Biodiversity Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
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Data Paper (Biosciences)
Marine algal flora of Flores and Corvo Islands, Azores
expand article infoAna I Azevedo Neto, Manuela I. Parente§, Ian Tittley|, Robert L. Fletcher, William Farnham, Ana C. Costa§, Andrea Z. Botelho§, Sandra Monteiro§, Roberto Resendes#, Pedro Afonso¤, Afonso C.L. Prestes, Nuno V. Álvaro«, David Mila-Figueras¤, Raul M. A. Neto», José M. N. Azevedo, Ignacio Moreu
‡ cE3c - Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes/Azorean Biodiversity Group, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade dos Açores, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, Açores, Portugal
§ CIBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, InBIO Laboratório Associado, Pólo dos Açores, Universidade dos Açores, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Departamento de Biologia, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, Açores, Portugal
| Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, Code SW7 5BD, United Kingdom
¶ Institute of Marine Sciences, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Eastney, Portsmouth, PO4 9LY, United Kingdom
# Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade dos Açores, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, Açores, Portugal
¤ IMAR/Okeanos, Departamento de Oceanografia e Pescas, Universidade dos Açores, Rua Prof. Doutor Frederico Machado, 9901-862 Horta, Açores, Portugal
« CCMMG (Centro do Clima Meteorologia e Mudanças Globais) & IITA-A (Instituto de Investigação e Tecnologias Agrárias e do Ambiente), Universidade dos Açores, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias, Rua Capitão João d’Ávila – Pico da Urze, 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo, Açores, Portugal
» NA, NA, Portugal
Open Access

Abstract

Background

The algal flora of the western group of the Azores archipelago (Islands of Flores and Corvo) has attracted the interest of many researchers on numerous past occasions (such as Drouet 1866, Trelease 1897, Gain 1914, Schmidt 1929, Schmidt 1931, Azevedo et al. 1990, Fralick and Hehre 1990, Neto and Azevedo 1990, Neto and Baldwin 1990, Neto 1996, Neto 1997, Neto 1999, Tittley and Neto 1996, Tittley and Neto 2000, Tittley and Neto 2005, Tittley and Neto 2006, Azevedo 1998, Azevedo 1999, Tittley et al. 1998, Dionísio et al. 2008, Neto et al. 2008). Despite this interest, the macroalgal flora of the Islands cannot be described as well-known with the published information reflecting limited collections preformed in short-term visits by scientists. To overcome this, a thorough investigation, encompassing collections and presence data recording, has been undertaken for both the littoral and sublittoral regions, down to a depth of approximately 40 m, covering a relatively large area on both Islands (approximately 143 km2 for Flores and 17 km2 for Corvo).

This paper lists the resultant taxonomic records and provides information on species ecology and occurrence around both these Islands, thereby improving the knowledge of the Azorean macroalgal flora at both local and regional scales.

New information

For the Island of Flores, a total of 1687 specimens (including some taxa identified only to genus level) belonging to 196 taxa of macroalgae are registered, comprising 120 Rhodophyta, 35 Chlorophyta and 41 Ochrophyta (Phaeophyceae). Of these taxa, 128 were identified to species level (80 Rhodophyta, 22 Chlorophyta and 26 Ochrophyta), encompassing 37 new records for the Island (20 Rhodophyta, 6 Chlorophyta and 11 Ochrophyta); two Macaronesian endemics (Laurencia viridis Gil-Rodríguez & Haroun and Millerella tinerfensis (Seoane-Camba) S.M.Boo & J.M.Rico); six introduced (the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis armata Harvey, Neoizziella divaricata (C.K.Tseng) S.-M.Lin, S.-Y.Yang & Huisman and Symphyocladia marchantioides (Harvey) Falkenberg; the Chlorophyta Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot; and the Ochrophyta Hydroclathrus tilesii (Endlicher) Santiañez & M.J.Wynne and Papenfussiella kuromo (Yendo) Inagaki); and 14 species of uncertain status (10 Rhodophyta, two Chlorophyta and two Ochrophyta).

For the Island of Corvo, a total of 390 specimens distributed in 56 taxa of macroalgae are registered, comprising 30 Rhodophyta, nine Chlorophyta and 17 Ochrophyta (Phaeophyceae). Whilst a number of taxa were identified only to the genus level, 43 were identified to species level (22 Rhodophyta, eight Chlorophyta and 13 Ochrophyta), comprising 22 new records for the Island (nine Rhodophyta, four Chlorophyta and nine Ochrophyta), two introduced species (the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis armata and the Chlorophyta Codium fragile subsp. fragile and seven species of uncertain status (five Rhodophyta and two Ochrophyta).

Keywords

Macroalgae, Azores, Corvo Island, Flores Island, new records, endemism, native, uncertain, introduced, occurrence data.

Introduction

The Azorean algal flora, considered cosmopolitan, with species shared with Macaronesia, North Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Europe and America (Tittley 2003, Tittley and Neto 2006, Wallenstein et al. 2009), is relatively rich when compared to that of other remote oceanic Islands (Neto et al. 2005, Tittley and Neto 2005, Wallenstein et al. 2009). Around 400 species of marine macroalgae have, to date, been recorded for the isolated mid-Atlantic Azores archipelago (Freitas et al. 2019). These authors, based on extensive analysis encompassing data on brachyurans, polychaetes, gastropods, echinoderms, coastal fishes and macroalgae, suggested that the Azores should be a biogeographical entity of its own and proposed a redefinition of the Lusitanian biogeographical province, in which they recognised four ecoregions: the South European Atlantic Shelf, the Saharan Upwelling, the Azores ecoregion and a new ecoregion herein named Webbnesia, which comprises the archipelagos of Madeira, Selvagens and the Canary Islands. In their paper comparing the Azorean algal flora to that of the new Webbnesia region, they reported that the Canary Islands, with 689 species of marine macroalgae, are by far the most diverse archipelago, followed by the Azores (405), Madeira (396) and Cabo Verde (333). The Selvagens are the least diverse one (295 species). It is worth mentioning that the published information reflects data from only a few of the nine Azorean Islands, since not all of them have been adequately investigated. In the Azores archipelago, São Miguel is by far the Island with the largest amount of research dedicated to the study of its algal flora. The total number of algal species is, at the moment, 260, a number that is likely to increase due to ongoing research by authors of the present paper. Most of the remaining Islands have received less attention. To overcome this and improve the understanding of the archipelago’s macroalgal flora, research has been conducted over the past three decades on all the Islands. Data on the Islands of Pico, Graciosa and Terceira is already available on the recently-published papers (Neto et al. 2020a, Neto et al. 2020b, Neto et al. 2020c). Table 1 summarises the currently-available information.

Table 1.

Number of macroalgal species on the Azorean Islands (Neto et al. 2020b, Neto et al. 2020c, Neto et al. 2020d and authors' unpublished data).

Phyllum Santa Maria São Miguel Terceira Graciosa São Jorge Pico Faial Flores Corvo
Rhodophyta 68 168 73 126 35 142 59 59 13
Chlorophyta 20 39 24 31 17 41 16 16 2
Ochrophyta 28 53 16 38 10 42 8 16 4
Total 116 260 113 195 62 225 83 91 19

To provide a better understanding of the archipelago’s seaweed flora, a long term research programme of study has been undertaken, mainly by local investigators into the marine macroalgae flora on several of the less studied Azorean Islands. The present paper presents both physical and occurrence data and information gathered from surveys undertaken on Flores and Corvo Islands mainly by the Island Aquatic Research Group of the Azorean Biodiversity Centre of the University of the Azores (Link: https://ce3c.ciencias.ulisboa.pt/sub-team/island-aquatic-ecology), the BIOISLE, Biodiversity and Islands Research Group of CIBIO-Açores at the University of the Azores (Link: https://cibio.up.pt/research-groups-1/details/bioisle) and the OKEANOS Centre of the University of the Azores (Link: http://www.okeanos.uac.pt). In these surveys, particular attention was given to the small filamentous and thin sheet-like species that are often short-lived and fast-growing and usually very difficult to identify in the wild, without the aid of a microscope and specialised literature in the laboratory.

The present paper aims to provide a valuable marine biological tool for research on systematics, diversity and conservation, biological monitoring, climate change and ecology for academics, students, government, private organisations and the general public.

General description

Purpose: 

In this paper, we present taxonomic records of macroalgae recorded from the Islands of Flores and Corvo and provide general information on their occurrence and distribution. By doing this, we are contributing to address several biodiversity shortfalls (see Cardoso et al. 2011, Hortal et al. 2015), namely, the need to catalogue the Azorean macroalgae (Linnean shortfall) and improve the current information on their local and regional geographic distribution (Wallacean shortfall), as well as on species abundance and dynamics in space (Prestonian shortfall).

Project description

Title: 

Marine algal flora of Flores and Corvo Islands, Azores.

Personnel: 

Collections were made and occurrence data recorded over several years (1989 - 2018). Main collectors were Ana Cristina Costa, Ana I Neto, Andrea Z. Botelho, Carolina Arruda, Cláudia Hipólito, Cristiana Figueiredo, David Milla-Figueras, Heather Baldwin, Inês Neto, Joana Michael, José M. N. Azevedo, Ian Tittley, Manuela I. Parente, Marco Henrique, Maria Ana Dionísio, Maria Ventura, Nuno Vaz Álvaro, Patrícia Madeira, Pedro Cerqueira, Raul Neto, Rita Grilo, Rita Norberto, Robert Fletcher, Sandra Monteiro and William Farnham.

Preliminary in situ identifications were carried out by: Ana Cristina Costa, Ana I Neto, Andrea Z. Botelho, David Milla-Figueras, Heather Baldwin, Ian Tittley, Manuela I. Parente, Maria Ventura, Rita Grilo, Robert Fletcher and William Farnham.

Ana I. Neto, Andrea Z. Botelho, David Milla-Figueras, Ian Tittley, Manuela I. Parente, Robert Fletcher and William Farnham were responsible for the final species identification.

Voucher specimen management was mainly undertaken by Afonso Prestes, Ana I. Neto, Andrea Z. Botelho, David Milla-Figueras, Eunice Nogueira, Manuela I. Parente, Natália Cabral and Roberto Resendes.

Study area description: 

The Azores archipelago (38°43′49″N, 27°19′10″W, Fig. 1), comprising nine Islands and several islets, is spread over 500 km, in a WNW direction. The Islands emerged from what is called the Azores Plateau and are located above an active triple junction between three of the world's largest tectonic plates (the North American Plate, the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate, Hildenbrand et al. 2018). Flores and Corvo (in black in Fig. 1), the westernmost Islands of the archipelago, are located in the North American Plate, whereas the remaining Islands are located around the boundary that divides the Eurasian and African Plates (Hildenbrand et al. 2018).

Figure 1.  

The Azores, its location in the Atlantic and Flores and Corvo Islands highlighted in black (by Nuno V. Álvaro).

The Islands of Flores and Corvo are sub-aerial domains of a large volcanic formation, mostly submarine, implanted on an oceanic crust and aged between 9.0 and 10.0 million years (Ma). Each of these Islands has unique geomorphological characteristics: Flores (39°31'27″N, -31°15'31"W, Fig. 2), of approximately 141 km2, is composed of two units, the central massif located in the central plain and the coastal periphery; Corvo, its neighbour (39°43'37"N, -31°7'44"W, Fig. 3), of approximately 17 km2, is a crater of a major Plinian eruption and the smallest Island of the Azores archipelago (Azevedo 1999). The climate, as in the remaining Islands, is characterised by regular and abundant rainfall, high levels of relative humidity and persistent winds, mainly during the winter and autumn seasons (Morton et al. 1998). Fog is common and almost permanent at the higher elevations.

Figure 2.  

Flores Island showing the sampling locations (by Nuno V. Álvaro).

Figure 3.  

Corvo Island showing the sampling locations (by Nuno V. Álvaro).

Marine action is responsible for the predominance of erosive morphologies in the coastal areas of both Islands, examples of which on Flores (Neto et al. 2008) are: the valleys associated with fluvial erosion (Vales das Lajes and da Fazenda); the coastal or back cliffs (Fajãzinha - Ponta da Fajã); the large marine abrasion platforms (Fajãzinha - Fajã Grande); and the coastal platforms associated with landslides and collapses (Ponta da Fajã).

Owing to the lack of a continental shelf that characterises most volcanic Islands, coastal extension is restricted and deep waters occur within a few kilometres offshore. The tidal range is small (< 2 m, Hidrogrográfico 1981) and coasts are subjected to swell and surge for most of the year.

The Islands’ coastline, approximately 72.209 km long on Flores and 19.045 km long on Corvo, is predominantly rocky, subject to strong maritime erosion and presents an irregular slope with extensive and high cliffs cut by waterfalls and streams, alternating with a complex system of bays, rocky beaches and natural terraces (Azevedo 1999). The bottom is mostly made up of irregular rocky bedrock, containing, in some places, pockets of sediment of coarse sand and gravel, alternating with places covered by blocks that rest on either the rocky bed or the sediment. Submerged or semi-submerged caves, arches and tunnels of small amplitude and reduced length are common. As depth increases, the slope decreases, although the bottom is still rocky and uneven. This feature is interrupted by valleys and other structures of smooth to rough relief. The sediment floor in the deepest areas is stable, generally composed of medium and/or coarse sand. From this floor arise small islets with normally vertical walls and low irregular crowns, marked by ridges and valleys (Neto et al. 2008). Along the coastline and islets, natural sheltered habitats (arches and semi-submerged caves, tide pools) create favourable conditions for the growth of juveniles and adults of coastal fish. The constant recycling of nutrients caused by the wave-exposed coasts of these Islands, provides suitable conditions for the occurrence of considerable diversity and abundance of macroinvertebrates and pelagic and benthic fish (Neto et al. 2008). At the foot of the cliffs, the rocky intertidal zone is, as elsewhere in the Azores, dominated by algal communities that form mosaic and/or horizontal bands relative to tide level and are made up of multispecific algal turfs (growth forms of either diminutive algae or diminutive forms of larger species) that carpet the rocks. In the intertidal, a distinct zonation pattern is evident. The higher zone, dominated by invertebrates (littorinids and chthamalid barnacles, Fig. 4), gives rise below to a mid-shore zone covered by algal turfs that create a dense, compact mat 20-30 mm in thickness, Fig. 5). The turf can be monospecific (of either Caulacanthus ustulatus (Turner) Kützing, Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh) Montagne or Gymnogongrus) or multispecific and composed by soft algae (e.g. Centroceras clavulatum, Ceramium and Chondracanthus) usually growing as epiphytes over articulate calcareous forms (e.g. Ellisolandia and Jania). The low-shore zone is mainly dominated by calcareous crusts (first/basal strata), covered by corticated macrophytes, for example, Ellisolandia elongata (J.Ellis & Solander) K.R.Hind & G.W.Saunders (Fig. 6) and Pterocladiella capillacea (S.G.Gmelin) Santelices & Hommersand (Fig. 7) and, in more exposed locations, Tenarea tortuosa (Esper) Me Lemoine (Neto et al. 2008). Seasonally and mainly in spring and summer, the introduced red alga Asparagopsis armata occurs often abundantly at this lower intertidal level. Important features and habitats at this shore level are rock pools, occurring in different shapes and sizes and often recreating a shallow subtidal habitat, which contains a rich diversity of marine life. A few shores consist of irregularly rounded boulders or cobbles between which coarse sand or gravel may be retained. Sandy shores are rare (Neto, pers. observ.). The rocky bottoms in the submerged zone are covered by more frondose macrophytes, such as Pterocladiella capillacea, Halopteris filicina (Grateloup) Kützing, Dictyota spp. or Zonaria tournefortii (J.V.Lamouroux) Montagne (Fig. 8). At this level, the edible barnacles Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916) and/or the limpets Patella aspera Röding, 1798 are concentrated in the first few metres, while the slipper lobsters Scyllarides latus (Latreille, 1803) or the spiny lobsters Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787) are found at greater depths. Several species of fish, such as the blue wrasse Symphodus caeruleus (Azevedo, 1999) or the ornate wrasse Thalassoma pavo (Linnaeus, 1758), are particularly frequent in shallow rocky areas, whereas other fish take shelter in crevices during the day, such as the morays, Muraena helena Linnaeus, 1758 or the forkbeards Phycis phycis (Linnaeus, 1766). Still other species roam amongst rocky reefs, such as the parrotfish Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus, 1758), the salemas Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus, 1758) and the white sea bream Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus, 1758). In the numerous sea caves around Flores and Corvo, the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834) occurs with an unknown frequency in most of the other Islands (Neto et al. 2008).

Figure 4.  

Chthamalid barnacles and littorinids, characteristic species of the Azorean high intertidal level (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 5.  

Algal turfs at the low-shore intertidal level (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 6.  

The calcareous frondose alga Ellisolandia elongata at the low intertidal level (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 7.  

The red agarophyte Pterocladiella capillacea, a common species at the low intertidal level (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 8.  

The frondose brown macrophyte Zonaria tournefortii at the subtidal level (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

In 2007, both Flores and Corvo Islands were recognised by UNESCO as a Biosphere Reserve and thus integrated into the programme “The Man and the Biosphere”. The programme focuses on the ecological, social and economic dimensions of biodiversity loss and uses the World Network of Biosphere Reserves as a vehicle for knowledge sharing, research and monitoring, education and training and participatory decision-making with local communities. The proposed area for the Biosphere Reserve includes the entire emerged land area of the Islands and a surrounding marine zone, covering a total area of 58,619 hectares in Flores and 25,853 hectares in Corvo and incorporating an important diversity of habitats of regional, national and international importance, which includes, for example, areas integrated in the Natura 2000 Network. The inclusion of a vast marine area promotes explicitly, along with conservation, an integrated management practice between terrestrial, coastal and marine environments (Neto et al. 2008).

Design description: 

The algae referred to in this paper were collected during field surveys from both the littoral and sublittoral regions down to approximately 40 m on the Islands of Flores and Corvo. Each sampling location was visited several times. On each occasion, a careful and extensive survey was undertaken to provide good coverage of the area. Both presence recording and physical collections were made by walking over the shores or by SCUBA diving. The specimens collected were taken to the laboratory for identification and preservation and the resulting vouchers were deposited in the AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha and the Molecular Systematics Laboratory at the Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores.

Funding: 

This study was mainly financed by the following projects/scientific expeditions:

  • Projects:
    • IASTFC- “Impact Assessment Study for the construction of the Transport Infrastructures of the Islands of Flores and Corvo, Azores - natural environment”, funded by the Azores Regional Government - Regional Secretariat for Tourism and Environment / Regional Environment Directorate, 1990;
    • LFFC- “Littoral flora of the islands of Flores and Corvo: Inventory, ecology and biogeographic affinities”, Government of the Azores - Regional Secretariat for Tourism and Environment / Regional Environment Directorate (GRA-SRTA / DRA), 1995-1999;
    • Project Flores- Biosphere - “Application of Flores Island to a Biosphere Reserve”. Government of the Azores - Regional Secretariat for the Environment and the Sea (GRA-SRAM). 2007-2008;
    • Project MOST - “Application of a model of sustainable tourism to areas of Natura 2000 network in the Azores” (PTDC / AAC-AMB / 104714/2008). Foundation for Science and Technology and the Government of the Azores - Regional Secretariat for the Sea, Science and Technology, Regional Directorate for Sea Affairs (GRA / SRMCT-DRAM), 2010 - 2013;
    • Project PIMA – “Elaboration of the implementation program of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive - Marine Invasion Program in the Azores” (3 /DRAM /2015). Government of the Azores - Regional Secretariat for the Sea, Science and Technology, Regional Directorate for Sea Affairs (GRA / SRMCT-DRAM), 2015;
    • Project BALA – “Elaboration of the implementation program of the marine strategy framework directive - biodiversity of the coastal environments of the Azores” (2 /DRAM /2015). Government of the Azores - Regional Secretariat for the Sea, Science and Technology, Regional Directorate for Sea Affairs (GRA / SRMCT-DRAM), 2015;
    • Project “ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072 - AZORES BIOPORTAL – PORBIOTA. Operational Programme Azores 2020 (85% ERDF and 15% regional funds);
  • Scientific Expeditions and campaigns:
    • “FLORES/89”, organised by the Biology Department of the University of the Azores, Flores Island, Azores, July 1989;
    • “Earthwatch FLORES/95”, a joint organisation of the Marine Biology Section of the Biology Department of the University of the Azores and the Natural History Museum (London), co-funded by the Earthwatch International and developed under the project LFFC, July – August 1995;
    • “FLORES & CORVO/99”, developed under the project LFFC, July 1999;
    • “FLORES & CORVO/2007”, XIII Scientific Expedition of the Biology Department of the University of the Azores, Islands of Flores and Corvo, July 2007;
    • “MOST”, under the project MOST, 2011-2013;
    • “PIMA/BALA”, under the projects PIMA and BALA, 2015;
  • Other funds:
    • Portuguese National Funds, through FCT– Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, within the projects UID/BIA/00329/2013, 2015-2019, UID/BIA/00329/2020-2023 and UID/BIA/50027/2019 and POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006821;
    • ERDF funds through the Operational Programme for Competitiveness Factors – COMPETE;
    • Portuguese Regional Funds, through DRCT - Regional Directorate for Science and Technology, within several projects, 2019 and 2020 and SRMCT / DRAM - Regional Secretariat for the Sea, Science and Technology, Regional Directorate for Sea Affairs;
    • CIRN/DB/UAc (Research Centre for Natural Resources, Universidade dos Açores, Departamento de Biologia);
    • CIIMAR (Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Porto, Portugal).

Sampling methods

Study extent: 

This study covers a relatively large area, of approximately 143 km2 on Flores and 17 km2 on Corvo, covering littoral and sublittoral levels down to approximately 40 m around the Islands (Tables 2, 3, Figs 2, 3).

Table 2.

Information and location of the sampling sites on Flores Island.

Location Nо Location ID Municipality Locality Latitude / Longitude Littoral zone
1 FLO_bris Baixa Rasa do Ilhéu 39,495215; -31,274644 Subtidal
2 FLO_L_FGem Lajes Fajã Grande | Entre-marés 39,453485; -31,267758 Intertidal
3 FLO_L_FGprb Lajes Fajã Grande | Porto de Recreio | Baía 39,460831; -31,261651 Subtidal
4 FLO_L_FGprem Lajes Fajã Grande | Porto de Recreio | Entre-marés 39,459356; -31,261244 Intertidal
5 FLO_L_FGpvb Lajes Faja Grande | Porto Velho | Baía 39,456795; -31,268607 Subtidal
6 FLO_L_FGpvb Lajes Faja Grande | Porto Velho | Baía 39,458818; -31,264851 Intertidal
7 FLO_L_FGpve Lajes Fajã Grande | Porto Velho | Enseada 39,459471; -31,264743 Subtidal
8 FLO_L_FGpvem Lajes Faja Grande | Porto Velho | Entre-marés 39,458818; -31,264851 Intertidal
9 FLO_L_Ls Lajes Lajedo 39,392978; -31,259311 Subtidal
10 FLO_L_Lnt Lajes Lajedo | Nascente termal 39,393021; -31,258356 Intertidal
11 FLO_L_Lapem Lajes Lajes | Atrás do Porto | Entre-marés 39,377324; -31,169366 Intertidal
12 FLO_L_Laps Lajes Lajes | Atrás do Porto | Subtidal 39,372111; -31,17103 Subtidal
13 FLO_L_Lem Lajes Lajes | Entre-marés 39,376978; -31,171336 Intertidal
14 FLO_L_Flvs Lajes Lajes | Fajã de Lopo Vaz 39,372801; -31,208518 Subtidal
15 FLO_L_Fpls Lajes Lajes | Fazenda | Porto da Lomba 39,399797; -31,150731 Subtidal
16 FLO_L_Ms Lajes Lajes | Mosteiro 39,413261; -31,260714 Subtidal
17 FLO_L_Lp Lajes Lajes | Porto 39,379015; -31,167686 Subtidal
18 FLO_SC_CAb Santa Cruz Cedros | Alagoa | Baía 39,474441; -31,144853 Subtidal
19 FLO_SC_CAem Santa Cruz Cedros | Alagoa | Entre-marés 39,474473; -31,148271 Intertidal
20 FLO_SC_PDapem Santa Cruz Ponta Delgada | Atrás do Porto | Entre-marés 39,519728; -31,206613 Intertidal
21 FLO_SC_PDaps Santa Cruz Ponta Delgada | Atrás do Porto | Subtidal 39,519568; -31,206579 Subtidal
22 FLO_SC_PDpem Santa Cruz Ponta Delgada | Porto | Entre-marés 39,519473; -31,208125 Intertidal
23 FLO_SC_PDpes Santa Cruz Ponta Delgada | Porto | Este 39,519017; -31,206235 Subtidal
24 FLO_SC_PDpos Santa Cruz Ponta Delgada | Porto | Oeste 39,520223; -31,205269 Subtidal
25 FLO_SC_PDFAs Santa Cruz Farol de Albernaz 39,520461; -31,238744 Subtidal
26 FLO_SC_SCaps Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Atrás do porto 39,452411; -31,125155 Subtidal
27 FLO_SC_SCapvem Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Atrás do porto velho 39,454593; -31,124608 Intertidal
28 FLO_SC_SCapvem Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Atrás do porto velho | Entre-marés 39,454593; -31,124608 Intertidal
29 FLO_SC_SCbvs Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Baixa vermelha 39,46859; -31,135821 Subtidal
30 FLO_SC_SCbpds Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Baixas de Ponta Delgada 39,526318; -31,206453 Subtidal
31 FLO_SC_SCfs Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Fazenda 39,469496; -31,139423 Subtidal
32 FLO_SC_SCiars Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Ilhéu de Álvaro Rodrigues 39,488436; -31,148651 Subtidal
33 FLO_SC_SCigs Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Ilhéu do Garajau 39,48444; -31,145556 Subtidal
34 FLO_SC_SCias Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Ilhéu dos Abrões 39,504518; -31,187712 Subtidal
35 FLO_SC_SCifs Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Ilhéu Francisco 39,523814; -31,214148 Subtidal
36 FLO_SC_SCimvs Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Ilhéu Maria Vaz 39,505833; -31,245 Subtidal
37 FLO_SC_SCipas Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Ilhéu Pão de Açucar 39,500367; -31,170582 Subtidal
38 FLO_SC_SCpiem Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Piscinas | Entre-marés 39,458842; -31,124608 Intertidal
39 FLO_SC_SCpcs Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Ponta da Caveira 39,424187; -31,145587 Subtidal
40 FLO_SC_SCpis Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Ponta do lhéu 39,509661; -31,19527 Subtidal
41 FLO_SC_SCpros Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Ponta Ruiva | Oeste 39,495572; -31,152406 Subtidal
42 FLO_SC_SCpbbd Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Porto da Baleia | Baía | Deep 39,463387; -31,127258 Subtidal
43 FLO_SC_SCpbbs1 Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Porto da Baleia | Baía | Shallow 1 39,463035; -31,128021 Subtidal
44 FLO_SC_SCpbbs2 Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Porto da Baleia | Baía | Shallow 2 39,463731; -31,12752 Subtidal
45 FLO_SC_SCpbbb Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Porto da Baleia | Bóia flutuante 39,463035; -31,128021 Bóia
46 FLO_SC_SCpbem1 Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Porto da Baleia | Entre-marés 1 39,463518; -31,128256 Intertidal
47 FLO_SC_SCpbem2 Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Porto da Baleia | Entre-marés 2 39,463686; -31,128523 Intertidal
48 FLO_SC_SCpvs Santa Cruz Santa Cruz | Porto velho | Shallow 39,454305; -31,12449 Subtidal
Table 3.

Information and location of the sampling sites on Corvo Island.

Location Nо Location ID Municipality Locality / Latitude Longitude Littoral zone
1 COR_VC_VCaaem Vila do Corvo Vila do Corvo | Atrás do aeroporto 39,670289; -31,115366 Intertidal
2 COR_VC_VCms Vila do Corvo Vila do Corvo | Moldinho 39,668742; -31,120615 Subtidal
3 COR_VC_VCps Vila do Corvo Vila do Corvo | Pesqueiro 39,669127; -31,113446 Subtidal
4 COR_VC_VCps Vila do Corvo Vila do Corvo | Pesqueiro 39,669127; -31,113446 Subtidal
5 COR_VC_VCpas Vila do Corvo Vila do Corvo | Portinho da Areia 39,672838; -31,123437 Subtidal
6 COR_VC_VCpem Vila do Corvo Vila do Corvo | Porto da Casa | Entre-marés 39,671968; -31,110846 Intertidal
7 COR_VC_VCps Vila do Corvo Vila do Corvo | Porto da Casa | Subtidal 39,672729; -31,109214 Subtidal
8 COR_VC_VCpbem Vila do Corvo Vila do Corvo | Porto do Boqueirão | Entre-marés 39,669523; -31,112739 Intertidal
9 COR_VC_VCpbs Vila do Corvo Vila do Corvo | Porto do Boqueirão | Subtidal 39,668229; -31,112482 Subtidal
Sampling description: 

Intertidal collections were made during low tide by walking over the shores. Subtidal collections were made by SCUBA diving around the area. Sampling involved specimen collecting and species presence recording. For the former, at each location, samples were obtained by scraping from the surface one or two specimens of all the observed species and then placing them into labelled bags (Fig. 9). Species recording data was gathered by registering all species present in the sampled locations visited (Fig. 10).

Figure 9.  

Collecting macroalgae at the rocky intertidal (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 10.  

Quantitative recording of the presence and coverage of macroalgal species at the subtidal rocky habitat (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Quality control: 

Each sampled taxon was identified by trained taxonomists and involved morphological and anatomical observations of whole specimens by eye and/or of histological preparations under microscopes to determine the main diagnostic features of each species, as described in literature.

Step description: 

Specimens were sorted and studied in the laboratory, following standard procedures used in macroalgae identification.

Species identification was usually based on a combination of morphological, anatomical and reproductive features. For small and simple thalli, this required observing the entire thallus with the unaided eye and/or using dissecting and compound microscopes. For larger and more complex algae, investigation of the thallus anatomy required histological procedures (longitudinal and transverse sections) or squashed preparations of mucilaginous thalli, sometimes after staining, to observe vegetative and reproductive structures and other diagnostic features.

The mixed nature of the Azorean algal flora with components from several geographical regions cause difficulties in species identification. Floras and keys for the North Atlantic, Tropical Atlantic and Western Mediterranean were used (e.g. Schmidt 1931, Taylor 1967, Taylor 1978, Levring 1974, Dixon and Irvine 1977, Lawson and John 1982, Irvine 1983, Gayral and Cosson 1986, Fletcher 1987, Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón 1989, Burrows 1991, Boudouresque et al. 1992, Cabioc'h et al. 1992, Maggs and Hommersand 1993, Irvine and Chamberlain 1994, Brodie et al. 2007, Lloréns et al. 2012, Rodríguez-Prieto et al. 2013).

For more critical and taxonomically-difficult taxa, specimens were taken to the Natural History Museum (London) for comparison with collections there.

A reference collection was made for all collected specimens by assigning them a herbarium code number and depositing them at the AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha and the Molecular Systematics Laboratory, University of Azores. Depending on the species and on planned further research, different types of collections were made, namely (i) liquid collections using 5% buffered formaldehyde seawater and then replacing it by the fixing agent Kew (Bridsen and Forman 1999); (ii) dried collections, either by pressing the algae (most species) as described by Gayral and Cosson (1986) or by letting them air dry (calcareous species); and (iii) silica gel collections for molecular studies.

Nomenclatural and taxonomic status used here follow Algaebase (Guiry and Guiry 2020). The database was organised on FileMaker Pro.

Geographic coverage

Description: 

Flores Island Description: Azores, Portugal (approximately 39°31'27″N, -31°15'31"W);

Coordinates: 39.524201 and 39.37521 Latitude; -31.258622 and -31.124496 Longitude.

Corvo Island Description: Azores, Portugal (approximately 39°43'37"N, -31°7'44"W).

Coordinates: 39.726829 and 39.669576 Latitude; -31.12899 and -31.082546 Longitude.

Taxonomic coverage

Description: 

All macroalgae were identified to genus or species level. For Flores, a total of 196 taxa were identified belonging to 24 orders and 54 families, distributed in the phyla Rhodophyta (14 orders and 33 families), Chlorophyta (three orders and nine families) and Ochrophyta (seven orders and 12 families). For Corvo, a total of 56 taxa were identified belonging to 16 orders and 29 families, distributed in the phyla Rhodophyta (seven orders and 16 families), Chlorophyta (three orders and four families) and Ochrophyta (six orders and nine families).

Temporal coverage

Notes: 

The sampling was performed on several occasions between 1989 and 2018.

Collection data

Collection name: 
AZB | Marine macroalgae collection of Flores and Corvo Islands (Azores)-Expedition Flores/89; AZB | Marine macroalgae collection of Flores and Corvo Islands (Azores)-Expedition Earthwatch Flores/95; AZB | Marine macroalgae collection of Flores and Corvo Islands (Azores)-Expedition Flores & Corvo/99; Marine macroalgae collection of Flores and Corvo Islands (Azores)-Expedition Flores & Corvo/2007; AZB | Marine macroalgae collection of Flores and Corvo Islands (Azores)-Occasional sampling; AZB | Marine macroalgae collection of Flores and Corvo Islands (Azores)-Occasional sampling; Marine macroalgae occurrence of Flores and Corvo Islands (Azores)-Expedition Flores & Corvo/99; Marine macroalgae occurrence of Flores and Corvo Islands (Azores)-Project MOST; Marine macroalgae occurrence of Flores and Corvo Islands (Azores)-Campaign PIMA/BALA; Marine macroalgae occurrence of Flores and Corvo Islands (Azores)-Occasional sampling.
Collection identifier: 
33967202-6b10-4182-99d2-621d594572cc; cd4c8dd8-49f7-4318-9b3d-c78aaec53c2d; 93772fb0-339a-4081-b742-a101ca66c019; a7ca4500-9608-44eb-9269-528a40264071; 1a7a0a41-5a5c-460c-815d-0c3503a5a2ea; cfc9d276-6d4e-4cc3-8f40-be9c3e5ba6e9; 434097ea-bac3-49ac-9f5a-3aa9b6c10503; db4e55cc-1401-4b1c-9343-fc2a3e27e473; 29ca7edc-3911-4c59-9722-c9aba69ca506; 153bd328-1e16-4e9e-8dc8-56994c25fb31.
Parent collection identifier: 
AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores; AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores; AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores; Expedition Flores & Corvo/2007 Macroalgae collection, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores; AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores; AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores; Not applicable; Not applicable; Not applicable; Not applicable.
Specimen preservation method: 
All specimens were preserved as follows: air dry, dried and pressed; liquid (formalin; fixing agent Kew), silica.
Curatorial unit: 
AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores.

Usage licence

Usage licence: 
Creative Commons Public Domain Waiver (CC-Zero)

Data resources

Data package title: 
Marine algal flora of Flores and Corvo Islands, Azores
Alternative identifiers: 
http://ipt.gbif.pt/ipt/resource?r=flores-corvo_seaweed_flora
Number of data sets: 
1
Data set name: 
Marine algal flora of Flores and Corvo Islands, Azores
Character set: 
UTF-8
Data format: 
Darwin Core Archive
Data format version: 
1.3
Description: 

This data paper presents physical and occurrence data from macroalgal surveys undertaken on Flores and Corvo Islands between 1989 and 2018 (Neto et al. 2020d). The dataset submitted to GBIF is structured as a sample event dataset, with two tables: event (as core) and occurrences. The data in this sampling event resource have been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwCA), which is a standardised format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 90 records (eventID). The extension data table has 2077 occurrences. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated in the IPT link. This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for downloading in the downloads section.

Column label Column description
eventID Identifier of the event, unique for the dataset
country Country of the sampling site
countryCode Code of the country where the event occurred
stateProvince Name of the region
island Name of the island
municipality Name of the municipality
locality Name of the locality
locationID Identifier of the location
decimalLatitude The geographic latitude of the sampling site
decimalLongitude The geographic longitud of the sampling site
geodeticDatum The spatial reference system upon which the geographic coordinates are based
coordinateUncertaintyInMetres The horizontal distance (in metres) from the given decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude describing the smallest circle containing the whole of the Location
eventDate Time interval when the event occurred
year The year of the event
samplingProtocol Sampling method used during an event
locationRemarks Zonation level
minimumDepthInMetres The minimum depth in metres where the specimen was found
maximumDepthInMetres The maximum depth in metres where the specimen was found
eventRemarks Notes about the event
occurrenceID Identifier of the record, coded as a global unique identifier
institutionID The identifier for the institution having custody of the object or information referred to in the record
institutionCode The acronym of the institution having custody of the object or information referred to in the record
collectionID An identifier of the collection to which the record belongs
collectionCode The name of the collection from which the record was derived
datasetName The name identifying the dataset from which the record was derived
eventID Identifier of the event, unique for the dataset
kingdom Kingdom name
phylum Phylum name
class Class name
order Order name
family Family name
genus Genus name
specificEpithet The name of the first or species epithet of the scientificName
infraspecificEpithet The name of the lowest or terminal infraspecific epithet of the scientificName, excluding any rank designation
acceptedNameUsage The specimen accepted name, with authorship
previousIdentifications Previous name of the specimen, with authorship
scientificName The name without authorship applied on the first identification of the specimen
scientificNameAuthorship The authorship information for the scientificName formatted according to the conventions of the applicable nomenclaturalCode
taxonRank The taxonomic rank of the most specific name in the scientificName
basisOfRecord The specific nature of the data record
habitat Description of the habitat where the specimen was found
recordedBy Person(s) responsible for sampling
catalogNumber Identifying code for a unique sample lot in a biological collection
identifiedBy Person(s) responsible for taxa identification
type The nature of the resource
preparations The preservation method used for the specimen
establishmentMeans The establishment status of the organism in the study region
occurrenceRemarks New record status assignment
license Reference to the licence under which the record is published

Additional information

This paper accommodates the 1687 specimens of macroalgae recorded from Flores Island in 196 taxa comprising 128 confirmed species and 68 taxa identified only to generic level. The confirmed species (Tables 4, 5) include 80 Rhodophyta, 22 Chlorophyta and 26 Ochrophyta (Phaeophyceae). Of these, 37 species are newly recorded for the Island (20 Rhodophyta, six Chlorophyta and 11 Ochrophyta). Most species are native, including the two Macaronesian endemics (Laurencia viridis and Millerella tinerfensis. Six species are introductions to the algal flora (the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis armata, Neoizziella divaricata and Symphyocladia marchantioides; the Chlorophyta Codium fragile subsp. fragile; and the Ochrophyta Hydroclathrus tilesii and Papenfussiella kuromo). Fourteen species are uncertain in status (10 Rhodophyta, two Chlorophyta and two Ochrophyta).

Table 4.

Macroalgal species recorded from Flores Island, with information on relative abundance, origin and status.

Phylum

Species (Accepted Name)

Number of records

Establishment Means

OccurrenceRemarks

Chlorophyta

Anadyomene stellata (Wulfen) C.Agardh

13

Uncertain

Chlorophyta

Bryopsis cupressina J.V.Lamouroux

2

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Bryopsis hypnoides J.V.Lamouroux

4

Native

Chlorophyta

Bryopsis pennata J.V.Lamouroux

1

Native

Chlorophyta

Bryopsis plumosa (Hudson) C. Agardh

3

Native

Chlorophyta

Chaetomorpha aerea (Dillwyn) Kützing

1

Native

Chlorophyta

Cladophora albida (Nees) Kützing

3

Native

Chlorophyta

Cladophora coelothrix Kützing

6

Native

Chlorophyta

Cladophora hutchinsiae (Dillwyn) Kützing

2

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Cladophora lehmanniana (Lindenberg) Kützing

5

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Cladophora prolifera (Roth) Kützing

20

Native

Chlorophyta

Cladophoropsis membranacea (Hofman Bang ex C.Agardh) Børgesen

1

Uncertain

Chlorophyta

Codium adhaerens C.Agardh

18

Native

Chlorophyta

Codium decorticatum (Woodward) M.A.Howe

3

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot

5

Introduced

New record

Chlorophyta

Derbesia marina (Lyngbye) Solier

1

Native

Chlorophyta

Lychaete pellucida (Hudson) M.J.Wynne

4

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Microdictyon umbilicatum (Velley) Zanardini

31

Native

Chlorophyta

Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh

3

Native

Chlorophyta

Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus

8

Native

Chlorophyta

Ulva rigida C.Agardh

10

Native

Chlorophyta

Valonia utricularis (Roth) C.Agardh

3

Native

Ochrophyta

Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis

7

Native

Ochrophyta

Carpomitra costata (Stackhouse) Batters

2

Native

Ochrophyta

Cladostephus spongiosus (Hudson) C.Agardh

23

Native

Ochrophyta

Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) Derbès & Solier

61

Native

Ochrophyta

Cutleria multifida (Turner) Greville

4

Uncertain

Ochrophyta

Cutleria multifida (Turner) Grevill, phase Aglaozonia parvula (Greville) Zanardini

2

Uncertain

New record

Ochrophyta

Cystoseira foeniculacea (Linnaeus) Greville

4

Native

Ochrophyta

Cystoseira humilis Schousboe ex Kützing

1

Native

Ochrophyta

Dictyopteris polypodioides (A.P.De Candolle) J.V.Lamouroux

2

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Dictyota bartayresiana J.V.Lamouroux

4

Native

Ochrophyta

Dictyota cyanoloma Tronholm, De Clerck, A.Gómez-Garreta & Rull Lluch

1

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Dictyota dichotoma (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux

3

Native

Ochrophyta

Halopteris filicina (Grateloup) Kützing

54

Native

Ochrophyta

Halopteris scoparia (Linnaeus) Sauvageau

61

Native

Ochrophyta

Hydroclathrus tilesii (Endlicher) Santiañez & M.J.Wynne

1

Introduced

New record

Ochrophyta

Leathesia marina (Lyngbye) Decaisne

6

Uncertain

Ochrophyta

Lobophora variegata (J.V.Lamouroux) Womersley ex E.C.Oliveira

11

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Myrionema strangulans Greville

1

Native

Ochrophyta

Padina pavonica (Linnaeus) Thivy

85

Native

Ochrophyta

Papenfussiella kuromo (Yendo) Inagaki

1

Introduced

New record

Ochrophyta

Petrospongium berkeleyi (Greville) Nägeli ex Kützing

1

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Sargassum furcatum Kützing

5

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Sargassum vulgare C.Agardh, nom. illeg.

5

Native

Ochrophyta

Sphacelaria cirrosa (Roth) C.Agardh

1

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Taonia atomaria (Woodward) J.Agardh

6

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Zanardinia typus (Nardo) P.C.Silva

15

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Zonaria tournefortii (J.V.Lamouroux) Montagne

96

Native

Rhodophya

Acrosorium ciliolatum (Harvey) Kylin

35

Native

Rhodophya

Amphiroa beauvoisii J.V.Lamouroux

1

Native

Rhodophya

Amphiroa rigida J.V.Lamouroux

5

Native

Rhodophya

Asparagopsis armata Harvey

58

Introduced

Rhodophya

Asparagopsis armata Harvey, phase Falkenbergia rufolanosa (Harvey) F.Schmitz

6

Introduced

Rhodophya

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan

38

Native

Rhodophya

Bornetia secundiflora (J.Agardh) Thuret

2

Native

Rhodophya

Botryocladia botryoides (Wulfen) Feldmann

8

Native

New record

Rhodophya

Callithamnion corymbosum (J.E.Smith) Lyngbye

3

Native

Rhodophya

Callithamnion granulatum (Ducluzeau) C.Agardh

2

Native

New record

Rhodophya

Caulacanthus ustulatus (Turner) Kützing

2

Uncertain

Rhodophya

Centroceras clavulatum (C.Agardh) Montagne

14

Native

Rhodophya

Ceramium ciliatum (J.Ellis) Ducluzeau

2

Native

Rhodophya

Ceramium cimbricum H.E.Petersen

3

Native

Rhodophya

Ceramium derbesii Solier ex Kützing

2

Native

Rhodophya

Ceramium echionotum J.Agardh

1

Native

New record

Rhodophya

Ceramium gaditanum (Clemente) Cremades

2

Uncertain

Rhodophya

Ceramium virgatum Roth

3

Native

Rhodophya

Ceratodictyon intricatum (C.Agardh) R.E.Norris

2

Native

Rhodophya

Ceratodictyon scoparium (Montagne & Millardet) R.E.Norris

1

Uncertain

New record

Rhodophya

Chondracanthus acicularis (Roth) Fredericq

11

Native

Rhodophya

Chondracanthus teedei (Mertens ex Roth) Kützing

1

Native

New record

Rhodophya

Chondria dasyphylla (Woodward) C.Agardh

6

Uncertain

Rhodophya

Corallina ferreyrae E.Y.Dawson, Acleto & Foldvik

7

Native

New record

Rhodophya

Corallina officinalis Linnaeus

18

Native

Rhodophya

Cruoria pellita (Lyngbye) Fries

1

Native

Rhodophya

Cryptopleura ramosa (Hudson) L.Newton

2

Native

New record

Rhodophya

Ellisolandia elongata (J.Ellis & Solander) K.R.Hind & G.W.Saunders

3

Native

Rhodophya

Erythrocystis montagnei (Derbès & Solier) P.C.Silva

2

Native

New record

Rhodophya

Gelidium corneum (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux

10

Native

Rhodophya

Gelidium microdon Kützing

4

Native

Rhodophya

Gelidium pusillum (Stackhouse) Le Jolis

12

Native

Rhodophya

Gelidium spinosum (S.G.Gmelin) P.C.Silva

11

Native

Rhodophya

Gigartina pistillata (S.G.Gmelin) Stackhouse

1

Native

Rhodophya

Gracilariopsis longissima (S.G.Gmelin) Steentoft, L.M.Irvine & Farnham

2

Native

Rhodophya

Grateloupia filicina (J.V.Lamouroux) C.Agardh

10

Native

Rhodophya

Griffithsia corallinoides (Linnaeus) Trevisan

1

Uncertain

Rhodophya

Griffithsia devoniensis Harvey

1

Native

New record

Rhodophya

Gymnogongrus crenulatus (Turner) J.Agardh

14

Native

Rhodophya

Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Martius

3

Native

Rhodophya

Gymnothamnion elegans (Schousboe ex C.Agardh) J.Agardh

2

Native

Rhodophya

Halurus flosculosus (J.Ellis) Maggs & Hommersand

1

Native

Rhodophya

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux

19

Uncertain

Rhodophya

Hypoglossum hypoglossoides (Stackhouse) Collins & Hervey

9

Native

New record

Rhodophya

Jania capillacea Harvey

1

Native

New record

Rhodophya

Jania crassa J.V.Lamouroux

2

Native

New record

Rhodophya

Jania longifurca Zanardini

8

Uncertain

Rhodophya

Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux

6

Native

Rhodophya

Jania virgata (Zanardini) Montagne

13

Uncertain

Rhodophya

Kallymenia reniformis (Turner) J.G.Agardh

1

Native

Rhodophya

Laurencia obtusa (Huds.) J.V.Lamouroux

8

Native

Rhodophya

Laurencia viridis Gil-Rodríguez & Haroun

3

Macaronesian endemism

New record

Rhodophya

Laurenciella marilzae (Gil-Rodríguez, Sentíes, Díaz-Larrea, Cassano & M.T.Fujii) Gil-Rodríguez, Sentíes, Díaz-Larrea, Cassano & M.T.Fujii

4

Native

New record

Rhodophya

Leptosiphonia fibrillosa (Agardh) A.M.Savoie & G.W.Saunders

1

Native

Rhodophya

Lomentaria articulata (Hudson) Lyngbye

12

Native

Rhodophya

Mesophyllum expansum (Philippi) Cabioch & M.L.Mendoza

1

Native

New record

Rhodophya

Millerella tinerfensis (Seoane-Camba) S.M.Boo & J.M.Rico

3

Macaronesian endemism

Rhodophya

Nemalion elminthoides (Velley) Batters

5

Native

Rhodophya

Neoizziella divaricata (C.K.Tseng) S.-M.Lin, S.-Y.Yang & Huisman

5

Introduced

New record

Rhodophya

Osmundea hybrida (A.P.de Candolle) K.W.Nam

4

Native

Rhodophya

Osmundea pinnatifida (Hudson) Stackhouse

10

Native

Rhodophya

Peyssonnelia squamaria (S.G.Gmelin) Decaisne ex J.Agardh

6

Native

Rhodophya

Phyllophora crispa (Hudson) P.S.Dixon

3

Native

Rhodophya

Platoma cyclocolpum (Montagne) F.Schmitz

42

Native

New record

Rhodophya

Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus) P.S.Dixon

23

Native

Rhodophya

Polysiphonia opaca (C.Agardh) Moris & De Notaris

2

Native

Rhodophya

Polysiphonia stricta (Mertens ex Dillwyn) Greville

1

Native

Rhodophya

Pterocladiella capillacea (S.G.Gmelin) Santelices & Hommersand

42

Native

Rhodophya

Rhodymenia holmesii Ardissone

14

Native

Rhodophya

Schimmelmannia schousboei (J.Agardh) J.Agardh

1

Native

Rhodophya

Schizymenia apoda (J.Agardh) J.Agardh

1

Native

New record

Rhodophya

Schottera nicaeensis (J.V.Lamouroux ex Duby) Guiry & Hollenberg

2

Uncertain

Rhodophya

Sphaerococcus coronopifolius Stackhouse

20

Native

Rhodophya

Spyridia filamentosa (Wulfen) Harvey

3

Native

Rhodophya

Stenogramma interruptum (C.Agardh) Montagne

1

Native

Rhodophya

Symphyocladia marchantioides (Harvey) Falkenberg

1

Introduced

Rhodophya

Taenioma nanum (Kützing) Papenfuss

1

Native

New record

Rhodophya

Tenarea tortuosa (Esper) Me.Lemoine

1

Native

Rhodophya

Vertebrata fruticulosa (Wulfen) Kuntze

2

Native

Rhodophya

Vertebrata fucoides (Hudson) Kuntze

2

Uncertain

Rhodophya

Vertebrata thuyoides (Harvey) Kuntze

1

Native

New record

Table 5.

Summary of the macroalgal flora of Flores Island, with information on the species origins and status.

Phyllum Order Family Specimens Number Total taxa Total species Native Introduced Uncertain Macaronesian endemism New record
Rhodophyta 14 33 789 120 80 65 3 10 2 20
Chlorophyta 3 9 216 35 22 19 1 2 6
Ochrophyta 7 12 682 41 26 22 2 2 11
Total 24 54 1687 196 128 106 6 14 2 37

Many species were only sporadically recorded on Flores, but 19 were commonly found around the Island and occurred quite abundantly in some locations, namely: the Rhodophyta Acrosorium ciliolatum (Harvey) Kylin, Asparagopsis armata, A. taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan, Platoma cyclocolpum (Montagne) F.Schmitz, Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus) P.S.Dixon, Pterocladiella capillacea and Sphaerococcus coronopifolius Stackhouse; the Chlorophyta Anadyomene stellata (Wulfen) C.Agardh, Cladophora prolifera (Roth) Kützing, Codium adhaerens C.Agradh, Microdictyon umbilicatum (Velley) Zanardiniand Ulva rigida C.Agardh; and the Ochrophyta Cladostephus spongiosus (Hudson) C.Agardh, Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) Derbès & Solier in Castagne, Halopteris filicina, Halopteris scoparia (Linnaeus) Sauvageau, Padina pavonica (Linnaeus) Thivy, Zanardinia typus (Nardo) P.C.Silva and Zonaria tournefortii.

For the Island of Corvo, this paper accommodates the 390 specimens of macroalgae recorded in 56 taxa comprising 43 confirmed species and 13 taxa identified only to genus level. The confirmed species (Tables 6, 7) include 22 Rhodophyta, eight Chlorophyta and 13 Ochrophyta (Phaeophyceae). Of these, 22 species are newly recorded to the Island (nine Rhodophyta, four Chlorophyta and nine Ochrophyta). Most species are native, two represent introductions to the algal flora of the Azores (the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis armata and the Chlorophyta Codium fragile subsp. fragile) and seven have an uncertain status (five Rhodophyta and two Ochrophyta).

Table 6.

Macroagal species recorded from Corvo Island, with information on relative abundance, origin and status.

Phylum

Species (Accepted Name)

Number of records

Establishment Means

OccurrenceRemarks

Chlorophyta

Chaetomorpha linum (O.F.Müller) Kützing

1

Native

Chlorophyta

Cladophora coelothrix Kützing

1

Native

Chlorophyta

Cladophora hutchinsiae (Dillwyn) Kützing

1

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Cladophora laetevirens (Dillwyn) Kützing

1

Uncertain

Chlorophyta

Cladophora prolifera (Roth) Kützing

2

Native

Chlorophyta

Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot

2

Introduced

Chlorophyta

Microdictyon umbilicatum (Velley) Zanardini

29

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Valonia utricularis (Roth) C.Agardh

1

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Carpomitra costata (Stackhouse) Batters

1

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Cladostephus spongiosus (Hudson) C.Agardh

1

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) Derbès & Solier

18

Native

Ochrophyta

Cutleria multifida (Turner) Greville

3

Uncertain

New record

Ochrophyta

Dictyopteris polypodioides (A.P.De Candolle) J.V.Lamouroux

3

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Halopteris filicina (Grateloup) Kützing

31

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Halopteris scoparia (Linnaeus) Sauvageau

15

Native

Ochrophyta

Leathesia marina (Lyngbye) Decaisne

1

Uncertain

New record

Ochrophyta

Lobophora variegata (J.V.Lamouroux) Womersley ex E.C.Oliveira

8

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Padina pavonica (Linnaeus) Thivy

32

Native

Ochrophyta

Sargassum furcatum Kützing

2

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Taonia atomaria (Woodward) J.Agardh

5

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Zonaria tournefortii (J.V.Lamouroux) Montagne

33

Native

Rhodophyta

Acrosorium ciliolatum (Harvey) Kylin

28

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Asparagopsis armata Harvey

23

Introduced

Rhodophya

Asparagopsis armata Harvey, phase Falkenbergia rufolanosa (Harvey) F.Schmitz

1

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan

13

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Carradoriella denudata (Dillwyn) A.M.Savoie & G.W.Saunders

1

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Caulacanthus ustulatus (Mertens ex Turner) Kützing

1

Uncertain

New record

Rhodophyta

Chondracanthus acicularis (Roth) Fredericq

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Chondria capillaris (Hudson) M.J.Wynne

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Corallina officinalis Linnaeus

3

Native

Rhodophyta

Erythrodermis traillii (Holmes ex Batters) Guiry & Garbary

1

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Gelidium pusillum (Stackhouse) Le Jolis

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Gigartina pistillata (S.G.Gmelin) Stackhouse

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Gymnogongrus crenulatus (Turner) J.Agardh

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Martius

5

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Jania virgata (Zanardini) Montagne

8

Uncertain

New record

Rhodophyta

Nemalion elminthoides (Velley) Batters

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Osmundea pinnatifida (Hudson) Stackhouse

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus) P.S.Dixon

4

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Pterocladiella capillacea (S.G.Gmelin) Santelices & Hommersand

6

Native

Rhodophyta

Schottera nicaeensis (J.V.Lamouroux ex Duby) Guiry & Hollenberg

1

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Sphaerococcus coronopifolius Stackhouse

3

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Spyridia filamentosa (Wulfen) Harvey

2

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Vertebrata fruticulosa (Wulfen) Kuntze

1

Native

Table 7.

Summary of the macroalgal flora of Corvo Island, with information on the species origins and status.

Phyllum Order Family Specimens Number Total taxa Total species Native Introduced Uncertain New record
Rhodophyta 7 16 136 30 22 16 1 5 9
Chlorophyta 3 4 42 9 8 7 1 0 4
Ochrophyta 6 9 212 17 13 11 0 2 9
Total 16 29 390 56 43 34 2 7 22

Nine species were commonly found, some abundantly in some locations, namely: the Rhodophyta Acrosorium ciliolatum, Asparagopsis armata, A. taxiformis; the Chlorophyta Microdictyon umbilicatum; and the Ochrophyta Colpomenia sinuosa, Halopteris filicina, H. scoparia, Padina pavonica and Zonaria tournefortii.

A mismatch regarding the GBIF backbone taxonomy of some of the macroalgae species names was identified as detailed in Suppl. material 1.

Acknowledgements

This paper is the result of several projects, expeditions and campaigns (see Funding above) and is supported by the project “ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072” as part of the Operational Programme Azores 2020 (85% ERDF and 15% regional funds). We are grateful to the Municipalities of Lajes and Santa Cruz das Flores, the Ecoteca of Flores, the Basic and Secondary School of Santa Cruz das Flores and the Flores Forestry Services for their logistic support during the Expeditions and Campaigns. Thanks are due to the many Campaign teams for their critical involvement in this project (the international Earthwatch team, Carolina Arruda, Cláudia Hipólito, Cristiana Figueiredo, Heather Baldwin, Inês Neto, Isabel Pinto, Joana Micael, Marco Henrique, Maria Ana Dionísio, Maria Ventura, Nuno Vaz Álvaro, Patrícia Madeira, Pedro Alves, Pedro Cerqueira, Rita Grilo, Rita Norberto, Rui Santos and Sandra Monteiro). Manuela I. Parente was supported by a Postdoc grant (SFRH/BPD/34246/2006) awarded by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT). Afonso Prestes was supported by a PhD grant (M3.1.a/F/083/2015) awarded by Fundo Regional da Ciência e Tecnologia (FRCT). WF was awarded grants from the British Council and Earthwatch.

Author contributions

  • AIN: Conceptualization; Methodology; Research (field and laboratory work); Resources; Data Curation; Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing
  • MIP: Research (field and laboratory work); Data Curation; Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing
  • IT: Methodology; Research (field work and laboratory work); Data Curation; Paper writing
  • RF: Methodology; Research (field work and laboratory work); Data Curation
  • WF: Methodology; Research (field work and laboratory work); Data Curation
  • ACC: Research (field and laboratory work); Resources; Data Curation
  • AZB: Research (field and laboratory work); Data Curation
  • SM: Research (field and laboratory work); Data Curation
  • RR: Resources; Data Curation
  • PA: Resources
  • ACLP: Investigation (laboratory work); Resources; Paper writing
  • NVA: Research (field work); Maps elaboration
  • DM-F: Research (field and laboratory work); Data Curation
  • RMAN: Data Curation; Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing
  • JMNA: Research (field work and laboratory work); Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing
  • IM: Data Curation; Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing

References

Supplementary material

Suppl. material 1: DP-FLOR+COR-id_15074_normalized.csv 
Authors:  Ana I Neto
Data type:  Macroalgae taxonomic mismatching
Brief description: 

GBIF does not have the more actualised nomenclature for some of the macroalgae species names. Therefore, the matching tools of its platform were applied to the species list, as required by Pensoft's data auditor, to identify the problematic taxonomic situations. The resulting file (DP-FLOR+COR-id_15074_normalized.csv) is included here, since the names will not be immediately updated in the GBIF Taxonomic Backbone. A request was already sent to GBIF helpdesk to solve this situation.