Biodiversity Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
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Data Paper (Biosciences)
Marine algal (seaweed) flora of Terceira Island, Azores
expand article infoAna I. Azevedo Neto, Afonso C. L. Prestes, Nuno Vaz Álvaro§, Roberto Resendes|, Raul M. A. Neto, Ignacio Moreu
‡ cE3c - Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes/Azorean Biodiversity Group & Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade dos Açores, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, São Miguel, Açores, Portugal
§ Universidade dos Açores, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias, CCMMG (Centro do Clima Meteorologia e Mudanças Globais), IITA-A (Instituto de Investigação e Tecnologias Agrárias e do Ambiente), 9700-042 Angra dp Heroísmo, Terceira, Portugal
| Universidade dos Açores, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Departamento de Biologia, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, São Miguel, Açores, Portugal
¶ N/A, Odivelas, Portugal
Open Access

Abstract

Background

As for many other Azorean Islands, the macroalgal flora of Terceira (belonging to the central group of the archipelago) is poorly known, the published information reflecting occasional collections of sporadic visitors to the island. In order to overcome this and contribute to improve the knowledge of Azorean macroalgal flora at both local and regional scales, a thorough investigation was conducted. Both collections and presence data recordings were undertaken at the littoral and sublittoral levels down to approximately 40 m around the island, covering a total area of approximately 49 km2. This paper lists the taxonomic records and provides information on each species’ ecology and occurrence on the Island’s littoral.

New information

A total of 418 specimens (including taxa identified only to genus level) belonging to 147 taxa of macroalgae, comprising 95 Rhodophyta, 33 Chlorophyta and 19 Ochrophyta (Phaeophyceae) are registered. Of these, 113 were identified to species level (73 Rhodophyta, 24 Chlorophyta and 16 Ochrophyta), encompassing 35 new records for the Island (27 Rhodophyta, 6 Chlorophyta and 2 Ochrophyta). Most species are native, including the Macaronesian endemisms Codium elisabethiae O.C.Schmidt, Millerella tinerfensis (Seoane-Camba) S.M.Boo & J.M.Rico and Phyllophora gelidioides P.Crouan & H.Crouan ex Karsakoff. Eight species are introduced and 15 have uncertain origin.

Keywords

Macroalgae, seaweeds, Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta, Ochrophyta, Azores, Terceira Island, endemism, native, introduced, uncertain, occurrence data

Introduction

The macroalgal flora of the isolated mid-Atlantic Azores archipelago, as a whole, may be considered relatively rich when compared to that of other remote oceanic islands, such as the Shetlands and Faroes in the colder North Atlantic and Ascension and Tristan da Cunha in the Southern Atlantic (Neto et al. 2005, Tittley and Neto 2005, Wallenstein et al. 2009). With approximately 400 species (Freitas et al. 2019), the Azorean algal flora has been considered cosmopolitan, as it shares species with Macaronesia, North Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Europe and America (Tittley 2003, Tittley and Neto 2006, Wallenstein et al. 2009).

The published information, however, reflects data from only a few of the nine islands. Terceira, the second largest island of the central group and the third largest of the archipelago, is amongst the lesser-studied ones. To overcome this and contribute to a better understanding of the seaweed flora of the Azores archipelago, a thorough investigation was conducted in the period between 2000 and 2014, mainly by the Island Aquatic Research Group of the Azorean Biodiversity Centre of the University of the Azores (https://ce3c.ciencias.ulisboa.pt/sub-team/island-aquatic-ecology). In these surveys, special attention was dedicated to the sheet-like and filamentous forms that are difficult to identify in the wild, the seasonal and fast growing annuals and particularly to the small forms that are often short-lived and fast growing species, very difficult to identify without the aid of a microscope. This paper compiles physical, occurrence and survey data and is intended as a practical resource for biological studies (such as systematics, diversity and conservation, biological monitoring, climate change and ecology) and for academics, students, government, private organisations and the general public.

General description

Purpose: 

By listing the taxonomic records for Terceira and presenting general information for each taxon’s occurrence on the Island’s littoral, this paper addresses several biodiversity shortfalls (see Cardoso et al. 2011, Hortal et al. 2015), namely the need to catalogue the Azorean macroalgae (Linnean shortfall) and improve the current information on their local and regional geographic distribution (Wallacean shortfall), as well as on species’ abundances and dynamics in space (Prestonian shortfall).

Project description

Title: 

Marine algal (seaweed) flora of Terceira Island, Azores

Personnel: 

Collections were undertaken and occurrence data recorded during several years (2000-2014) under the coordination of Ana I. Neto. Main collectors were Afonso Prestes, Albert Cámara, Ana I. Neto, Luís Cabral, Mariana Brito, Marisa Toste, Marlene Terra, Nuno Álvaro and Rita Patarra. Ana I. Neto and Marlene Terra were responsible for the species identification.

Voucher specimen management was mainly undertaken by Afonso Prestes, Ana I. Neto, Eunice Nogueira, Natália Cabral and Roberto Resendes.

Study area description: 

Located along a WNW-trending strip and spreading over 500 km in the North Atlantic, roughly at 38°43′49″N, 27°19′10″W (Fig. 1), the Azores archipelago is composed of nine islands and several islets. The islands are surrounded by deep waters due to the absence of a continental shelf and, therefore, have a restricted coastal extension, which is subjected to swell and surge most of the year. The tidal range is small (< 2 m, see Hidrográfico 1981) and the shore geomorphology alternates between high cliffs and rocky cobble/boulder beaches (Borges 2004). The climate is temperate oceanic, with regular and abundant rainfall and high levels of relative humidity and persistent winds, mainly during winter and autumn (Morton et al. 1998).

Figure 1.  

The Azores, its location in the Atlantic and Terceira Island highlighted in black (by Nuno V. Álvaro).

Terceira (in black in Fig. 1), located in the central group roughly at 38°48′50″N, 27°23′25″W, 150 km northeast of São Miguel, is the third largest island of the Azores archipelago. It has an elliptical form, 29 km long and 18 km wide, a maximum altitude of 1021 m at the summit of Serra de Santa Bárbara and a total area of about 397 km2. The coastline has a total length of 112 km and is characterised by cliffs that vary from small to moderate heights, interrupted by small bays. Sandy beaches are limited to Praia da Vitória, located on the more protected eastern part of the Island. The northern coast is more exposed and constantly submitted to the wave action (Gomes and Pinto 2004).

The intertidal and shallow subtidal rocky-shore communities of Terceira are dominated by macroalgae, similarly to those of the remaining Azorean Islands (Neto et al. 2005). The frondose species Fucus spiralis Linnaeus (Fig. 2), Ulva rigida C.Agardh and Gelidium microdon Kützing are often present at mid-shore levels, growing interspaced with the small chthamalid barnacles. Slightly below this level, the lack of herbivores, resulting from the over-exploitation of limpets (Martins et al. 2011, Martins et al. 2008, Faria et al. 2014), favours an almost homogeneous coverage of the shore by algal turfs (Fig. 3). These are growth forms of either diminutive algae or diminutive forms of larger species that create a dense, compact mat 20-30 mm thick, either monospecific (mainly composed of Caulacanthus ustulatus (Mertens ex Turner) Kützing or Gymnogongrus spp.) or multi-specific and composed of articulate calcareous algae (e.g. Ellisolandia elongata (J.Ellis & Solander) K.R.Hind & G.W.Saunders and Jania spp.) and/or soft algae (e.g. Centroceras clavulatum (C.Agardh) Montagne, Chondracanthus spp. and Laurencia spp.). Lower on the shore, the erect, corticated macrophytes Ellisolandia elongata, Cystoseira spp. and Osmundea pinnatifida (Hudson) Stackhouse are commonly found, frequently epiphyting multi-specific algal turfs (Fig. 4). The shallow subtidal is mainly characterised by associations of two or three frondose macrophytes, predominantly the brown seaweeds Dictyota spp. and Zonaria tournefortii (J.V. Lamouroux) Montagne (Fig. 5).

Figure 2.  

High intertidal level showing Fucus spiralis and Ulva rigida (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 3.  

Mid-shore intertidal covered by algal turf (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 4.  

Cystoseira sp., Ellisolandia elongata and Osmundea pinnatifida epiphyting multi-specific algal turf at low intertidal (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 5.  

Frondose macrophytes (Dictyota spp. and Zonaria tournefortii) at subtidal level (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Design description: 

The algae, referred to in this paper, were sampled during field studies at littoral and sublittoral levels down to approximately 40 m on Terceira Island, covering an area of 49 km2. Presence recordings and physical collections were made by walking over the shores or by scuba diving. The specimens collected were taken to the laboratory for standard procedures and the resulting vouchers were deposited at the AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, at the Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores.

Funding: 

This study was mainly financed by the following projects/scientific expeditions:

  • Campaign CAMAG-TER/2008, under the project “CAMAG/TER - Caracterização das massas de água costeira da Ilha Terceira”. 2008 - 2009. The Azores Regional Government;
  • Project “ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072 - AZORES BIOPORTAL – PORBIOTA. Operational Programme Azores 2020 (85% ERDF and 15% regional funds);
  • Portuguese National Funds, through FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, within the projects UID/BIA/00329/2013, 2015 - 2018, and UID/BIA/00329/2019 and UID/BIA/00329/2020-2023;
  • Portuguese Regional Funds, through DRCT – Direção Regional da Ciência e Tecnologia, within several projects, since 2013;
  • CIRN/DB/UAc (Research Centre for Natural Resources, Universidade dos Açores, Departamento de Biologia);
  • CIIMAR (Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Porto, Portugal).

Sampling methods

Study extent: 

This study covers an area of approximately 49 km2, encompassing littoral and sublittoral levels down to approximately 40 m around Terceira Island (Table 1, Fig. 6).

Table 1.

Terceira Island sampling sites information.

Location No Location ID Municipality Locality Latitude / Longitude geodeticDatum Littoral zone
1 TER_AH_PJse Angra do Herísmo Porto Judeu|Serretinha 38,64491, -27,143929 WGS84 Intertidal
2 TER_AH_SSim Angra do Herísmo São Sebastião|lhéu da Mina 38,648825, -27,07385 WGS84 Intertidal
3 TER_PV_Bpi Praia da Vitória Biscoitos|Piscina 38,801473, -27,25893 WGS84 Intertidal
4 TER_AH_CRem Angra do Herísmo Cinco Ribeiras|Entre-marés 38,675345, -27,329175 WGS84 Intertidal
5 TER_AH_CR30 Angra do Herísmo Cinco Ribeiras|30m 38.672771, -27.330059 WGS84 Subtidal
6 TER_AH_CRb Angra do Herísmo Cinco Ribeiras|Baía 38.675145, -27.327739 WGS84 Subtidal
7 TER_AH_CRem Angra do Herísmo Cinco Ribeiras|Entre-marés 38,675419, -27,329237 WGS84 Intertidal
8 TER_AH_Sb Angra do Herísmo Salga|Baía 38.645312, -27.097203 WGS84 Subtidal
9 TER_AH_Sem Angra do Herísmo Salga|Entre-marés 38,646749, -27.099061 WGS84 Intertidal
10 TER_AH_SIb Angra do Herísmo Silveira|Baía 38.653707, -27.233297 WGS84 Subtidal
11 TER_AH_SIem Angra do Herísmo Silveira|Entre-marés 38,655274, -27.237065 WGS84 Intertidal
12 TER_PV_Bb Praia da Vitória Biscoitos|Baía 38.800878, -27.260303 WGS84 Subtidal
13 TER_PV_Bpi Praia da Vitória Biscoitos|Piscina 38,801473, -27,25893 WGS84 Intertidal
14 TER_PV_Bpo Praia da Vitória Biscoitos|Ponta 38.804734, -27.255472 WGS84 Subtidal
15 TER_PV_PVb Praia da Vitória Praia da Vitória|Baía 38.7088, -27.048377 WGS84 Subtidal
16 TER_PV_PVem Praia da Vitória Praia da Vitória|Entre-marés 38.707052, -27.046829 WGS84 Intertidal
17 TER_PV_PVp Praia da Vitória Praia da Vitória|Paul 38,735015, -27,060895 WGS84 Intertidal
18 TER_PV_PVp Praia da Vitória Praia da Vitória|Paul 38,735015, -27,060895 WGS84 Intertidal
Figure 6.  

Sampling locations around Terceira Island (by Nuno V. Álvaro).

Sampling description: 

Intertidal collections were made at low tide by walking over the shores. Subtidal collections were made by scuba diving around the area. Sampling encompassed both physical collections and species presence recordings. For the former, in each sampling location, collections were made manually by scraping one or two specimens of species found into labelled bags. Species recording data were gathered by registering all species present in the visited locations (Fig. 7).

Figure 7.  

Macroalgae recordings at the rocky subtidal (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG) .

Quality control: 

The collected taxa were investigated by trained taxonomists with the help of keys and floras. This involved morphological and anatomical examination by eye or under the dissecting and compound microscopes of an entire specimen or slide preparation. In difficult cases, specimens were sent to experts for identification.

Step description: 

In the laboratory, the specimens were sorted and studied following standard procedures used in macroalgae identification.

Species identification was based on morphological and anatomical characters and reproductive structures. For small and simple thalli, this required observation of the entire thallus by eye and/or using dissecting and compound microscopes (Fig. 8). For larger and more complex algae, the investigation of the thallus anatomy required histological work to obtain longitudinal and transverse sections needed for the observation of cells, reproductive structures and other diagnosing characters.

Figure 8.  

Macroalgae species identification (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Since the Azorean algal flora is composed of taxa from various geographical regions, floras and keys mainly from the Atlantic and Western Mediterranean were used in species identification (e.g. Schmidt 1931, Taylor 1967, Taylor 1978, Levring 1974, Dixon and Irvine 1977, Lawson and John 1982, Irvine 1983, Gayral and Cosson 1986, Fletcher 1987, Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón 1989, Burrows 1991, Boudouresque et al. 1992, Cabioc'h et al. 1992, Maggs and Hommersand 1993, Irvine and Chamberlain 1994, Brodie et al. 2007, Lloréns et al. 2012, Rodríguez-Prieto et al. 2013).

For more critical and taxonomically-difficult taxa, specimens were taken to the Natural History Museum (London) for comparison with collections there or sent to specialists.

A reference collection was made for all specimens collected by giving them a herbarium code number and depositing them at the AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, University of Azores. Depending on the species and on planned further research, different types of collections were made, namely (i) liquid collections using 5% buffered formaldehyde seawater and then replacing it by the fixing agent Kew (Bridsen and Forman 1999); (ii) dried collections, either by pressing the algae (most species) as described by Gayral and Cosson (1986) or by letting them air-dry (calcareous species) and (iii) silica collections for molecular studies.

Nomenclatural and taxonomic status used here follow Algaebase (Guiry and Guiry 2020). The database was organised on FileMaker Pro.

Geographic coverage

Description: 

Terceira Island, Azores, Macaronesia, Portugal (approximately 38°48′50″N, 27°23′25″W).

Coordinates: 

38.627 and 38.814 Latitude; -27.389 and -27033 Longitude.

Taxonomic coverage

Description: 

All macroalgae were identified to genus or species level. In total, 147 taxa were identified belonging to 21 orders and 45 families, distributed by the phyla Rhodophyta (9 orders and 25 families), Chlorophyta (5 orders and 8 families) and Ochrophyta (7 orders and 12 families).

Taxa included:
Rank Scientific Name Common Name
phylum Rhodophyta Red algae
phylum Chlorophyta Green algae
phylum Ochrophyta Brown algae

Temporal coverage

Notes: 

Sampling took place in the period between 2000 and 2014.

Collection data

Collection name: 
AZB | Marine macroalgae collection of Terceira Island (Azores) – Campaign CAMAG-TER/2008; AZB | Marine macroalgae collection of Terceira Island (Azores) – Occasional sampling; Marine macroalgae occurrence on Terceira Island (Azores) – Campaign CAMAG-TER/2008.
Collection identifier: 
389ac3c6-6c63-4de0-b5fb-bc7cc93d3791; 247417a8-f838-405e-b5ac-82940e866a9a; 43bb7387-0e2f-47ce-a121-ca66a9abcaab.
Parent collection identifier: 
AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores; AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores; AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores.
Specimen preservation method: 
Air-dry, Dried and pressed; Liquid (Formalin; fixing agent Kew), Silica
Curatorial unit: 
AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores

Usage rights

Use license: 
Creative Commons Public Domain Waiver (CC-Zero)

Data resources

Data package title: 
Marine algal (seaweed) flora of Terceira Island, Azores
Number of data sets: 
1
Data set name: 
Marine algal (seaweed) flora of Terceira Island, Azores
Data format: 
Darwin Core Archive
Data format version: 
version 1.7
Description: 

This data paper presents physical and occurrence data from macroalgal surveys undertaken on Terceira Island between 2000 and 2014. The dataset submitted to GBIF is structured as a sample event dataset, with two tables: event (as core) and occurrences (Neto et al. 2020). The data in this sampling event resource have been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwCA), which is a standardised format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 18 records (eventID). The extension data table has 418 occurrences. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated in the IPT link. This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for downloading in the downloads section.

Column label Column description
Table of Sampling Events Table with sampling events data (beginning of table)
eventID Identifier of the event, unique for the dataset
country Country of the sampling site
countryCode Code of the country where the event occurred
stateProvince Name of the region
island Name of the island
municipality Name of the municipality
locality Name of the locality
locationID Identifier of the location
decimalLatitude The geographic latitude of the sampling site
decimalLongitude The geographic longitude of the sampling site
geodeticDatum The spatial reference system upon which the geographic coordinates are based
coordinateUncertaintyInMetres The horizontal distance (in metres) from the given decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude describing the smallest circle containing the whole of the Location
eventDate Time interval when the event occurred
year The year of the event
samplingProtocol Sampling method used during an event
locationRemarks Zonation level
minimumDepthInMetres The minimum depth in metres where the specimen was found
maximumDepthInMetres The maximum depth in metres where the specimen was found
eventRemarks Notes about the event
Table of Species Occurrence Table with species occurrence data (beginning of new table)
occurrenceID Identifier of the record, coded as a global unique identifier
institutionID The identifier for the institution having custody of the object or information referred to in the record
institutionCode The acronym of the institution having custody of the object or information referred to in the record
collectionID An identifier of the collection to which the record belongs
collectionCode The name of the collection from which the record was derived
datasetName The name identifying the dataset from which the record was derived
eventID Identifier of the event, unique for the dataset
kingdom Kingdom name
phylum Phylum name
class Class name
order Order name
family Family name
genus Genus name
specificEpithet The name of the first or species epithet of the scientificName
infraspecificEpithet The name of the lowest or terminal infraspecific epithet of the scientificName, excluding any rank designation
acceptedNameUsage The specimen accepted name, with authorship
previousIdentifications Previous name of the specimen, with authorship
scientificName The name without authorship applied on the first identification of the specimen
basisOfRecord The specific nature of the data record
habitat Description of the habitat where the specimen was found
organismQuantityType The type of quantification system used to quantity the organisms
organismQuantity Percentage of the organism coverage
recordedBy Person(s) responsible for sampling
catalogNumber Identifying code for a unique sample lot in a biological collection
identifiedBy Person(s) responsible for taxa identification
type The nature of the resource
preparations The preservation method used for the specimen
establishmentMeans The establishment status of the organism in the study region
occurrenceRemarks New record status assignment
licence Reference to the licence under which the record is published

Additional information

This paper accommodates the 418 specimens of macroalgae recorded from Terceira Island in 147 taxa (Tables 2, 3) comprising 113 confirmed species and 34 taxa identified only to genus level, belonging to 21 orders and 45 families, distributed by the phyla Rhodophyta (9 orders and 25 families), Chlorophyta (5 orders and 8 families) and Ochrophyta (7 orders and 12 families). The confirmed species include 73 Rhodophyta, 24 Chlorophyta and 16 Ochrophyta (Phaeophyceae). From these, 35 species are newly-recorded for the Island (27 Rhodophyta, 6 Chlorophyta and 2 Ochrophyta). Most species are native, including the three Macaronesian endemics Millerella tinerfensis (Seoane-Camba) S.M.Boo & J.M.Rico, Phyllophora gelidioides P.Crouan & H.Crouan ex Karsakoff and Codium elisabethiae O.C. Schmidt, eight are introduced and 15 have uncertain origin.

Table 2.

Macroalgae species from Terceira Island, with information on their relative abundance, origin and status.

Phylum

Species (Accepted Name)

Number of records

Establishment Means

Occurrence

Remarks

Rhodophyta

Acrosorium ciliolatum (Harvey) Kylin

4

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Amphiroa beauvoisii J.V.Lamouroux

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Amphiroa fragilissima (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux

2

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Amphiroa rigida J.V.Lamouroux

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Anotrichium tenue (C.Agardh) Nägeli

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Aphanocladia stichidiosa (Funk) Ardré

4

Native

Rhodophyta

Asparagopsis armata Harvey

12

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Asparagopsis armata Harvey, phase Falkenbergia rufolanosa (Harvey) F.Schmitz

1

Introduced

New record

Rhodophyta

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan

5

Native

Rhodophyta

Bonnemaisonia hamifera Hariot

1

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Carradoriella denudata (Dillwyn) A.M.Savoie & G.W.Saunders

3

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Caulacanthus ustulatus (Mertens ex Turner) Kützing

5

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Centroceras clavulatum (C.Agardh) Montagne

4

Native

Rhodophyta

Ceramium ciliatum (J.Ellis) Ducluzeau

3

Native

Rhodophyta

Ceramium cingulatum Weber Bosse

1

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Ceramium diaphanum (Lightfoot) Roth

5

Native

Rhodophyta

Ceramium echionotum J.Agardh

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Ceramium tenerrimum (G.Martens) Okamura

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Ceramium virgatum Roth

5

Native

Rhodophyta

Chondracanthus acicularis (Roth) Fredericq

5

Native

Rhodophyta

Chondracanthus teedei (Mertens ex Roth) Kützing

2

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Chondria coerulescens (J.Agardh) Sauvageau

1

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Chondria dasyphylla (Woodward) C.Agardh

3

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Crouania attenuata (C.Agardh) J.Agardh

3

Native

Rhodophyta

Dermocorynus dichotomus (J.Agardh) Gargiulo, M.Morabito & Manghisi

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Ellisolandia elongata (J.Ellis & Solander) K.R.Hind & G.W.Saunders

10

Native

Rhodophyta

Gastroclonium clavatum (Roth) Ardissone

4

Native

Rhodophyta

Gastroclonium ovatum (Hudson) Papenfuss

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Gastroclonium reflexum (Chauvin) Kützing

4

Native

Rhodophyta

Gayliella flaccida (Harvey ex Kützing) T.O.Cho & L.J.McIvor

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Gelidium microdon Kützing

7

Native

Rhodophyta

Gelidium pusillum (Stackhouse) Le Jolis

5

Native

Rhodophyta

Gelidium spinosum (S.G.Gmelin) P.C.Silva in Silva, Basson & Moe

5

Native

Rhodophyta

Gymnogongrus crenulatus (Turner) J.Agardh

5

Native

Rhodophyta

Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Martius

3

Native

Rhodophyta

Herposiphonia secunda f. secunda (C.Agardh) Falkenberg

4

Native

Rhodophyta

Hypnea arbuscula P.J.L.Dangeard

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux

4

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Jania capillacea Harvey

4

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Jania longifurca Zanardini

1

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Jania pedunculata var. adhaerens (J.V.Lamouroux) A.S.Harvey, Woelkerling & Reviers

3

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Jania pumila J.V.Lamouroux

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux

3

Native

Rhodophyta

Jania virgata (Zanardini) Montagne

3

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Laurencia chondrioides Børgesen

1

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Laurencia minuta Vandermeulen, Garbary & Guiry

2

Introduced

New record

Rhodophyta

Laurencia tenera C.K.Tseng

3

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Lomentaria articulata (Hudson) Lyngbye

4

Native

Rhodophyta

Lomentaria clavellosa (Lightfoot ex Turner) Gaillon

1

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Lomentaria orcadensis (Harvey) Collins in W.R.Taylor

1

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Lophosiphonia cristata Falkenberg

5

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Melanothamnus sphaerocarpus (Børgesen) Díaz-Tapia & Maggs

2

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Meredithia microphylla (J.Agardh) J.Agardh

2

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Millerella pannosa (Feldmann) G.H.Boo & L.Le Gall

2

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Millerella tinerfensis (Seoane-Camba) S.M.Boo & J.M.Rico

3

Macaronesian endemism

New record

Rhodophyta

Nitophyllum punctatum (Stackhouse) Greville

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Osmundea hybrida (A.P.de Candolle) K.W.Nam

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Osmundea pinnatifida (Hudson) Stackhouse

6

Native

Rhodophyta

Osmundea truncata (Kützing) K.W.Nam & Maggs in K.W.Nam, Maggs & Garbary

4

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Peyssonnelia squamaria (S.G.Gmelin) Decaisne ex J.Agardh

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Phyllophora gelidioides P.Crouan & H.Crouan ex Karsakoff

2

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus) P.S.Dixon

3

Native

Rhodophyta

Pterocladiella capillacea (S.G.Gmelin) Santelices & Hommersand

9

Native

Rhodophyta

Rhodophyllis divaricata (Stackhouse) Papenfuss

4

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Rhodymenia holmesii Ardissone

5

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Sphaerococcus coronopifolius Stackhouse

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Sphondylothamnion multifidum (Hudson) Nägeli

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Spyridia filamentosa (Wulfen) Harvey

2

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Symphyocladia marchantioides (Harvey) Falkenberg

2

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Vertebrata fruticulosa (Wulfen) Kuntze

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Vertebrata hypnoides (Welwitsch) Kuntze

2

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Vertebrata reptabunda (Suhr) Díaz-Tapia & Maggs

4

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Vertebrata tripinnata (Harvey) Kuntze

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Wurdemannia miniata (Sprengel) Feldmann & Hamel

2

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Blidingia minima (Nägeli ex Kützing) Kylin

1

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Bryopsis cupressina J.V.Lamouroux

1

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Bryopsis plumosa (Hudson) C.Agardh

3

Native

Chlorophyta

Chaetomorpha aerea (Dillwyn) Kützing

5

Native

Chlorophyta

Chaetomorpha linum (O.F.Müller) Kützing

1

Native

Chlorophyta

Chaetomorpha mediterranea (Kützing) Kützing

1

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Chaetomorpha pachynema (Montagne) Kützing

2

Native

Chlorophyta

Cladophora albida (Nees) Kützing

2

Native

Chlorophyta

Cladophora coelothrix Kützing

5

Native

Chlorophyta

Cladophora dalmatica Kützing

1

Uncertain

Chlorophyta

Cladophora laetevirens (Dillwyn) Kützing

2

Uncertain

Chlorophyta

Cladophora lehmanniana (Lindenberg) Kützing

1

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Cladophora prolifera (Roth) Kützing

5

Native

Chlorophyta

Cladophoropsis membranacea (Hofman Bang ex C.Agardh) Børgesen

1

Uncertain

Chlorophyta

Codium adhaerens C.Agardh

4

Native

Chlorophyta

Codium elisabethiae O.C.Schmidt

1

Macaronesian endemism

Chlorophyta

Gayralia oxysperma (Kützing) K.L.Vinogradova ex Scagel

1

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Lychaete pellucida (Hudson) M.J.Wynne

3

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh

2

Native

Chlorophyta

Ulva compressa Linnaeus

6

Native

Chlorophyta

Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus

5

Native

Chlorophyta

Ulva polyclada Kraft

1

Native

Chlorophyta

Ulva prolifera O.F.Müller

5

Native

Chlorophyta

Ulva rigida C.Agardh

6

Native

Ochrophyta

Asterocladon rhodochortonoides (Børgesen) S.Uwai, C.Nagasato, T.Motomura & K.Kogame

1

Native

Ochrophyta

Cladostephus spongiosus (Hudson) C.Agardh

1

Native

Ochrophyta

Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) Derbès & Solier

10

Native

Ochrophyta

Dictyota dichotoma (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux

1

Native

Ochrophyta

Feldmannia irregularis (Kützing) Hamel

1

Native

Ochrophyta

Fucus spiralis Linnaeus

5

Uncertain

Ochrophyta

Halopteris filicina (Grateloup) Kützing

13

Native

Ochrophyta

Halopteris scoparia (Linnaeus) Sauvageau

12

Native

Ochrophyta

Nemoderma tingitanum Schousboe ex Bornet

5

Native

Ochrophyta

Padina pavonica (Linnaeus) Thivy

4

Native

Ochrophyta

Petalonia binghamiae (J.Agardh) K.L.Vinogradova

1

Introduced

Ochrophyta

Pseudolithoderma adriaticum (Hauck) Verlaque

2

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Ralfsia verrucosa (Areschoug) Areschoug

7

Native

Ochrophyta

Sargassum cymosum C.Agardh

1

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Treptacantha abies-marina (S.G.Gmelin) Kützing

4

Native

Ochrophyta

Zonaria tournefortii (J.V.Lamouroux) Montagne

8

Native

Table 3.

Main taxonomic figures with information on the species origin and status.

Phyllum

Order

Family

Specimens Number

Total taxa

Total species

Native

Introduced

Uncertain

Macaronesian endemism

New record

Rhodophyta

9

25

248

95

73

53

7

11

2

27

Chlorophyta

5

8

77

33

24

20

3

1

6

Ochrophyta

7

12

93

19

16

14

1

1

2

Total

21

45

418

147

113

87

8

15

3

35

Many species were only sporadically recorded on Terceira, but nine were commonly found around the island and occurred quite abundantly in some locations, namely: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis armata Harvey, Ellisolandia elongata and Pterocladiella capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Santelices & Hommersand; the Chlorophyta Ulva rigida and Ulva compressa Linnaeus; and the Ochrophyta Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) Derbès & Solier in Castagne, Halopteris filicina (Grateloup) Kützing, Halopteris scoparia (Linnaeus) Sauvageau and Zonaria tournefortii.

A mismatch regarding the GBIF backbone taxonomy of some of the macroalgae species names was identified as detailed in Suppl. material 1.

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the project “CAMAG/TER - Caracterização das massas de água costeira da Ilha Terceira”, funded by the Azores Regional Government and lately by the project “ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072” funded the Operational Programme Azores 2020 (85% ERDF and 15% regional funds). Thanks are due to the Campaign CAMAG-TER/2008 team (Albert Cámara, Marlene Terra, Rita Patarra and Vanda Brotas). The occasional collections made by Eunice Nogueira, Luís Cabral, Mariana Brito and Marisa Toste are appreciated. Afonso Prestes was supported by a PhD grant (M3.1.a/F/083/2015) awarded by Fundo Regional da Ciência e Tecnologia (FRCT).

Author contributions

  • AIN: Conceptualisation; Methodology; Investigation (field and laboratory work); Resources; Data Curation; Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing;
  • ACLP: Investigation (field and laboratory work); Resources; Data Curation; Paper writing;
  • NVA: Investigation (field and laboratory work); Maps elaboration; Paper writing;
  • RR: Resources; Data Curation;
  • RMAN: Data Curation; Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing;
  • IM: Data Curation; Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing.

References

Supplementary material

Suppl. material 1: DP-TER-id_14160_normalized-redz.csv 
Authors:  Ana I Neto
Data type:  Macroalgae taxonomic mismatching
Brief description: 

GBIF does not have the more actualised nomenclature for some of the macroalgae species names. Therefore, the matching tools of its platform were applied to the species list, as required by Pensoft's data auditor, to identify the problematic taxonomic situations. The resulting file (DP-TER-id_14160_normalized-redz.csv) is included here, since the names will not be immediately updated in the GBIF Taxonomic Backbone. A request was already sent to GBIF helpdesk to resolve this situation.