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Data Paper (Biosciences)
Standardised arthropod (Arthropoda) inventory across natural and anthropogenic impacted habitats in the Azores archipelago
expand article infoJosé Marcelino, Paulo A. V. Borges§,|, Isabel Borges, Enésima Pereira§, Vasco Santos, António Onofre Soares
‡ cE3c – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and Universidade dos Açores, Rua Madre de Deus, 9500, Ponta Delgada, Portugal
§ cE3c – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and Universidade dos Açores, Rua Capitão João d’Ávila, São Pedro, 9700-042, Angra do Heroismo, Portugal
| IUCN SSC Mid-Atlantic Islands Specialist Group, Angra do Heroísmo, Portugal
Open Access

Abstract

Background

In this paper, we present an extensive checklist of selected arthropods and their distribution in five Islands of the Azores (Santa Maria. São Miguel, Terceira, Flores and Pico). Habitat surveys included five herbaceous and four arboreal habitat types, scaling up from native to anthropogenic managed habitats. We aimed to contribute to the ongoing effort to document the terrestrial biodiversity of the world, in particular the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores, as islands harbour a significant portion of unique terrestrial biodiversity. Selection of Arthropoda groups for the current checklist was based on their known richness and abundance (Arachnida, Collembola, Hemiptera, Neuroptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera), in almost all terrestrial ecosystems, as well as their importance in current Integrated Pest Management and alternative Biocontrol protocols at large (i.e. hymenopteran parasitoids and beneficial Coleoptera). In addition, we include the list of Dermaptera, Orthoptera, Psocoptera and Thysanoptera species. These assembled groups represent part of the monitoring programme EDEN Azores (2008-2014), where all Arthropod fauna, at all strata, within nine representative habitats of the abovementioned five Islands of the Azores was recorded.

New information

In this study, a total of 116,523 specimens, belonging to 483 species and subspecies of selected groups of arthropods, are reported by order, family and, when possible, genus and species. Hymenopteran, mostly parasitoids, accounted for the most represented taxa across all the monitoring and sampling phase of EDEN Azores (193 species and mophospecies), followed by Coleoptera (95 species); Collembola (89 species); and Araneae (72 species).

A total of 37 non-native species are reported for the first time in the Azores. Coleoptera: Asaphidion flavipes (Linnaeus, 1761) (Carabidae); Tachyporus dispar (Paykull, 1789) (Staphylinidae). Hemiptera: Acrosternum heegeri Fieber, 1861 (Pentatomidae). Collembola: Entomobrya regularis Stach, 1963 (Entomobryidae); Lepidocyrtus lusitanicus piezoensis (Simón-Benito, 2007) (Entomobryidae); Jordanathrix articulata (Ellis, 1974) (Sminthuridae); Sminthurinus quadrimaculatus (Ryder, 1879) (Katiannidae); Himalanura sp. (Entomobryidae); Protophorura sp. (Onychiuridae). Hymenoptera, parasitoids: Aphidius colemani Viereck, 1912 (Braconidae); Aphidius ervi Haliday, 1834 (Braconidae); Aphidius matricariae Viereck, 1912 (Braconidae); Aphidius rhopalosiphi Stefani-Perez, 1902 (Braconidae); Aphidius rosae (Haliday, 1834) (Braconidae); Aphidius urticae Haliday, 1834 (Braconidae); Centistidea ectoedemiae Rohwer, 1914 (Braconidae); Meteorus unicolor (Wesmael, 1835) (Braconidae); Meteorus collaris (Spin.) Hal. – Ruschka, Fulmek, 1915 (Braconidae); Orthostigma cratospilum (Thomson, 1895) (Braconidae); Orthostigma latriventris Ratzeburg, 1844 (Braconidae); two other species of Orthostigma sp.; Pseudopezomachus bituberculatus (Marshall, 1905) (Braconidae); Tanycarpa punctata (van Achterberg, 1976) (Braconidae); Gonatopus clavipes (Thunberg, 1827) (Dryinidae). New genera not previously recorded for the Azores include: Pycnetron sp. (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae); four species of Aspilota sp. (Braconidae: Alysiinae); four species of Chorebus sp. (Braconidae: Aphidiinae: Alysiinae); Microgaster sp. (Braconidae: Microgastrinae); Homolobus sp. (Braconidae: Homolobinae); Lodbrokia sp. (Braconidae: Alysiinae).

These 37 taxa were found in several Islands and five are new species for Flores Island, 10 species are new for Pico Island, 12 species are new for Terceira Island, 19 species are new for S. Miguel Island and five species are new for S. Maria Island.

Additional species records for the Islands included: Flores (5 Collembola, 9 Araneae; 2 Hemiptera; 8 Coleoptera, 8 Hymenoptera), Pico (4 Collembola; 7 Araneae; 4 Hemiptera; 11 Coleoptera; 9 Hymenoptera), Terceira (4 Collembola; 1 Araneae; 3 Hymenoptera), S. Miguel (1 Araneae; 2 Coleoptera; 3 Hymenoptera), S. Maria (5 Collembola; 3 Araneae; 2 Hemiptera; 2 Hymenoptera).

Keywords

Arthropoda, Azores, São Miguel, Terceira, Flores, Santa Maria, Pico, Island, anthropogenic impact gradient, habitat types

Introduction

Biodiversity loss is accelerating at an unprecedented rate (Maxwell et al. 2016, Borges et al. 2019, Wagner et al. 2021), particularly in islands (Whittaker et al. 2017). Current drivers of biodiversity loss include habitat change (i.e. habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation), invasive species, pollution and contamination and climate change (Titeux et al. 2016, Sanchez-Bayo and Wyckhuys 2019). Land-use reconversion is a catalyst for major biodiversity changes in the world, namely in island ecosystems (Russell and Kueffer 2019). The inventory and monitoring of island biodiversity is critical for understanding current and future trends in biodiversity erosion (Borges et al. 2019) as remote archipelagoes enclose high endemism levels and a significant portion of terrestrial biodiversity.

In the current study, we focus in Azores Islands (Portugal) and on its arthropod diversity inventory. Arthropods are recognised as one of the most endangered taxa in the globe, vital for ecosystem stability and food security (Hochkirch 2016, Harvey et al. 2020, Raven and Wagner 2021, Wagner et al. 2021). Composed of nine Islands lying on the North Atlantic Ocean, (39º43'23'' N [Corvo] - 36º55'43'' N [Santa Maria]; 24º46'15'' WG [Formigas islets] - 31º16'24'' WG [Monchique Islet – Flores]), these Islands, when discovered, were completely covered by dense forests (Frutuoso 1978). These forests included Erica-Morella woodlands at levelled coastal areas and Picconia-Morella forests up to 300 m a.s.l. From 300 m to 600 a.s.l., the sub montane forests dominated (the Azorean Laurel forests, predominatly Laurus azorica), which probably covered more than two thirds of the Islands (Elias et al. 2016). Above the Laurus forests, between 600 m and 1000 a.s.l., Juniperus-Ilex forests and Juniperus woodlands would have covered most of the areas (Elias et al. 2016). At higher elevations, Calluna-Juniperus scrublands may have covered mountain ridges and Calluna-Erica scrublands and Calluna scrublands would have occupied Pico Mountain, above 1200 m a.s.l., as they still do today (Elias et al. 2016).

The topography of the Azores is characterised by the presence of numerous catchments, ravines and mainly seasonal water streams. Climate and hydrography, together with remote geographic isolation (i.e. central zone of the North Atlantic) and absence of any close continental masses (the nearest landmasses are Europe > 1300 km away and North America > 3200 km away), as well as the complex marine Current System (Caldeira and Reis 2017), contribute to a temperate climate and high humidity throughout the year. These environmental conditions and a nutrient-rich volcanic soil, still support an abundant flora in spite of intense anthropogenic influence and land reconversion to agriculture and forestry activities. Mixed and pristine forests [predominantly native evergreen Laurel forests (Laurisilva), a humid broadleaf Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco forest] covers many islands’ hillsides (Cardoso et al. 2007, Hortal et al. 2006). Thirteen percent of their land surface is protected (World Heritage, Biosphere and Natura 2000 Networks).

The Azorean Islands have a long history of habitat loss and land-use changes, with only circa 5% of the native forest remaining intact (Borges et al. 2020). Deforestation has occurred extensively, initially at low elevations, but subsequently extended to mid- and higher elevations due to anthropogenic intervention and timber use as an energy source. Currently, six main habitats can be found in Azores, i.e. i) the original native forests, restricted to high elevations with some small pockets at mid-elevations and disturbed mixed vegetation at low elevation; ii) exotic fast-growing tree plantations, dominated by Cryptomeria japonica; iii) exotic mixed forests, dominated by the invasive tree Pittosporum undulatum; iv) several types of grasslands, including high elevation natural grasslands, although mostly dominated by intensive pastureland at low and mid-elevations and semi-natural pastures at mid- and high elevations; v) native bogs and fens at high elevations; and vi) several types of agro-ecosystems including vineyards, orchards and corn fields.

The Azorean arthropod fauna is well known and includes approximately 2332 species and subspecies, with less than 300 of these being endemic (Borges et al. 2010). Land-use changes had an impact on the composition of Azorean arthropod fauna, now dominated by exotic species, particularly in anthropogenic habitats (Borges et al. 2008), but also, to some extent, in native forest, such as in the case of soil arthropods, particularly Collembola (Cicconardi et al. 2017). Endemic arthropods are mostly restricted to native habitats (Borges et al. 2008, Rigal et al. 2018). However, endemic and native insect pollinators successfully adapted to new anthropogenic habitats and are providing essential ecosystem services in agro-ecosystems (Picanço et al. 2017). The impact of anthropogenic disturbance on vascular plants was also investigated in parallel with the arthropod distribution (Marcelino et al. 2013, Silva et al. 2017), observing that endemic and native plant species are not restricted only to natural habitats, but also occur in human-managed arborescent habitats. Invasive species dominate human-managed habitats, whilst also found at the edges of natural habitats.

General description

Purpose: 

This study intended to contribute to the current international directives concerning biodiversity, aiming to document and safeguard biological resources of the globe. Our objective was to present the most widely distributed and diverse taxa recorded during the sampling phase of the EDEN project (2008-2014) (Marcelino et al. 2013, Marcelino et al. 2020), specifically all arthropod fauna, at all strata, within eight representative habitats of five Islands of the Azores archipelago (Santa Maria, São Miguel, Terceira, Flores and Pico) (Fig. 1).

Figure 1.  

The distribution of sampling sites across the five studied Islands (n = 80).

In the current study, we present an extensive checklist of Arthropoda for the following taxa: Araneae, Collembola, with emphasis on auxiliary predatory Coleoptera (Carabidae, Staphylinidae, Coccinellidae); Hymenopteran parasitoids (Aphelinidae, Bethylidae, Braconidae, Chalcididae, Chrysididae, Diapriidae, Dryinidae, Elasmidae, Encyrtidae, Eupelmidae, Figitidae, Ichneumonidae, Megaspilidae, Mymaridae, Proctotrupidae, Pteromalidae, Scelionidae, Sphecidae, Tetracampidae). These groups are particularly relevant for the following reasons:

Arachnida: Araneae - i) ubiquitous presence across all terrestrial habitats; ii) recognised as indicators of ecological change due to their sensitivity to cryptic changes in their habitats (Pearce and Venier 2006); iii) important predators across trophic levels (e.g. pollinators, parasitoids, saprophytes etc.), thereby impacting ecosystems’ community dynamics (Öberg and Ekbom 2006).

Collembola - i) the existence of a profuse diversity and abundance in a wide variety of soil systems from Islands to Continents to Antarctic habitats (Hawes et al. 2007); ii) their rapid response to changes in ecological and pedological patterns within a given ecosystem (Sousa et al. 2006).

Hymenopteran parasitoids - i) important role as regulators of host density (Henri and Van Veen 2011); ii) critical biological pest control agent, with circa $20 billion/year beneficial impact on US agriculture (Pennisi 2010).

Beneficial Coleoptera - i) the Coccinellidae groups ca. 6,000 species (Vandenberg 2002) with an ubiquitous distribution worldwide. The majority of species are predators providing relevant ecosystem and agricultural services, constituting one of the most studied groups of beneficial insects (Hodek et al. 2012, Ameixa et al. 2018 for a comprehensive revision). The rove-beetles (Staphylinidae) are one of the most diverse lineages of arthropods, inhabiting practically all terrestrial niches (Thayer 2005). They are also an ecologically-important component of soil fauna, reported to be potential bioindicators of environmental quality (Pohl et al. 2007) due to their sensitivity in detecting cryptic changes in the ecological dynamics of their ecosystems (Hodkinson and Jackson 2005)

In addition, we report widely-distributed species across sampling sites or new records for the Azores, in the orders Dermaptera, Heteroptera: Hemiptera, Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Psocoptera and Thysanoptera.

Project description

Title: 

Species inventory of Arthropoda across anthropogenically-impacted habitats in the Azores archipelago

Personnel: 

Plant identifications were performed by the botanist Luis Silva, from the University of the Azores. Arthropoda sampling was performed by José A. P. Marcelino, António O. Soares, Patrícia V. Garcia and Roberto Resendes. Sorting, morphospecies IDs, image gallery stocks, digital data assembling and 96% EtOH-based collections, required a substantial number of technical staff (circa 15 people from 2010 to 2013). Species identifications were performed, initially, by José A. P. Marcelino, corroborated by Fernando Pereira and Paulo A. V. Borges using a reference collection (Dalberto Teixeira Pombo insect collection from the University of the Azores) and, subsequently, by reference taxonomists on the different Arthropoda groups, i.e. Collembola (Felipe Soto-Adames, Florida Dept. Agriculture and Consumer Services, USDA, Florida, USA), Araneae (Paulo Borges, University of the Azores), Hymenoptera (Kees van Achterberg, National History Museum Netherlands and Vladimir Žikić, University of Niš, Serbia), Coccinellidae (António O. Soares and Isabel Borges, University of the Azores), Staphylinidae (Volker Assing, Hannover, Germany) and one new record of Carabidae for the Azores by Bob Davidson at Carnegie Museum on Natural History, USA. Collembola were also genetically profiled (Marcelino et al. 2011), as well as Staphylinidae (Marcelino et al. 2016).

Study area description: 

We selected the Islands, based on the relative proportion of land used in agriculture and pristine areas (based on published data by Costa et al. 2014), taking into consideration all possible combinations, i.e. São Miguel (SMG), with a high proportion of land allocated to pastureland (61%) and a low proportion of scattered native and naturalised habitats (19.1%); (ii) Terceira (TER), with high proportion of pastureland (66.9%) and a similar proportion of native and naturalised habitats as SMG, but less fragmented (21.3%); (iii) Pico (PIC), with high proportion of pastureland (50.3%) and medium/high proportion of native habitats at higher elevation (35.5%); (iv) Flores (FLO), with scarce agricultural development (17.7%) and a high proportion of native and naturalised habitats (43%); and, (v) Santa Maria (SMR), with high proportion of agricultural land (56.7%) and a low proportion of native and naturalised habitats (17.3%) (Table 1).

Table 1.

Sampled Sites (n = 80).

Island Habitat Locality Elevation (m) Latitude Longitude
Flores Corn Crop Fajã Grande 64 39.4572 -31.2611
Flores Corn Crop Ponta Delgada 34 39.5187 -31.2102
Flores Invasive Forest Monte 190 39.4556 -31.1441
Flores Invasive Forest Saída das Lajes 256 39.3879 -31.1954
Flores Meadows Estrada para o Morro Alto 683 39.4536 -31.2354
Flores Meadows Zona das Lagoas / Fundão 697 39.4079 -31.1977
Flores Natural Forest Estrada para Ponta Delgada 729 39.4739 -31.2089
Flores Natural Forest Estrada para Ponta Delgada / Lixeira 579 39.4882 -31.1858
Flores Orchard Lajes (SDA) 109 39.3864 -31.1672
Flores Orchard Vales 186 39.4522 -31.1464
Flores Pasture Cedros 344 39.4808 -31.1594
Flores Pasture Lajes 205 39.3860 -31.1842
Flores Production forest Lajes Saída 1 270 39.3914 -31.2012
Flores Production forest Ponta Ruiva 494 39.4872 -31.1778
Flores Semi-natural Pasture Estrada para as Fajãs 502 39.4322 -31.2339
Flores Semi-natural Pasture Leste do Morro Alto 619 39.4178 -31.2013
Pico Corn Crop Madalena (Sete Cidades) 90 38.5337 -28.5097
Pico Corn Crop Piedade 115 38.4216 -28.0513
Pico Invasive Forest Cabeço do Chão 443 38.5424 -28.4829
Pico Invasive Forest São Roque 767 38.5170 -28.3170
Pico Meadows Encosta da Prainha 2 797 38.4406 -28.1866
Pico Meadows Meia encosta da Prainha 765 38.4422 -28.1919
Pico Natural Forest Estrada para as Lagoas 715 38.4674 -28.2967
Pico Natural Forest Mistério da Prainha 675 38.4822 -28.2610
Pico Orchard Madalena (Sete Cidades) 79 38.5337 -28.5097
Pico Orchard Prainha 41 38.4686 -28.2025
Pico Pasture Criação Velha 214 38.5090 -28.4914
Pico Pasture S. Miguel Arcanjo 150 38.5036 -28.2952
Pico Production forest Candelária 258 38.4705 -28.4929
Pico Production forest Prédio Mário Sequeira 419 38.4933 -28.2952
Pico Semi-natural Pasture Corre Água 708 38.4768 -28.2975
Pico Semi-natural Pasture Longitudinal (Km 5) 896 38.4454 -28.3628
Santa Maria Corn Crop Água de Alto / Caminho Florestal do Alto 227 36.9925 -25.1072
Santa Maria Corn Crop Santa Bárbara 201 36.9915 -25.0698
Santa Maria Invasive Forest Anjos 166 36.9922 -25.1415
Santa Maria Invasive Forest Estrada para Santo Espírito 236 36.9590 -25.0667
Santa Maria Natural Forest Estrada para o Pico Alto 491 36.9758 -25.0866
Santa Maria Natural Forest Pico Alto 580 36.9826 -25.0909
Santa Maria Orchard Malbusca 260 36.9471 -25.0716
Santa Maria Orchard Trevina 218 36.9874 -25.1096
Santa Maria Pasture Calheta, Saída da Maia 266 36.9436 -25.0302
Santa Maria Pasture Estrada para Santa Bárbara / Forno 354 36.9661 -25.0584
Santa Maria Production forest Almagreira 198 36.9715 -25.1252
Santa Maria Production forest Fontinhas / Parque Florestal 238 36.9595 -25.0721
Santa Maria Semi-natural Pasture Arrebetão 453 36.9738 -25.0782
Santa Maria Semi-natural Pasture Loural / Estrada 428 36.9596 -25.0691
Santa Maria Semi-natural Pasture Low Altitude Aeroporto (100m) 176 36.9715 -25.1622
Santa Maria Semi-natural Pasture Low Altitude Paúl / Estrada para o Anjo 198 36.9918 -25.1392
São Miguel Corn Crop Contentores da Unileite 38 37.7415 -25.6850
São Miguel Corn Crop Rabo de Peixe 34 37.8138 -25.5479
São Miguel Invasive Forest Pico das Camarinhas 175 37.8583 -25.8484
São Miguel Invasive Forest S. Pedro 378 37.8358 -25.1826
São Miguel Meadows Encosta Sul para a Lagoa do Fogo 745 37.7650 -25.5024
São Miguel Meadows Próximo do Monte Escuro / vertente virada a norte 824 37.7827 -25.4532
São Miguel Natural Forest Abelheira 490 37.7590 -25.6416
São Miguel Natural Forest Tronqueira - Miradouro 627 37.7874 -25.2841
São Miguel Orchard Aflitos 104 37.8126 -25.6396
São Miguel Orchard Malaca da Lagoa 203 37.7583 -25.5787
São Miguel Pasture Calhetas, Rabo de Peixe 30 37.8213 -25.6059
São Miguel Pasture Rocha da Relva 101 37.7631 -25.7345
São Miguel Production forest Lagoa das Empadadas 775 37.8265 -25.7506
São Miguel Production forest Sto António 190 37.8510 -25.2013
São Miguel Semi-natural Pasture Altiprado 640 37.7706 -25.3887
São Miguel Semi-natural Pasture Lagoa do Fogo / Vertente Sul 660 37.7658 -25.5100
Terceira Corn Crop Etar 51 38.6543 -27.2006
Terceira Corn Crop S. Brás 159 38.7606 -27.1367
Terceira Invasive Forest Biscoitos/ Estrada para Sul 315 38.7716 -27.2636
Terceira Invasive Forest Estrada para a Agualva 409 38.7639 -27.1923
Terceira Natural Forest Caldeira Guilherme Muniz 537 38.7060 -27.2032
Terceira Natural Forest Algar do Carvão -Terra Brava 621 38.7399 -27.2047
Terceira Orchard Biscoitos 125 38.7882 -27.2737
Terceira Orchard Terra Chã 72 38.6641 -27.2524
Terceira Pasture Agualva 234 38.7608 -27.1651
Terceira Pasture Estrada de Porto Santo/ Angra 294 38.6789 -27.2205
Terceira Production forest Lagoa das Papas 545 38.7161 -27.2894
Terceira Production forest Posto Santo/ Fim estrada 412 38.7003 -27.2423
Terceira Semi-natural Pasture Furna do Enxofre 554 38.7268 -27.2322
Terceira Semi-natural Pasture Pico Gaspar 461 38.7305 -27.2743
Terceira Semi-natural Pasture Low Altitude Biscoitos 14 38.8000 -27.2505
Terceira Semi-natural Pasture Low Altitude Porto Martins 5 38.6773 -27.0622

The importance of incorporating ecological gradients, such as an anthropogenic impact gradient, in biodiversity and conservation projects, has been previously highlighted. They constitute valuable scenarios to infer possible causes for the distribution of species across the landscape (Ulrich et al. 2009). We therefore selected habitats that represented a gradient of increasing anthropogenic impact and management intensity. Nine habitat types, divided between herbaceous and arborescent habitats, were selected to represent a comprehensive range of the flora and fauna communities. We determined consistency, prevelance and fidelity of a given plant species across all habitats to define them, based on their flora. We used a metric called IndVal and developed another called SiteVal which can now be used to assign a location to a given habitat (and anthropogenic level of influence) (see more details in Marcelino et al. 2013, Marcelino et al. 2014, Silva et al. 2017). The herbaceous habitat gradient (Table 2) ranged from natural meadows (MED) to corn fields (COR). The arborescent habitat gradient (Table 2) ranged from natural pristine forests of Laurus azorica (NAT) to orchards of Citrus sp. (ORC). Pristine meadows were not present on Santa Maria and Terceira and semi-natural pastures at low altitude (SNPL) were used as a surrogate for MED on these Islands.

Table 2.

Increasing gradients of anthropogenic influence in herbaceous communities (1-5) and arborescent communities (1-4). Description and characteristic plant species communities. Note: * - Semi-natural pastures, at low altitude (SNPL), replaced Meadow habitats (MED) in Santa Maria and Terceira Islands due to the lack of sampling sites of the latter community type in these Islands.

Gradient of HERBACEOUS communities Composition Plant species communities
1. Natural meadows (MED) Indigenous taxa. Low management intensity and anthropogenic influence Holcus rigidus, Festuca spp., Deschampsia foliosa, Leontodon spp., Tolpis azorica

2. Semi-natural pastures at low altitude

(SNPL)*

Annual populations of Daucus carota. Low management intensity and anthropogenic impact Sporobolus indicus, Briza minor, Lotus subbiflorus

3. Semi-natural pastures at high altitude

(SNP)

Non-indigenous taxa with seldom indigenous taxa. Low management intensity and anthropogenic influence Holcus lanatus, Agrostis castellana, Polytrichum commune, Ranunculus repens, Juncus effusus, Selaginella kraussiana, Sibthorpia europeia, Eleocharis multicaulis, Sherardia arvensis, Anagallis arvensis
4. Artificial pastures (PAS) Introduced taxa. High human-management intensity and anthropogenic influence Lolium perenne, Bromus willdenowii, Trifolium repens, Poa spp., Holcus lanatus, Rumex obtusifolius, Plantago lanceolata, Dactylis glomerata, Sporobolus indicus

5. Crops

(COR)

Introduced taxa. High human-management intensity, high anthropogenic influence, as well as pesticide and fertiliser use Zea mays, weeds and ruderal plants
Gradient of ARBORESCENT communities Composition Main species

1. Natural Forests

(NAT)

Indigenous taxa. Low management intensity and anthropogenic influence Laurus azorica, Juniperus brevifolia, Erica azorica, Ilex perado subsp. azorica, Morella faya

2. Exotic forests

(INV)

Non-indigenous invasive taxa. Low to medium management intensity and anthropogenic influence Pittosporum undulatum, Acacia melanoxylon, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus pinaster, Solanum mauritianum
3. Production Forest (PRO) Human intentionally introduced taxa. High management intensity and anthropogenic influence Cryptomeria japonica (monocultural stands)

4. Orchards

(ORC)

Introduced taxa. Medium management intensity and anthropogenic influence Citrus sinensis, Mallus domestica, Prunus spp., other crops, weeds, ornamentals and rudereal species
Design description: 

In order to obtain the maximum information on arthropod biodiversity, all strata present at a given habitat type were sampled, i.e. micro-epigean fauna (Berlese-Tullgren trapping), soil fauna (Pitfall trapping), aerial vagility fauna (Suction with an aspirator) and canopy fauna (sweeping nets).

One Island per week was sampled during the summer 2009 (July-August). This eliminated seasonal effects in the sampling. The total number of samples was 4800 [80 sampling sites x 4 different types of traps x 15 samples per site].

The samples were subsequently processed in laboratory facilities and assigned to morphospecies groups, progressing to higher taxonomic degrees of identifications. Species richness and abundance were recorded. Species accumulation curves were performed for inventory completeness using EstimateS (using the ratio of observed to the estimated species richness with the non-parametric estimator Jackknife) (Colwell 2013). Inventory completeness was 70-75% for Staphylinidae and Collembola (Marcelino et al. 2011, Marcelino et al. 2016), reaching 80% for Araneae and Hymenoptera parasitoids (data not published).

Funding: 

This study was financially supported by FLAD – Fundação Luso-Americana para o Desenvolvimento and by the Direção Regional da Ciência e Tecnologia (DRCT) & PROEMPREGO, of the Azores. This study was also financed by FEDER in 85% and by Azorean Public funds by 15% through Operational Programme Azores 2020, under the following projects AZORESBIOPORTAL –PORBIOTA (ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072), and under the project ECO2-TUTA (ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000081).

Sampling methods

Study extent: 

Five Islands of the Azores: Santa Maria, São Miguel, Terceira, Pico and Flores.

Sampling description: 

Suction (SU), sweeping (SW) and soil (BT) sampling were obtained in parallel with the pitfall traps (PF) in the sites previously listed (Table 1), in equal numbers of samples and distance.

SU and SW were done to record species at strata other than the epigeic stratum. SU was made with a hand-held aspirator (Stihl BG55), collecting the arthropods in shrubs, when available. SU was made individually for ca. 8 seconds, at each of four exposures (i.e. N, S, W, E) of the shrub or agro-culture plant. The specimens from all four cardinal exposures were transferred to a single cup for each SU and SW sampling spot, respectively. SW was made by gently sweeping with a 64 cm diameter sweeping net.

Berlese-Tullgreen sampling (BT) was made by collecting ca. 100 grams of soil litter per sampling unit (15 samples for each transect established at PF sampling spots). Samples were immediately stored in a cooler to avoid proliferation of saprophytic fungi and sent by air transportation to the Department of Biology, University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada where they were placed in a cooling chamber at 4°C for subsequent processing in BT traps. BT trap units consisted of two plastic darkened containers, assembled together to provide an upper vented area (14 cm diameter x 11.5 cm high) with 4 openings (1 cm diameter covered with a 0.3 x 0.3 mm diameter mesh) and coupled with a 15 W lamp on top. The lower collecting area (13 cm diameter x 10 cm high) was partially filled with ca. 80 ml of the same mixture used in PF. Litter samples were placed on a 1.8 x 1.8 mm mesh, attached to a plastic funnel positioned in the assembling zone between the two halves of the device. In order to avoid heat and dryness, Collembola and other micro-arthropods crawled downwards to the littler sample and dropped through the funnel into the collecting mixture. Litter samples remained for 72 h in BT before specimen sorting at laboratory facilities.

Two parallel transects with fifteen pitfall traps (PF) were placed in 150 x 150 m geo-referenced plots. PF consisted of plastic cylinder cups 78 mm deep and 42 mm diameter filled with ca. 80 ml of a mixture of 96% Ethanol and 0.05% liquid detergent. PFs were buried in the soil so that the lid was flush with the surface and covered with a plastic plate at ca. 3 cm height, to avoid desiccation, flooding or insectivore predation. Traps remained in the soil for 7 days prior to collection. For each habitat type and Island, two replicate sites were monitored (with a minimum distance of 5 km apart), for a total of 80 sampling sites (i.e. 5 Islands x 8 habitat types per Island x 2 sites for each habitat type).

All specimens where stored in 96% EtOH in order to maintain viability for future genetic and/or taxonomic work, as well as voucher exchanges with other institutions.

Quality control: 

Identifications were conducted in a progressive higher degree of taxonomy resolution, i.e. 1) morphospecies were generated and, concomitantly, an ongoing web-based image gallery stock was created (at www.eden-azores.webs.com). This secured consistency in assigning specimens to morpho-species without duplications; 2) voucher specimens of all morphospecies were taxonomically assigned to a genus and, if possible, to species level; 3) species of Collembola and Staphylinidae were genetically profiled to match genetic and morphological IDs; 4) All voucher specimens where sent to taxonomist referees in the respective Order, family, genus or group (taxonomists listed in the Personnel section of this report), which corroborated identifications from steps 1, 2 and 3.

Geographic coverage

Description: 

Azores (Portugal). Islands of Santa Maria, São Miguel, Terceira, Pico and Flores

Coordinates: 

36.906 and 39.589 Latitude; -31.311 and -24.961 Longitude.

Taxonomic coverage

Description: 

Widely distributed Arthropoda groups are reported, i.e. Araneae, Collembola, Hymenopteran parasitoids and beneficial Coleoptera (e.g. Carabidae, Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae). In addition, Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Psocoptera and Thysanoptera. Information can be retrieved in the data resources below (Table of Species Occurrence).

Taxa included:
Rank Scientific Name Common Name
order Araneae Spiders
order Collembola Springtails
kingdom Dermaptera Earwigs
order Orthoptera Grasshopper
order Thysanoptera Thrips
kingdom Hemiptera Tru bugs
order Psocoptera Booklice
order Coleoptera Beetles
family Neuroptera Net-winged insects (lacewings)
order Hymenoptera Wasps, ants

Temporal coverage

Notes: 

Vegetation landcover and Arthropoda biodiversity were sampled during the summer of 2009 (July-August).

Collection data

Collection name: 
Arthropoteca of the University of the Azores at Ponta Delgada, São Miguel
Collection identifier: 
EDEN Azores
Specimen preservation method: 
All specimens were preserved in 96% ethanol.
Curatorial unit: 
EDEN Azores Arthropoteca at the University of the Azores

Usage licence

Usage licence: 
Creative Commons Public Domain Waiver (CC-Zero)

Data resources

Data package title: 
EDEN Arthropod Azores Database
Number of data sets: 
1
Data set name: 
EDEN Arthropod Azores Database
Data format: 
Darwin Core Archive
Data format version: 
Version 1
Description: 

The following data table includes all the records for which a taxonomic identification of the species was possible. The dataset submitted to GBIF is structured as a sample event dataset, with two tables: event (as core) and occurrences. The data in this sampling event resource have been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwCA), which is a standardised format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data file contains 3214 records (eventID) and the occurrences file 19555 records (occurrenceID). This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download from Marcelino et al. (2020).

Column label Column description
Table of Sampling Events Table with sampling events data (beginning of table)
eventID Identifier of the events, unique for the dataset
stateProvince Name of the region of the sampling site
islandGroup Name of archipelago
island Name of the Island
country Country of the sampling site
countryCode ISO code of the country of the sampling site
locationRemarks Details on the locality site
decimalLatitude Approximate centre point decimal latitude of the field site in GPS coordinates
decimalLongitude Approximate centre point decimal longitude of the field site in GPS coordinates
geodeticDatum The ellipsoid, geodetic datum or spatial reference system (SRS) upon which the geographic coordinates given in decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude are based
coordinateUncertaintyInMetres Uncertainty of the coordinates of the centre of the sampling plot
coordinatePrecision A decimal representation of the precision of the coordinates given in the decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude
georeferenceSources A list (concatenated and separated) of maps, gazetteers or other resources used to georeference the Location, described specifically enough to allow anyone in the future to use the same resources
verbatimElevation Elevation in metres
fieldNumber With a code for the sample
samplingProtocol The sampling protocol used to capture the species
eventDate Date or date range the record was collected
year Year of the event
month Month of the event
day Day of the event
habitat The surveyed habitat
eventRemarks Comments or notes about the type of habitat
locationID Identifier of the location
Table of Species Occurrence Table with species abundance data
type Type of the record, as defined by the Public Core standard
licence Reference to the licence under which the record is published
institutionID The identity of the institution publishing the data
collectionID The identity of the collection publishing the data
institutionCode The code of the institution publishing the data
collectionCode The code of the collection where the specimens are conserved
datasetName Name of the dataset
basisOfRecord The nature of the data record
occurrenceID Identifier of the record, coded as a global unique identifier
catalogNumber Record number of the specimen in the collection
recordedBy Name of the person who performed the sampling of the specimens
individualCount Total number of individuals captured
establishmentMeans The process of establishment of the species in the location, using a controlled vocabulary: 'native', 'introduced', 'endemic'
eventID Identifier of the events, unique for the dataset
identifiedBy The names of taxonomists who assigned the Taxon to the subject
dateIdentified The date on which the subject was determined as representing the taxon
identificationRemarks Comments or notes about the Identification
scientificName Complete scientific name including author and year
kingdom Kingdom name
phylum Phylum name
class Class name
order Order name
family Family name
genus Genus name
specificEpithet Specific epithet
infraspecificEpithet Subspecies name
taxonRank Lowest taxonomic rank of the record
scientificNameAuthorship Name of the author of the lowest taxon rank included in the record

Additional information

We collected a total of 116,523 specimens belonging to 483 species and subspecies of selected groups of arthropods. Due to the unavailability of taxonomic expertise, these represent a sub-set of the Arthropoda recorded during the monitoring programme EDEN (2008-2014) carried out in the Azores archipelago. Hymenoptera, mostly parasitoids (193 species and mophospecies), Coleoptera (95 species); Collembola (89 species); and Araneae (72 species) are the most represented taxa (Table 3). A total of 28 species are endemic to the Azores archipelago (2511 specimens), 59 are native non-endemic (26,139 specimens) and 161 are introduced (54,601 specimens). For 238 taxa identified as morphospecies (mostly Collembola and Hymenoptera), the colonisation status is unknown (33,272 specimens) (see Table 3).

Table 3.

List of species and morphospecies with information on the colonisation status (CS) and abundance (n). The taxa are listed following the alphabetical sequence of classes, orders within classes, families within orders and finally species within families. When a species is a new record for a given Island, we add that information (codes for Islands as follows: FLO - Flores; PIC - Pico; TER - Terceira; SMG - S. Miguel; SMR - S. Maria). The top ten most abundant species are marked with an *.

Class Order Family Species CS n
Arachnida Araneae Agelenidae Lycosoides coarctata (Dufour, 1831) Introduced 9
Arachnida Araneae Agelenidae Malthonica sp. Introduced 3
Arachnida Araneae Agelenidae Tegenaria domestica (Clerck, 1757) Introduced (New to PIC) 7
Arachnida Araneae Agelenidae Textrix caudata L. Koch, 1872 Introduced 3
Arachnida Araneae Araneidae Gibbaranea occidentalis Wunderlich, 1989 Endemic 45
Arachnida Araneae Araneidae Mangora acalypha (Walckenaer, 1802) Introduced 12
Arachnida Araneae Cheiracanthiidae Cheiracanthium erraticum (Walckenaer, 1802) Introduced 1
Arachnida Araneae Cheiracanthiidae Cheiracanthium floresense Wunderlich, 2008 Endemic 4
Arachnida Araneae Clubionidae Clubiona terrestris Westring, 1851 Introduced 87
Arachnida Araneae Clubionidae Porrhoclubiona decora (Blackwall, 1859) Native 5
Arachnida Araneae Clubionidae Porrhoclubiona genevensis (L. Koch, 1866) Introduced (New to FLO, SMG) 90
Arachnida Araneae Dictynidae Emblyna acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992 Endemic (New to SMG, SMR) 40
Arachnida Araneae Dictynidae Lathys dentichelis (Simon, 1883) Native 133
Arachnida Araneae Dictynidae Nigma puella (Simon, 1870) Introduced 59
Arachnida Araneae Dysderidae Dysdera crocata C.L. Koch, 1838 Introduced 168
Arachnida Araneae Gnaphosidae Haplodrassus signifer (C.L. Koch, 1839) Introduced 19
Arachnida Araneae Gnaphosidae Marinarozelotes lyonneti (Audouin, 1826) Introduced (New to FLO, PIC) 9
Arachnida Araneae Gnaphosidae Zelotes tenuis (L. Koch, 1866) Introduced (New to FLO, PIC) 24
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Agyneta depigmentata Wunderlich, 2008 Endemic 12
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Agyneta fuscipalpa (C.L. Koch, 1836) Introduced 642
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Agyneta sp. 10
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Canariphantes acoreensis (Wunderlich, 1992) Endemic 27
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Entelecara schmitzi Kulczynski, 1905 Native 11
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Erigone atra Blackwall, 1833 Introduced 348
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Erigone autumnalis Emerton, 1882 Introduced 882
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Erigone dentipalpis (Wider, 1834) Introduced 257
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Erigone sp. 7
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Mermessus bryantae (Ivie & Barrows, 1935) Introduced (New to FLO) 49
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Mermessus fradeorum (Berland, 1932) Introduced 190
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Microctenonyx subitaneus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1875) Introduced 1
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Microlinyphia johnsoni (Blackwall, 1859) Native 33
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Minicia floresensis Wunderlich, 1992 Endemic (New to SMR) 8
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Neriene clathrata (Sundevall, 1830) Introduced 3
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Oedothorax fuscus (Blackwall, 1834) Introduced * 1991
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Ostearius melanopygius (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1879) Introduced 129
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Palliduphantes schmitzi (Kulczynski, 1899) Native 174
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Pelecopsis parallela (Wider, 1834) Introduced 74
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Prinerigone vagans (Audouin, 1826) Introduced 221
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Savigniorrhipis acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992 Endemic 467
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Tenuiphantes miguelensis (Wunderlich, 1992) Native 417
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Tenuiphantes tenuis (Blackwall, 1852) Introduced 1234
Arachnida Araneae Linyphiidae Walckenaeria grandis (Wunderlich, 1992) Endemic 4
Arachnida Araneae Lycosidae Arctosa perita (Latreille, 1799) Introduced (new PIC, SMR) 27
Arachnida Araneae Lycosidae Pardosa acorensis Simon, 1883 Endemic 499
Arachnida Araneae Mimetidae Ero furcata (Villers, 1789) Introduced 3
Arachnida Araneae Nesticidae Eidmannella pallida (Emerton, 1875) Introduced 1
Arachnida Araneae Oecobiidae Oecobius similis Kulczynski, 1909 Native (New to PIC) 11
Arachnida Araneae Phrurolithidae Liophrurillus flavitarsis (Lucas, 1846) Introduced 5
Arachnida Araneae Phrurolithidae Phrurolinillus lisboensis Wunderlich, 1995 Introduced 4
Arachnida Araneae Pisauridae Pisaura acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992 Endemic 2
Arachnida Araneae Salticidae Chalcoscirtus infimus (Simon, 1868) Introduced 9
Arachnida Araneae Salticidae Heliophanus kochii Simon, 1868 Introduced 15
Arachnida Araneae Salticidae Macaroeris cata (Blackwall, 1867) Native 61
Arachnida Araneae Salticidae Macaroeris diligens (Blackwall, 1867) Native (New to FLO) 13
Arachnida Araneae Salticidae Neon acoreensis Wunderlich, 2008 Endemic 6
Arachnida Araneae Salticidae Pseudeuophrys vafra (Blackwall, 1867) Introduced 12
Arachnida Araneae Salticidae Salticus mutabilis Lucas, 1846 Introduced (New to PIC) 29
Arachnida Araneae Salticidae Synageles venator (Lucas, 1836) Introduced 2
Arachnida Araneae Tetragnathidae Metellina merianae (Scopoli, 1763) Introduced 17
Arachnida Araneae Tetragnathidae Pachygnatha degeeri Sundevall, 1830 Introduced (New to FLO, PIC) 31
Arachnida Araneae Tetragnathidae Sancus acoreensis (Wunderlich, 1992) Endemic 7
Arachnida Araneae Theridiidae Cryptachaea blattea (Urquhart, 1886) Introduced 7
Arachnida Araneae Theridiidae Lasaeola oceanica Simon, 1883 Endemic 90
Arachnida Araneae Theridiidae Neottiura bimaculata (Linnaeus, 1767) Introduced (New to FLO) 14
Arachnida Araneae Theridiidae Rugathodes acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992 Endemic 72
Arachnida Araneae Theridiidae Steatoda grossa (C.L. Koch, 1838) Introduced 63
Arachnida Araneae Theridiidae Theridion melanurum Hahn, 1831 Introduced (New to FLO, TER) 19
Arachnida Araneae Theridiidae Theridion musivivum Schmidt, 1956 Native 5
Arachnida Araneae Thomisidae Xysticus cor Canestrini, 1873 Native 26
Arachnida Araneae Thomisidae Xysticus nubilus Simon, 1875 Introduced 69
Arachnida Araneae Zodariidae Zodarion atlanticum Pekár & Cardoso, 2005 Introduced (New to FLO) 130
Arachnida Araneae Zoropsidae Zoropsis spinimana (Dufour, 1820) Introduced (New to PIC) 1
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobrya albocincta (Templeton, 1835) Introduced (New to FLO) 602
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobrya atrocincta Schött, 1897 Introduced 113
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobrya multifasciata (Tullberg, 1871) Introduced * 7162
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobrya nivalis (Linnaeus, 1758) Introduced 1621
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobrya regularis Stach, 1963 Introduced (New to Azores: SMG) 5
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobrya spp. (Potentially several species) * 1885
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobryidae sp. Nr. 1 105
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobryidae sp. Nr. 2 397
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobryidae sp. Nr. 3 91
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobryidae sp. Nr. 4 1
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobryidae sp. Nr. 5 19
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobryidae sp. Nr. 6 96
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobryidae sp. Nr. 7 41
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobryidae sp. Nr. 8 70
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobryidae sp. Nr. 9 4
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobryidae sp. Nr. 10 31
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobryidae sp. Nr. 11 60
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobryidae sp. Nr. 12 222
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobryidae sp. Nr. 13 723
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobryidae sp. Nr. 14 97
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobryidae sp. Nr. 15 12
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Entomobryidae sp. Nr. 16 955
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Heteromurus sp. * 8430
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Himalanura sp. Introduced (New genus to Azores) 45
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Lepidocyrtus curvicollis Bourlet, 1839 Introduced * 2844
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Lepidocyrtus cyaneus Tullberg, 1871 Introduced (New to FLO, PIC, TER) 773
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Lepidocyrtus lusitanicus piezoensis (Simón-Benito, 2007) Introduced (New to Azores: TER, SMG, SMR) 237
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Lepidocyrtus sp. 39
Entognatha Collembola Entomobryidae Pogonognathellus longicornis (Müller, 1776) Introduced (New to FLO, TER, SMR) * 2007
Entognatha Collembola Hypogastruridae Ceratophysella denticulata (Bagnall, 1941) Introduced (New to SMR) * 15403
Entognatha Collembola Isotomidae Desoria sp. Introduced 230
Entognatha Collembola Isotomidae Desoria trispinata (MacGillivray, 1896) Introduced (New to SMR) * 4085
Entognatha Collembola Isotomidae Folsomia sp. 780
Entognatha Collembola Isotomidae Folsomides sp. 1170
Entognatha Collembola Isotomidae Isotoma sp. 730
Entognatha Collembola Isotomidae Isotomidae sp. Nr. 1 291
Entognatha Collembola Isotomidae Isotomurus palustris (Müller, 1776) Introduced (New to SMR) 113
Entognatha Collembola Isotomidae Isotomurus spp. (potentially several species) 1644
Entognatha Collembola Isotomidae Folsomia sp. 9
Entognatha Collembola Katiannidae Sminthurinus aureus (Lubbock, 1862) Introduced 16
Entognatha Collembola Katiannidae Sminthurinus elegans (Fitch, 1863) Introduced (New to FLO, PIC, SMR) 256
Entognatha Collembola Katiannidae Sminthurinus quadrimaculatus (Ryder, 1879) Introduced (New to Azores: TER, SMR) 6
Entognatha Collembola Neanuridae Neanuridae sp. Nr. 1 20
Entognatha Collembola Neanuridae Neanuridae sp. Nr. 2 17
Entognatha Collembola Onychiuridae Onychiurus spp. (potentially more than one species) 1311
Entognatha Collembola Onychiuridae Protophorura sp. Introduced (New genus to Azores) 57
Entognatha Collembola Poduridae Neanura sp. Introduced 54
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Bourletiella sp. Introduced 594
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Dicyrtomina minuta (O. Fabricius, 1783) Introduced 208
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Dicyrtomina ornata (Nicolet, 1842) Introduced (New to FLO, PIC, TER. SMR) 286
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Dicyrtomina sp. Introduced 776
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Jordanathrix articulata (Ellis, 1974) Introduced (New to Azores: FLO, PIC, TER, SMG, SMR) 1170
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Jordanathrix sp. 321
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Lipothrix sp. 136
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 1 46
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 2 249
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 3 374
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 4 49
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 5 4
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 6 304
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 7 994
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 8 32
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 9 15
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 10 40
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 11 16
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 12 508
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 13 134
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 14 1
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 15 9
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 16 374
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 17 23
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 18 12
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 19 109
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 20 189
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 21 31
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 22 11
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 23 4
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 24 2
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 25 7
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 26 1
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 27 521
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 28 63
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 29 72
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 30 130
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 31 13
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 32 9
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 33 1
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthuridae sp. Nr. 34 3
Entognatha Collembola Sminthuridae Sminthurus viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) Introduced (New to FLO, PIC, TER) 775
Insecta Coleoptera Anobiidae Anobium punctatum (De Geer, 1774) Introduced 52
Insecta Coleoptera Anthicidae Hirticollis quadriguttatus (Rossi, 1794) Native (New to PIC) 94
Insecta Coleoptera Anthicidae Hirticomus sp. 35
Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae Agonum muelleri muelleri (Herbst, 1784) Introduced 2
Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae Amara aenea (De Geer, 1774) Introduced 10
Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae Anisodactylus binotatus (Fabricius, 1787) Introduced 3
Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae Asaphidion flavipes (Linnaeus, 1761) Introduced (New to Azores: SMG) 1
Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae Harpalus distinguendus distinguendus (Duftschmidt, 1812) Introduced 1
Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae Harpalus sp. Introduced 5
Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae Microlestes negrita negrita (Wollaston, 1854) Native (New to FLO, PIC) 15
Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae Notiophilus quadripunctatus Dejean, 1826 Native (New to FLO, PIC) 3
Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae Ocys harpaloides (Audinet-Serville, 1821) Native 58
Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae Pseudoophonus rufipes (De Geer, 1774) Introduced 138
Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae Pterostichus vernalis (Panzer, 1796) Introduced 26
Insecta Coleoptera Carabidae Stenolophus teutonus (Schrank, 1781) Native 1
Insecta Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Chaetocnema hortensis (Fourcroy, 1785) Introduced 41
Insecta Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Chrysolina bankii (Fabricius, 1775) Native 81
Insecta Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Epitrix sp. 43
Insecta Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Longitarsus kutscherae (Rye, 1872) Introduced (New to PIC) 38
Insecta Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Longitarsus lateripunctatus lateripunctatus (Rosenhauer, 1856) Introduced 6
Insecta Coleoptera Coccinellidae Adalia decempunctata (Linnaeus, 1758) Introduced 1
Insecta Coleoptera Coccinellidae Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi, 1794) Introduced (New to PIC) 41
Insecta Coleoptera Coccinellidae Coccinella undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Linnaeus, 1758 Introduced 4
Insecta Coleoptera Coccinellidae Nephus sp. 4
Insecta Coleoptera Coccinellidae Nephus voeltzkowi (Weise, 1910) Introduced 4
Insecta Coleoptera Coccinellidae Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant, 1850) Introduced 14
Insecta Coleoptera Coccinellidae Scymnus interruptus (Goeze, 1777) Native 24
Insecta Coleoptera Coccinellidae Scymnus sp. 427
Insecta Coleoptera Coccinellidae Stethorus pusillus (Herbst, 1979) Native (New to FLO, PIC) 71
Insecta Coleoptera Corylophidae Sericoderus lateralis (Gyllenhal, 1827) Introduced 903
Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae Calacalles subcarinatus (Israelson, 1984) Endemic 21
Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae Coccotrypes carpophagus (Hornung, 1842) Introduced 66
Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae Drouetius sp. Endemic 51
Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae Mecinus pascuorum Gyllenhal, 1813 Introduced (New to FLO, SMG) 30
Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae Orthochaetes insignis (Aubé, 1863) Native 7
Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae Otiorhynchus cribricollis Gyllenhal, 1834 Introduced 109
Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae Pseudechinosoma nodosum Hustache, 1936 Endemic 5
Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae Pseudocaulotrupis parvus (Israelson, 1985) Endemic 25
Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae Pseudocaulotrupis sp. Endemic 15
Insecta Coleoptera Curculionidae Xyleborus alni Nijima, 1909 Introduced 14
Insecta Coleoptera Dryophthoridae Sitophilus sp. Introduced 39
Insecta Coleoptera Elateridae Heteroderes azoricus (Tarnier, 1860) Endemic 234
Insecta Coleoptera Hydrophilidae Cercyon haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius, 1775) Introduced 7
Insecta Coleoptera Latridiidae Metophthalmus occidentalis Israelson, 1984 Endemic 4
Insecta Coleoptera Mycetophagidae Typhaea stercorea (Linnaeus, 1758) Introduced 97
Insecta Coleoptera Nitidulidae Brassicogethes aeneus (Fabricius, 1775) Introduced 5
Insecta Coleoptera Nitidulidae Carpophilus fumatus (Boheman, 1851) Introduced 10
Insecta Coleoptera Nitidulidae Carpophilus hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758) Introduced 3
Insecta Coleoptera Nitidulidae Carpophilus spp. (possibly more than one species) Introduced 20
Insecta Coleoptera Nitidulidae Epuraea biguttata (Thunberg, 1784) Introduced 703
Insecta Coleoptera Nitidulidae Epuraea sp. Introduced 51
Insecta Coleoptera Nitidulidae Stelidota geminata (Say, 1825) Introduced 35
Insecta Coleoptera Phalacridae Stilbus testaceus (Panzer, 1797) Native 84
Insecta Coleoptera Ptiliidae Ptenidium pusillum (Gyllenhal, 1808) Introduced 36
Insecta Coleoptera Ptinidae Sphaericus sp. (blank) 1
Insecta Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Calamosternus granarius (Linnaeus, 1767) Introduced 19
Insecta Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Onthophagus taurus (Schreber,1759) Introduced 4
Insecta Coleoptera Scarabaeidae Popillia japonica Newman, 1838 Introduced (New to PIC) 168
Insecta Coleoptera Scraptiidae Anaspis proteus Wollaston, 1854 Native 46
Insecta Coleoptera Scydmaenidae Euconnus sp. 18
Insecta Coleoptera Silvanidae Cryptamorpha desjardinsii (Guérin-Méneville, 1844) Introduced 94
Insecta Coleoptera Silvanidae Silvanus sp. 36
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Aleochara clavicornis Redtenbacher, 1849 Introduced 4
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Aleochara sp. 18
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Anotylus nitidifrons (Wollaston, 1871) Introduced 360
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Astenus lyonessius (Joy, 1908) Native 7
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Atheta atramentaria (Gyllenhal, 1810) Introduced 39
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Atheta fungi (Gravenhorst, 1806) Introduced 573
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Atheta sp. (possibly more than one species) 77
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Carpelimus corticinus (Gravenhorst, 1806) Native 2
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Coproporus pulchellus (Erichson, 1839) Introduced 7
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Cordalia obscura (Gravenhorst, 1802) Introduced 58
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Euplectus infirmus (Raffray, 1910) Introduced (New to PIC, SMR) 5
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Gabrius nigritulus (Gravenhorst, 1802) Introduced 58
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Gyrohypnus fracticornis (Müller, 1776) Introduced 7
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Medon sp. 4
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Ocypus aethiops (Waltl, 1835) Native 15
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Ocypus olens (Müller, 1764) Native 11
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Oligota pumilio Kiesenwetter, 1858 Native (New to FLO, PIC) 42
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Oligota sp. 3
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Oxytelus sculptus Gravenhorst, 1806 Introduced (New to PIC) 29
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Philonthus sp. 8
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Phloeonomus punctipennis Thomson, 1867 Native 1
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Phloeonomus sp. (blank) 75
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Proteinus atomarius Erichson, 1840 Native 45
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Quedius curtipennis Bernhauer, 1908 Native (New to PIC) 22
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Quedius simplicifrons Fairmaire, 1862 Native (New to FLO, SMG) 42
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Rugilus orbiculatus (Paykull, 1789) Native 113
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Sepedophilus lusitanicus Hammond, 1973 Native 9
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Tachyporus chrysomelinus (Linnaeus, 1758) Introduced 8
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Tachyporus dispar (Paykull, 1789) Introduced (New to Azores: FLO, SMG) 5
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Tachyporus nitidulus (Fabricius, 1781) Introduced 6
Insecta Coleoptera Staphylinidae Xantholinus longiventris Heer, 1839 Introduced (New to FLO) 7
Insecta Coleoptera Zopheridae Tarphius floresensis Borges & Serrano, 2017 Endemic 1
Insecta Coleoptera Zopheridae Tarphius rufonodulosus Israelson, 1984 Endemic 1
Insecta Dermaptera Anisolabidae Euborellia annulipes (Lucas, 1847) Introduced 540
Insecta Dermaptera Forficulidae Forficula auricularia Linnaeus, 1758 Introduced 32
Insecta Hemiptera Aphididae Aphis fabae Scopoli, 1763 Introduced (New to PIC) 333
Insecta Hemiptera Aphididae Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 Native 19
Insecta Hemiptera Aphididae Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach, 1843) Native (New to PIC) 1566
Insecta Hemiptera Aphididae Cinara juniperi (De Geer, 1773) Native * 4261
Insecta Hemiptera Cicadellidae Anoscopus albifrons (Linnaeus, 1758) Native 59
Insecta Hemiptera Cicadellidae Aphrodes hamiltoni Quartau & Borges, 2003 Endemic 100
Insecta Hemiptera Cixiidae Cixius spp. (several potential species and subspecies) Endemic 674
Insecta Hemiptera Coccidae Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Cockerell, 1894) Introduced 361
Insecta Hemiptera Cydnidae Geotomus punctulatus (A. Costa, 1847) Native 32
Insecta Hemiptera Delphacidae Megamelodes quadrimaculatus (Signoret, 1865) Native 220
Insecta Hemiptera Diaspididae Aspidiotus nerii Bouché, 1833 Introduced 2
Insecta Hemiptera Diaspididae Chrysomphalus pinnulifer (Maskell, 1891) Native (New to PIC, SMR) 116
Insecta Hemiptera Flatidae Cyphopterum adcendens (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1835) Native 1219
Insecta Hemiptera Lygaeidae Kleidocerys ericae (Horváth, 1908) Native 18
Insecta Hemiptera Margarodidae Icerya purchasi Maskell, 1878 Introduced (New to FLO, SMR) 609
Insecta Hemiptera Miridae Monalocoris filicis (Linnaeus, 1758) Native 254
Insecta Hemiptera Miridae Pinalitus oromii J. Ribes, 1992 Endemic 88
Insecta Hemiptera Pentatomidae Acrosternum heegeri Fieber, 1861 Introduced (New to Azores: FLO, TER) 6
Insecta Hemiptera Reduviidae Empicoris rubromaculatus (Blackburn, 1889) Introduced (New to FLO) 27
Insecta Hemiptera Stenocephalidae Dicranocephalus agilis (Scopoli, 1763) Native (New to PIC) 2
Insecta Hemiptera Triozidae Trioza laurisilvae Hodkinson, 1990 Native 70
Insecta Hymenoptera Aphelinidae Aphelinidae sp. Nr. 1 72
Insecta Hymenoptera Aphelinidae Aphelinidae sp. Nr. 2 4
Insecta Hymenoptera Aphelinidae Aphelinidae sp. Nr. 3 3
Insecta Hymenoptera Aphelinidae Aphelinidae sp. Nr. 4 44
Insecta Hymenoptera Aphelinidae Aphelinidae sp. Nr. 5 43
Insecta Hymenoptera Aphelinidae Encarsia citrina (Crawford, 1891) Native (New to FLO, PIC) 5
Insecta Hymenoptera Aphelinidae Encarsia sp. 2
Insecta Hymenoptera Apidae Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 Introduced 9
Insecta Hymenoptera Apidae Bombus ruderatus (Fabricius, 1775) Introduced 6
Insecta Hymenoptera Argidae Argidae sp. 3
Insecta Hymenoptera Bethylidae Gen. sp. 2
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Aphaereta difficilis Nixon, 1939 Native (New to FLO, PIC, TER, SMR) 615
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Aphaereta sp.1 36
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Aphaereta sp.2 30
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Aphaereta sp.3 46
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Aphidius colemani Viereck, 1912 Introduced (New to Azores: PIC, TER, SMG) 13
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Aphidius ervi Haliday, 1834 Introduced (New to Azores: PIC, TER) 33
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Aphidius matricariae Viereck, 1912 Introduced (New to Azores: PIC, TER) 6
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Aphidius rhopalosiphi Stefani-Perez, 1902 Introduced (New to Azores: PIC, TER, SMG, SMR) 18
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Aphidius rosae (Haliday, 1834) Introduced (New to Azores: PIC) 1
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Aphidius sp. 21
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Aphidius urticae Haliday, 1834 Introduced (New to Azores: FLO, PIC, TER, SMG) 15
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Aspilota spp. (potentially four species) Introduced (New genus to Azores) 49
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Bassus rugulosus (Nees, 1834) Native (New to FLO, PIC) 10
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Bracon intercessor Nees, 1834 Native (New to PIC) 7
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Braconidae sp. Nr. 1 1
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Braconidae sp. Nr. 2 13
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Centistidea ectoedemiae Rohwer, 1914 Introduced (New to Azores: FLO, PIC, TER, SMR) 10
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Chorebus spp. (Potentially four species) Introduced (New genus to Azores) 175
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Dapsilarthra sp. Introduced 1
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Dinotrema sp. Introduced 29
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Braconidae sp. 5
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Homolobus sp. Introduced 9
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Lodbrokia sp. Introduced (New genus to Azores) 13
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall, 1896) Native (New to FLO, PIC) 16
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, 1880) Native (New to FLO, PIC, SMG) 19
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Macrocentrus collaris (Spinola, 1808) Native (New to PIC, TER) 5
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Meteorus collaris (Spin.) Hal. – Ruschka, Fulmek, 1915 Introduced (New to Azores: PIC, TER) 3
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Meteorus unicolor (Wesmael, 1835) Introduced (New to Azores: FLO, PIC, TER) 18
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Microgaster sp. New genus to Azores 5
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Opius sp. Introduced 109
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Orthostigmceratoa cratospilum (Thomson, 1895) Introduced (New to Azores: PIC, TER, SMG) 5
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Orthostigma latriventris Ratzeburg, 1844 Introduced (New to Azores: PIC, TER, SMR) 8
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Orthostigma spp. Introduced (Potentially new records to Azores) 179
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Pentapleura pumilio (Nees, 1812) Introduced (New to FLO, PIC; SMG) 295
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Pentapleura spp. (Potentially several species) Introduced 39
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Pseudopezomachus bituberculatus (Marshall, 1905) Introduced (New to Azores: PIC, SMG) 2
Insecta Hymenoptera Braconidae Tanycarpa punctata (van Achterberg, 1976) Introduced (New to Azores: SMG) 1
Insecta Hymenoptera Chalcididae Gen. sp. 10
Insecta Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea Chalcidoidea sp. Nr. 1 273
Insecta Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea Chalcidoidea sp. Nr. 10 7
Insecta Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea Chalcidoidea sp. Nr. 11 6
Insecta Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea Chalcidoidea sp. Nr. 12 1
Insecta Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea Chalcidoidea sp. Nr. 2 112
Insecta Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea Chalcidoidea sp. Nr. 3 52
Insecta Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea Chalcidoidea sp. Nr. 4 38
Insecta Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea Chalcidoidea sp. Nr. 5 4
Insecta Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea Chalcidoidea sp. Nr. 6 2
Insecta Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea Chalcidoidea sp. Nr. 7 167
Insecta Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea Chalcidoidea sp. Nr. 8 26
Insecta Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea Chalcidoidea sp. Nr. 9 273
Insecta Hymenoptera Chrysididae Chrysis ignita ignita (Linnaeus, 1758) Native (New to FLO) 1
Insecta Hymenoptera Cynipidae Cynipidae sp. Nr. 2 25
Insecta Hymenoptera Cynipidae Cynipidae sp. Nr. 3 86
Insecta Hymenoptera Cynipidae Cynipidae ssp. Nr. 1 26
Insecta Hymenoptera Diapriidae Diapriidae sp. Nr. 4
Insecta Hymenoptera Diapriidae Diapriidae sp. Nr. 1 242
Insecta Hymenoptera Diapriidae Diapriidae sp. Nr. 10 25
Insecta Hymenoptera Diapriidae Diapriidae sp. Nr. 2 57
Insecta Hymenoptera Diapriidae Diapriidae sp. Nr. 3 77
Insecta Hymenoptera Diapriidae Diapriidae sp. Nr. 4 144
Insecta Hymenoptera Diapriidae Diapriidae sp. Nr. 5 43
Insecta Hymenoptera Diapriidae Diapriidae sp. Nr. 6 34
Insecta Hymenoptera Diapriidae Diapriidae sp. Nr. 7 78
Insecta Hymenoptera Diapriidae Diapriidae sp. Nr. 8 97
Insecta Hymenoptera Diapriidae Diapriidae sp. Nr. 9 8
Insecta Hymenoptera Dryinidae Gonatopus clavipes (Thunberg, 1827) Introduced (New to Azores: SMG) 1
Insecta Hymenoptera Elasmidae Gen. sp. 26
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 1 13
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 2 1411
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 3 11
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 4 3
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 5 5
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 6 78
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 7 18
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 8 27
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 9 159
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 10 11
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 11 161
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 12 55
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 13 41
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 14 78
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 15 209
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 16 28
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 17 20
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 18 17
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 19 9
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 20 3
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 21 18
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 22 1
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 23 62
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 24 58
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 25 3
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 26 298
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 27 16
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 28 5
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 29 51
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 30 9
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 31 58
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 32 8
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 33 8
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 34 106
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 35 1
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 36 2
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 37 9
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 38 18
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 39 46
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 40 31
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 41 60
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 42 387
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 43 2
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 44 5
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 45 89
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 46 13
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 47 16
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 48 2
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 49 26
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Encyrtidae sp. Nr. 50 218
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Eulophidae sp. Nr. 1 25
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Eulophidae sp. Nr. 2 7
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Eulophidae sp. Nr. 3 3
Insecta Hymenoptera Encyrtidae Eulophidae sp. Nr. 4 11
Insecta Hymenoptera Eupelmidae Gen. sp. 131
Insecta Hymenoptera Figitidae Gen. sp. 70
Insecta Hymenoptera Formicidae Lasius grandis Forel, 1909 Native * 15469
Insecta Hymenoptera Formicidae Temnothorax unifasciatus (Latreille, 1798) Native 5
Insecta Hymenoptera Ichneumonidae Gen. sp. 18
Insecta Hymenoptera Ichneumonidae Ichneumonidae sp. Nr. 1 94
Insecta Hymenoptera Ichneumonidae Ichneumonidae sp. Nr. 2 5
Insecta Hymenoptera Ichneumonidae Ichneumonidae sp. Nr. 3 10
Insecta Hymenoptera Ichneumonidae Ichneumonidae sp. Nr. 4 26
Insecta Hymenoptera Ichneumonidae Ichneumonidae sp. Nr. 5 24
Insecta Hymenoptera Ichneumonidae Ichneumonidae sp. Nr. 6 3
Insecta Hymenoptera Ichneumonidae Ichneumonidae sp. Nr. 7 6
Insecta Hymenoptera Ichneumonidae Ichneumonidae sp. Nr. 8 14
Insecta Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea Ichneumonoidea sp. Nr. 1 8
Insecta Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea Ichneumonoidea sp. Nr. 2 6
Insecta Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea Ichneumonoidea sp. Nr. 3 33
Insecta Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea Ichneumonoidea sp. Nr. 4 35
Insecta Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea Ichneumonoidea sp. Nr. 5 29
Insecta Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea Ichneumonoidea sp. Nr. 6 2
Insecta Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea Ichneumonoidea sp. Nr. 7 2
Insecta Hymenoptera Ichneumonoidea Ichneumonoidea sp. Nr. 8 5
Insecta Hymenoptera Megachilidae Gen. sp. 14
Insecta Hymenoptera Megaspilidae Gen. sp. 26
Insecta Hymenoptera Mymaridae Mymar taprobanicum Ward, 1875 Native (New to FLO, PIC, TER, SMG, SMR) 289
Insecta Hymenoptera Mymaridae Mymaridae sp. Nr. 1 1
Insecta Hymenoptera Mymaridae Mymaridae sp. Nr. 2 23
Insecta Hymenoptera Mymaridae Mymaridae sp. Nr. 3 4
Insecta Hymenoptera Mymaridae Mymaridae sp. Nr. 4 14
Insecta Hymenoptera Mymaridae Mymaridae sp. Nr. 5 6
Insecta Hymenoptera Mymaridae Mymaridae sp. Nr. 6 2
Insecta Hymenoptera Proctotrupidae Proctotrupidae sp. Nr. 1 48
Insecta Hymenoptera Proctotrupidae Proctotrupidae sp. Nr. 2 13
Insecta Hymenoptera Proctotrupidae Proctotrupidae sp. Nr. 3 2
Insecta Hymenoptera Proctotrupidae Proctotrupidae sp. Nr. 4 1
Insecta Hymenoptera Proctotrupidae Proctotrupidae sp. Nr. 5 7
Insecta Hymenoptera Pteromalidae Pycnetron sp. 25
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 1 19
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 2 29
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 3 20
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 4 3
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 5 23
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 6 10
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 7 136
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 8 41
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 9 5
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 10 15
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 11 27
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 12 18
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 13 6
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 14 31
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 15 160
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 16 2
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 17 6
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 18 30
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 19 83
Insecta Hymenoptera Scelionidae Scelionidae sp. Nr. 20 72
Insecta Hymenoptera Sphecidae Gen. sp. 5
Insecta Hymenoptera Tetracampidae Gen. sp. 178
Insecta Neuroptera Chrysopidae Chrysoperla lucasina (Lacroix, 1912) Introduced 9
Insecta Neuroptera Hemerobiidae Hemerobius azoricus Tjeder, 1948 Endemic 3
Insecta Neuroptera Hemerobiidae Hemerobius humulinus Linnaeus, 1758 Native 55
Insecta Orthoptera Gryllidae Gryllus bimaculatus De Geer, 1773 Introduced 5
Insecta Orthoptera Gryllidae Gryllus sp. 59
Insecta Orthoptera Tettigoniidae Neoconocephalus sp. 16
Insecta Psocoptera Caeciliusidae Valenzuela flavidus (Stephens, 1836) Native 86
Insecta Psocoptera Ectopsocidae Ectopsocus briggsi McLachlan, 1899 Introduced 694
Insecta Psocoptera Elipsocidae Elipsocus brincki Badonnel, 1963 Endemic 6
Insecta Psocoptera Trichopsocidae Trichopsocus clarus (Banks, 1908) Native 39
Insecta Thysanoptera Phlaeothripidae Hoplothrips sp. 446
Insecta Thysanoptera Thripidae Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché, 1833) Introduced 564

The ten most abundant species account for 54% of all the sampled specimens. These ten species include only two native non-endemic taxa, the ant Lasius grandis Forel, 1990 (that ranks as second) and the aphid Cinara juniperi (De Geer, 1773) (that ranks as fifth), a specialist species associated with the Azorean endemic tree Juniperus bervifolia. All the other dominant species include six introduced species and two morphospecies of unknown status (see Table 3).

The most relevant data reported in this study are the new non-native species for the Azores, i.e. two beetles (Coleoptera), one Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, six Collembola and 29 Hymenoptera micro-parasitoids (see Table 3 and Borges et al. 2010). These 37 taxa were found in several Islands (see below) and correspond to the addition of five new species for Flores Island, 10 species for Pico Island, 12 species for Terceira Island, 19 species for S. Miguel Island and five species for S. Maria Island.

Additional species records for the Islands included: Flores (5 Collembola; 9 Araneae; 2 Hemiptera; 8 Coleoptera; 8 Hymenoptera), Pico (4 Collembola; 7 Araneae; 4 Hemiptera; 11 Coleoptera; 9 Hymenoptera), Terceira (4 Collembola; 1 Araneae; 3 Hymenoptera), S. Miguel (1 Araneae; 2 Coleoptera; 3 Hymenoptera), S. Maria (5 Collembola; 3 Araneae; 2 Hemiptera; 2 Hymenoptera) (see Table 3).

The two species of beetles include a ground-beetle Asaphidion flavipes (Linnaeus, 1761) (Carabidae) found in an exotic forest (Eucalyptus spp. plantation) in S. Miguel Island and the rove-beetle Tachyporus dispar (Paykull, 1789) (Staphylinidae), found in Flores and S. Miguel Islands, in pasture land and also in Cryptomeria japonica plantations.

The bug Acrosternum heegeri Fieber, 1861 (Pentatomidae) was found in corn fields, pastures and orchards in the Islands of Flores and Terceira.

Concerning the Collembola, the new species, recorded to Azores, include: Entomobrya regularis Stach, 1963 (Entomobryidae) found in Cryptomeria japonica plantations from S. Miguel Island; Lepidocyrtus lusitanicus piezoensis (Simón-Benito, 2007) (Entomobryidae) found in pastures, corn fields and exotic forests in three Islands (Terceira, S. Miguel and S. Maria); Sminthurinus quadrimaculatus (Ryder, 1879) (Katiannidae) found in native forest and Cryptomeria japonica plantations in Terceira and S. Maria Islands and Jordanathrix articulata (Ellis, 1974) (Sminthuridae) found in all the studied Islands and in almost all sampled habitats, this being a very common species.

Two Collembola genera are also new records for Azores: Himalanura Baijal, 1958 (Entomobryidae) and Protophorura Absolon, 1901 (Onychiuridae). Further taxonomic resolution is needed to confirm their status and species assignation.

Concerning the Hymenoptera parasitoids, several species and genera are also new records for the Azores:

Gonatopus clavipes (Thunberg, 1827) (Dryinidae), sampled in corn fields in S. Miguel Island.

Aphidius colemani Viereck, 1912 (Braconidae), sampled in pastures, corn fields and native forest in Pico, Terceira and S. Miguel Islands.

Aphidius ervi Haliday, 1834 (Braconidae), sampled in pastures and corn fields in Pico and Terceira Islands.

Aphidius matricariae Viereck, 1912 (Braconidae), sampled in pastures and native forest in Pico and Terceira Islands.

Aphidius rhopalosiphi Stefani-Perez, 1902 (Braconidae), sampled in all types of pastures (i.e. low and high altitude), corn fields, orchards and native forest in Pico, Terceira, S. Miguel and S. Maria Islands.

Aphidius rosae (Haliday, 1834) (Braconidae), sampled in semi-natural pastures in Pico Island.

Aphidius urticae Haliday, 1834 (Braconidae), sampled in all types of pastures and corn fields, in Flores, Pico, Terceira and S. Miguel Islands.

Centistidea ectoedemiae Rohwer, 1914 (Braconidae), sampled in pastures, orchards and Cryptomeria japonica plantations, in Flores, Pico, Terceira and S. Maria Islands.

Meteorus unicolor (Wesmael, 1835) (Braconidae), sampled in all types of pastures, orchards, exotic forest and native forest in Flores, Pico and Terceira Islands.

Meteorus collaris (Spin.) Hal. – Ruschka, Fulmek, 1915 (Braconidae), sampled in corn fields and exotic forest in Pico and Terceira Islands.

Orthostigma cratospilum (Thomson, 1895) (Braconidae), sampled in pastures, orchards, exotic forest and native forest in Pico, Terceira and S. Miguel Islands.

Orthostigma latriventris Ratzeburg, 1844 (Braconidae), sampled in pastures, corn fields and orchards in Pico, Terceira and S. Maria Islands. Two other morphospecies of Orthostigma sp. are recorded occurring in all the Islands and habitats, but for which further taxonomic resolution is needed to confirm their status and species assignation.

Pseudopezomachus bituberculatus (Marshall, 1905) (Braconidae), sampled in semi-natural pastures in Pico and S. Miguel Islands.

Tanycarpa punctata (van Achterberg, 1976) (Braconidae), sampled in Cryptomeria japonica plantations, on S. Miguel Island.

New genera, not previously recorded in the Azores, include: Pycnetron sp. (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae); four species of Aspilota sp. (Braconidae: Aphidiinae); four species of Chorebus sp. (Braconidae: Alysiinae); Microgaster sp. (Braconidae: Microgastrinae); Homolobus sp. (Braconidae: Homolobinae); Lodbrokia sp. (Braconidae: Alysiinae). Further taxonomic resolution is needed to confirm their status and species assignation.

We wish also to call attention to three species collected in our study for the first time in Azores, but reported in previous publications: two spiders species of the family (Phrurolithidae): Liophrurillus flavitarsis (Lucas, 1846) found in an exotic forest in S. Maria Island and Phrurolinillus lisboensis Wunderlich, 1995 found in pastures in Pico and Terceira Islands (see Borges et al. 2013); the ladybird Nephus voeltzkowi (Weise, 1910) (Coccinellidae) found in orchards and semi-natural pastures in Terceira Island (see Magro et al. 2020).

The staggering number of Hymenoptera, mostly parasitoids (193 species and morphospecies) concurs with reports of an increasingly unreported high number of species in this group, which, due to their size, makes capture and identification difficult and, therefore, underestimated (Lobo and Borges 2010). Their number might rival Coleoptera, commonly reported as the most speciose animals on Earth (Zhang et al. 2018). The number of Hymenoptera parasitoid species is thought to be 2.5-3.2-fold higher than the one of Coleoptera species (Forbes et al. 2018). We hypothesise that the same pattern for Collembola exists as identifications, based on morphological characters, is usually insufficient to discriminate phenotypic identical species. This was the case for Collembola (Marcelino et al. 2011) and Staphylinidae (Marcelino et al. 2016), in which, after matching morphological identifications with genetic profiles, undetected cryptic species complexes were found.

Our results indicate that increasing anthropogenic impact is a major driver for species diversity in habitats ranging from pristine to highly human-influenced habitats. Our results support the mission statement of Borges et al. (2018) that there is the urgent need to inventory and monitor island biodiversiy.

Acknowledgements

This study was financed by FLAD – Fundação Luso-Americana para o Desenvolvimento and by the Direção Regional Ciencia, Tecnologia e Comunicações (DRCTC) & PROEMPREGO, of the Azores. This study was also financed by FEDER in 85% and by Azorean Public funds by 15% through the Operational Programme Azores 2020, under the following projects AZORESBIOPORTAL –PORBIOTA (ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072) and under the project ECO2-TUTA (ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000081).

We wish to also thank all colleagues who helped in the identification of species, nameley Bob Davidson, Felipe Soto-Adames, Fernando Pereira, Kees van Achterberg, Vladimir Žikić and Volker Assing.

References