Biodiversity Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
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Data Paper (Biosciences)
Marine algal flora of Santa Maria Island, Azores
expand article infoAna I Azevedo Neto, Manuela I. Parente§, Eva Cacabelos|,, Ana Cristina Costa§, Andrea Zita Botelho§, Enric Ballesteros, Sandra Monteiro§, Roberto Resendes#, Pedro Afonso¤, Afonso C. L. Prestes, Rita F. Patarra«,, Nuno V. Álvaro», David Mila-Figueras¤, Raul M. A. Neto˄, José M. N. Azevedo, Ignacio Moreu
‡ cE3c - Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes/Azorean Biodiversity Group, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade dos Açores, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, Açores, Portugal
§ CIBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, InBIO Laboratório Associado, Pólo dos Açores, Universidade dos Açores, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Departamento de Biologia, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, Açores, Portugal
| MARE – Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Agência Regional para o Desenvolvimento da Investigação Tecnologia e Inovação (ARDITI), Edif. Madeira Tecnopolo, Piso 2, Caminho da Penteada, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal
¶ Centre d’Estudis Avançats de Blanes-CSIC,, Acc. Cala Sant Francesc 14, 17300 Blanes, Girona, Spain
# Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade dos Açores, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, Açores, Portugal
¤ IMAR/Okeanos, Departamento de Oceanografia e Pescas, Universidade dos Açores, Rua Prof. Doutor Frederico Machado, 9901-862 Horta, Açores, Portugal
« Expolab - Ciência Viva Science Centre, Avenida da Ciência - Beta, n.º 8, Lagoa, São Miguel, Açores, Portugal
» CCMMG (Centro do Clima Meteorologia e Mudanças Globais) & IITA-A (Instituto de Investigação e Tecnologias Agrárias e do Ambiente), Universidade dos Açores, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias, Rua Capitão João d’Ávlia – Pico da Urze, 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo, Açores, Portugal
˄ N/A, Ponta Delgada, Portugal
Open Access

Abstract

Background

The algal flora of the Island of Santa Maria (eastern group of the Azores archipelago) has attracted interest of researchers on past occasions (Drouët 1866, Agardh 1870, Trelease 1897, Schmidt 1931, Ardré et al. 1974, Fralick and Hehre 1990, Neto et al. 1991, Morton and Britton 2000, Amen et al. 2005, Wallenstein and Neto 2006, Tittley et al. 2009, Wallenstein et al. 2009a, Wallenstein et al. 2010, Botelho et al. 2010, Torres et al. 2010, León-Cisneros et al. 2011, Martins et al. 2014, Micael et al. 2014, Rebelo et al. 2014, Ávila et al. 2015, Ávila et al. 2016, Machín-Sánchez et al. 2016, Uchman et al. 2016, Johnson et al. 2017, Parente et al. 2018). Nevertheless, the Island macroalgal flora is not well-known as published information reflects limited collections obtained in short-term visits by scientists. To overcome this, a thorough investigation, encompassing collections and presence data recording, was undertaken at both the littoral and sublittoral levels down to a depth of approximately 40 m, covering an area of approximately 64 km2. The resultant taxonomic records are listed in the present paper which also provides information on species ecology and occurrence around the Island, improving, thereby, the knowledge of the Azorean macroalgal flora at both local and regional scales.

New information

A total of 2329 specimens (including some taxa identified only to genus level) belonging to 261 taxa of macroalgae are registered, comprising 152 Rhodophyta, 43 Chlorophyta and 66 Ochrophyta (Phaeophyceae). Of these, 174 were identified to species level (102 Rhodophyta, 29 Chlorophyta and 43 Ochrophyta), encompassing 52 new records for the Island (30 Rhodophyta, 9 Chlorophyta and 13 Ochrophyta), 2 Macaronesian endemics (Laurencia viridis Gil-Rodríguez & Haroun; and Millerella tinerfensis (Seoane-Camba) S.M.Boo & J.M.Rico), 10 introduced (the Rhodophyta Acrothamnion preissii (Sonder) E.M.Wollaston, Antithamnion hubbsii E.Y.Dawson, Asparagopsis armata Harvey, Bonnemaisonia hamifera Hariot, Melanothamnus harveyi (Bailey) Díaz-Tapia & Maggs, Scinaia acuta M.J.Wynne and Symphyocladia marchantioides (Harvey) Falkenberg; the Chlorophyta Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot; and the Ochrophyta Hydroclathrus tilesii (Endlicher) Santiañez & M.J.Wynne, and Papenfussiella kuromo (Yendo) Inagaki) and 18 species of uncertain status (11 Rhodophyta, 3 Chlorophyta and 4 Ochrophyta).

Keywords

Macroalgae, Azores, Santa Maria Island, new records, endemic, native, uncertain, introduced, occurrence data.

Introduction

The marine algal flora of the isolated mid-Atlantic Azores archipelago is considered cosmopolitan, with species shared with Macaronesia, North Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Europe and America (Tittley 2003, Tittley and Neto 2006, Wallenstein et al. 2009b) and relatively rich when compared to that of other remote oceanic Islands (Neto et al. 2005, Tittley and Neto 2005, Wallenstein et al. 2009b). Amongst the Atlantic archipelagos, Azores, with 405 species, comes second in species richness after the Canary Islands, with 689 species and is followed by Madeira (396), Cabo Verde (333) and Selvagens (295 species) (Freitas et al. 2019). The latter authors, based on extensive analysis encompassing data on coastal fishes, brachyurans, polychaetes, gastropods echinoderms and macroalgae, suggested that the Azores should be a biogeographical entity on its own and proposed a re-definition of the Lusitanian biogeographical province, in which they consider four ecoregions: the South European Atlantic Shelf, the Saharan Upwelling, the Azores ecoregion and a new ecoregion they named Webbnesia, which comprises the archipelagos of Madeira, Selvagens and the Canary Islands.

It should be noted that the paper by Freitas et al. (2019) reflects data from only a few of the nine Islands, since not all data were available to them. São Miguel, with 260 algal species cited at the moment (Table 1), is the Island with the greatest amount of research dedicated to the subject. To overcome this situation and with the aim of providing a better knowledge of the archipelago’s seaweed flora, research has been conducted over the past three decades on all the Islands. Data on the Islands of Corvo and Flores, Graciosa, Pico and Terceira are already available on the recently-published papers by Neto et al. (2020a), Neto et al. (2020b), Neto et al. (2020c), Neto et al. (2020e). Table 1 summarises the current available information.

Table 1.

Number of macroalgal species on the Azorean Islands: Santa Maria, São Miguel, São Jorge and Faial (authors' unpublished data); Terceira (Neto et al. 2020a); Graciosa (Neto et al. 2020c); Pico (Neto et al. 2020b); Flores and Corvo (Neto et al. 2020e).

Phyllum Santa Maria São Miguel Terceira Graciosa São Jorge Pico Faial Flores Corvo
Rhodophyta 68 168 73 126 35 142 59 120 30
Chlorophyta 20 39 24 31 17 41 16 35 9
Ochrophyta 28 53 16 38 10 42 8 41 17
Total 116 260 113 195 62 225 83 196 56

The present paper presents both physical and occurrence data and information gathered from macroalgae surveys undertaken on Santa Maria Island mainly by the Island Aquatic Research Group of the Azorean Biodiversity Centre of the University of the Azores (Link: https://ce3c.ciencias.ulisboa.pt/sub-team/island-aquatic-ecology), the BIOISLE, Biodiversity and Islands Research Group of CIBIO-Açores at the University of the Azores (Link: https://cibio.up.pt/research-groups-1/details/bioisle) and the OKEANOS Centre of the University of the Azores (Link: http://www.okeanos.uac.pt). In these surveys, particular attention was given to the small filamentous and thin sheet-like forms that are often short-lived and fast-growing and usually very difficult to identify in the wild, without the aid of a microscope and specialised literature in the laboratory.

The paper aims to provide a valuable marine biological tool for research on systematics, diversity and conservation, biological monitoring, climate change, ecology and more applied studies, such as biotechnological applications, for academics, students, government, private organisations and the general public.

General description

Purpose: 

In this paper we present taxonomic records of macroalgae for Santa Maria Island and provide general information on their occurrence and distribution. By doing this, we are addressing several biodiversity shortfalls (see Cardoso et al. 2011, Hortal et al. 2015), namely the need to catalogue the Azorean macroalgae (Linnean shortfall) and improve the current information on their local and regional geographic distribution (Wallacean shortfall), as well as on species abundance and dynamics in space (Prestonian shortfall).

Project description

Title: 

Marine algal flora of Santa Maria Island, Azores

Personnel: 

Collections were conducted and occurrence data recorded during several years (1989 - 2019). Main collectors were Abel Sentíes, Afonso C. L. Prestes, Ana Cristina Costa, Ana I Neto, André Amaral, Andrea Cunha, Andrea Z. Botelho, Camille Fontaine, Catarina Santos, Cláudia Lopes, Daniela Gabriel, David Milla-Figueras, Dinis Geraldes, Edgar Rosas-Alquicira, Edward Hehre, Emanuel Xavier, Enric Ballesteros, Eunice Nogueira, Eva Cacabelos, Francisco Wallenstein, Heather Baldwin, Joana Michael, Joana Pombo, João Brum, João Ferreira, João Monteiro, José Baptista, José M. N. Azevedo, Linda Beiroldi, Luís Resendes, Marco Enoch, Manuela I. Parente, Maria Ana Dionísio, Maria Machín-Sánchez, Maria Manuel, Marlene Terra, Mutue Toyota Fujii, Nuno Vaz Álvaro, Patrícia Madeira, Paulo Torres, Pedro Monteiro, Raquel Torres, Ricardo Cordeiro, Richard Fralick, Rita F. Patarra, Ruben Couto, Rui Sousa, Sandra Monteiro, Sérgio Ávila, Tarso Costa, Tito Silva, Valeria Cassano and Viegas Pinto.

Preliminary in situ identifications were done by: Abel Sentíes, Ana I Neto, Andrea Z. Botelho, Daniela Gabriel, David Milla-Figueras, Edgar Rosas-Alquicira, Edward Hehre, Enric Ballesteros, Eva Cacabelos, Francisco Wallenstein, Heather Baldwin, Manuela I. Parente, Maria Machín-Sanchez, Marlene Terra, Mutue Toyota Fujii, Nuno Vaz Álvaro, Raquel Torres, Richard Fralick, Ruben Couto and Valeria Cassano.

Abel Sentíes, Ana I. Neto, Andrea Z. Botelho, David Milla-Figueras, Edgar Rosas-Alquicira, Edward Hehre, Enric Ballesteros, Eva Cacabelos, Francisco Wallenstein, Heather Baldwin, Manuela I. Parente, Maria Machín-Sanchez, Marlene Terra, Mutue Toyota Fujii, Richard Fralick and Valeria Cassano were responsible for the final species identification.

Voucher specimen management was mainly done by Afonso C.L. Prestes, Ana I. Neto, Andrea Z. Botelho, David Milla-Figueras, Eunice Nogueira, Manuela I. Parente, Natália Cabral, Rita Patarra and Roberto Resendes. Vouchers are deposited at the AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha and the LSM - Molecular Systematics Laboratory at the Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores.

Study area description: 

Isolated in the mid-Atlantic Ocean and emerging from the Azores Plateau and located above an active triple junction between three of the world's largest tectonic plates (the North American Plate, the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate, Hildenbrand et al. 2014), the Azores archipelago (38°43′49″N, 27°19′10″W, Fig. 1) comprises nine Islands and several islets spread over 500 km in a WNW direction. The Island of Santa Maria (in black in Fig. 1), approximately 97 km², is the easternmost one of the archipelago (37°1'1''N, 25°11'6''W, Fig. 2), located approximately 430 km east of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge within the boundary that divides the Eurasian and African Plates (Hildenbrand et al. 2014). The western part of the Island is flat and has extensive wave-cut platforms reaching altitudes of 250 m above sea level. The eastern part is very irregular and has its highest point around 450 m (Neto et al. 2008c). There are no indications of recent volcanism and the last eruptions occurred during the Upper Pliocene. It is the only Island of the archipelago where marine fossiliferous deposits are known, which have been studied since the 19th century (see, for example, Amen et al. 2005, Neto et al. 2008c, Rebelo et al. 2014, Ávila et al. 2015, Ávila et al. 2016, Uchman et al. 2016).

Figure 1.  

The Azores, its location in the Atlantic and Santa Maria Island highlighted in black (by Nuno V. Álvaro).

Figure 2.  

Santa Maria Island showing the sampling locations (by Nuno V. Álvaro).

The climate is characterised by regular rainfall, medium levels of relative humidity and persistent winds, mainly during the winter and autumn seasons (Morton et al. 1998). As in the remaining Azorean Islands, the tidal range is small (< 2 m), the coastal extension is restricted, with deep waters occurring within a few kilometres offshore and coasts are subjected to swell and surge most of the year (see Hidrográfico 1981).

The Island coastline is approximately 63 km long and the coastal morphology results from the effect of the wave action, responsible for the predominance of erosive formations and from the Island antiquity and, also, the fact that it has been frequently submerged. As a consequence, several agglomerations of marine sedimentary rocks occur (e.g. marine conglomerates, fossiliferous calcarenites and arenites) distributed through cliffs and headlands, providing a special geological value to this Island that is not present elsewhere in the archipelago (Neto et al. 2008c). The north and east coasts are characterised by discontinuous and mixed geological forms, with abrupt headlands between which lengths of large boulder and cobbles occur. At São Lourenço high cliffs give rise to narrow high-tide platforms and low headlands generally less than 10 m high, that allow the establishment of cobble beaches and marine deposition that creates the local sandy beach. The northwest coastline of the Island is characterised by the occurrence of marine deposition and agglomerations of small cobbles, while the northeast coast is sculpted by plunging cliffs. Boulders and cobbles are commonly present. The west and south coasts of the Island have predominantly steep slopes, characterised by the occurrence of plunging cliffs that vary in height, abrupt headland segments and occasional high-tide platforms covered by boulders and cobbles. Praia Formosa has a different configuration with a smooth typology that facilitates seasonal marine deposition processes that alternate between a sandy beach in summer and a cobble beach during the rest of the year (Neto et al. 2008c).

Along the coastline of the Island, the bottom is dominated by irregular rocky beds, with compact bedrock dominating over boulder and cobble ones. Only two sand basins occur, Praia Formosa (south coast) and São Lourenço on the east coast (Neto et al. 2008c). On both beaches, bedrock patches emerge from the sediment bed. This mixed substrate is common to several other places around Santa Maria, at variable depths down to 30 m (e.g. Baía do Salto de Cães and Ilhéu das Lagoinhas on the north coast, Baía do Aveiro and Baía da Maia on the east coast). Shore slope and topography show substantial variation along the shoreline. Western and northern shores are usually flatter, with depths of 30 m occurring about 500 m offshore. Eastern shores are steeper: depths of 30 m can be reached less than 200 m away from the coast. Southern shores are intermediate in this respect. The area that comprises the Praia Formosa presents a slope that is similar to that of the north side of the Island, while the one between Ponta da Malbusca and Ponta do Castelo is steeper (Neto et al. 2008c). Submerged or semi-submerged caves, arches and tunnels of small amplitude and reduced length are common. As depth increases, the slope decreases, although the bottom is still rocky and uneven (Neto et al. 2008a). The sediment floor covering the deepest areas is stable, generally composed of medium and/or coarse sand (Neto et al. 2008a). Along the coastline, natural sheltered habitats (arches and semi-submerged caves, tide pools) create favourable conditions for the growth and the occurrence of a considerable diversity and abundance of macroalgae, macroinvertebrates (Neto et al. 2008a, Neto et al. 2008b) and pelagic and benthic coastal fish (Azevedo et al. 2008).

As on the other Islands of the archipelago, intertidal communities of Santa Maria Island are, in part, dominated by algal vegetation, which exhibits a distribution pattern in mosaic and/or bands, with a predominance of algal turfs, covering the rocks as a carpet (Neto et al. 2008c). This turf-growing form is a taxonomically complex mixture of small algae, recruits and juveniles of larger algae, in which the thalli intertwine and re-attach to one another and are adapted for vegetative spread using such multiple attachments to the substratum and adjacent thalli for anchorage (Wallenstein et al. 2009a). The compact mat retains water and provides a suitable habitat for admixed algae and other organisms. A very distinct horizontal pattern of species occurrence characterises the Azorean intertidal shores. In Santa Maria Island three major zones are commonly found (Neto et al. 2008c): the uppermost is dominated by littorinids (Fig. 3); the mid-level zone is characterised by chthamalid barnacles, sometimes limpets (Fig. 4) and dominated by algal turf (Fig. 5); and the lowest zone, representing the transition to the sublittoral fringe, is characterised by various species of frondose algae growing in bands (e.g. the Macaronesian endemic Laurencia viridis, Fig. 6), as epiphytes or forming patches amongst and over turf species (e.g. Ellisolandia elongata (J.Ellis & Solander) K.R.Hind & G.W.Saunders, Fig. 7). The mid-shore level zone on bedrock or boulder shores sometimes exhibits patches of the brown alga Fucus spiralis Linnaeus and the red agarophyte Gelidium microdon Kützing (Fig. 8) and/or the occasional occurrence of the red algae Porphyra/Pyropia and/or Nemalion elminthoides (Velley) Batters, this latter commonly growing in patches with the brown crust Nemoderma tingitanum Schousboe ex Bornet (Fig. 9). In spring and summer, considerable amounts of the introduced red alga Asparagopsis armata can be seen at the lower intertidal level.

Figure 3.  

Littorinids, a characteristic species of the Azorean high intertidal level (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 4.  

Chthamalid barnacles, algal turf and limpets on Santa Maria mid intertidal level (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 5.  

Mid-shore intertidal level, dominated by algal turf. Patches of the red algae Nemalion elminthoides can be seen in the image first plan (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 6.  

The Macaronesian endemic Laurencia viridis at the low-shore intertidal level (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 7.  

The erect calcareous frond of Ellisolandia elongata growing epiphytically on the algal turf at the low intertidal level (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 8.  

The mid-level zone on bedrock shores showing patches of the brown alga Fucus spiralis and the red agarophyte Gelidium microdon (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 9.  

Patches of the red algae Nemalion elminthoides and the brown crust Nemoderma tingitanum at the mid-shore level of bedrock shores (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Important features and habitats at the shore level are rock pools, occurring in different shapes and sizes and often recreating a shallow subtidal habitat which contains a rich diversity of marine life (Neto et al. 2008b). There is a gradient in the proportion of different algal groups in pools at different shore levels. Green algae dominate the upper shore while red and brown algae dominate rock pools lower on the shore. Similarly, faunal diversity in rock pools is greater at lower intertidal levels. Species diversity and richness are lower in upper shore rock-pools where climatic conditions are more stressful (Neto et al. 2008b).

The rocky bottoms in the submerged zone are covered by more frondose macrophytes (Neto et al. 2008a), such as the brown algae Dictyota spp. (Fig. 10), Halopteris filicina (Grateloup) Kützing (Fig. 11), Halopteris scoparia (Linnaeus) Sauvageau and Zonaria tournefortii (J.V. Lamouroux) Montagne; and the red species Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus) P.S. Dixon and Sphaerococcus coronopifolius Stackhouse (Fig. 12). The brown species Padina pavonica (Linnaeus) Thivy (Fig. 13) can be locally common. At this level, the edible barnacle Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916) and/or the limpet Patella aspera Röding, 1798 are concentrated in the first subtidal meters. Other conspicuous invertebrates are the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797, the fan worm Sabella spallanzanii (Gmelin, 1791), the sea urchins Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck, 1816) and Arbacia lixula (Linnaeus, 1758) and the sea stars Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Ophidiaster ophidianus (Lamarck, 1816) (Neto et al. 2008a). Frequent fish species at this level are the blue wrasse Symphodus caeruleus (Azevedo, 1999) or the ornate wrasse Thalassoma pavo (Linnaeus, 1758) in shallow rocky areas and the morays, Muraena helena Linnaeus, 1758 or the forkbeards Phycis phycis (Linnaeus, 1766), mainly hidden in crevices during the day. The parrotfish Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus, 1758), the salemas Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus, 1758) and the white sea bream Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus, 1758) roam amongst rocky reefs (Azevedo et al. 2008).

Figure 10.  

A patch of the brown alga Dictyota at the subtidal level (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 11.  

The brown alga Halopteris filicina at the subtidal level (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 12.  

The frondose red alga Sphaerococcus coronopifolius growing in association with the brown algae Zonaria tournefortii and Dictyota at the deepest level sampled (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 13.  

Padina pavonica, a locally common brown alga on the shallow bottoms of Santa Maria Island (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Design description: 

The sampling referred to in this paper was performed across littoral and sublittoral levels down to approximately 40 m on the Island of Santa Maria. Each sampling location was visited several times and, on each occasion, a careful and extensive survey was undertaken to provide a good coverage of the area. Both physical collections and presence recording were made by walking over the intertidal shores during low tides or by SCUBA diving. The specimens collected were taken to the laboratory for identification and preservation and the resulting vouchers were deposited at the AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha and the LSM - Molecular Systematics Laboratory at the Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores.

Funding: 

This study was mainly financed by the following projects/scientific expeditions:

  • Projects:
    • CAJFQ – “Characterization of the algal component of quaternary fossil deposits”, integrated in the project “Macaronésia 2000”, funded by the Autonomous Organism of Museums and Centers of Tenerife, Canary Islands (1999-2004);
    • PARQMAR – “Characterization, Planning and Management of Marine Protected Areas in Macaronesia - The cases of the Eco-Marine Park of Funchal (Madeira), Gran Canaria and Tenerife (Canary Islands) and Santa Maria (Azores)”, funded by INTERREG III B 2000 Community Initiative Program - 2006, Azores-Madeira-Canary Islands. 03/ MAC/ 4.2/ M9 (2004-2006);
    • RRASMA – “Removal of abandoned fishing nets off the island of Santa Maria”, funded by the Regional Government of the Azores, Environment Delegation of Santa Maria Island (2005-2007);
    • RCGO - “Coastal Waste of the Eastern Group (São Miguel and Santa Maria Islands; Formigas Islets): inventory, catalog, raise awareness”, funded by QUERCUS (2006);
    • CAMAG/ORI – “Characterization of coastal water bodies on the islands of Santa Maria and São Miguel”, funded by the Regional Government of the Azores, Regional Secretariat for the Environment and the Sea, Regional Directorate for Planning and Water Resources (2008-2012);
    • LAUMACAT - “Diversity and phylogenetic relationships on the benthic marine algae with pharmacological potential: the Laurencia complex (Rhodophyta) in Macaronesian archipelagos, tropical and subtropical Atlantic”, funded by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Dirección General de Investigación y Gestión del Plan Nacional de R+D+i, Subdirección General de Proyectos de Investigación, Gobierno de España (2010 to 2013) and by the São Paulo State Research Support Foundation (FAPESP), Brazil, Proc. 2014 / 00012-1 (2013 a 2016);
    • ASMAS - Açores: Stop-over for Marine Alien Species?” Government of the Azores - Regional Secretariat for the Sea, Science and Technology (M2.1.2/I/032/2011). 2012 – 2016;
    • PIMA – “Elaboration of the implementation program of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive - Marine Invasion Program in the Azores” (3/DRAM /2015). Government of the Azores - Regional Secretariat for the Sea, Science and Technology, Regional Directorate for Sea Affairs (GRA /SRMCT-DRAM), 2015;
    • BALA – “Elaboration of the implementation program of the marine strategy framework directive - biodiversity of the coastal environments of the Azores” (2 /DRAM /2015). Government of the Azores - Regional Secretariat for the Sea, Science and Technology, Regional Directorate for Sea Affairs (GRA /SRMCT-DRAM), 2015;
    • “ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072 - AZORES BIOPORTAL – PORBIOTA. Operational Programme Azores 2020 (85% ERDF and 15% regional funds);
  • Scientific Expeditions and campaigns:
    • “SANTA MARIA E FORMIGAS/90”, organised by the Biology Department of the University of the Azores, Santa Maria Island, Azores, June 1990;
    • “Fossil deposits of Prainha and Lagoinhas” under the project CAJFQ- Macaronésia 2001
    • “Santa Maria 2002”, under the workshop "Marine Fossils of the Azores: Perspectives for the future", 2002;
    • “Santa Maria 2005”, under the project PARQMAR, 2005;
    • “Santa Maria Island (Azores) 2009”, organised by the Biology Department of the University of the Azores 2009;
    • Laurencia/2011”, under the project LAUMACAT, 2011;
    • “Waitt Foundation”, under the projects BALA and PIMA, 2016;
    • “BALA/PIMA”, under the projects BALA and PIMA, 2018;
    • “PORBIOTA/2019” under the project ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072 - AZORES BIOPORTAL – PORBIOTA, 2019;
  • Other funds:
    • Portuguese National Funds, through FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, within the projects UID/BIA/00329/2013, 2015-2019, UID/BIA/00329/2020-2023 and UID/BIA/50027/2019, UID/BIA/50027/2013-2020 and POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006821;
    • ERDF funds through the Operational Programme for Competitiveness Factors – COMPETE;
    • Portuguese Regional Funds, through DRCT - Regional Directorate for Science and Technology, within several projects, 2019 and 2020 and SRMCT /DRAM - Regional Secretariat for the Sea, Science and Technology, Regional Directorate for Sea Affairs;
    • CIRN/DB/UAc (Research Centre for Natural Resources, Universidade dos Açores, Departamento de Biologia);
    • CIIMAR (Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Porto, Portugal).

Sampling methods

Study extent: 

The present paper includes sampling performed on a relatively large area, of approximately 64 km2, covering littoral and sublittoral levels down to approximately 40 m around the Island (Table 2, Fig. 2).

Table 2.

Information and location of the sampling sites on Santa Maria Island.

Location N0 Location ID Municipality Locality Latitude Longitude Littoral zone
1 SMA_VP_Aapem Vila do Porto Anjos | Atrás do porto | Entre-marés 37.004998 -25.159629 Intertidal
2 SMA_VP_aaprs Vila do Porto Atrás do aeroporto | Ponta do Rochedo | Subtidal 36.985484 -25.187049 Subtidal
3 SMA_VP_aas1 Vila do Porto Atrás do aeroporto | Subtidal 1 36.975484 -25.181233 Subtidal
4 SMA_VP_aas2 Vila do Porto Atrás do aeroporto | Subtidal 2 36.973329 -25.179014 Subtidal
5 SMA_VP_Abjls Vila do Porto Anjos | Banco João Lopes | Subtidal 37.00946 -25.18495 Subtidal
6 SMA_VP_Abs Vila do Porto Aveiro | Baía | Subtidal 36.949447 -25.016892 Subtidal
7 SMA_VP_Afpis1 Vila do Porto Anjos | Frente à Piscina | Subtidal 1 37.006907 -25.158392 Subtidal
8 SMA_VP_Afpis2 Vila do Porto Anjos | Frente à Piscina | Subtidal 2 37.005815 -25.157587 Subtidal
9 SMA_VP_Apfem Vila do Porto Anjos | Ponta dos Frades | Entre-marés 37.012072 -25.146074 Intertidal
10 SMA_VP_apgrcn12s1 Vila do Porto Área protegida de gestão de recursos da Costa Norte (SMA12) | Subtidal 1 37.01291 -25.14428 Subtidal
11 SMA_VP_apgrcn12s2 Vila do Porto Área protegida de gestão de recursos da Costa Norte (SMA12) | Subtidal 2 37.02289 -25.08936 Subtidal
12 SMA_VP_apgrcs13s Vila do Porto Área protegida de gestão de recursos da Costa Sul (SMA13) | Subtidal 36.94455 -25.00806 Subtidal
13 SMA_VP_apgrpcpm21s1 Vila do Porto Área Protegida de Gestão de Recursos da Ponta do Cintrão– Ponta da Maia (SMA21) | Subtidal 1 36.92892 -25.06439 Subtidal
14 SMA_VP_apgrpcpm21s2 Vila do Porto Área Protegida de Gestão de Recursos da Ponta do Cintrão– Ponta da Maia (SMA21) | Subtidal 2 36.92489 -25.02421 Subtidal
15 SMA_VP_apgrpcpm21s3 Vila do Porto Área Protegida de Gestão de Recursos da Ponta do Cintrão– Ponta da Maia (SMA21) | Subtidal 3 36.93505 -25.09226 Subtidal
16 SMA_VP_Apiem Vila do Porto Anjos | Piscina | Entre-marés 37.005173 -25.157061 Intertidal
17 SMA_VP_brsem Vila do Porto Boca da Ribeira Seca | Entre-marés 37.004435 -25.16595 Intertidal
18 SMA_VP_bss Vila do Porto Baixa do Sul | Subtidal 36.924751 -25.022099 Subtidal
19 SMA_VP_CBpes Vila do Porto Calheta de Baixo | Ponta das Eirinhas | Subtidal 36.933883 -25.014702 Subtidal
20 SMA_VP_crem Vila do Porto Calhau da Roupa | Entre-marés 36.9458 -25.146063 Intertidal
21 SMA_VP_Eem Vila do Porto Emissores | Entre-marés 36.998404 -25.175029 Intertidal
22 SMA_VP_FBbrs Vila do Porto Feteiras de Baixo | Baía do Raposo | Subtidal 37.010939 -25.118291 Subtidal
23 SMA_VP_Fem Vila do Porto Figueiral | Entre-marés 36.94574 -25.122836 Intertidal
24 SMA_VP_Fps Vila do Porto Figueiral | Ponta | Subtidal 36.94405 -25.122131 Subtidal
25 SMA_VP_ISLs Vila do Porto Ilhéu de São Lourenço | Subtidal 36.987488 -25.041122 Subtidal
26 SMA_VP_IVem Vila do Porto Ilhéu da Vila | Entre-marés 36.944045 -25.171163 Intertidal
27 SMA_VP_IVs1 Vila do Porto Ilhéu da Vila | Subtidal 1 36.93948333 -25.17646667 Subtidal
28 SMA_VP_IVs10 Vila do Porto Ilhéu da Vila | Subtidal 10 36.941005 -25.167868 Subtidal
29 SMA_VP_IVs2 Vila do Porto Ilhéu da Vila | Subtidal 2 36.9388333 -25.1757 Subtidal
30 SMA_VP_IVs3 Vila do Porto Ilhéu da Vila | Subtidal 3 36.9392 -25.17541667 Subtidal
31 SMA_VP_IVs4 Vila do Porto Ilhéu da Vila | Subtidal 4 36.94125 -25.17528333 Subtidal
32 SMA_VP_IVs5 Vila do Porto Ilhéu da Vila | Subtidal 5 36.939 -25.1752 Subtidal
33 SMA_VP_IVs6 Vila do Porto Ilhéu da Vila | Subtidal 6 36.94318333 -25.17496667 Subtidal
34 SMA_VP_IVs7 Vila do Porto Ilhéu da Vila | Subtidal 7 36.94045 -25.17448333 Subtidal
35 SMA_VP_IVs8 Vila do Porto Ilhéu da Vila | Subtidal 8 36.9431 -25.17426667 Subtidal
36 SMA_VP_IVs9 Vila do Porto Ilhéu da Vila | Subtidal 9 36.941125 -25.169649 Subtidal
37 SMA_VP_LApps Vila do Porto Lagoa | Pedra que Pica | Subtidal 36.931597 -25.075562 Subtidal
38 SMA_VP_Lbscs Vila do Porto Lagoinhas | Baía do Salto dos Cães | Subtidal 37.017358 -25.098105 Subtidal
39 SMA_VP_LIem Vila do Porto Lagoinhas | Entre-marés 37.015012 -25.085176 Intertidal
40 SMA_VP_LIfis Vila do Porto Lagoinhas | Fora do ilhéu | Subtidal 37.03565 -25.09881 Subtidal
41 SMA_VP_LIs Vila do Porto Lagoinhas | Subtidal 37.017954 -25.086356 Subtidal
42 SMA_VP_Mbcclnem Vila do Porto Maia | Baía entre Cedros e Castelete | lado Norte | Entre-marés 36.954591 -25.020362 Intertidal
43 SMA_VP_Mbcclsem Vila do Porto Maia | Baía entre Cedros e Castelete | lado Sul | Entre-marés 36.95264 -25.019663 Intertidal
44 SMA_VP_Mbcs Vila do Porto Maia | Baía dos Cedros | Subtidal 36.954952 -25.017313 Subtidal
45 SMA_VP_Mbs1 Vila do Porto Maia | Baía | Subtidal 1 36.94436667 -25.00838333 Subtidal
46 SMA_VP_Mbs2 Vila do Porto Maia | Baía | Subtidal 2 36.94393333 -25.00826667 Subtidal
47 SMA_VP_Mbs3 Vila do Porto Maia | Baía | Subtidal 3 36.94433333 -25.00768333 Subtidal
48 SMA_VP_Mbs4 Vila do Porto Maia | Baía | Subtidal 4 36.94235 -25.0076 Subtidal
49 SMA_VP_Mbs5 Vila do Porto Maia | Baía | Subtidal 5 36.94318333 -25.00753333 Subtidal
50 SMA_VP_Mem Vila do Porto Maia | Entre-marés 36.943886 -25.014773 Intertidal
51 SMA_VP_Mfpis Vila do Porto Maia | Lado de Fora da Piscina | Subtidal 36.938923 -25.012707 Subtidal
52 SMA_VP_mfps1 Vila do Porto Marina | Lado de fora do Pontão | Subtidal 1 36.944834 -25.146131 Subtidal
53 SMA_VP_mfps2 Vila do Porto Marina | Lado de fora do Pontão | Subtidal 2 36.9458 -25.148333 Subtidal
54 SMA_VP_mpem Vila do Porto Marina | Pontão | Entre-marés 36.944396 -25.147067 Intertidal
55 SMA_VP_Mpiem Vila do Porto Maia | Piscina | Entre-marés 36.939526 -25.013879 Intertidal
56 SMA_VP_MPs1 Vila do Porto Malbusca-Piedade | Subtidal 1 36.92783333 -25.0714 Subtidal
57 SMA_VP_MPs10 Vila do Porto Malbusca-Piedade | Subtidal 10 36.929380 -25.071470 Subtidal
58 SMA_VP_MPs11 Vila do Porto Malbusca-Piedade | Subtidal 11 36.930017 -25.071383 Subtidal
59 SMA_VP_MPs2 Vila do Porto Malbusca-Piedade | Subtidal 2 36.92723333 -25.06591667 Subtidal
60 SMA_VP_MPs3 Vila do Porto Malbusca-Piedade | Subtidal 3 36.9279 -25.07065 Subtidal
61 SMA_VP_MPs4 Vila do Porto Malbusca-Piedade | Subtidal 4 36.927967 -25.072933 Subtidal
62 SMA_VP_MPs5 Vila do Porto Malbusca-Piedade | Subtidal 5 36.92806667 -25.07045 Subtidal
63 SMA_VP_MPs6 Vila do Porto Malbusca-Piedade | Subtidal 6 36.92621667 -25.06138333 Subtidal
64 SMA_VP_MPs7 Vila do Porto Malbusca-Piedade | Subtidal 7 36.925667 -25.057567 Subtidal
65 SMA_VP_MPs8 Vila do Porto Malbusca-Piedade | Subtidal 8 36.923030 -25.066550 Subtidal
66 SMA_VP_MPs9 Vila do Porto Malbusca-Piedade | Subtidal 9 36.928750 -25.065217 Subtidal
67 SMA_VP_Ms1 Vila do Porto Malbusca | Subtidal 1 36.93582965 -25.09382679 Subtidal
68 SMA_VP_Ms2 Vila do Porto Malbusca | Subtidal 2 36.93821161 -25.07944033 Subtidal
69 SMA_VP_Ms3 Vila do Porto Malbusca | Subtidal 3 36.938555 -25.085032 Subtidal
70 SMA_VP_PCbnss Vila do Porto Ponta do Castelo | Baía de Nossa Senhora | Subtidal 36.931039 -25.057255 Subtidal
71 SMA_VP_PCem Vila do Porto Ponta do Castelo | Entre-marés 36.928153 -25.017055 Intertidal
72 SMA_VP_PCras Vila do Porto Ponta do Castelo | Rocha Alta | Subtidal 36.926463 -25.014565 Subtidal
73 SMA_VP_Pem Vila do Porto Prainha | Entre-marés 36.951808 -25.104061 Intertidal
74 SMA_VP_PFepem Vila do Porto Praia Formosa | Entre praias | Entre-marés 36.950235 -25.095009 Intertidal
75 SMA_VP_PFppem Vila do Porto Praia Formosa | Ponta da praia | Entre-marés 36.94734 -25.088821 Intertidal
76 SMA_VP_PFps Vila do Porto Praia Formosa | Pedrinha | Subtidal 36.937365 -25.105259 Subtidal
77 SMA_VP_PFs1 Vila do Porto Praia Formosa | Subtidal 1 36.940431 -25.095659 Subtidal
78 SMA_VP_PMs Vila do Porto Ponta do Marvão | Subtidal 36.936973 -25.139363 Subtidal
79 SMA_VP_Rs Vila do Porto Restinga | Subtidal 37.001733 -25.172973 Subtidal
80 SMA_VP_SLaps Vila do Porto São Lourenço | Atrás do porto | Subtidal 36.99533 -25.052727 Subtidal
81 SMA_VP_SLb11s Vila do Porto São Lourenço | Baía (SMA11) | Subtidal 36.98472 -25.04341 Subtidal
82 SMA_VP_SLfiem Vila do Porto São Lourenço | Frente ao ilhéu | Entre-marés 36.9858 -25.049216 Intertidal
83 SMA_VP_Slpnem Vila do Porto São Lourenço | Ponta Norte | Entre-marés 36.998556 -25.050887 Intertidal
84 SMA_VP_SLpns Vila do Porto São Lourenço | Ponta do Norte | Subtidal 37.00491 -25.05133 Subtidal
85 SMA_VP_Slpsbem Vila do Porto São Lourenço | Ponta Sul da Baía | Entre-marés 36.98538307 -25.05051544 Intertidal
86 SMA_VP_SLs1 Vila do Porto São Lourenço | Subtidal 1 36.996286 -25.045811 Subtidal
87 SMA_VP_SLs2 Vila do Porto São Lourenço | Subtidal 2 36.997331 -25.047914 Subtidal
88 SMA_VP_VPpaem Vila do Porto Vila do Porto | Porto antigo | Entre-marés 36.945957 -25.14822 Intertidal
89 SMA_VP_VPpnemW Vila do Porto Vila do Porto | Porto Novo | Entre-marés W 36.94141 -25.154005 Intertidal
90 SMA_VP_VPpns Vila do Porto Vila do Porto | Porto Novo | Subtidal 36.940838 -25.146736 Subtidal
91 SMA_VP_VPpnsE Vila do Porto Vila do Porto | Porto Novo | Subtidal E 36.9431 -25.146917 Subtidal
92 SMA_VP_VPpnsW Vila do Porto Vila do Porto | Porto Novo | Subtidal W 36.9402 -25.150384 Subtidal
Sampling description: 

Sampling involved specimen collecting and species presence recording. At each location, samples were obtained by scraping and/or manually collecting one or two specimens of all different species found into labelled bags (Fig. 14). Species recording data were gathered by registering all species present in the sampled locations (Fig. 15). Intertidal collections were made during low tide by walking over the shores. Subtidal collections were made by SCUBA diving around the area.

Figure 14.  

Collecting macroalgae at the subtidal of Santa Maria Island (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Figure 15.  

Quantitative recording of the presence and coverage of macroalgal species from subtidal rocky habitat (by the Island Aquatic Ecology Subgroup of cE3c-ABG).

Quality control: 

Each sampled taxon was identified by trained taxonomists and involved morphological and anatomical observations of whole specimens by eye and/or of histological preparations under microscopes to determine the main diagnostic features of each species as described in literature.

Step description: 

At the laboratory, standard procedures were followed in specimens sorting and macroalgae identification. A combination of morphological and anatomical characters and reproductive structures was used for species identification. For small and simple thalli, this required the observation of the entire thallus with the naked eye and/or using dissecting and compound microscopes. For larger and more complex algae, investigation of the thallus anatomy required histological preparations (longitudinal and transverse sections) or squashed preparations of mucilaginous thalli, sometimes after staining, to observe vegetative and reproductive structures and other diagnostic features.

The Azorean algal flora has components from several geographical regions which implies difficulties in species identification. Floras and keys for the North Atlantic, Tropical Atlantic and Western Mediterranean were used (e.g. Schmidt 1931, Taylor 1967, Taylor 1978, Levring 1974, Dixon and Irvine 1977, Lawson and John 1982, Irvine 1983, Gayral and Cosson 1986, Fletcher 1987, Afonso-Carrillo and Sansón 1989, Burrows 1991, Boudouresque et al. 1992, Cabioc'h et al. 1992, Maggs and Hommersand 1993, Irvine and Chamberlain 1994, Brodie et al. 2007, Lloréns et al. 2012, Rodríguez-Prieto et al. 2013). For more critical and taxonomically difficult taxa, specimens were taken to the Natural History Museum (London) for comparison with collections there.

A reference collection was made for all collected specimens by assigning them a herbarium code number and depositing them at the AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha and the LSM - Molecular Systematics Laboratory, University of Azores. Depending on the species and on planned further research, different types of collections were made, namely (i) wet collections using 5% buffered formaldehyde seawater and then replacing it by the fixing agent Kew (Bridsen and Forman 1999); (ii) dried collections, either by pressing the algae (most species) as described by Gayral and Cosson (1986) or by letting them air dry (calcareous species); and (iii) silica gel collections for molecular study.

Nomenclatural and taxonomic status used here follow Algaebase (Guiry and Guiry 2020). The database was organised on FileMaker Pro.

Geographic coverage

Description: 

Santa Maria Island Description: Azores, Portugal (approximately 37°1'19''N, -25°11'24''W);

Coordinates: 

36.918 and 37.022 Latitude; -25.190 and -25.009 Longitude.

Taxonomic coverage

Description: 

All macroalgae were identified to genus or species level. In total, 261 taxa were identified belonging to 28 orders and 60 families, in the phyla Rhodophyta (14 orders and 34 families), Chlorophyta (5 orders and 9 families) and Ochrophyta (9 orders and 17 families).

Temporal coverage

Notes: 

The sampling was performed on several occasions in the period between 1989 and 2019.

Collection data

Collection name: 
AZB | Marine macroalgae collection of Santa Maria Island (Azores)-Expedition Santa Maria and Formigas/90; AZB | Marine macroalgae collection of Santa Maria Island (Azores)-Project LAUMACAT; AZB | Marine macroalgae collection of Santa Maria Island (Azores)-Project PARQMAR; AZB | Marine macroalgae collection of Santa Maria Island (Azores)-Occasional sampling; LSM | Marine macroalgae collection of Santa Maria Island (Azores)-Department of Biology Expedition 2009; LSM | Marine macroalgae collection of Santa Maria Island (Azores)-Project ASMAS; LSM | Marine macroalgae collection of Santa Maria Island (Azores)-Occasional sampling; Marine macroalgae occurrence of Santa Maria Island (Azores)-Campaign CAMAG-ORI-SMA/2008; Marine macroalgae occurrence of Santa Maria Island (Azores)-Project LAUMACAT; Marine macroalgae occurrence of Santa Maria Island (Azores)-Occasional sampling; Marine macroalgae occurrence of Santa Maria Island (Azores)-Campaign Waitt Foundation - BALA /PIMA /2016; Marine macroalgae occurrence of Santa Maria Island (Azores)-PIMA / 2016; Marine macroalgae occurrence of Santa Maria Island (Azores)-PIMA / 2017; Marine macroalgae occurrence of Santa Maria Island (Azores)-Campaign BALA /PIMA /2018; Marine macroalgae occurrence of Santa Maria Island (Azores)-Campaign Porbiota/ 2019.
Collection identifier: 
81c64926-4d75-429d-b21f-f7cd93e30504; 100ab0f2-7f8b-4eb6-a5f5-6257d32003a5; af962795-47c6-4219-a295-6687a94afeda; 08883948-f896-495f-ab3d-9fe49f23b76c; 865b91e9-1ec6-4bb8-a941-aba2b586071a; 4efe744e-1e38-431c-b112-7fb9f9bf279a; 77a28947-47d8-420f-b40d-f49e87556090; 6606098f-5fbb-4731-9cfa-b7c8e78c3638; bae7fc8f-6333-43d4-887b-3e65617df133; 579bc266-7779-49ea-a775-f44abc2bdad3; 30ed893c-b66d-4c85-8848-10f144a6f957; 852eacdf-977e-44dd-9a52-172a5082a6dd; b74c3414-e277-4789-8806-27a9abf0f7ee; 22941d45-0678-49fb-bdfe-8b0052ceb298; 93e46396-33b2-4dff-b3d1-acff7e76753c.
Parent collection identifier: 
AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores; AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores; AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores; AZB Herbarium Ruy Telles Palhinha, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores; LSM - Molecular Systematics Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores; LSM - Molecular Systematics Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of the Azores; Not applicable; Not applicable; Not applicable; Not applicable; Not applicable; Not applicable; Not applicable; Not applicable; Not applicable.
Specimen preservation method: 
Air dry, Dried and pressed; Wet (Formalin; fixing agent Kew), Silica gel.

Usage licence

Usage licence: 
Creative Commons Public Domain Waiver (CC-Zero)

Data resources

Data package title: 
Marine algal flora of Santa Maria Island, Azores
Number of data sets: 
1
Data set name: 
Marine algal flora of Santa Maria Island, Azores
Data format: 
Darwin Core Archive
Data format version: 
1.3
Description: 

This data paper presents physical and occurrence data from macroalgal surveys undertaken on Santa Maria Island between 1989 and 2019 (Neto et al. 2020d). The dataset submitted to GBIF is structured as a sample event dataset, with two tables: event (as core) and occurrences. The data in this sampling event resource have been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwCA), which is a standardised format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 139 records (eventID). The extension data table has 2329 occurrences. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated in the IPT link. This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for downloading in the downloads section.

Column label Column description
eventID Identifier of the event, unique for the dataset
country Country of the sampling site
countryCode Code of the country where the event occurred
stateProvince Name of the region
island Name of the island
municipality Name of the municipality
locality Name of the locality
locationID Identifier of the location
decimalLatitude The geographic latitude of the sampling site
decimalLongitude The geographic longitud of the sampling site
geodeticDatum The spatial reference system upon which the geographic coordinates are based
coordinateUncertaintyInMetres The horizontal distance (in metres) from the given decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude describing the smallest circle containing the whole of the Location
eventDate Time interval when the event occurred
year The year of the event
samplingProtocol Sampling method used during an event
locationRemarks Zonation level
minimumDepthInMetres The minimum depth in metres where the specimen was found
maximumDepthInMetres The maximum depth in metres where the specimen was found
eventRemarks Notes about the event
occurrenceID Identifier of the record, coded as a global unique identifier
institutionID The identifier for the institution having custody of the object or information referred to in the record
institutionCode The acronym of the institution having custody of the object or information referred to in the record
collectionID An identifier of the collection to which the record belongs
collectionCode The name of the collection from which the record was derived
datasetName The name identifying the dataset from which the record was derived
kingdom Kingdom name
phylum Phylum name
class Class name
order Order name
family Family name
genus Genus name
specificEpithet The name of the first or species epithet of the scientificName
infraspecificEpithet The name of the lowest or terminal infraspecific epithet of the scientificName, excluding any rank designation
acceptedNameUsage The specimen accepted name, with authorship
previousIdentifications Previous name of the specimen, with authorship
scientificName The name without authorship applied on the first identification of the specimen
scientificNameAuthorship The authorship information for the scientificName formatted according to the conventions of the applicable nomenclaturalCode
taxonRank The taxonomic rank of the most specific name in the scientificName
basisOfRecord The specific nature of the data record
habitat Description of the habitat where the specimen was found
organismQuantityType The type of quantification system used to quantity the organisms
organismQuantity Percentage of the organism coverage
recordedBy Person(s) responsible for sampling
catalogNumber Identifying code for a unique sample lot in a biological collection
identifiedBy Person(s) responsible for taxa identification
type The nature of the resource
preparations The preservation method used for the specimen
establishmentMeans The establishment status of the organism in the study region
occurrenceRemarks New record status assignment
licence Reference to the licence under which the record is published

Additional information

This paper is based on 2329 specimens of macroalgae recorded from Santa Maria Island in 261 taxa, comprising 174 confirmed species (Table 3) and 86 taxa identified only to genus level. The confirmed species (Table 4) include 102 Rhodophyta, 29 Chlorophyta and 43 Ochrophyta (Phaeophyceae). Of these, 52 species are newly recorded to the Island (30 Rhodophyta, 9 Chlorophyta and 13 Ochrophyta). Most species are native, including the two Macaronesian endemics (Laurencia viridis and Millerella tinerfensis). Eighteen have an uncertain status (11 Rhodophyta, 3 Chlorophyta and 4 Ochrophyta) and ten species represent introductions to the algal flora (the Rhodophyta Acrothamnion preissii, Antithamnion hubbsii, Asparagopsis armata, Bonnemaisonia hamifera, Melanothamnus harveyi, Scinaia acuta and Symphyocladia marchantioides; the Chlorophyta Codium fragile subsp. fragile; and the Ochrophyta Hydroclathrus tilesii and Papenfussiella kuromo).

Table 3.

Macroalgae species recorded from Santa Maria Island, with information on relative abundance, origin and status

Phylum

Species (Accepted Name)

Number of records

Establishment Means

OccurrenceRemarks

Rhodophyta

Acrosorium ciliolatum (Harvey) Kylin

6

Native

Rhodophyta

Acrothamnion preissii (Sonder) E.M.Wollaston

28

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Aglaothamnion pseudobyssoides (Crouan & Crouan) Halos

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Amphiroa fragilissima (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Anotrichium furcellatum (J.Agardh) Baldock

6

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Antithamnion hubbsii E.Y.Dawson

5

Introduced

New record

Rhodophyta

Asparagopsis armata Harvey

22

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Asparagopsis armata Harvey phase Falkenbergia rufolanosa (Harvey) F.Schmitz

16

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan

66

Native

Rhodophyta

Bonnemaisonia hamifera Hariot

3

Introduced

New record

Rhodophyta

Bornetia secundiflora (J.Agardh) Thuret

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Callithamnion corymbosum (J.E.Smith) Lyngbye

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Callithamnion granulatum (Ducluzeau) C.Agardh

4

Native

Rhodophyta

Carradoriella denudata (Dillwyn) A.M.Savoie & G.W.Saunders

3

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Carradoriella elongata (Hudson) A.M.Savoie & G.W.Saunders

5

Native

Rhodophyta

Catenella caespitosa (Withering) L.M.Irvine

3

Native

Rhodophyta

Caulacanthus ustulatus (Turner) Kützing

6

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Centroceras clavulatum (C.Agardh) Montagne

8

Native

Rhodophyta

Ceramium codii (H.Richards) Mazoyer

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Ceramium diaphanum (Lightfoot) Roth

10

Native

Rhodophyta

Ceramium strictum Roth

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Ceramium virgatum Roth

5

Native

Rhodophyta

Chondracanthus acicularis (Roth) Fredericq

6

Native

Rhodophyta

Chondracanthus teedei (Mertens ex Roth) Kützing

3

Native

Rhodophyta

Chondria capillaris (Hudson) M.J.Wynne

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Chondria dasyphylla (Woodward) C.Agardh

19

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Corallina ferreyrae E.Y.Dawson, Acleto & Foldvik

3

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Corallina officinalis Linnaeus

5

Native

Rhodophyta

Cottoniella filamentosa (M.Howe) Børgesen

30

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Crouania attenuata (C.Agardh) J.Agardh

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Cryptopleura ramosa (Hudson) L.Newton

19

Native

Rhodophyta

Dasya baillouviana (S.G.Gmelin) Montagne

3

Uncertain

New record

Rhodophyta

Dasya corymbifera J.Agardh

3

Native

Rhodophyta

Dasya hutchinsiae Harvey

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Dasya rigidula (Kützing) Ardissone

2

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Dermocorynus dichotomus (J.Agardh) Gargiulo, M.Morabito & Manghisi

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Dudresnaya verticillata (Withering) Le Jolis

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Ellisolandia elongata (J.Ellis & Solander) K.R.Hind & G.W.Saunders

6

Native

Rhodophyta

Erythrocystis montagnei (Derbès & Solier) P.C.Silva

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Feldmannophycus rayssiae (Feldmann & G.Feldmann) H.Augier & Boudouresque

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Gaillona hookeri (Dillwyn) Athanasiadis

6

Native

Rhodophyta

Gelidium corneum (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux

3

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Gelidium microdon Kützing

11

Native

Rhodophyta

Gelidium pusillum (Stackhouse) Le Jolis

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Gelidium spinosum (S.G.Gmelin) P.C.Silva

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Gigartina pistillata (S.G.Gmel.) Stackhouse

3

Native

Rhodophyta

Gracilariopsis longissima (S.G.Gmelin) Steentoft, L.M.Irvine & Farnham

14

Native

Rhodophyta

Grateloupia filicina (J.V.Lamouroux) C.Agardh

16

Native

Rhodophyta

Griffithsia corallinoides (Linnaeus) Trevisan

1

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Gymnogongrus crenulatus (Turner) J.Agardh

3

Native

Rhodophyta

Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner) C.Martius

4

Native

Rhodophyta

Halarachnion ligulatum (Woodward) Kützing

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Halurus equisetifolius (Lightfoot) Kützing

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Halurus flosculosus (J.Ellis) Maggs & Hommersand

6

Native

Rhodophyta

Herposiphonia secunda (C.Agardh) Ambronn

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Herposiphonia secunda f. tenella (C.Agardh) M.J.Wynne

2

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux

21

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Hypoglossum hypoglossoides (Stackhouse) F.S.Collins & Hervey

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Itonoa marginifera (J.Agardh) Masuda & Guiry

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Jania capillacea Harvey

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Jania longifurca Zanardini

2

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Jania pedunculata var. adhaerens (J.V.Lamouroux) A.S.Harvey, Woelkerling & Reviers

5

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux

11

Native

Rhodophyta

Jania virgata (Zanardini) Montagne

25

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Laurencia obtusa (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Laurencia pyramidalis Bory ex Kützing

4

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Laurencia tenera C.K.Tseng

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Laurencia viridis Gil-Rodriguez & Haroun

111

Macaronesian endemism

Rhodophyta

Leptosiphonia brodiei (Dillwyn) A.M.Savoie & G.W.Saunders

3

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Liagora distenta (Mertens ex Roth) J.V.Lamouroux

4

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Liagora viscida (Forsskål) C.A.Agardh

6

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Lophosiphonia cristata Falkenberg

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Melanothamnus harveyi (Bailey) Díaz-Tapia & Maggs

2

Introduced

New record

Rhodophyta

Meredithia microphylla (J.Agardh) J.Agardh

11

Native

Rhodophyta

Millerella tinerfensis (Seoane-Camba) S.M.Boo & J.M.Rico

1

Macaronesian endemism

Rhodophyta

Nemalion elminthoides (Velley) Batters

4

Native

Rhodophyta

Nitophyllum punctatum (Stackhouse) Greville

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Osmundea pinnatifida (Hudson) Stackhouse

7

Native

Rhodophyta

Osmundea truncata (Kützing) K.W.Nam & Maggs

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Peyssonnelia squamaria (S.G.Gmelin) Decaisne ex J.Agardh

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Phyllophora crispa (Hudson) P.S.Dixon

6

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Platoma cyclocolpum (Montagne) F.Schmitz

8

Native

Rhodophyta

Platysiphonia delicata (Clemente) Cremades

2

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Pleonosporium borreri (Smith) Nägeli

7

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus) P.S.Dixon

22

Native

Rhodophyta

Polysiphonia atlantica Kapraun & J.N.Norris

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Polysiphonia breviarticulata (C.Agardh) Zanardini

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Polysiphonia ceramiiformis P.Crouan & H.Crouan

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Polysiphonia havanensis Montagne

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Predaea feldmannii Børgesen

9

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Pterocladiella capillacea (S.G.Gmelin) Santelices & Hommersand

41

Native

Rhodophyta

Rhodymenia holmesii Ardissone

6

Native

Rhodophyta

Scinaia acuta M.J.Wynne

2

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Scinaia furcellata (Turner) J.Agardh

2

Native

Rhodophyta

Sphaerococcus coronopifolius Stackhouse

13

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Sphondylothamnion multifidum (Hudson) Nägeli

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Spyridia filamentosa (Wulfen) Harvey

8

Native

Rhodophyta

Symphyocladia marchantioides (Harvey) Falkenberg

5

Introduced

Rhodophyta

Taenioma nanum (Kützing) Papenfuss

1

Native

Rhodophyta

Vertebrata foetidissima (Cocks ex Bornet) Díaz-Tapia & Maggs

1

Native

New record

Rhodophyta

Vertebrata fruticulosa (Wulfen) Kuntze

9

Native

Rhodophyta

Vertebrata fucoides (Hudson) Kuntze

3

Uncertain

Rhodophyta

Xiphosiphonia pennata (C.Agardh) Savoie & G.W.Saunders

5

Native

Chlorophyta

Bryopsis hypnoides J.V.Lamouroux

3

Native

Chlorophyta

Bryopsis plumosa (Hudson) C.Agardh

1

Native

Chlorophyta

Chaetomorpha aerea (Dillwyn) Kützing

3

Native

Chlorophyta

Chaetomorpha linum (O.F.Müller) Kützing

7

Native

Chlorophyta

Chaetomorpha pachynema (Montagne) Kützing

1

Native

Chlorophyta

Cladophora albida (Nees) Kützing

6

Native

Chlorophyta

Cladophora coelothrix Kützing

6

Native

Chlorophyta

Cladophora laetevirens (Dillwyn) Kützing

10

Uncertain

Chlorophyta

Cladophora lehmanniana (Lindenberg) Kützing

4

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Cladophora liebetruthii Grunow

9

Native

Chlorophyta

Cladophora prolifera (Roth) Kützing

42

Native

Chlorophyta

Codium adhaerens C.Agardh

43

Native

Chlorophyta

Codium effusum (Rafinesque) Delle Chiaje

1

Uncertain

New record

Chlorophyta

Codium fragile subsp. atlanticum (A.D.Cotton) P.C.Silva

1

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot

13

Introduced

New record

Chlorophyta

Codium taylorii P.C.Silva

4

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Codium tomentosum Stackhouse

1

Native

Chlorophyta

Lychaete pellucida (Hudson) M.J.Wynne

5

Native

Chlorophyta

Microdictyon umbilicatum (Velley) Zanardini

8

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Pseudorhizoclonium africanum (Kützing) Boedeker

1

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Ulothrix flacca (Dillwyn) Thuret

1

Native

New record

Chlorophyta

Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh

13

Native

Chlorophyta

Ulva compressa Linnaeus

12

Native

Chlorophyta

Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus

13

Native

Chlorophyta

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus

3

Uncertain

New record

Chlorophyta

Ulva linza Linnaeus

2

Native

Chlorophyta

Ulva rigida C.Agardh

25

Native

Chlorophyta

Valonia macrophysa Kützing

1

Native

Chlorophyta

Valonia utricularis (Roth) C.Agardh

7

Native

Ochrophyta

Bachelotia antillarum (Grunow) Gerloff

1

Native

Ochrophyta

Canistrocarpus cervicornis (Kützing) De Paula & De Clerck

1

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Carpomitra costata (Stackhouse) Batters

2

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Cladostephus spongiosus (Hudson) C.Agardh

44

Native

Ochrophyta

Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) Derbès & Solier

90

Native

Ochrophyta

Cutleria multifida (Turner) Greville

2

Uncertain

New record

Ochrophyta

Cutleria multifida (Turner) Greville phase Aglaozonia parvula (Greville) Zanardini

2

Uncertain

Ochrophyta

Cystoseira compressa (Esper) Gerloff & Nizamuddin

17

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Cystoseira foeniculacea (Linnaeus) Greville

2

Native

Ochrophyta

Cystoseira humilis Schousboe ex Kützing

7

Native

Ochrophyta

Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss

5

Native

Ochrophyta

Dictyopteris polypodioides (A.P.De Candolle) J.V.Lamouroux

8

Native

Ochrophyta

Dictyota bartayresiana J.V.Lamouroux

3

Native

Ochrophyta

Dictyota ciliolata Sonder ex Kützing

1

Native

Ochrophyta

Dictyota dichotoma (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux

24

Native

Ochrophyta

Dictyota dichotoma var. intricata (C.Agardh) Greville

11

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Dictyota implexa (Desfontaines) J.V.Lamouroux

2

Native

Ochrophyta

Feldmannia globifera (Kützing) Hamel

1

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Fucus spiralis Linnaeus

27

Uncertain

Ochrophyta

Halopteris filicina (Grateloup) Kützing

37

Native

Ochrophyta

Halopteris scoparia (Linnaeus) Sauvageau

54

Native

Ochrophyta

Hydroclathrus tilesii (Endlicher) Santiañez & M.J.Wynne

8

Introduced

New record

Ochrophyta

Hydroclathrus clathratus (C.Agardh) M.Howe

6

Native

Ochrophyta

Leathesia marina (Lyngbye) Decaisne

9

Uncertain

Ochrophyta

Lobophora variegata (J.V.Lamouroux) Womersley ex E.C.Oliveira

41

Native

Ochrophyta

Mesogloia vermiculata (Smith) S.F.Gray

16

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Myrionema strangulans Greville

8

Native

Ochrophyta

Nemoderma tingitanum Schousboe ex Bornet

3

Native

Ochrophyta

Padina pavonica (Linnaeus) Thivy

144

Native

Ochrophyta

Papenfussiella kuromo (Yendo) Inagaki

8

Introduced

Ochrophyta

Ralfsia verrucosa (Areschoug) Areschoug

1

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Sargassum cymosum C.Agardh

8

Native

Ochrophyta

Sargassum desfontainesii (Turner) C.Agardh

3

Native

Ochrophyta

Sargassum furcatum Kützing

16

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Sargassum vulgare C.Agardh, nom. illeg.

2

Native

Ochrophyta

Scytosiphon lomentaria (Lyngbye) Link

5

Native

Ochrophyta

Sphacelaria cirrosa (Roth) C.Agardh

6

Native

Ochrophyta

Sphacelaria plumula Zanardini

2

Native

Ochrophyta

Sphaerotrichia divaricata (C.Agardh) Kylin

4

Uncertain

New record

Ochrophyta

Sporochnus pedunculatus (Hudson) C.Agardh

2

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Stypopodium zonale (J.V.Lamouroux) Papenfuss

1

Native

New record

Ochrophyta

Taonia atomaria (Woodward) J.Agardh

3

Native

Ochrophyta

Treptacantha abies-marina (S.G.Gmelin) Kützing

35

Native

Ochrophyta

Zonaria tournefortii (J.V.Lamouroux) Montagne

100

Native

Table 4.

Summary of the macroalgal flora of the Island of Santa Maria with information on the species origin and status

Phyllum Order Family Specimens Number Total taxa Total species Native Introduced Uncertain Macaronesian endemism New record
Rhodophyta 14 34 988 152 102 82 7 11 2 30
Chlorophyta 5 9 276 43 29 25 1 3 9
Ochrophyta 9 17 1065 66 44 37 2 4 13
Total 28 60 2329 261 174 144 10 18 2 52

Many species were only sporadically recorded, but 12 were commonly found around the Island and occurred quite abundantly in some locations, namely: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan, Laurencia viridis, and Pterocladiella capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Santelices & Hommersand; the Chlorophyta Cladophora prolifera (Roth) Kützing, Codium adhaerens C. Agardh and Ulva rigida C. Agardh; and the Ochrophyta Cladostephus spongiosus (Hudson) C. Agardh, Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) Derbès & Solier, Halopteris scoparia, Lobophora variegata (J.V. Lamouroux) Womersley ex E. C. Oliveira, Padina pavonica and Zonaria tournefortii.

A mismatch regarding the GBIF backbone taxonomy of some of the macroalgae species names was identified as detailed in Suppl. material 1.

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by several projects, expeditions and campaigns (see Funding above) and lately by the project “ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072” funded the Operational Programme Azores 2020 (85% ERDF and 15% regional funds). We are grateful to the Municipalities of Vila do Porto, the Ecoteca of Santa Maria, the Basic and Secondary School of Santa Maria, the Environment Delegation of Santa Maria Island and the Club Naval of Santa Maria for their logistic support during the Expeditions and Campaigns. Thanks are due to the campaigns teams for their critical involvement in this project (Abel Sentíes, André Amaral, Andrea Cunha, Camille Fontaine, Catarina Santos, Cláudia Lopes, Daniela Gabriel, Dinis Geraldes, Edgar Rosas-Alquicira, Edward Hehre, Emanuel Xavier, Eunice Nogueira, Francisco Wallenstein, Heather Baldwin, Joana Michael, Joana Pombo, João Brum, João Ferreira, João Monteiro, Joana Pombo, José Baptista, Linda Beiroldi, Luís Resendes, Marco Enoch, Maria Ana Dionísio, Maria Machín-Sánchez, Maria Manuel, Marlene Terra, Mutue Toyota Fujii, Patrícia Madeira, Paulo Torres, Pedro Monteiro, Raquel Torres, Ricardo Cordeiro, Richard Fralick, Ruben Couto, Rui Sousa, Sérgio Ávila, Tarso Costa, Tito Silva, Valeria Cassano and Viegas Pinto). Manuela I. Parente was supported by a postdoctoral grant (SFRH/BPD/34246/2006) awarded by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT). Eva Cacabelos was supported by a postdoctoral grant (Project M1420-09-5369-FSE-000001) from ARDITI (Regional Agency for Development of Research, Technology and Innovation of Madeira). Afonso C.L. Prestes was supported by a PhD grant (M3.1.a/F/083/2015) awarded by Fundo Regional da Ciência e Tecnologia (FRCT). Rita F. Patarra was supported by a Science and Technology Management Fellowship grant (SFRH/BGCT/135478/2018) awarded by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, IP.

Author contributions

AIN: Conceptualisation; Methodology; Research (field and laboratory work); Resources; Data Curation; Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing

MIP: Research (field and laboratory work); Data Curation; Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing

EC: Research (field work and laboratory work); Data Curation

ACC: Research (field and laboratory work); Resources; Data Curation

AZB: Research (field and laboratory work); Data Curation

EB: Research (field work and laboratory work); Resources; Data Curation

SM: Research (field and laboratory work); Data Curation

RR: Resources; Data Curation

PA: Resources

ACLP: Research (field and laboratory work); Data Curation

RFP: Research (field and laboratory work); Data Curation

NVA: Research (field work); Maps elaboration

DM-F: Research (field and laboratory work); Data Curation

RMAN: Data Curation; Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing

JMNA: Research (field work and laboratory work); Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing

IM: Data Curation; Formal analysis and interpretation; Paper writing

References

Supplementary material

Suppl. material 1: DP-SMA-id_15162_normalized.csv 
Authors:  Ana I Neto
Data type:  Macroalgae taxonomic mismatching
Brief description: 

GBIF does not have the more actualised nomenclature for some of the macroalgae species names. Therefore, the matching tools of its platform were applied to the species list, as required by Pensoft's data auditor, to identify the problematic taxonomic situations. The resulting file (DP-SMA-id_15162_normalized.csv) is included here, since the names will not be immediately updated in the GBIF Taxonomic Backbone. A request was already sent to GBIF helpdesk to solve this situation.