Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic Paper
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Taxonomic Paper
Checklist of the coral fish fauna of Xisha Islands, China
expand article infoShuting Qiu, Bin Chen‡,§, Jianguo Du‡,§, Kar-Hoe Loh|, Jianji Liao, Xinming Liu, Wen Yang
‡ Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen, China
§ Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory ofMarine Ecological Conservation and Restoration, Xiamen, China
| Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
¶ Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Guangxi, China
Open Access

Abstract

Background

The Xisha Islands are composed of the Yongle Islands and the Xuande Islands in Hainan Province, China. It has one of the highest species diversity in the world and is also a typical oceanic distribution area of coral reefs globally. The ichthyofauna of the Xisha Islands were recorded by underwater visual census in May 2019 and July 2020. The survey data were combined with previous records of species into the checklist of the Xisha Islands presented herein. A total of 691 species, belonging to 24 orders and 97 families, was recorded. The major families were Labridae, Pomacentridae, Serranidae, Chaetodontidae, Hexanchidae, Lutjanidae, Scaridae, Gobiidae, Scorpaenidae and Carangidae. In this study, the Coral Fish iversity Index (CFDI) of six families (Chaetodontidae, Pomacanthidae, Pomacentridae, Labridae, Scaridae and Acanthuridae) was 229, indicating 756 coral fishes. In terms of the IUCN Red List, one species is Critically Endangered (Glyphis gangeticus), six species are Endangered (Stegostoma fasciatum, Aetomylaeus maculatus, Aetomylaeus vespertilio, Epinephelus akaara, Cheilinusundulatus sp. and Xiphias gladius), 16 species are Vulnerable, and 13 species are Near Threatened in the Xisha Archipelago, so conservation should be strengthened in this area in the future.

New information

One species is a new record for China (Dischistodus pseudochrysopoecilus) and 23 species are newly found in the Xisha Islands.

Keywords

Ichthyofauna, Coral Fish Diversity Index (CFDI), Xisha Islands, newly-recorded species

Introduction

The Xisha Archipelago is in the midwest of the South China Sea and it is at the northern margin of the Coral Triangle, which has the highest biodiversity in the world (Allen 2008). The Xisha Islands comprise the Yongle Islands and the Xuande Islands and begins in the north from the Beijiao Atoll and ends at the Songtao Bank in the south; Xidu Bank is in the east and Zhongjian Island in the west. Altogether, there are 29 islands, sandbars and four atolls.

The coral reefs of the Xisha Islands are the oldest and most primitive in China. It is also the birthplace of the coral reef ecosystem in the coastal areas of China (Huang et al. 2020). The Xisha Coral Reef Ecological Monitoring Zone was established in 2005 by the State Oceanic Administration of China to monitor and assess the health of coral reefs. The coral reef coverage declined from 53.8% in 2007 to 5.44% in 2016, due to anthropogenic activities, outbreak of crown-of-thorns starfish, coral diseases, typhoons and global warming (Li et al. 2017).

Several studies have focused on the fishes in the Xisha Islands. For example, 261 species belonging to 48 families of coral reef fishes were found in Beijiao Atoll, Yongxing Island, Huaguang Atoll and five other islands by gillnet and angling (Sun et al. 2004). A total of 146 species belonging to 31 families of fish was reported from the main reefs in Xisha Islands by bottom gillnet (Wang et al. 2011). There were 119 species belonging to 73 genera and 30 families of coral reef fish species reported in the Xisha Islands by underwater visual censuses and 643 species were recorded in combination with other previous studies (Gao et al. 2014). However, several new studies have been published. For example, in Zhaoshu Island, a total of 58 coral reef fish species was recorded, belonging to one class, three orders, 18 families and 37 genera by underwater visual censuses (Yang et al. 2018).The diversity of reef fishes declined from 3.10/m2 in 2005 to 1.23/m2 in 2013, due to reef degradation and overfishing (Li et al. 2017). The fish list of the Xisha Islands remains incomplete and taxonomic revisions are urgently needed to provide scientific support for follow-up research and protection of reef fishes in the Xisha Islands, especially against the background of intense human activity and rapid global change.

Materials and methods

In May 2019 and July 2020, a total of 27 sites in the Xisha Islands (Fig. 1) was investigated by underwater visual censuses and more than 50 dives were performed, using a Canon 5D4, together with Seacam 150D and Sea&Sea YS-D2 flashlights. The photos were taken ranging from 5 to 30 m. The species were identified according to the following resources: Reef fishes of the East Indies (Allen and Erdmann 2012), Coral reef atlas of Xisha Islands (Huang 2018), Reef fish identification of Nansha Islands (Fang and Lv 2019), Coral reef fishes of the South China Sea (Fu 2014) and FishBase (Froese and Pauly 2020, Fig. 1)

Figure 1.  

The map showing the survey locations.

The Coral Fish Diversity Index (CFDI) is an evaluative index proposed by Allen (1988) to measure the diversity of coral reef fishes using the following formula: Total fish fauna = 3.39 (CFDI) - 20.595 used by for areas under 2,000 km. The CFDI is based on the total number of species in each of the six indicator families (Acanthuridae, Chaetodontidae, Labridae, Pomacanthidae, Pomacentridae and Scaridae). All selected families are crucial parts of reef communities, widely distributed and firmly related to coral reef ecosystems.

This checklist has been arranged in the evolutionary order of class, order, family and species and families are arranged in the evolutionary order of genera and then species name.The newly-recorded species in the Xisha Archipelago are marked with r11 only in the Table. For habitats types, these abbreviations have been used: reef associated (RFA); brackish (BRA); demersal (DEM); amphidromous (AMP); pelagic (PEL); bathydemersal (BAD); benthopelagic (BEP); bathypelagic (BAP); pelagic-neritic (PE); oceanodromous (OD).

The IUCN status is indicated as: Critically Endangered (CE); Endangered (EN); Vulnerable (VU); Near Threatened (NT); Lower Risk (LR); Least Concern (LC). Threat to humans: Other; Traumatogenic; Poisonous to eat; Venomous; Reports of ciguatera poisoning.

There were 197 species belonging to 28 families found in this survey, of which, one species represented a new record in China (Dischistodus pseudochrysopoecilus) and 23 species represent new records in the Xisha Islands (Table 1), combined with eight previous studies by Gao et al. (2014) and Sun et al. (2004)Li et al. 2017, Li et al. 2007, Wang 1981, Wang et al. 2011, Yang et al. 2018, Zeng 2004. In total, 690 species were recorded from the Xisha Islands, belonging to 24 orders and 97 families. The order Perciformes was the most dominant order, with 496 species belonging to it. The most dominant family was the family Labridae, which had 75 species; followed by Pomacentridae with 63 species; the third, fourth and and fifth largest families were Serranidae, Chaetodontidae and Hexanchidae, which had 42 species, 39 species and 29 species, respectively. Other major families were Lutjanidae and Scaridae, which both had 26 species, Gobiidae had 22 species; Scorpaenidae and Carangidae had 16 species (Table 1).

Table 1.

Checklist of the coral fish fauna of the Xisha Islands, China.

Subclass, Order, Family, Genus, and species Habitat types Threat to humans IUCN status Trophic level Other remarks
Class Chondrichthyes
Order Chimaeriformes
Family Chimaeridae
Genus Chimaera
Chimaera phantasma Jordan & Snyder, 1900 BAD 3.5 r1
Order Orectolobiformes
Family Orectolobidae
Elasmobranchii
Order Orectolobiformes
Genus Stegostoma
Stegostoma fasciatum (Hermann, 1783) RFA Traumatogenic EN 3.1 r1
Family Ginglymostomatidae
Genus Nebrius
Nebrius ferrugineus (Lesson, 1831) RFA Traumatogenic VU 4.1 r1,5
Order Lamniformes
Family Myliobatidae
Genus Aetobatus
Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen, 1790) BRA Traumatogenic NT 4.2 r2
Genus Aetomylaeus
Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray, 1834) BRA Traumatogenic EN 3.8 r2
Aetomylaeus vespertilio (Bleeker, 1852) BEP EN 3.8 r2
Family Alopiidae
Genus Alopias
Alopias vulpinus (Bonnaterre, 1788) PEL VU 4.5 r1,r6
Family Lamnidae
Genus Isurus
Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810 PEL Traumatogenic NT 4.5 r2
Order Carcharhiniformes
Family Scyliorhinidae
Genus Atelomycterus
Atelomycterus marmoratus (Anonymous [Bennett], 1830) RFA NT 4.1 r1
Genus Cephaloscyllium
Cephaloscyllium isabellum (Bonnaterre, 1788) RFA LC 4.2 r2
Cephaloscyllium umbratile Jordan & Fowler, 1903 RFA 4.5 r4
Family Triakidae
Genus Mustelus
Mustelus griseus Pietschmann, 1908 DEM 3.5 r3
Family Carcharhinidae
Genus Carcharhinus
Carcharhinus albimarginatus (Rüppell, 1837) RFA Traumatogenic VU 4.2 r1
Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides (Whitley, 1934) PN Traumatogenic NT 4.2 r1,r7
Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle, 1839) RFA Traumatogenic VU 4.5 r1
Carcharhinus limbatus (Müller & Henle, 1839) BRA Traumatogenic NT 4.4 r2
Carcharhinus longimanus (Poey, 1861) PEL Traumatogenic VU 4.2 r1
Genus Galeocerdo
Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur, 1822) BRA Traumatogenic NT 4.5 r1
Genus Glyphis
Glyphis gangeticus (Müller & Henle, 1839) DEM; AMP Traumatogenic CE 4.2 r1
Genus Hemigaleus
Hemigaleus microstoma Bleeker, 1852 DEM VU 4.2 r4
Genus Prionace
Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758) BRA Traumatogenic NT 4.4 r1
Genus Rhizoprionodon
Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell, 1837) BEP; AMP LC 4.3 r2
Genus Scoliodon
Scoliodon laticaudus Müller & Henle, 1838 BRA NT 3.8 r1,r7
Genus Triaenodon
Triaenodon obesus (Rüppell, 1837) RFA Traumatogenic NT 4.2 r1
Family Sphyrnidae
Genus Sphyrna
Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith, 1834) BRA Other VU 4.1 r1
Order Hexanchiformes
Family Hexanchidae
Genus Hexanchus
Hexanchus griseus (Bonnaterre, 1788) BAD Poisonous to eat NT 4.5 r1,r7
Hexanchus nakamurai Teng, 1962 BAD 4.2 r1
Genus Notorynchus
Notorynchus cepedianus (Péron, 1807) BRA Traumatogenic LR 4.7 r4
Genus Myripristis
Myripristis botche Cuvier, 1829 RFA LC 4.0 r1
Myripristis chryseres Jordan & Evermann, 1903 BEP LC 4.0 r2
Myripristis kuntee Valenciennes, 1831 RFA LC 3.4 r6,r8
Myripristis murdjan (Forsskål, 1775) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 3.4 r1,r7
Myripristis pralinia Cuvier, 1829 RFA LC 3.5 r1
Myripristis violacea Bleeker, 1851 RFA LC 3.5 r4
Myripristis vittata Valenciennes, 1831 RFA LC 3.8 r3
*Myripristis robusta Randall & Greenfield, 1996 DEM r11
Genus Neoniphon
Neoniphon argenteus (Valenciennes, 1831) RFA LC 4.0 r3
Neoniphon opercularis (Valenciennes, 1831) RFA Venomous LC 3.6 r1,r6
Neoniphon sammara (Forsskål, 1775) RFA Venomous LC 3.6 r1,r6,r8,r11
Genus Ostichthys
Ostichthys kaianus (Günther, 1880) BAD LC 4.0 r3
Ostichthys sheni Chen, Shao & Mok, 1990 DEM 3.7 r3
Genus Sargocentron
Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål, 1775) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 3.6 r1
Sargocentron violaceum (Bleeker, 1853) RFA Venomous LC 3.6 r1
Sargocentron caudimaculatum (Rüppell, 1838) RFA Venomous LC 3.9 r4,r6,r11
Sargocentron cornutum (Bleeker, 1854) BRA Venomous LC 3.6 r4
Sargocentron diadema (Lacepède, 1802) RFA Venomous LC 3.4 r1
Sargocentron ensifer (Jordan & Evermann, 1903) RFA LC 4.0 r1,r7
Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier, 1829) RFA LC 3.4 r1,r7
Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål, 1775) RFA Venomous LC 3.6 r4,r7
Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål, 1775) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 3.6 r4
Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier, 1829) RFA Venomous LC 4.2 r3
Sargocentron violaceum (Bleeker, 1853) RFA Venomous LC 3.6 r4
Sargocentron melanospilos (Bleeker, 1858) RFA Venomous LC 4.0 r9,r11
Sargocentron microstoma (Günther, 1859) RFA Venomous LC 3.6 r10,r11
Order Squatiniformes
Family Squalidae
Genus Centrophorus
Centrophorus tessellatus Garman, 1906 BEP 4.3 r1
Genus Squalus
Squalus brevirostris Tanaka, 1917 DEM 4.2 r1
Squalus megalops (Macleay, 1881) DEM 4.3 r2
Order Rajiformes
Family Rhinobatidae
Genus Rhina
Rhina ancylostoma Bloch & Schneider, 1801 RFA Other VU 3.6 r1
Genus Rhynchobatus
Rhynchobatus djiddensis (Forsskål, 1775) BRA VU 3.6 r1
Order Myliobatiformes
Family Dasyatidae
Genus Hemitrygon
Hemitrygon bennettii (Müller & Henle, 1841) DEM 4.5 r2
Hemitrygon sinensis (Steindachner, 1892) DEM 3.7 r2
Genus Neotrygon
Neotrygon kuhlii (Müller & Henle, 1841) RFA Venomous 3.3 r2
Genus Pteroplatytrygon
Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte, 1832) PEL Venomous LC 4.4 r1
Genus Taeniurops
Taeniurops meyeni (Müller & Henle, 1841) RFA Venomous VU 4.2 r1
Genus Urogymnus
Urogymnus asperrimus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) BRA Traumatogenic VU 3.5 r2
Family Gymnuridae
Genus Gymnura
Gymnura japonica (Temminck & Schlegel, 1850) DEM Venomous 3.8 r2
Order Anguilliformes
Family Muraenidae
Genus Echidna
Echidna delicatula (Kaup, 1856) RFA 3.5 r1
Echidna nebulosa (Ahl, 1789) RFA LC 4.0 r1
Echidna polyzona (Richardson, 1845) RFA LC 3.5 r1
Genus Gymnomuraena
Gymnomuraena zebra (Shaw, 1797) RFA LC 3.4 r1
Genus Gymnothorax
Gymnothorax fimbriatus (Bennett, 1832) BRA LC 4.0 r1
Gymnothorax flavimarginatus (Rüppell, 1830) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.2 r1
Gymnothorax isingteena (Richardson, 1845) RFA LC 4.3 r4
Gymnothorax meleagris (Shaw, 1795) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.0 r1,r6,r11
Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl, 1789) BRA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.2 r1
Gymnothorax prionodon Ogilby, 1895 RFA LC 4.2 r3
Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus (Bleeker, 1853) RFA LC 3.7 r4
Gymnothorax reevesii (Richardson, 1845) RFA 4.0 r1
Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker, 1852) RFA LC 3.8 r1
Gymnothorax rueppelliae (McClelland, 1844) BRA LC 4.0 r1
Gymnothorax thyrsoideus (Richardson, 1845) RFA LC 4.0 r1
Gymnothorax undulatus (Lacepède, 1803) BRA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 3.6 r1
Genus Scuticaria
Scuticaria tigrina (Lesson, 1828) RFA LC 3.8 r1
Family Ophichthyidae
Genus Myrichthys
Myrichthys colubrinus (Boddaert, 1781) RFA 3.6 r1
Myrichthys maculosus (Cuvier, 1816) RFA 3.6 r1
Genus Pisoodonophis
Pisoodonophis rubicundus 4.0 r1
Order Clupeiformes
Family Clupeidae
Genus Amblygaster
Amblygaster clupeoides Bleeker, 1849 RFA LC 3.1 r1
Genus Conger
Conger cinereus Rüppell, 1830 RFA LC 4.3 r1
Order Gonorhynchiformes
Family Chanidae
Genusa Chanos
Chanos chanos (Forsskål, 1775) BRA LC 2.4 r1
Family Centriscidae
Genus Aeoliscus
Aeoliscus strigatus (Günther, 1861) RFA 3.5 r6
Order Stomiiformes
Family Sternoptychidae
Genus Sternoptyx
Sternoptyx diaphana Hermann, 1781 BAP 3.4 r1
Sternoptyx obscura Garman, 1899 BAP LC 3.3 r1
Family Phosichthyidae
Genus Polymetme
Polymetme corythaeola (Alcock, 1898) BEP 4.4 r1
Order Aulopiformes
Family Synodontidae
Genus Saurida
Saurida gracilis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) RFA LC 4.2 r1
Genus Synodus
Synodus jaculum Russell & Cressey, 1979 RFA LC 4.0 r1
Synodus variegatus (Lacepède, 1803) RFA LC 4.2 r1
Family Alepisauridae
Genus Alepisaurus
Alepisaurus ferox Lowe, 1833 BAP LC 4.0 r1
Order Myctophiformes
Family Myctophidae
Genus Myctophum
Myctophum aurolaternatum Garman, 1899 BAP LC 3.5 r1
Order Polymixiiformes
Family Polymixiidae
Genus Polymixia
Polymixia berndti Gilbert, 1905 RFA LC 4.0 r1
Order Ophidiiformes
Family Carapidae
Genus Carapus
Carapus mourlani (Petit, 1934) RFA 3.6 r1
Genus Encheliophis
Encheliophis homei (Richardson, 1846) DEM 3.7 r1
Encheliophis boraborensis (Kaup, 1856) DEM 3.4 r1
Family Bythitidae
Genus Dinematichthys
Dinematichthys iluocoeteoides Bleeker, 1855 RFA 2.6 r1
Order Lophiiformes
Family Antennaridae
Genus Antennatus
Antennatus dorehensis (Bleeker, 1859) RFA 4.3 r1
Family Chaunacidae
Genus Chaunax
Chaunax fimbriatus Hilgendorf, 1879 BAD 3.9 r1
Family Ogcocephalidae
Genus Halicmetus
Halicmetus reticulatus Smith & Radcliffe, 1912 BAD 3.3 r1
Genus Halieutaea
Halieutaea indica Annandale & Jenkins, 1910 DEM 3.4 r1
Order Mugiliformes
Family Mugilidae
Genus Crenimugil
Crenimugil crenilabis (Forsskål, 1775) BRA LC 2.3 r1
Genus Ellochelon
Ellochelon vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) RFA; LC 2.2 r1
Genus Moolgarda
Crenimugil seheli (Forsskål, 1775) RFA; 2.3 r1
Genus Oedalechilus
Plicomugil labiosus (Valenciennes, 1836) RFA 2.1 r1
Order Atheriniformes
Family Atherinidae
Genus Atherinomorus
Atherinomorus lacunosus (Forster, 1801) RFA; 3.3 r1
Family Exocoetidae
Genus Cheilopogon
Cheilopogon arcticeps (Günther, 1866) PN 3.6 r1
Cheilopogon atrisignis (Jenkins, 1903) PEL 3.7 r1
Cheilopogon cyanopterus (Valenciennes, 1847) PEL LC 3.3 r1
Cheilopogon katoptron (Bleeker, 1865) PN 3.5 r1
Cheilopogon pinnatibarbatus pinnatibarbatus (Bennett, 1831) PN LC 4.0 r1
Cheilopogon spilopterus (Valenciennes, 1847) PN 4.2 r1
Genus Cypselurus
Cypselurus oligolepis (Bleeker, 1865) PN 4.0 r1
Cypselurus poecilopterus (Valenciennes, 1847) PN; OD 3.4 r1
Genus Exocoetus
Exocoetus volitans Linnaeus, 1758 PN; OD LC 3.0 r1,r6
Genus Hirundichthys
Hirundichthys oxycephalus (Bleeker, 1853) PN; OD 3.0 r1
Hirundichthys speculiger (Valenciennes, 1847) PEL; OD LC 3.0 r1
Genus Parexocoetus
Parexocoetus brachypterus (Richardson, 1846) PN; OD 3.4 r1
Family Hemiramphidae
Genus Euleptorhamphus
Euleptorhamphus viridis (van Hasselt, 1823) PEL; OD 3.4 r1,r8
Genus Hyporhamphus
Hyporhamphus dussumieri (Valenciennes, 1847) RFA 3.5 r1
Hyporhamphus gernaerti (Valenciennes, 1847) PN 3.0 r1
Family Belonidae
Genus Ablennes
Ablennes hians (Valenciennes, 1846) RFA; OD LC 4.5 r1
Genus Platybelone
Platybelone argalus argalus (Lesueur, 1821) RFA LC 4.5 r1
Genus Tylosurus
Tylosurus acus acus (Lacepède, 1803) RFA Traumatogenic LC 4.5 r1
Order Gasterosteiformes
Family Pegasidae
Genus Pegasus
Pegasus laternarius Cuvier, 1816 DEM 3.3 r1
Family Aulostomidae
Genus Aulostomus
Aulostomus chinensis (Linnaeus, 1766) RFA LC 4.2 r1
Genus Centriscus
Centriscus scutatus Linnaeus, 1758 RFA LC 3.3 r1
Family Fistulariidae
Genus Fistularia
Fistularia petimba Lacepède, 1803 RFA LC 4.4 r1,r8
Order synbranchiformes
Family Syngnathidae
Genus Corythoichthys
Corythoichthys flavofasciatus (Rüppell, 1838) RFA LC 3.6 r1,r6
Genus Doryrhamphus
Doryrhamphus excisus excisus Kaup, 1856 RFA LC 3.5 r1
Genus Trachyrhamphus
Trachyrhamphus serratus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1850) RFA 3.7 r1
Order Scorpaeniformes
Family Dactylopteridae
Genus Dactyloptena
Dactyloptena orientalis (Cuvier, 1829) RFA LC 3.7 r1
Family Scorpaenidae
Genus Dendrochirus
Dendrochirus bellus (Jordan & Hubbs, 1925) DEM LC 3.8 r1
Dendrochirus zebra (Cuvier, 1829) RFA Venomous LC 4.0 r1
Genus Parapterois
Parapterois heterura (Bleeker, 1856) DEM Venomous LC 3.9 r1
Genus Parascorpaena
Parascorpaena aurita (Rüppell, 1838) RFA LC 3.7 r1
Parascorpaena picta (Cuvier, 1829) RFA LC 3.7 r1
Genus Pterois
Pterois radiata Cuvier, 1829 RFA Venomous LC 3.6 r1,r6
Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) RFA Venomous LC 4.4 r1,r6
Genus Scorpaena
Scorpaena hatizyoensis Matsubara, 1943 DEM LC 3.7 r1
Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel, 1843 DEM 3.8 r1
Genus Scorpaenodes
Scorpaenodes guamensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) RFA Venomous LC 3.4 r1
Scorpaenodes scaber (Ramsay & Ogilby, 1886) RFA Venomous 3.6 r1
Genus Scorpaenopsis
Scorpaenopsis cirrosa (Thunberg,1793) DEM Venomous 3.5 r1
Genus Sebastapistes
*Sebastapistes cyanostigma (Bleeker, 1856) RFA 3.8 r11
Sebastapistes nuchalis (Günther, 1874) DEM 3.8 r1
Genus Synanceia
Synanceia verrucosa Bloch & Schneider, 1801 RFA Venomous LC 4.2 r1
Genus Vespicula
Vespicula trachinoides (Cuvier, 1829) DEM 3.1 r1
Order perciformes
Family Serranidae
Genus Aethaloperca
Aethaloperca rogaa (Forsskål, 1775) RFA LC 4.2 r1,r11
Genus Anyperodon
Anyperodon leucogrammicus (Valenciennes, 1828) RFA LC 3.9 r1
Genus Cephalopholis
Cephalopholis argus Schneider, 1801 RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.5 r1,r6,r11
Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes, 1828) RFA LC 4.0 r1
Cephalopholis formosa (Shaw, 1812) RFA LC 4.1 r1
Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède, 1801) RFA LC 4.0 r1
Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål, 1775) RFA LC 4.3 r1
Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes, 1828) RFA LC 3.8 r1
Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster, 1801) RFA LC 4.0 r1,r6,r11
Genus Epinephelus
Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel, 1842) RFA EN 4.0 r1
Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål, 1775) RFA LC 3.7 r1
Epinephelus awoara (Temminck & Schlegel, 1842) RFA 3.6 r1
Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes, 1828) RFA LC 4.0 r1
Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) RFA LC 4.0 r1
Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson, 1846) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.1 r4,r6
Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål, 1775) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 3.7 r1,r7,r11
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål, 1775) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning VU 4.1 r1
Epinephelus heniochus Fowler, 1904 DEM LC 3.8 r1
Epinephelus hexagonatus (Forster, 1801) RFA LC 4.1 r1,r11
Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1842) DEM LC 4.0 r1
Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790) RFA Traumatogenic 4.0 r1
Epinephelus longispinis (Kner, 1864) RFA LC 4.2 r1
Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch, 1790) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.0 r5
Epinephelus merra Bloch, 1793 RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 3.8 r1,r6,r8,r11
Epinephelus morrhua (Valenciennes, 1833) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.0 r1
Epinephelus poecilonotus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1842) RFA LC 4.0 r1
Epinephelus retouti Bleeker, 1868 RFA LC 4.0 r1
Epinephelus spilotoceps Schultz, 1953 RFA LC 3.7 r1,r11
Epinephelus summana (Forsskål, 1775) RFA LC 3.8 r1
Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskål, 1775) RFA; OD Reports of ciguatera poisoning 4.1 r1
Genus Gracila
Gracila albomarginata (Fowler & Bean, 1930) RFA LC 4.2 r1
Genus Grammistes
Grammistes sexlineatus (Thunberg, 1792) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.0 r1,r11
Genus Plectropomus
Plectropomus areolatus (Rüppell, 1830) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning VU 4.5 r1
Plectropomus laevis (Lacepède, 1801) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.1 r1
Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède, 1802) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.4 r1
Plectropomus oligacanthus (Bleeker, 1855) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.0 r1,r7
Genus Pogonoperca
Pogonoperca ocellata Günther, 1859 RFA LC 4.0 r1
Genus Pseudanthias
Pseudanthias cichlops (Bleeker, 1853) RFA LC 3.4 r5
Pseudanthias pascalus (Jordan & Tanaka, 1927) RFA LC 3.3 r6,r11
Pseudanthias tuka (Herre & Montalban, 1927) RFA LC 3.6 r1
Genus Saloptia
Saloptia powelli Smith, 1964 RFA LC 3.9 r1
Genus Variola
Variola louti (Forsskål, 1775) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.3 r1
Family Pseudochromidae
Genus Labracinus
Labracinus cyclophthalmus (Müller & Troschel, 1849) RFA 3.9 r1
Genus Pseudochromis
Pseudochromis fuscus Müller & Troschel, 1849 RFA LC 3.5 r1
Family Plesiopida
Genus Plesiops
Plesiops coeruleolineatus Rüppell, 1835 RFA 3.6 r1
Family Priacanthidae
Genus Heteropriacanthus
Heteropriacanthus cruentatus (Lacepède, 1801) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 3.6 r1
Genus Priacanthus
Priacanthus hamrur (Forsskål, 1775) RFA LC 3.6 r1,r7
Priacanthus macracanthus Cuvier, 1829 RFA; OD LC 4.1 r6
Family Apogonidae
Genus Cheilodipterus
Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus Cuvier, 1828 RFA 3.9 r1,r8,r11
Genus Fowleria
Fowleria aurita (Valenciennes, 1831) RFA 3.5 r1
Genus Nectamia
Nectamia bandanensis (Bleeker, 1854) RFA 3.3 r1
Genus Ostorhinchus
Ostorhinchus nigrofasciatus (Lachner, 1953) RFA 3.6 r8,r11
Ostorhinchus novemfasciatus (Cuvier, 1828) RFA 4.0 r1,r11
Ostorhinchus cookii (Macleay, 1881) RFA 4.0 r6,r11
Genus Pristicon
Pristicon trimaculatus (Cuvier, 1828) RFA 3.5 r1
Genus Sphaeramia
Sphaeramia orbicularis (Cuvier, 1828) RFA 3.6 r1
Family Malacanthidae
Genus Malacanthus
Malacanthus brevirostris Guichenot, 1848 RFA 3.5 r1
Malacanthus latovittatus (Lacepède, 1801) RFA 3.5 r1
Family Microdesmidae
Genus Ptereleotris
Ptereleotris microlepis (Bleeker, 1856) RFA 3.4 r1
Family Coryphaenidae
Genus Coryphaena
Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758 PN; OD Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.4 r1
Family Echeneidae
Genus Echeneis
Echeneis naucrates Linnaeus, 1758 RFA LC 3.7 r1
Genus Remora
Remora albescens (Temminck & Schlegel, 1850) PEL; OD LC 3.4 r1
Remora brachyptera (Lowe, 1839) PEL; OD LC 3.5 r1
Remora remora (Linnaeus, 1758) RFA LC 3.5 r1
Genus Rhombochirus
Remora osteochir (Cuvier, 1829) RFA LC 3.5 r1
Family Carangidae
Genus Carangoides
Carangoides ferdau (Forsskål, 1775) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.3 r1
Genus Caranx
Caranx ignobilis (Forsskål, 1775) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.2 r1,r7
Caranx melampygus Cuvier, 1833 RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.5 r1,r11
Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 RFA LC 4.5 r1
Genus Decapterus
Decapterus macrosoma Bleeker, 1851 RFA LC 3.4 r1,r7
Genus Elagatis
Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.3 r1
Genus Naucrates
Naucrates ductor (Linnaeus, 1758) RFA LC 3.4 r1
Genus Scomberoides
Scomberoides lysan (Forsskål, 1775) RFA Other LC 4.0 r1
Genus Selar
Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch, 1793) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 3.8 r1,r7
Genus Selaroides
Selaroides leptolepis (Cuvier, 1833) RFA; AMP LC 3.8 r1
Genus Seriola
Seriola dumerili (Risso, 1810) RFA; OD Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.5 r1
Seriola lalandi Valenciennes, 1833 BEP LC 4.2 r1
Seriola quinqueradiata Temminck & Schlegel, 1845 DEM; OD LC 4.0 r1
Genus Trachinotus
Trachinotus baillonii (Lacepède, 1801) RFA LC 3.6 r1
Genus Alectis
Alectis indica (Rüppell, 1830) RFA LC 4.1 r1
Genus Caranx
Caranx lugubris Poey, 1860 BEP; OD Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.5 r1
Family Bramidae
Genus Brama
Brama japonica Hilgendorf, 1878 PEL; OD 4.4 r1
Family Lutjanidae
Genus Aphareus
Aphareus furca (Lacepède, 1801) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.1 r1
Aphareus rutilans Cuvier, 1830 RFA LC 4.1 r1
Genus Aprion
Aprion virescens Valenciennes, 1830 RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.3 r1,r6,r11
Genus Etelis
Etelis carbunculus Cuvier, 1828 BEP LC 4.5 r1
Genus Lutjanus
Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål, 1775) RFA; OD Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 3.6 r1
Lutjanus bohar (Forsskål, 1775) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.3 r1
Lutjanus erythropterus Bloch, 1790 RFA LC 4.5 r1
Lutjanus fulviflamma (Forsskål, 1775) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 3.8 r1
Lutjanus fulvus (Forster, 1801) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 3.6 r1,r11
Lutjanus gibbus (Forsskål, 1775) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.1 r1,r11
Lutjanus kasmira (Forsskål, 1775) RFA LC 3.9 r1,r7
Lutjanus monostigma (Cuvier, 1828) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.3 r1
Lutjanus quinquelineatus (Bloch, 1790) RFA LC 3.7 r1
Lutjanus russellii (Bleeker, 1849) RFA LC 4.1 r1
Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier, 1816) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.1 r1
Lutjanus stellatus Akazaki, 1983 RFA 4.0 r1
Genus Macolor
Macolor niger (Forsskål, 1775) RFA LC 4.0 r1
Genus Paracaesio
Paracaesio sordida Abe & Shinohara, 1962 RFA LC 2.8 r1
Paracaesio xanthura (Bleeker, 1869) RFA LC 3.4 r1
Genus Pristipomoides
Pristipomoides argyrogrammicus (Valenciennes, 1832) RFA LC 4.2 r1
Pristipomoides auricilla (Jordan, Evermann & Tanaka, 1927) BEP LC 3.9 r1
Pristipomoides filamentosus (Valenciennes, 1830) BEP LC 4.2 r1
Pristipomoides flavipinnis Shinohara, 1963 RFA LC 3.6 r1
Pristipomoides multidens (Day, 1871) DEM LC 3.8 r1,r7
Pristipomoides sieboldii (Bleeker, 1855) BEP LC 3.7 r5
Genus Symphorichthys
Symphorichthys spilurus (Günther, 1874) RFA LC 3.8 r1
Family Caesionidae
Genus Caesio
Caesio caerulaurea Lacepède, 1801 RFA LC 3.4 r1,r11
Caesio lunaris Cuvier, 1830 RFA LC 3.4 r1,r7
Caesio teres Seale, 1906 RFA LC 3.4 r6
Caesio xanthonota Bleeker, 1853 RFA LC 3.4 r1
Genus Pterocaesio
Pterocaesio digramma (Bleeker, 1864) RFA LC 3.4 r1,r6,r7
Pterocaesio tile (Cuvier, 1830) RFA LC 3.3 r1,r6,r11
*Pterocaesio trilineata Carpenter, 1987 RFA LC 3.4 r10,r11
Family Gerridae
Genus Gerres
Gerres filamentosus Cuvier, 1829 DEM; AMP LC 3.3 r1
Gerres longirostris (Lacepède, 1801) RFA LC 3.5 r1
Gerres oblongus Cuvier, 1830 RFA LC 3.5 r1
Gerres oyena (Forsskål, 1775) RFA LC 2.7 r1
Family Callionymidae
Genus Neosynchiropus
Neosynchiropus ocellatus (Pallas, 1770) RFA 3.2 r1
Family Haemulidae
Genus Diagramma
Diagramma pictum (Thunberg, 1792) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning 3.7 r1
Genus Plectorhinchus
Plectorhinchus chaetodonoides Lacepède, 1801 RFA 3.8 r1,r8,r11
Plectorhinchus diagrammus (Linnaeus, 1758) RFA 4.0 r1
Plectorhinchus flavomaculatus (Cuvier, 1830) RFA 4.0 r1
Plectorhinchus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) RFA 3.9 r1
Plectorhinchus picus (Cuvier, 1828) RFA 3.9 r1
Plectorhinchus vittatus (Linnaeus, 1758) RFA LC 3.9 r1,r11
Family Nemipteridae
Genus Pentapodus
Pentapodus caninus (Cuvier, 1830) RFA LC 3.6 r1,r11
Pentapodus nagasakiensis (Tanaka, 1915) RFA LC 3.4 r1
Genus Scolopsis
Scolopsis aurata (Park, 1797) RFA LC 3.6 r1
Scolopsis bilineata (Bloch, 1793) RFA LC 3.6 r1,r11
Scolopsis lineata Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 RFA LC 3.8 r1,r8,r11
Scolopsis monogramma (Cuvier, 1830) RFA LC 3.5 r6
Scolopsis taenioptera (Cuvier, 1830) DEM LC 3.9 r1
Family Lethrinidae
Genus Gnathodentex
Gnathodentex aureolineatus (Lacepède, 1802) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 3.7 r1,r6,r7,r8
Genus Gymnocranius
Gymnocranius griseus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1843) RFA LC 3.2 r1,r7
Genus Lethrinus
Lethrinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel, 1844 RFA 3.7 r1
Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède, 1802) RFA LC 3.9 r1,r7
Lethrinus miniatus (Forster, 1801) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.2 r1
Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål, 1775) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 3.8 r1,r6
Lethrinus ornatus Valenciennes, 1830 RFA LC 3.4 r1
Lethrinus rubrioperculatus Sato, 1978 RFA LC 3.8 r1,r11
Lethrinus variegatus Valenciennes, 1830 RFA LC 3.8 r1,r7
Lethrinus xanthochilus Klunzinger, 1870 RFA LC 3.8 r1
Genus Monotaxis
Monotaxis grandoculis (Forsskål, 1775) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 3.4 r1,r8,r11
Genus Pentapodus
Pentapodus setosus (Valenciennes, 1830) RFA 3.5 r1
Family Sparidae
Genus Dentex
Dentex tumifrons (Temminck & Schlegel, 1843) DEM LC 3.8 r1
Family Mullidae
Genus Mulloidichthys
Mulloidichthys flavolineatus (Lacepède, 1801) RFA LC 3.8 r1
Mulloidichthys vanicolensis (Valenciennes, 1831) RFA LC 3.6 r1,r6
Genus Parupeneus
Parupeneus barberinus (Lacepède, 1801) RFA LC 3.4 r1,r6,r7,r8,r11
Parupeneus ciliatus (Lacepède, 1802) RFA LC 3.5 r1,r6
Parupeneus crassilabris (Valenciennes, 1831) RFA LC 3.6 r6
Parupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepède, 1801) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.2 r1,r6,r8,r11
Parupeneus forsskali (Fourmanoir & Guézé, 1976) RFA 3.5 r4,r6
Parupeneus multifasciatus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) RFA LC 3.5 r6,r8,r11
Parupeneus pleurostigma (Bennett, 1831) RFA LC 3.4 r1,r6
Parupeneus trifasciatus (Lacepède, 1801) RFA 3.5 r1,r11
Parupeneus heptacanthus (Lacepède, 1802) RFA LC 3.4 r7
Genus Upeneus
Upeneus subvittatus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1843) DEM 4.2 r1
Family Pempheridae
Genus Pempheris
Pempheris oualensis Cuvier, 1831 RFA 3.6 r2,r6
Family Kyphosidae
Genus Kyphosus
Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål, 1775) RFA Poisonous to eat LC 2.9 r1
Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) RFA; OD LC 2.0 r1
Family Chaetodontidae
Genus Chaetodon
Chaetodon adiergastos Seale, 1910 RFA LC 3.5 r1
Chaetodon auriga Forsskål, 1775 RFA LC 3.7 r1,r8,r11
Chaetodon auripes Jordan & Snyder, 1901 RFA LC 3.5 r6,r11
Chaetodon bennetti Cuvier, 1831 RFA 3.1 r1,9
Chaetodon citrinellus Cuvier, 1831 RFA LC 3.5 r1,r11
Chaetodon collare Bloch, 1787 RFA LC 3.4 r1
Chaetodon ephippium Cuvier, 1831 RFA LC 3.0 r1,r8
Chaetodon falcula Bloch, 1795 RFA LC 3.5 r1
Chaetodon guttatissimus Bennett, 1833 RFA LC 3.1 r1
Chaetodon kleinii Bloch, 1790 RFA LC 2.9 r1,r11
Chaetodon lineolatus Cuvier, 1831 RFA LC 3.4 r1.r11
Chaetodon lunula (Lacepède, 1802) RFA LC 3.7 r1,r6,r8
Chaetodon madagaskariensis Ahl, 1923 RFA LC 2.8 r1,r6,r11
Chaetodon melannotus Bloch & Schneider, 1801 RFA LC 4.4 r1,r6,r8
Chaetodon ornatissimus Cuvier, 1831 RFA LC 3.3 r1,r6,r11
Chaetodon punctatofasciatus Cuvier, 1831 RFA LC 3.4 r1,r6,r11
Chaetodon rafflesii Anonymous [Bennett], 1830 RFA LC 4.3 r2,r6,r11
Chaetodon semeion Bleeker, 1855 RFA LC 2.7 r1
Chaetodon speculum Cuvier, 1831 RFA LC 3.6 r1,r11
Chaetodon trifascialis Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 RFA NT 3.3 r1,r6,r11
Chaetodon trifasciatus Park, 1797 RFA LC 3.3 r1
Chaetodon ulietensis Cuvier, 1831 RFA LC 2.7 r6
Chaetodon unimaculatus Bloch, 1787 RFA LC 3.3 r1,r6
Chaetodon vagabundus Linnaeus, 1758 RFA LC 2.9 r1,r6,r11
Chaetodon wiebeli Kaup, 1863 RFA LC 2.7 r1,r6
Chaetodon xanthurus Bleeker, 1857 RFA LC 2.8 r6,r7,r8,r11
Chaetodon lunulatus Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 RFA LC 3.3 r10,r11
Genus Coradion
Coradion chrysozonus (Cuvier, 1831) RFA LC 2.8 r1
Genus Forcipiger
Forcipiger flavissimus Jordan & McGregor, 1898 RFA LC 3.1 r6,r11
Forcipiger longirostris (Broussonet, 1782) RFA LC 3.5 r1,r11
Genus Hemitaurichthys
Hemitaurichthys polylepis (Bleeker, 1857) RFA LC 3.1 r6,r11
Hemitaurichthys zoster (Bennett, 1831) RFA LC 3.3 r1
Genus Heniochus
Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758) RFA LC 3.5 r1
Heniochus chrysostomus Cuvier, 1831 RFA LC 3.8 r1,r8,r11
Heniochus monoceros Cuvier, 1831 RFA LC 3.5 r1
Heniochus singularius Smith & Radcliffe, 1911 RFA LC 3.6 r1
Heniochus varius (Cuvier, 1829) RFA LC 3.2 r1
Genus Roa
Roa modesta (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844) RFA; OD LC 3.5 r1
Genus Parachaetodon
Parachaetodon ocellatus (Cuvier, 1831) RFA LC 2.8 r1
Family Pomacanthidae
Genus Apolemichthys
Apolemichthys trimaculatus (Cuvier, 1831) RFA LC 2.6 r1,r11
Genus Centropyge
Centropyge bispinosa (Günther, 1860) RFA LC 2.8 r1,r6,r8,r11
Centropyge heraldi Woods & Schultz, 1953 RFA LC 2.8 r1,r11
Centropyge vrolikii (Bleeker, 1853) RFA LC 2.8 r1,r6
*Centropyge tibicen (Cuvier, 1831) RFA LC 2.8 r11
Genus Genicanthus
Genicanthus melanospilos (Bleeker, 1857) RFA LC 3.4 r1
Genus Pomacanthus
Pomacanthus annularis (Bloch, 1787) RFA LC 2.6 r1
Pomacanthus imperator (Bloch, 1787) RFA LC 2.7 r1,r6,r11
Pomacanthus semicirculatus (Cuvier, 1831) RFA LC 2.7 r1
Pomacanthus sexstriatus (Cuvier, 1831) RFA LC 2.6 r1,r6
Genus Pygoplites
Pygoplites diacanthus (Boddaert, 1772) RFA LC 2.7 r1,r6,r11
Family Pentacerotidae
Genus Histiopterus
Histiopterus typus Temminck & Schlegel, 1844 RFA 3.5 r1
Family Theraponidae
Genus Therapon
Terapon jarbua (Forsskål, 1775) DEM LC 3.9 r1
Terapon theraps Cuvier, 1829 RFA LC 3.5 r1
Family Kuhliidae
Genus Kuhlia
Kuhlia mugil (Forster, 1801) RFA LC 3.8 r1
Family Cirrhitidae
Genus Cirrhitichthys
Cirrhitichthys aureus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1842) RFA 4.0 r1
Cirrhitichthys falco Randall, 1963 RFA LC 4.0 r6,r11
Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus (Bleeker, 1855) RFA LC 4.0 r9,r10,r11
Genus Cirrhitus
Cirrhitus pinnulatus (Forster, 1801) RFA LC 3.7 r1,r11
Genus Paracirrhites
Paracirrhites arcatus (Cuvier, 1829) RFA LC 3.6 r1,r6,r11
Family Pomacentridae
Genus Abudefduf
Abudefduf septemfasciatus (Cuvier, 1830) RFA LC 3.0 r1
Abudefduf sexfasciatus (Lacepède, 1801) RFA LC 2.7 r1,r11
Abudefduf sordidus (Forsskål, 1775) RFA LC 2.9 r1,r6,r7
Abudefduf vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 2.6 r1,r6,r8,r11
*Abudefduf bengalensis (Bloch, 1787) RFA LC 3.1 r11
Genus Amblyglyphidodon
Amblyglyphidodon aureus (Cuvier, 1830) RFA LC 2.7 r1
Amblyglyphidodon leucogaster (Bleeker, 1847) RFA LC 3.4 r1,r6,r11
Amblyglyphidodon curacao (Bloch, 1787) RFA LC 2.6 r8,r11
Genus Amphiprion
Amphiprion akallopisos Bleeker, 1853 RFA LC 2.7 r1
Amphiprion bicinctus Rüppell, 1830 RFA LC 2.7 r1
Amphiprion clarkii (Bennett, 1830) RFA 2.9 r6,r11
Amphiprion frenatus Brevoort, 1856 RFA LC 2.7 r1,r6,r11
Amphiprion perideraion Bleeker, 1855 RFA LC 2.2 r1,r6
*Amphiprion percula (Lacepède, 1802) RFA LC 2.7 r11
Genus Chromis
Chromis chrysura (Bliss, 1883) RFA 3.0 r1
Chromis dimidiata (Klunzinger, 1871) RFA LC 2.7 r1
Chromis margaritifer Fowler, 1946 RFA 3.0 r6,r11
Chromis notata (Temminck & Schlegel, 1843) RFA 3.4 r1
Chromis ternatensis (Bleeker, 1856) RFA 3.4 r1,r6
Chromis xanthura (Bleeker, 1854) RFA 3.4 r1,r11
*Chromis fumea (Tanaka, 1917) RFA LC 3.4 r11
*Chromis lepidolepis Bleeker, 1877 RFA 3.4 r11
Chromis ovatiformes Fowler, 1946 RFA 3.4 r9,r10,r11
*Chromis caudalis Randall, 1988 RFA LC 3.0 r11
*Chromis viridis (Cuvier, 1830) RFA 2.9 r9,r11
Genus Chrysiptera
Chrysiptera biocellata (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) RFA 2.0 r1,r8,r11
Chrysiptera brownriggii (Bennett, 1828) RFA 2.7 r1
Chrysiptera cyanea (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) RFA 2.5 r1,r6
Chrysiptera glauca (Cuvier, 1830) RFA 2.4 r1
Chrysiptera chrysocephala Manica, Pilcher & Oakley, 2002 PN 2.7 r9,r11
*Chrysiptera unimaculata (Cuvier, 1830) RFA LC 2.1 r11
*Chrysiptera talboti (Allen, 1975) RFA 2.8 r11
Genus Dascyllus
Dascyllus aruanus (Linnaeus, 1758) RFA 3.3 r1,r8,r11
Dascyllus marginatus (Rüppell, 1829) RFA 2.7 r1
Dascyllus reticulatus (Richardson, 1846) RFA 3.1 r6
Dascyllus trimaculatus (Rüppell, 1829) RFA 2.8 r1,r6,r11
Dascyllus reticulatus (Richardson, 1846) RFA 3.1 r9,r10,r11
Genus Dischistodus
Dischistodus melanotus (Bleeker, 1858) RFA 2.0 r1,r6,r8.r11
Dischistodus perspicillatus (Cuvier, 1830) RFA 2.0 r1,r6,r8,r11
*Dischistodus pseudochrysopoecilus (Allen & Robertson, 1974) RFA 2.0 r11
Dischistodus prosopotaenia (Bleeker, 1852) 2.7 r8,r11
*Dischistodus chrysopoecilus (Schlegel & Müller, 1839) RFA r11
Genus Hemiglyphidodon
Hemiglyphidodon plagiometopon (Bleeker, 1852) RFA 2.0 r1
Genus Neoglyphidodon
Neoglyphidodon melas (Cuvier, 1830) RFA 3.4 r1,r6
Neoglyphidodon thoracotaeniatus (Fowler & Bean, 1928) RFA 2.7 r1,r6
Genus Neopomacentrus
Neopomacentrus azysron (Bleeker, 1877) RFA 3.4 r6
Genus Plectroglyphidodon
Plectroglyphidodon dickii (Liénard, 1839) RFA 3.7 r1,r6,r11
Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) RFA 2.2 r1,r6,r8,r11
Plectroglyphidodon leucozonus (Bleeker, 1859) RFA 2.0 r8
Genus Pomacentrus
Pomacentrus brachialis Cuvier, 1830 RFA 2.6 r1
Pomacentrus coelestis Jordan & Starks, 1901 RFA 3.2 r6,r8,r11
Pomacentrus moluccensis Bleeker, 1853 RFA 2.4 r1,r6,r8,r11
Pomacentrus pavo (Bloch, 1787) RFA 3.0 r1,r11
Pomacentrus philippinus Evermann & Seale, 1907 RFA 2.7 r1,r6,r8,r11
Pomacentrus tripunctatus Cuvier, 1830 RFA 2.0 r1
Pomacentrus vaiuli Jordan & Seale, 1906 RFA 3.1 r8,r11
Pomacentrus bankanensis Bleeker, 1854 RFA 2.7 r8,r11
Genus Pomachromis
Pomachromis richardsoni (Snyder, 1909) RFA 3.0 r1
Genus Stegastes
Stegastes albifasciatus (Schlegel & Müller, 1839) RFA 2.0 r1,r8
Stegastes fasciolatus (Ogilby, 1889) RFA 2.2 r1,r8,r11
Stegastes lividus (Forster, 1801) RFA r1
*Stegastes insularis Allen & Emery, 1985 RFA 2.0 r11
Stegastes lividus (Forster, 1801) RFA 2.0 r1
Stegastes nigricans (Lacepède, 1802) RFA Traumatogenic 2.2 r1
Family Labridae
Genus Anampses
Anampses caeruleopunctatus Rüppell, 1829 RFA 3.4 r1
Anampses melanurus Bleeker, 1857 RFA LC 3.4 r1,r11
Anampses meleagrides Valenciennes, 1840 RFA LC 3.5 r1
Anampses twistii Bleeker, 1856 RFA LC 3.5 r1
Genus Bodianus
Bodianus axillaris (Bennett, 1832) RFA LC 3.4 r1,r11
Bodianus bilunulatus (Lacepède, 1801) RFA LC 3.4 r1,r8
Bodianus loxozonus (Snyder, 1908) RFA LC 3.6 r6
Bodianus macrourus (Lacepède, 1801) RFA LC 3.5 r1
Bodianus mesothorax (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) RFA LC 3.2 r6
Bodianus oxycephalus (Bleeker, 1862) RFA 3.5 r1
Genus Cheilinus
Cheilinus chlorourus (Bloch, 1791) RFA LC 3.5 r1,r6
Cheilinus fasciatus (Bloch, 1791) RFA LC 3.4 r1,r6,r8
Cheilinus oxycephalus Bleeker, 1853 RFA LC 3.4 r1
Cheilinus trilobatus Lacepède, 1801 RFA LC 3.9 r1,r11
Cheilinus undulatus Rüppell, 1835 RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning EN 4.0 r1,r11
Genus Cheilio
Cheilio inermis (Forsskål, 1775) RFA LC 3.5 r1
Choerodon melanostigma Fowler & Bean, 1928 RFA LC 3.5 r1
Choerodon schoenleinii (Valenciennes, 1839) RFA NT 3.4 r1
Genus Cirrhilabrus
Cirrhilabrus melanomarginatus Randall & Shen, 1978 RFA LC 3.4 r6,r11
Cirrhilabrus solorensis Bleeker, 1853 RFA 3.4 r1
Cirrhilabrus brunneus Allen, 2006 3.2 r1
Cirrhilabrus cyanopleura (Bleeker, 1851) RFA 3.4 r9,r11
*Cirrhilabrus exquisitus Smith, 1957 RFA 3.4 r10,r11
Genus Coris
Coris gaimard (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 3.5 r1,r11
*Coris aygula Lacepède, 1801 RFA LC 3.7 r11
Coris dorsomacula Fowler, 1908 RFA LC 3.5 r9,r10,r11
Genus Cymolutes
Cymolutes lecluse (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) RFA LC 4.2 r1
Genus Epibulus
Epibulus insidiator (Pallas, 1770) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.0 r1,r8,r11
Genus Gomphosus
Gomphosus varius Lacepède, 1801 RFA LC 3.7 r1,r11
Genus Halichoeres
Halichoeres biocellatus Schultz, 1960 RFA LC 3.4 r11
Halichoeres chrysus Randall, 1981 RFA LC 3.4 r6
Halichoeres hartzfeldii (Bleeker, 1852) RFA LC 3.5 r1
Halichoeres hortulanus (Lacepède, 1801) RFA LC 3.4 r1,r6,r8,r11
Halichoeres margaritaceus (Valenciennes, 1839) RFA LC 3.7 r1,r11
Halichoeres marginatus Rüppell, 1835 RFA LC 3.2 r1,r11
Halichoeres prosopeion (Bleeker, 1853) RFA LC 3.5 r3,r11
Halichoeres nigrescens (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) RFA LC 3.4 r1,r11
*Halichoeres melasmapomus Randall, 1981 RFA LC 3.5 r11
Halichoeres trimaculatus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834) RFA LC 3.5 r1,r8.r11
*Halichoeres zeylonicus (Bennett, 1833) RFA LC 3.5 r11
Genus Hemigymnus
Hemigymnus fasciatus (Bloch, 1792) RFA LC 3.5 r1,r6,r11
Hemigymnus melapterus (Bloch, 1791) RFA LC 3.6 r1,r6,r11
Genus Hologymnosus
Hologymnosus annulatus (Lacepède, 1801) RFA LC 4.2 r1,r11
Hologymnosus doliatus (Lacepède, 1801) RFA LC 3.8 r9,r10,r11
Genus Iniistius
Iniistius aneitensis (Günther, 1862) RFA LC 3.5 r1
Iniistius melanopus (Bleeker, 1857) RFA LC 3.5 r1
Iniistius pavo (Valenciennes, 1840) RFA LC 3.5 r1
Genus Labrichthys
Labrichthys unilineatus (Guichenot, 1847) RFA LC 3.3 r1,r6
Genus Labroides
Labroides bicolor Fowler & Bean, 1928 RFA LC 4.0 r6,r11
Labroides dimidiatus (Valenciennes, 1839) RFA LC 3.5 r1,r6,r11
Genus Labropsis
Labropsis manabei Schmidt, 1931 RFA LC 3.3 r1,r6
Genus Macropharyngodon
Macropharyngodon meleagris (Valenciennes, 1839) RFA LC 3.1 r1,r8,r11
Genus Novaculichthys
Novaculichthys taeniourus (Lacepède, 1801) RFA LC 3.3 r1
Genus Oxycheilinus
Oxycheilinus celebicus (Bleeker, 1853) RFA LC 3.8 r1,r11
Oxycheilinus digramma (Lacepède, 1801) RFA LC 3.7 r1,r11
Oxycheilinus mentalis (Rüppell, 1828) RFA LC 3.8 r1
Oxycheilinus orientalis (Günther, 1862) RFA LC 3.8 r1
Oxycheilinus unifasciatus (Streets, 1877) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.1 r6,r11
Oxycheilinus bimaculatus (Valenciennes, 1840) RFA LC 3.5 r9,r11
Genus Pseudocheilinus
Pseudocheilinus evanidus Jordan & Evermann, 1903 RFA LC 3.5 r11
Pseudocheilinus hexataenia (Bleeker, 1857) RFA LC 3.2 r1,r6
Genus Pseudocoris
Pseudocoris yamashiroi (Schmidt, 1931) RFA LC 3.4 r1
Genus Pteragogus
Pteragogus flagellifer (Valenciennes, 1839) RFA LC 3.5 r1
Genus Stethojulis
Stethojulis balteata (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) RFA LC 3.5 r1
Stethojulis bandanensis (Bleeker, 1851) RFA LC 3.2 r1,r11
Stethojulis interrupta (Bleeker, 1851) RFA LC 3.4 r1,r8
Stethojulis strigiventer (Bennett, 1833) RFA LC 3.1 r1,r11
Genus Thalassoma
Thalassoma cupido (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845) DEM LC 3.5 r6
Thalassoma hardwicke (Bennett, 1830) RFA LC 3.5 r1,r6,r8,r11
Thalassoma lunare (Linnaeus, 1758) RFA LC 3.5 r1,r6,r11
Thalassoma purpureum (Forsskål, 1775) RFA LC 3.8 r1,r6
Thalassoma quinquevittatum (Lay & Bennett, 1839) RFA LC 3.6 r1,r6,r11
Thalassoma trilobatum (Lacepède, 1801) RFA LC 3.8 r1,r6
Thalassoma lutescens (Lay & Bennett, 1839) RFA LC 3.7 r9,r10,r11
Thalassoma amblycephalum (Bleeker, 1856) RFA LC 3.1 r9,r10,r11
Family Scaridae
Genus Calotomus
Calotomus japonicus (Valenciennes, 1840) RFA LC 2.0 r1
Calotomus spinidens (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) RFA LC 2.0 r1
Genus Cetoscarus
Cetoscarus bicolor (Rüppell, 1829) RFA LC 2.0 r1,r11
Genus Chlorurus
Chlorurus microrhinos (Bleeker, 1854) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 2.6 r1
Chlorurus sordidus (Forsskål, 1775) RFA; OD Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 2.6 r1,r6,r7,r8,r11
Chlorurus gibbus (Rüppell, 1829) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 2.0 r1
Chlorurus bleekeri (de Beaufort, 1940) RFA LC 2.0 r10,r11
Chlorurus japanensis (Bloch, 1789) RFA LC 2.0 r6,r9,r10,r11
Genus Hipposcarus
Hipposcarus longiceps (Valenciennes, 1840) RFA LC 2.0 r1
Genus Leptoscarus
Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) RFA LC 2.0 r1
Genus Scarus
Scarus dimidiatus Bleeker, 1859 RFA LC 2.0 r1,r8,r11
Scarus ferrugineus Forsskål, 1775 RFA LC 2.0 r1,r7
Scarus festivus Valenciennes, 1840 RFA LC 2.0 r1,r11
Scarus forsteni (Bleeker, 1861) RFA LC 2.0 r1,r8,r11
Scarus frenatus Lacepède, 1802 RFA LC 2.0 r1,r11
Scarus ghobban Forsskål, 1775 RFA LC 2.0 r1
Scarus globiceps Valenciennes, 1840 RFA LC 2.0 r1,r11
Scarus niger Forsskål, 1775 RFA LC 2.0 r1,r11
Scarus oviceps Valenciennes, 1840 RFA LC 2.0 r1,r7,r11
Scarus prasiognathos Valenciennes, 1840 RFA LC 2.0 r1,r7
Scarus psittacus Forsskål, 1775 RFA LC 2.0 r1,r7,r11
Scarus rivulatus Valenciennes, 1840 RFA LC 2.0 r1,r11
Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker, 1847 RFA LC 2.0 r1
Scarus scaber Valenciennes, 1840 RFA LC 2.0 r1
Scarus tricolor Bleeker, 1847 RFA LC 2.0 r1,r7
Scarus schlegeli (Bleeker, 1861) RFA LC 2.0 r9.r10,r11
Family Pinguipedidae
Genus Parapercis
Parapercis clathrata Ogilby, 1910 RFA 3.6 r1,r11
Parapercis cylindrica (Bloch, 1792) RFA 3.0 r1,r8,r11
Parapercis pacifica Imamura & Yoshino, 2007 RFA 3.6 r1,r6,r8,r11
*Parapercis millepunctata (Günther, 1860) RFA 3.5 r11
*Parapercis xanthozona (Bleeker, 1849) RFA LC 3.6 r11
Parapercis hexophtalma (Cuvier, 1829) RFA 3.6 r11
Family Uranoscopidae
Genus Uranoscopidae
Uranoscopus japonicus Houttuyn, 1782 BAD Venomous LC 4.0 r1
Family Tripterygiidae
Genus Helcogramma
*Helcogramma chica Rosenblatt, 1960 RFA LC 3.0 r11
Family Blenniidae
Genus Aspidontus
Aspidontus tractus Fowler, 1903 RFA 2.9 r1
Aspidontus taeniatus Quoy & Gaimard, 1834 3.8 r8,r11
Genus Blenniella
Blenniella periophthalmus (Valenciennes, 1836) RFA LC 3.3 r1
Genus Cirripectes
Cirripectes castaneus (Valenciennes, 1836) RFA LC 2.0 r6,r11
Cirripectes variolosus (Valenciennes, 1836) RFA LC 2.0 r1
Genus Entomacrodus
Entomacrodus caudofasciatus (Regan, 1909) RFA LC 2.0 r1
Genus Istiblennius
Istiblennius dussumieri (Valenciennes, 1836) RFA LC 2.0 r1
Istiblennius edentulus (Forster & Schneider, 1801) RFA LC 2.0 r1
Istiblennius lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836) RFA LC 2.0 r1
Genus Meiacanthus
Meiacanthus atrodorsalis (Günther, 1877) RFA Venomous LC 3.5 r6
Genus Plagiotremus
Plagiotremus rhinorhynchos (Bleeker, 1852) RFA LC 4.5 r6,r11
Plagiotremus tapeinosoma (Bleeker, 1857) RFA Other LC 3.8 r6,r11
Genus Salarias
Salarias fasciatus (Bloch, 1786) RFA LC 2.0 r1
Genus praealticus
Praealticus margaritatus (Kendall & Radcliffe, 1912) PN LC 2.0 r1
Family Ptereleotridae
Genus Nemateleotris
Nemateleotris magnifica Fowler, 1938 RFA LC 3.1 r6,r11
Genus Ptereleotris
Ptereleotris evides (Jordan & Hubbs, 1925) RFA LC 3.4 r6,r11
Family Gobiidae
Genus Acentrogobius
Acentrogobius caninus (Valenciennes, 1837) DEM; AMP Poisonous to eat LC 3.5 r1
Genus Amblygobius
Amblygobius albimaculatus (Rüppell, 1830) RFA 2.6 r1
*Amblygobius nocturnus (Herre, 1945) RFA 2.7 r11
Amblygobius phalaena (Valenciennes, 1837) RFA 3.6 r9,r11
Genus Asterropteryx
Asterropteryx semipunctata Rüppell, 1830 RFA 2.4 r1
Genus Bathygobius
Bathygobius fuscus (Rüppell, 1830) RFA LC 3.4 r1
Genus Callogobius
Callogobius sclateri (Steindachner, 1879) RFA 3.3 r1
Genus Ctenogobiops
Ctenogobiops feroculus Lubbock & Polunin, 1977 RFA LC 3.4 r8
Genus Eviota
Eviota abax (Jordan & Snyder, 1901) RFA 3.2 r1
Eviota prasites Jordan & Seale, 1906 RFA LC 3.1 r9,r11
Genus Gobiodon
Gobiodon erythrospilus Bleeker, 1875 RFA 3.4 r1
Gobiodon multilineatus Wu, 1979 RFA 3.2 r1
Gobiodon oculolineatus Wu, 1979 RFA 3.2 r1
Gobiodon okinawae Sawada, Arai & Abe, 1972 RFA 3.2 r1
Gobiodon quinquestrigatus (Valenciennes, 1837) RFA 3.4 r1
Genus Istigobius
Istigobius ornatus (Rüppell, 1830) RFA LC 3.5 r1
Genus Paragobiodon
Paragobiodon echinocephalus (Rüppell, 1830) RFA LC 3.2 r1
Paragobiodon melanosoma (Bleeker, 1853) RFA LC 3.1 r1
Paragobiodon xanthosoma (Bleeker, 1853) RFA LC 3.2 r1
Genus Priolepis
Priolepis semidoliata (Valenciennes, 1837) RFA LC 3.1 r1
Genus Valenciennea
Valenciennea longipinnis (Lay & Bennett, 1839) RFA 3.0 r1
Valenciennea strigata (Broussonet, 1782) RFA 4.0 r1,r6,r11
Family Ephippidae
Genus Platax
Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775) RFA LC 3.3 r2
Platax teira (Forsskål, 1775) RFA; AMP LC 4.0 r2
Family Siganidae
Genus Siganus
Siganus argenteus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) RFA Venomous LC 2.0 r1
Siganus canaliculatus (Park, 1797) RFA; OD Venomous LC 2.8 r1
Siganus corallinus (Valenciennes, 1835) RFA Venomous LC 2.0 r1
Siganus fuscescens (Houttuyn, 1782) RFA Venomous LC 2.0 r1
Siganus guttatus (Bloch, 1787) RFA Venomous LC 2.7 r1,r7
Siganus puellus (Schlegel, 1852) RFA Venomous LC 3.0 r1,r11
Siganus punctatus (Schneider & Forster, 1801) RFA Venomous LC 2.0 r1,r11
Siganus spinus (Linnaeus, 1758) RFA Venomous LC 2.0 r1
Siganus virgatus (Valenciennes, 1835) RFA Venomous LC 2.7 r2
Siganus vulpinus (Schlegel & Müller, 1845) RFA Venomous LC 2.7 r1,r6
Family Acanthuridae
Genus Ctenochaetus
Ctenochaetus striatus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 2.0 r1,r6,r8,r11
Ctenochaetus cyanocheilus Randall & Clements, 2001 RFA LC 2.0 r9,r11
Genuus Naso
Naso annulatus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 2.1 r3
Naso brachycentron (Valenciennes, 1835) RFA LC 2.7 r2
Naso brevirostris (Cuvier, 1829) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 2.2 r1,r11
Naso hexacanthus (Bleeker, 1855) RFA LC 3.1 r1,r7,r11
Naso lituratus (Forster, 1801) RFA Venomous LC 2.3 r1,r6
Naso lopezi Herre, 1927 RFA LC 2.9 r2
Naso thynnoides (Cuvier, 1829) RFA LC 3.0 r1,r6
Naso unicornis (Forsskål, 1775) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 2.2 r1
Naso vlamingii (Valenciennes, 1835) RFA LC 2.2 r1
Genus Prionurus
Prionurus scalprum Valenciennes, 1835 RFA Venomous 2.0 r1,r7
Genus Zebrasoma
Zebrasoma flavescens (Bennett, 1828) RFA LC 2.0 r1,r8
Zebrasoma scopas (Cuvier, 1829) RFA LC 2.0 r6,r8,r11
Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch, 1795) RFA LC 2.0 r1,r6,r8,r11
Family Zanclidae
Genus Zanclus
Zanclus cornutus (Linnaeus, 1758) RFA LC 2.5 r1,r6,r8,r11
Family Acanthuridae
Genus Acanthurus
Acanthurus dussumieri Valenciennes, 1835 RFA LC 2.0 r1
Acanthurus gahhm (Forsskål, 1775) RFA LC 2.0 r4
Acanthurus japonicus (Schmidt, 1931) RFA LC 2.0 r6,r11
Acanthurus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) RFA Venomous LC 2.0 r1
Acanthurus mata (Cuvier, 1829) RFA Venomous LC 2.5 r1
Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus, 1758) RFA LC 2.0 r2
Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål, 1775) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 2.0 r1,r7,r11
Acanthurus olivaceus Bloch & Schneider, 1801 RFA LC 2.3 r1,r6,r11
Acanthurus thompsoni (Fowler, 1923) RFA LC 3.6 r1
Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus, 1758) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 2.8 r1,r6,r11
Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes, 1835 RFA Venomous LC 2.9 r2
Family Sphyraenidae
Genus Sphyraena
Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards, 1771) RFA Traumatogenic LC 4.5 r1,r7
Sphyraena forsteri Cuvier, 1829 RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning 4.4 r1,r7
Sphyraena helleri Jenkins, 1901 RFA 4.5 r1
Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier, 1829 RFA 4.5 r1
Family Gempylidae
Genus Gempylus
Gempylus serpens Cuvier, 1829 PEL; OD LC 4.4 r1
Genus Lepidocybium
Lepidocybium flavobrunneum (Smith, 1843) BEP; OD LC 4.3 r1
Genus Promethichthys
Promethichthys prometheus (Cuvier, 1832) BEP; OD Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.2 r1
Genus Rexea
Rexea prometheoides (Bleeker, 1856) BEP 4.2 r3
Genus Ruvettus
Ruvettus pretiosus Cocco, 1833 BEP; OD Poisonous to eat LC 4.2 r1,r7
Genus Thyrsitoides
Thyrsitoides marleyi Fowler, 1929 BEP 4.2 r1,r7
Family Scombridae
Genus Acanthocybium
Acanthocybium solandri (Cuvier, 1832) PEL; OD Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.3 r1
Genus Auxis
Auxis thazard (Lacepède, 1800) PN; OD LC 4.4 r1
Genus Euthynnus
Euthynnus affinis (Cantor, 1849) PN; OD Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.5 r1
Genus Grammatorcynus
Grammatorcynus bicarinatus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) RFA; OD LC 4.5 r1
Genus Gymnosarda
Gymnosarda unicolor (Rüppell, 1836) RFA; OD Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.5 r1
Genus Katsuwonus
Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus, 1758) PEL; OD Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 4.4 r1
Genus Rastrelliger
Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier, 1816) PN; OD 3.2 r1
Genus Thunnus
Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788) PEL; OD NT 4.4 r1
Thunnus obesus (Lowe, 1839) PEL; OD VU 4.5 r1
Family Xiphiidae
Genus Xiphias
Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 PEL; OD EN 4.5 r1
Family Istiophoridae
Genus Histiophofus
Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw, 1792) PEL; OD LC 4.5 r1
Genus Istiompax
Istiompax indica (Cuvier, 1832) PEL; OD 4.5 r1
Family Psettodidae
Genus Psettodes
Psettodes erumei (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) DEM 4.4 r1
Family Bothidae
Genus Bothus
Bothus mancus (Broussonet, 1782) RFA LC 4.4 r1
Bothus pantherinus (Rüppell, 1830) RFA LC 3.5 r1
Family Soleidae
Genus Aseraggodes
Aseraggodes dubius Weber, 1913 DEM 3.5 r5
Order Tetraodontiformes
Family Balistidae
Genus Abalistes
Abalistes stellatus (Anonymous, 1798) RFA 3.4 r1,r7
Genus Balistapus
Balistapus undulatus (Park, 1797) 3.4 r1
Genus Balistes
Balistes rotundatus Marion de Procé, 1822 RFA Traumatogenic 3.5 r1
Genus Balistoides
Balistoides conspicillum (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning 3.3 r1
Balistoides viridescens (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning 3.3 r2
Genus Melichthys
Melichthys niger (Bloch, 1786) RFA LC 2.4 r2
Melichthys vidua (Richardson, 1845) RFA 3.4 r1,r11
Genus Odonus
Odonus niger (Rüppell, 1836) RFA 3.2 r1
Genus Pseudobalistes
Pseudobalistes flavimarginatus (Rüppell, 1829) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning 2.8 r1
Pseudobalistes fuscus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) RFA 4.0 r1
Genus Rhinecanthus
Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Linnaeus, 1758) RFA 3.2 r1,r11
Rhinecanthus rectangulus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) RFA 3.5 r1,r11
Genus Sufflamen
Sufflamen chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) RFA 3.5 r1,r11
Sufflamen fraenatum (Latreille, 1804) RFA; OD LC 3.7 r3,r6
Genus Xanthichthys
Xanthichthys lineopunctatus (Hollard, 1854) RFA 3.5 r1
Xanthichthys auromarginatus (Bennett, 1832) RFA 3.0 r9,r11
Family Monacanthidae
Genus Aluterus
Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck, 1765) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 2.8 r1
Genus Cantherhines
Cantherhines dumerilii (Hollard, 1854) RFA LC 3.1 r1,r6,r11
Cantherhines pardalis (Rüppell, 1837) RFA LC 3.5 r1,r11
Genus Chaetodermis
Chaetodermis penicilligerus (Cuvier, 1816) RFA LC 2.8 r1
Genus Oxymonacanthus
Oxymonacanthus longirostris (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) RFA VU 3.3 r1,r6
Genus Paraluteres
Paraluteres prionurus (Bleeker, 1851) RFA LC 2.7 r6
Genus Pervagor
Pervagor janthinosoma (Bleeker, 1854) RFA LC 2.9 r1
Pervagor melanocephalus (Bleeker, 1853) RFA LC 2.9 r1,r6
Family Ostraciidae
Genus Lactoria
Lactoria cornuta (Linnaeus, 1758) RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning 3.5 r1
Genus Ostracion
Ostracion cubicus Linnaeus, 1758 RFA 3.4 r1,r6
Ostracion meleagris Shaw, 1796 RFA Venomous 2.7 r2
Ostracion rhinorhynchos Bleeker, 1851 RFA Venomous 3.5 r2
Family Tetraodontidae
Genus Arothron
Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus, 1758) RFA Poisonous to eat LC 3.2 r1
Arothron meleagris (Anonymous, 1798) RFA Poisonous to eat LC 3.6 r1
Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) RFA Poisonous to eat LC 3.4 r1,r6,r11
Arothron stellatus (Anonymous, 1798) RFA Poisonous to eat LC 3.7 r2
Genus Canthigaster
Canthigaster jactator (Jenkins, 1901) RFA LC 2.8 r1
Canthigaster rivulata (Temminck & Schlegel, 1850) RFA Venomous LC 3.1 r1
Canthigaster valentini (Bleeker, 1853) RFA Poisonous to eat LC 2.8 r6,r11
Canthigaster coronata (Vaillant & Sauvage, 1875) Rfa Other LC 3.5 r10,r11
Genus Lagocephalus
Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) BEP; OD Other LC 3.7 r1
Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789) RFA Poisonous to eat LC 3.7 r1
Genus Sphoeroides
Sphoeroides pachygaster (Müller & Troschel, 1848) BEP VU 4.2 r3
Family Diodontidae
Genus Chilomycterus
Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus, 1758) RFA Venomous LC 3.5 r2
Genus Diodon
Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus, 1758 RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning LC 3.9 r1
Diodon hystrix Linnaeus, 1758 RFA Poisonous to eat LC 3.7 r1
Diodon liturosus Shaw, 1804 RFA Reports of ciguatera poisoning 3.5 r2

Other abbreviations and references include: Institute, South China Sea Fisheries 1979 [r1], Li et al. 2007 [r2], Sun et al. 2004 [r3], Zeng 2004 [r4], Wang 1981 [r5], Gao et al. 2014 [r6], Wang et al. 2011 [r7], Yang et al. 2018 [r8], Huang 2018 [r9], Fu 2014 [r10] and the current study [r11].

Taxon treatment

Dischistodus pseudochrysopoecilus Allen & Robertson, 1974

Nomenclature

Common name: Monarch damsel

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Holotype:
  1. island:
    Xisha Island
    ; country:
    China
    ; stateProvince:
    Hainan

Taxon discussion

Maximum size of 18 cm Fig. 2. Dark brown (nearly black) with blue streak on each scale, blue lines and spots on head and white spot on middle of upper back. Coral thickets interspersed with open sand or dead coral in 1-5 m (Allen and Erdmann 2012).

Figure 2.  

Dischistodus pseudochrysopoecilus — a newly-recorded species in China

What we captured underwater in Xisha Islands is the state of the juvenile fish, which is very different from the adult fish. We have checked the main domestic fish checklists (Liu 2008, Chen and Zhang 2015, Shen and Wu 2011) and relevant literature, but there is no record of this species. Therefore, we believe it is a newly-recorded species in China.

Discussion

According to previous research, the order Perciforms is the most dominant order in the Xisha Islands (Li et al. 2007) and the major families in the Xisha Islands are Labridae and Pomacentridae (Gao et al. 2014) which concur with our study. Combined with studies over the years, in the past 20 years, Hyperoglyphe perciformis has been the dominant species in both underwater visual censuses and gillnet surveys.

The CFDI value for the Xisha Archipelago was 229, such that we could estimate put it into the formula proposed by Allen 1988, we estimated that Xisha Islands had 756 coral reef fishes. However, only 690 species were found, which is relatively comprehensive, but there is still a need for more surveys in different seasons within different sites in the future.

In term of the IUCN Red List Anonymous (2020a), one species is Critically Endangered (Glyphis gangeticus); six species are Endangered (Stegostoma fasciatum, Aetomylaeus maculatus, Aetomylaeus vespertilio, Epinephelus akaara, Cheilinus undulatus and Xiphias gladius), 16 species are Vulnerable (Nebrius ferrugineus, Alopias vulpinus, Carcharhinus albimarginatus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Carcharhinus longimanus, Hemigaleus microstoma, Sphyrna lewini, Rhina ancylostoma, Rhynchobatus djiddensis, Taeniurops meyeni, Urogymnus asperrimus, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Plectropomus areolatus, Thunnus obesus, Oxymonacanthus longirostris and Sphoeroides pachygaster) and 13 species are Near Threatened in the Xisha Archipelago (Aetobatus narinari, Isurus oxyrinchus, Atelomycterus marmoratus, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides, Carcharhinus limbatus, Galeocerdo cuvier, Prionace glauca, Scoliodon laticaudus, Triaenodon obesus, Hexanchus griseus, Chaetodon trifascialis, Choerodon schoenleinii and Thunnus albacares). Thus, policy-makers and scientists should pay more attention to these species, by controlling coral reef degradation and overfishing and conducting coral reef restoration to strengthen the conservation of the fishes and the whole reef ecosystem. (Du et al. 2019). According to the data, 5.25% of the fish species are in the IUCN Red List, which is close to the number of the Redang Islands in Malaysia, at 5.1%.

Reef associated fish (FRA) are the dominant type in the Xisha Islands, which have 500 species. They constitute 83% of the total fish. Other types of fishes make up less than 5% of the total fish in the Xisha Islands.

According to Pauly et al. (2002), a trophic level of more than 3.5 is considered a high-grade carnivorous fish and nearly half (306 species) of all fishes in the Xisha Islands belong to this type.

Intriguingly, we found some species (for example: Scolopsis aurata) that were recorded in the Xisha Islands (Zeng 2004), but according to the Computer-Generated Native Distribution Map from Fishbase, this species currently is distributed in the Indian Ocean: Maldives, Sri Lanka and southern Indonesia. This may support the hypothesis of species shifting northwards, but more research is needed.

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2018YFC1406503), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41676096), the China-ASEAN Maritime Cooperation Fund project “Monitoring and conservation of the coastal ecosystem in the South China Sea” and Top 100 Universities in the World Fund (TU001-2018).

Author contributions

Design research: ST Qiu, B Chen, JG Du, and KH Loh

Acquisition of funding: JG Du, B Chen

Analysis of data: ST Qiu and JG Du

Writing (original manuscript): ST Qiu and JG Du

Writing (review and editing): J Du, B Chen, KH Loh, XM liu, W Yang

References