, -28.120977 Subtidal
65 PIX_SR_SMA São Roque São Miguel Arcanjo 38.509128, -28.288709 Subtidal
66 PIX_LP_LPMppb Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Maré|Ponta da poça da baleia 38.389725, -28.252395 Intertidal
67 PIX_LP_LPp Lajes do Pico Lajes do Pico|Portinho 38.400994, -28.25526 Intertidal
68 PIX_LP_Pm Lajes do Pico Piedade|Manhenha 38.410566, -28.036926 Intertidal
69 PIX_LP_SCpi Lajes do Pico Santa Cruz|Piscinas 38.404764, -28.187053 Intertidal
70 PIX_MA_MAb Madalena Madalena|Barca 38.540254, -28.521195 Intertidal
71 PIX_MA_MOpo Madalena Monte|Pocinho 38.494812, -28.540192 Intertidal
72 PIX_SR_CPpov São Roque Cais do Pico|Porto Velho 38.527148, -28.319716 Intertidal
73 PIX_SR_PrN São Roque Prainha do Norte 38.477785, -28.204158 Intertidal
74 PIX_MA_MAb Madalena Madalena|Barca 38.540254, -28.521195 Intertidal
Figure 6.  

Sampling locations around Pico Island (by Nuno V. Álvaro).

Sampling description: 

Intertidal collections were made at low tide by walking over the shores. Subtidal collections were made by scuba diving around the area. Sampling encompassed both physical collections and species presence recordings. For the former, in each sampling location, collections were made manually by scraping one or two specimens of species found into previously labelled bags (Fig. 7). Species recording data were gathered by registering all species present in the sampled locations visited (Fig. 8). Complementary data, for example, shore level (high, mid, low), orientation and type of substrate (bedrock, boulders, cobbles, mixed), habitat (tide pool, open rock, gully, crevice, cave) were also recorded.

Figure 7.  

Collecting macroalgae at the rocky intertidal (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 8.  

Subtidal species recording data (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Quality control: 

Each sampled taxon was investigated by trained taxonomists with the help of keys and floras. This involved morphological and anatomical examination by eye or under dissecting and compound microscopes of an entire specimen or slide preparation. In difficult cases, specimens were sent to experts for identification.

Step description: 

In the laboratory, the specimens were sorted and studied following standard procedures used in macroalgae identification.

Species identification was based on morphological and anatomical characters and reproductive structures. For small and simple thalli, this required the observation of the entire thallus by eye and/or under dissecting or compound microscopes. For larger and more complex algae, the investigation of the thallus anatomy required histological work to obtain longitudinal and transverse sections needed for the observation of cells, reproductive structures and other diagnosing characters.

The Azorean algal flora has components from several geographical regions which makes for difficulties in identification. Floras and identification keys to macroalgae in the Atlantic and Western Mediterranean were used in species identification (e.g. Schmidt 1931, Taylor 1967, Taylor 1978, Levring 1974, Dixon and Irvine 1977, Lawson and John 1982, Irvine 1983, Irvine and Chamberlain 1994, Gayral and Cosson 1986, Fletcher 1987, Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón 1989, Burrows 1991, Boudouresque et al. 1992, Cabioc'h et al. 1992, Maggs and Hommersand 1993, Irvine and Chamberlain 1994, Irvine and Chamberlain 1994, Brodie et al. 2007, Lloréns et al. 2012, Rodríguez-Prieto et al. 2013).

For more critical and taxonomically-difficult taxa, specimens were taken to the Natural History Museum (London) for comparison with collections there or sent to appropriate specialists.

A reference collection was made for all collected specimens by assigning them a herbarium code number and depositing them at the AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, University of Azores. Depending on the species and on planned further research, different types of collections were made, namely (i) liquid collections using 5% buffered formaldehyde seawater and then replacing it by the fixing agent Kew (Bridsen and Forman 1999); (ii) dried collections, either by pressing the algae (most species) as described by Gayral and Cosson 1986) or by letting them air dry (calcareous species); (iii) silica collections for molecular studies.

Nomenclatural and taxonomic status used here follow Algaebase (Guiry and Guiry 2020). The database was organised on FileMaker Pro.

Geographic coverage

Description: 

Pico Island, Azores, Macaronesia, Portugal (approximately 38°34'02″N, 28°33′17″W).

Coordinates: 

38.376 and 38.567 Latitude; -28.555 and -28.021 Longitude.

Taxonomic coverage

Description: 

All macroalgae were identified to genus or species. In total, 303 taxa were identified belonging to 30 orders and 67 families, distributed by the phyla Rhodophyta (15 orders and 39 families), Chlorophyta (3 orders and 10 families) and Ochrophyta (12 orders and 18 families).

Taxa included:
Rank Scientific Name Common Name
phylum Rhodophyta Red algae
phylum Chlorophyta Green algae
phylum Ochrophyta Brown algae

Temporal coverage

Data range: 
1989-5-01 - 2018-9-30.
Notes: 

The sampling was performed on several occasions in the period between 1989 and 2018.

Collection data

Collection name: 
AZB | Marine macroalgae collection of Pico Island (Azores) – Expedition AZORES/89; AZB | Marine macroalgae collection of Pico Island (Azores) – Expedition PICO/91; AZB | Marine macroalgae collection of Pico Island (Azores) – Project PICOBEL; AZB | Marine macroalgae collection of Pico Island (Azores) – Project LAUMACAT; AZB | Marine macroalgae collection of Pico Island (Azores) – Occasional sampling; Marine macroalgae occurrence in Pico Island (Azores) – Expedition AZORES/89; Marine macroalgae occurrence in Pico Island (Azores) – Project PICOBEL; Marine macroalgae occurrence in Pico Island (Azores) – Project LAUMACAT.
Collection identifier: 
4ea1e09c-13c8-4b8e-a28a-72c55bde8f66; 0f2368fa-0a53-43c5-9f19-b126260e4e83; 6163248c-236b-4778-99cf-39dbf28a9784; b4ed4e44-3e8f-42d4-a44b-d78585a8f8f0; acc4fc70-0cb6-496e-982c-9207d09b856a; 468e613d-1ce9-4a32-a5f9-c5a8b58545c1; a8405f3e-fdc6-452d-9dc9-ca1fd3abdf2c; 84ff06f5-8c7c-4c3c-9296-38ad24b347bd.
Parent collection identifier: 
AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores.
Specimen preservation method: 
Air dry, Dried and pressed; Liquid (Formalin; fixing agent Kew), Silica.
Curatorial unit: 
AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores.

Usage rights

Use license: 
Open Data Commons Attribution License
IP rights notes: 

Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License

Data resources

Data package title: 
Marine algal flora of Pico Island, Azores
Resource link: 
http://ipt.gbif.pt/ipt/resource?r=pico_seaweed_flora&v=1.11
Number of data sets: 
1
Data set name: 
Marine algal (seaweed) flora of Pico Island, Azores
Data format: 
Darwin Core Archive
Data format version: 
v1.11
Description: 

This data paper presents physical and occurrence data from macroalgal surveys undertaken on Pico Island between 1989 and 2018. The dataset submitted to GBIF is structured as a sample event dataset, with two tables: event (as core) and occurrences (Neto et al. 2020). The data in this sampling event resource have been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwCA), which is a standardised format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 74 records (eventID). The extension data table has 4043 occurrences. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is given in the IPT link. This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for downloading in the downloads section.

Column label Column description
Table of Sampling Events Table with sampling events data (beginning of table)
eventID Identifier of the event, unique for the dataset
country Country of the sampling site
countryCode Code of the country where the event occurred
stateProvince Name of the region
island Name of the island
municipality Name of the municipality
locality Name of the locality
locationID Identifier of the location
decimalLatitude The geographic latitude of the sampling site
decimalLongitude The geographic longitude of the sampling site
geodeticDatum The spatial reference system upon which the geographic coordinates are based
coordinateUncertaintyInMetres The horizontal distance (in metres) from the given decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude describing the smallest circle containing the whole of the Location
eventDate Time interval when the event occurred
year The year of the event
samplingProtocol Sampling method used during an event
locationRemarks Zonation level
minimumDepthInMetres The minimum depth in metres where the specimen was found
maximumDepthInMetres The maximum depth in metres where the specimen was found
eventRemarks Notes about the event
Table of Species Occurrence Table with species occurrence data (beginning of new table)
occurrenceID Identifier of the record, coded as a global unique identifier
institutionID The identifier for the institution having custody of the object or information referred to in the record
institutionCode The acronym of the institution having custody of the object or information referred to in the record
collectionID An identifier of the collection to which the record belongs
collectionCode The name of the collection from which the record was derived
datasetName The name identifying the dataset from which the record was derived
eventID Identifier of the event, unique for the dataset
kingdom Kingdom name
phylum Phylum name
class Class name
order Order name
family Family name
genus Genus name
specificEpithet The name of the first or species epithet of the scientificName
infraspecificEpithet The name of the lowest or terminal infraspecific epithet of the scientificName, excluding any rank designation
acceptedNameUsage The specimen accepted name, with authorship
previousIdentifications Previous name of the specimen, with authorship
scientificName The name without authorship applied on the first identification of the specimen
basisOfRecord The specific nature of the data record
habitat Description of the habitat where the specimen was found
organismQuantityType The type of quantification system used to quantity the organisms
organismQuantity Percentage of the organism coverage
recordedBy Person(s) responsible for sampling
catalogNumber Identifying code for a unique sample lot in a biological collection
identifiedBy Person(s) responsible for taxa identification
type The nature of the resource
preparations The preservation method used for the specimen
establishmentMeans The establishment status of the organism in the study region
occurrenceRemarks New record status assignment
licence Reference to the licence under which the record is published

Additional information

This paper accommodates the 4043 specimens of macroalgae recorded from Pico Island in 303 taxa comprising 225 confirmed species and 78 taxa identified only to genus level. The confirmed species (Tables 2, 3) include 142 Rhodophyta, 41 Chlorophyta and 42 Ochrophyta (Phaeophyceae). From these, 110 species are newly-recorded to the island (69 Rhodophyta, 20 Chlorophyta and 21 Ochrophyta), as, for example, Laurencia pyramidalis Bory ex Kützing (Fig. 9). Most species are native, including the three Macaronesian endemisms Botryocladia macaronesica Afonso-Carillo, Sobrino, Tittley & Neto, Laurencia viridis Gil-Rodríguez & Haroun and Codium elisabethiae O. C. Schmidt. Fourteen species represent introductions to the algal flora and 25 have an uncertain status.

Table 2.

Macroalgae species from Pico Island, with information on number of records, biogeographic origin and occurrence remarks (A: abundant; C: common; R: rare).

Phylum

Species (Accepted Name)

Number of records

Establishment Means

Occurrence Remarks

Rhodophyta

Acrosorium ciliolatum (Harvey) Kylin

34

Native

New record

C

Rhodophyta

Aglaothamnion cordatum (Børgesen) Feldmann-Mazoyer

1

Introduced

R

Rhodophyta

Aglaothamnion tenuissimum (Bonnemaison) Feldmann-Mazoyer

2

Uncertain

R

Rhodophyta

Ahnfeltiopsis devoniensis (Greville) P.C.Silva & DeCew

5

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Amphiroa beauvoisii J.V.Lamouroux

11

Native

C

Rhodophyta

Amphiroa fragilissima (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux

2

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Amphiroa rigida J.V.Lamouroux

4

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Anotrichium barbatum (C.Agardh) Nägeli

1

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Anotrichium furcellatum (J.Agardh) Baldock

1

Uncertain

R

Rhodophyta

Antithamnion decipiens (J.Agardh) Athanasiadis

4

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Antithamnion diminuatum Wollaston

2

Introduced

R

Rhodophyta

Antithamnionella boergesenii (Cormaci & G.Furnari) Athanasiadis

2

Uncertain

R

Rhodophyta

Aphanocladia stichidiosa (Funk) Ardré

4

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Asparagopsis armata Harvey, phase Falkenbergia rufolanosa (Harvey) F.Schmitz

42

Introduced

New record

A

Rhodophyta

Asparagopsis armata Harvey

142

Introduced

C

Rhodophyta

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan

35

Native

C

Rhodophyta

Asteromenia peltata (W.R.Taylor) Huisman & A.J.K.Millar

16

Native

New record

C

Rhodophyta

Bornetia secundiflora (J.Agardh) Thuret

3

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Botryocladia botryoides (Wulfen) Feldmann

3

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Botryocladia macaronesica Afonso-Carillo, Sobrino, Tittley & Neto

1

Macaronesian endemism

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Callithamnion corymbosum (Smith) Lyngbye

5

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Callithamnion granulatum (Ducluzeau) C.Agardh

1

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Callithamnion tetragonum (Withering) S.F.Gray

4

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Carradoriella denudata (Dillwyn) A.M.Savoie & G.W.Saunders

20

Uncertain

C

Rhodophyta

Carradoriella elongata (Hudson) A.M.Savoie & G.W.Saunders

9

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Catenella caespitosa (Withering) L.M.Irvine in Parke & P.S.Dixon

1

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Caulacanthus ustulatus (Mertens ex Turner) Kützing

10

Uncertain

C

Rhodophyta

Centroceras clavulatum (C.Agardh) Montagne

57

Native

A

Rhodophyta

Ceramium ciliatum (J.Ellis) Ducluzeau

18

Native

C

Rhodophyta

Ceramium cingulatum Weber Bosse

1

Introduced

R

Rhodophyta

Ceramium circinatum (Kützing) J.Agardh

1

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Ceramium codii (H.Richards) Mazoyer

2

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Ceramium diaphanum (Lightfoot) Roth

21

Native

C

Rhodophyta

Ceramium echionotum J.Agardh

3

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Ceramium gaditanum (Clemente) Cremades

4

Uncertain

R

Rhodophyta

Ceramium virgatum Roth

42

Native

C

Rhodophyta

Champia parvula (C.Agardh) Harvey

3

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Chondracanthus acicularis (Roth) Fredericq

58

Native

A

Rhodophyta

Chondracanthus teedei (Mertens ex Roth) Kützing

26

Native

New record

C

Rhodophyta

Chondria capillaris (Hudson) M.J.Wynne

15

Native

New record

C

Rhodophyta

Chondria coerulescens (J.Agardh) Sauvageau

1

Uncertain

R

Rhodophyta

Chondria dasyphylla (Woodward) C.Agardh

13

Uncertain

C

Rhodophyta

Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen

1

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Corallina officinalis Linnaeus

5

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Cottoniella filamentosa (M.Howe) Børgesen

5

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Crouania attenuata (C.Agardh) J.Agardh

11

Native

C

Rhodophyta

Cryptopleura ramosa (Hudson) L.Newton

6

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Dasya corymbifera J.Agardh

7

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Dasya rigidula (Kützing) Ardissone

2

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Dermocorynus dichotomus (J.Agardh) Gargiulo, M.Morabito & Manghisi

63

Native

A

Rhodophyta

Diplothamnion jolyi C.Hoek

3

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Dudresnaya verticillata (Withering) Le Jolis

1

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Ellisolandia elongata (J.Ellis & Solander) K.R.Hind & G.W.Saunders

190

Native

A

Rhodophyta

Erythrocystis montagnei (Derbès & Solier) P.C.Silva

11

Native

New record

C

Rhodophyta

Gaillona hookeri (Dillwyn) Athanasiadis

5

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Gastroclonium ovatum (Hudson) Papenfuss

2

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Gastroclonium reflexum (Chauvin) Kützing

20

Native

C

Rhodophyta

Gayliella flaccida (Harvey ex Kützing) T.O.Cho & L.J.McIvor

4

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Gelidium arbuscula Bory ex Børgesen

4

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Gelidium microdon Kützing

81

Native

A

Rhodophyta

Gelidium pusillum (Stackhouse) Le Jolis

76

Native

New record

A

Rhodophyta

Gelidium spinosum (S.G.Gmelin) P.C.Silva

35

Native

C

Rhodophyta

Gigartina pistillata (S.G.Gmelin) Stackhouse

2

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Gracilariopsis longissima (S.G.Gmelin) Steentoft, L.M.Irvine & Farnham

1

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Grateloupia filicina (J.V.Lamouroux) C.Agardh

3

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Gymnogongrus crenulatus (Turner) J.Agardh

38

Native

New record

C

Rhodophyta

Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Martius

37

Native

New record

C

Rhodophyta

Gymnothamnion elegans (Schousboe ex C.Agardh) J.Agardh

2

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Halarachnion ligulatum (Woodward) Kützing

2

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Herposiphonia secunda (C.Agardh) Ambronn

2

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Heterosiphonia crispella (C.Agardh) M.J.Wynne

5

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Hildenbrandia crouaniorum J.Agardh

2

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Hypnea arbuscula P.J.L.Dangeard

1

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Hypnea cervicornis J.Agardh

2

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Hypnea flagelliformis Greville ex J.Agardh

8

Introduced

R

Rhodophyta

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux

97

Uncertain

A

Rhodophyta

Hypnea spinella (C.Agardh) Kützing

25

Native

New record

C

Rhodophyta

Hypoglossum hypoglossoides (Stackhouse) Collins & Hervey

2

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Jania capillacea Harvey

16

Native

New record

C

Rhodophyta

Jania longifurca Zanardini

9

Uncertain

R

Rhodophyta

Jania pedunculata var. adhaerens (J.V.Lamouroux) A.S.Harvey, Woelkerling & Reviers

8

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Jania pumila J.V.Lamouroux

10

Native

New record

C

Rhodophyta

Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux

43

Native

C

Rhodophyta

Jania virgata (Zanardini) Montagne

13

Uncertain

C

Rhodophyta

Kallymenia reniformis (Turner) J.Agardh

1

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Laurencia brongniartii J.Agardh

3

Introduced

R

Rhodophyta

Laurencia chondrioides Børgesen

11

Introduced

C

Rhodophyta

Laurencia dendroidea J.Agardh

10

Introduced

C

Rhodophyta

Laurencia intricata J.V.Lamouroux

2

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Laurencia microcladia Kützing

3

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Laurencia minuta Vandermeulen, Garbary & Guiry

18

Introduced

New record

C

Rhodophyta

Laurencia obtusa (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux

2

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Laurencia pyramidalis Bory ex Kützing

11

Native

New record

C

Rhodophyta

Laurencia tenera C.K.Tseng

17

Native

New record

C

Rhodophyta

Laurencia viridis Gil-Rodríguez & Haroun

4

Macaronesian endemism

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Laurenciella marilzae (Gil-Rodríguez, Sentíes, Díaz-Larrea, Cassano & M.T.Fujii) Gil-Rodríguez, Sentíes, Díaz-Larrea, Cassano & M.T.Fujii

2

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Lejolisia mediterranea Bornet

1

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Leptosiphonia brodiei (Dillwyn) A.M.Savoie & G.W.Saunders

2

Uncertain

R

Rhodophyta

Liagora viscida (Forsskål) C.Agardh

8

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Lithophyllum incrustans Philippi

1

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Lomentaria articulata (Hudson) Lyngbye

75

Native

New record

A

Rhodophyta

Lomentaria clavellosa (Lightfoot ex Turner) Gaillon

1

Uncertain

R

Rhodophyta

Lophosiphonia cristata Falkenberg

13

Native

C

Rhodophyta

Meredithia microphylla (J.Agardh) J.Agardh

10

Native

New record

C

Rhodophyta

Nemalion elminthoides (Velley) Batters

21

Native

C

Rhodophyta

Nitophyllum punctatum (Stackhouse) Greville

11

Native

New record

C

Rhodophyta

Osmundea hybrida (A.P.de Candolle) K.W.Nam

5

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Osmundea oederi (Gunnerus) G.Furnari

3

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Osmundea pinnatifida (Hudson) Stackhouse

23

Native

C

Rhodophyta

Osmundea truncata (Kützing) K.W.Nam & Maggs

24

Native

New record

C

Rhodophyta

Peyssonnelia squamaria (S.G.Gmelin) Decaisne ex J.Agardh

8

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Phyllophora gelidioides P.Crouan & H.Crouan ex Karsakoff

1

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) W.H.Adey & D.L.McKibbin ex Woelkering & L.M.Irvine

1

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Platoma cyclocolpum (Montagne) F.Schmitz

9

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus) P.S.Dixon

28

Native

C

Rhodophyta

Polysiphonia atlantica Kapraun & J.N.Norris

3

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Polysiphonia ceramiiformis P.Crouan & H.Crouan

1

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Polysiphonia havanensis Montagne

3

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Polysiphonia opaca (C.Agardh) Moris & De Notaris

3

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Polysiphonia stricta (Mertens ex Dillwyn) Greville

6

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing

1

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Pterocladiella capillacea (S.G.Gmelin) Santelices & Hommersand

131

Native

A

Rhodophyta

Rhodymenia holmesii Ardissone

22

Native

New record

C

Rhodophyta

Rhodymenia pseudopalmata (J.V.Lamouroux) P.C.Silva

9

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Schizymenia apoda (J.Agardh) J.Agardh

1

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Schottera nicaeensis (J.V.Lamouroux ex Duby) Guiry & Hollenberg

1

Uncertain

R

Rhodophyta

Scinaia interrupta (A.P.de Candolle) M.J.Wynne

2

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Sebdenia dichotoma Berthold

7

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Sebdenia rodrigueziana (Feldmann) Codomier ex Parkinson

6

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Spermothamnion repens (Dillwyn) Magnus

1

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Sphaerococcus coronopifolius Stackhouse

16

Native

New record

C

Rhodophyta

Spongoclonium caribaeum (Børgesen) M.J.Wynne

4

Introduced

R

Rhodophyta

Spyridia filamentosa (Wulfen) Harvey

2

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Symphyocladia marchantioides (Harvey) Falkenberg

44

Introduced

C

Rhodophyta

Taenioma nanum (Kützing) Papenfuss

3

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Tenarea tortuosa (Esper) Me.Lemoine

1

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Vertebrata fruticulosa (Wulfen) Kuntze

4

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Vertebrata fucoides (Hudson) Kuntze

1

Uncertain

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Vertebrata furcellata (C.Agardh) Kuntze

1

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Vertebrata reptabunda (Suhr) Díaz-Tapia & Maggs

10

Uncertain

C

Rhodophyta

Vertebrata tripinnata (Harvey) Kuntze

1

Native

R

Rhodophyta

Wrangelia penicillata (C.Agardh) C.Agardh

3

Native

New record

R

Rhodophyta

Yuzurua poiteaui (J.V.Lamouroux) Martin-Lescanne

4

Native

New record

R

Chlorophyta

Anadyomene saldanhae A.B.Joly & E.C.Oliveira

94

Native

New record

A

Chlorophyta

Anadyomene stellata (Wulfen) C.Agardh

16

Uncertain

C

Chlorophyta

Blidingia minima (Nägeli ex Kützing) Kylin

4

Native

R

Chlorophyta

Bryopsis cupressina J.V.Lamouroux

4

Native

New record

R

Chlorophyta

Bryopsis pennata J.V.Lamouroux

1

Native

New record

R

Chlorophyta

Bryopsis plumosa (Hudson) C.Agardh

6

Native

New record

R

Chlorophyta

Chaetomorpha aerea (Dillwyn) Kützing

8

Native

New record

R

Chlorophyta

Chaetomorpha ligustica (Kützing) Kützing

1

Native

New record

R

Chlorophyta

Chaetomorpha linum (O.F.Müller) Kützing

4

Native

R

Chlorophyta

Chaetomorpha pachynema (Montagne) Kützing

84

Native

A

Chlorophyta

Cladophora albida (Nees) Kutzing

6

Native

New record

R

Chlorophyta

Cladophora coelothrix Kützing

32

Native

New record

C

Chlorophyta

Cladophora conferta P.Crouan & H.Crouan

4

Native

R

Chlorophyta

Cladophora hutchinsiae (Dillwyn) Kützing

2

Native

New record

R

Chlorophyta

Cladophora laetevirens (Dillwyn) Kützing

7

Uncertain

R

Chlorophyta

Cladophora lehmanniana (Lindenberg) Kützing

8

Native

New record

R

Chlorophyta

Cladophora liebetruthii Grunow

2

Native

New record

R

Chlorophyta

Cladophora prolifera (Roth) Kützing

43

Native

C

Chlorophyta

Cladophoropsis macromeres W.R.Taylor

2

Native

New record

R

Chlorophyta

Cladophoropsis membranacea (Hofman Bang ex C.Agardh) Børgesen

6

Uncertain

R

Chlorophyta

Codium adhaerens C.Agardh

101

Native

A

Chlorophyta

Codium decorticatum (Woodward) M.Howe

16

Native

C

Chlorophyta

Codium effusum (Rafinesque) Delle Chiaje

22

Uncertain

C

Chlorophyta

Codium elisabethiae O.C.Schmidt

39

Macaronesian endemism

C

Chlorophyta

Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot

4

Introduced

New record

R

Chlorophyta

Codium taylorii P.C.Silva

3

Native

R

Chlorophyta

Codium vermilara (Olivi) Delle Chiaje

18

Native

New record

C

Chlorophyta

Ernodesmis verticillata (Kützing) Børgesen

2

Native

New record

R

Chlorophyta

Lychaete pellucida (Hudson) M.J.Wynne

10

Native

New record

C

Chlorophyta

Microdictyon umbilicatum (Velley) Zanardini

11

Native

New record

C

Chlorophyta

Pseudorhizoclonium africanum (Kützing) Boedeker

1

Native

New record

R

Chlorophyta

Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh

14

Native

C

Chlorophyta

Ulva compressa Linnaeus

13

Native

C

Chlorophyta

Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus

13

Native

C

Chlorophyta

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus

1

Uncertain

R

Chlorophyta

Ulva linza Linnaeus

3

Native

R

Chlorophyta

Ulva polyclada Kraft

5

Native

R

Chlorophyta

Ulva prolifera O.F.Müller

3

Native

R

Chlorophyta

Ulva rigida C.Agardh

133

Native

A

Chlorophyta

Valonia macrophysa Kützing

1

Native

New record

R

Chlorophyta

Valonia utricularis (Roth) C.Agardh

7

Native

New record

R

Ochrophyta

Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis

4

Native

R

Ochrophyta

Bachelotia antillarum (Grunow) Gerloff

4

Native

R

Ochrophyta

Canistrocarpus cervicornis (Kützing) De Paula & De Clerck

1

Native

New record

R

Ochrophyta

Carpomitra costata (Stackhouse) Batters

4

Native

New record

R

Ochrophyta

Cladostephus spongiosum (Hudson) C.Agardh

6

Native

New record

R

Ochrophyta

Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) Derbès & Solier

98

Native

A

Ochrophyta

Cutleria multifida (Turner) Greville

9

Uncertain

R

Ochrophyta

Cutleria multifida (Turner) Greville, phase Aglaozonia parvula (Greville) Zanardini

10

Uncertain

New record

C

Ochrophyta

Cystoseira compressa (Esper) Gerloff & Nizamuddin

23

Native

New record

C

Ochrophyta

Cystoseira foeniculacea (Linnaeus) Greville

2

Native

New record

R

Ochrophyta

Cystoseira humilis Schousboe ex Kützing

5

Native

R

Ochrophyta

Dictyopteris polypodioides (A.P.de Candolle) J.V.Lamouroux

1

Native

New record

R

Ochrophyta

Dictyota bartayresiana J.V.Lamouroux

3

Native

New record

R

Ochrophyta

Dictyota cyanoloma Tronholm, De Clerck, A.Gómez-Garreta & Rull Lluch

3

Native

R

Ochrophyta

Dictyota dichotoma (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux

35

Native

C

Ochrophyta

Dictyota dichotoma var. intricata (C.Agardh) Greville

7

Native

New record

R

Ochrophyta

Dictyota implexa (Desfontaines) J.V.Lamouroux

6

Native

New record

R

Ochrophyta

Ectocarpus fasciculatus Harvey

2

Native

R

Ochrophyta

Fucus spiralis Linnaeus

32

Uncertain

C

Ochrophyta

Halopteris filicina (Grateloup) Kützing

77

Native

A

Ochrophyta

Halopteris scoparia (Linnaeus) Sauvageau

129

Native

A

Ochrophyta

Hincksia ovata (Kjellman) P.C.Silva

1

Native

R

Ochrophyta

Hydroclathrus clathratus (C.Agardh) M.Howe

2

Native

New record

R

Ochrophyta

Hydroclathrus tilesii (Endlicher) Santiañez & Wynne

15

Introduced

New record

C

Ochrophyta

Leathesia marina (Lyngbye) Decaisne

2

Uncertain

New record

R

Ochrophyta

Lobophora variegata (J.V.Lamouroux) Womersley ex E.C.Oliveira

2

Native

R

Ochrophyta

Microzonia floridana (E.C.Henry) Camacho & Fredericq

3

Native

R

Ochrophyta

Myrionema strangulans Greville

2

Native

New record

R

Ochrophyta

Nemoderma tingitanum Schousboe ex Bornet

39

Native

New record

C

Ochrophyta

Padina pavonica (Linnaeus) Thivy

91

Native

A

Ochrophyta

Petalonia binghamiae (J.Agardh) K.L.Vinogradova

10

Introduced

C

Ochrophyta

Petrospongium berkeleyi (Greville) Nägeli ex Kützing

1

Native

New record

R

Ochrophyta

Sargassum cymosum C.Agardh

5

Native

R

Ochrophyta

Sargassum desfontainesii (Turner) C.Agardh

2

Native

New record

R

Ochrophyta

Sargassum furcatum Kützing

25

Native

New record

C

Ochrophyta

Sargassum vulgare C.Agardh

1

Native

R

Ochrophyta

Scytosiphon lomentaria (Lyngbye) Link

1

Native

New record

R

Ochrophyta

Sphacelaria cirrosa (Roth) C.Agardh

2

Native

R

Ochrophyta

Sphacelaria tribuloides Meneghini

1

Uncertain

R

Ochrophyta

Spongonema tomentosum (Hudson) Kützing

1

Native

New record

R

Ochrophyta

Taonia atomaria (Woodward) J.Agardh

2

Native

New record

R

Ochrophyta

Treptacantha abies-marina (S.G.Gmelin) Kützing

72

Native

New record

A

Ochrophyta

Zonaria tournefortii (J.V.Lamouroux) Montagne

90

Native

A

Table 3.

Main taxonomic figures with information on the species origin and status.

Phyllum Order Family Specimens Number Total taxa Total species Native Introduced Uncertain Macaronesian endemism New record
Rhodophyta 15 39 2404 197 142 113 11 16 2 69
Chlorophyta 3 10 773 53 41 34 1 5 1 20
Ochrophyta 12 18 866 53 42 36 2 4 21
Total 30 67 4043 303 225 183 14 25 3 110
Figure 9.  

Laurencia pyramidalis, a new record for Pico Island (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Many species were only sporadically recorded on Pico, but 11 were commonly found around the Island and occurred quite abundantly in some locations: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis armata Harvey, Ellisolandia elongata (J. Ellis & Solander) K. R. Hind & G. W. Saunders, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J. V. Lamouroux and Pterocladiella capillacea (S. G. Gmelin) Santelices & Hommersand; the Chlorophyta Anadyomene saldanhae A. B. Joly & E. C. Oliveira, Codium adhaerens C. Agradh and Ulva rigida C. Agardh; the Ochrophyta Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) Derbès & Solier in Castagne, Halopteris scoparia (Linnaeus) Sauvageau, Padina pavonica (Linnaeus) Thivy and Zonaria tournefortii (J. V. Lamouroux) Montagne.

A mismatch regarding the GBIF backbone taxonomy of some of the macroalgae species names was identified as detailed in Suppl. material 1.

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the project “PICOBEL: Coastal benthic communities of Pico Island: characterization and monitoring”, funded by the Azores Regional Government and lately by the project “ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072” funded the Operational Programme Azores 2020 (85% ERDF and 15% regional funds). We are grateful to the Municipality of Lajes do Pico and Escola Básica e Secundária de Lajes do Pico for their logistics support during the Campaign PICOBEL/2007. Thanks are due to the Campaign PICOBEL/2007 team (André Amaral, António Brigos, Catarina Santos, Daniel Torrão, David Villegas, Edgar Rosas-Alquicira, Eunice Nogueira, Francisco Wallenstein, Gustavo Martins, José M. N. Azevedo, Karla Leon Cisneros, Marlene Terra, Nuno Álvaro, Raul Coma, Rita Patarra, Ruben Couto and Sílvia Escarduça), the team of the Campaign LAUMACAT/2011 (Abel Sentiés, Eunice Nogueira, Maria Machín-Sánchez, Mutue Toyota Fujii, Valeria Cassano) and to Mrs Inês Melo Azevedo and her husband José A. Azevedo for providing free accommodation to some of the team members during the campaign periods. The occasional collections made by Edward Hehre, Heather Baldwin, Inês Neto, Leila Bagaço, Patrícia Madeira, Richard Fralick and Ruben Afonso are appreciated. Afonso Prestes was supported by a PhD grant (M3.1.a/F/083/2015) awarded by Fundo Regional da Ciência e Tecnologia (FRCT).

Author contributions

AIN: Conceptualisation; Methodology; Investigation (fieldwork and laboratory work); Resources; Data Curation; Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing

ACLP: Investigation (laboratory work); Resources; Paper writing

NVA: Investigation (field and laboratory work); Maps elaboration; Paper writing

RR: Resources; Data Curation

RMAN: Data Curation; Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing

IT: Methodology; Investigation (field and laboratory work); Data Curation; Paper writing

IM: Data Curation; Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing

References

Supplementary material

Suppl. material 1: DP-PIX-id_14106_normalized-redz.csv 
Authors:  Ana I. Neto
Data type:  Macroalgae taxonomic mismatching
Brief description: 

GBIF does not have the more actualised nomenclature for some of the macroalgae species names. Therefore, the matching tools of its platform were applied to the species list, as required by Pensoft's data auditor, to identify the problematic taxonomic situations. The resulting file (DP-PIX-id_14106_normalized-redz.csv) is included here, since the names will not be immediately updated in the GBIF Taxonomic Backbone. A request was already sent to GBIF helpdesk to resolve this situation.