Biodiversity Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
Data Paper (Biosciences)
A dataset on type specimens of hemipteran insects in China
expand article infoJunjie Li, Huanhuan Liu, Yangxue Wu, Longqin Ye, Xiaolei Huang
‡ State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China
Open Access



Type specimens are valuable resources for investigating and exploring biodiversity on Earth, which has high academic and conservation value. Hemipteran insects are one of the most important and diverse groups in Insecta and their type specimens have important reference value for many research fields. So far, the data on the type specimens of the Hemiptera in China have not been fully collated.

New information

Through extensive literature review, we have constructed a dataset of type specimens for the new species of hemipteran insects in China published from 1950 to 2017, which includes the data such as collection date, specimen gender, preservation institution and geographical distribution. A total of 6,583 type specimen records were collected, covering 3,783 new species belonging to 1,299 genera and 88 families. This dataset can support the international community in conducting research on taxonomy, biodiversity, evolution and pest management.


type specimen, Hemiptera, biodiversity, distribution, China


Type specimens include name bearing specimens that have been designated by researchers when describing and publishing new species, such as holotypes and syntypes, which can be used as standard references for subsequent taxonomic investigation (Robinson 1975, Mutanen et al. 2015). The number of type specimens reflects not only the research status of taxonomy, but also the historical resource accumulation of a country or region (Yang 2013). The type specimens, including holotype, allotype, paratype and syntypes, are the most authentic and direct manifestations and physical records of various organisms in nature (He et al. 2019). In addition to being the basis and carrier for the establishment of new taxonomic categories (Haber 2012), they are also important references for carrying out research in biodiversity science, ecology and evolutionary biology and protecting biological resources (Cui et al. 2009, Bebber et al. 2012, Peterson 2014).

Hemiptera (Arthropoda: Insecta) is not only the largest hemimetabolous order in the Insecta (Li et al. 2017), but also one of the most important and diverse insect groups (Schuh and Slater 1995). They are widely distributed around the world, with about 103,590 species having been recorded (Stork 2018). Most of them are phytophagous, therefore, they include important pests in agriculture and forestry, such as aphids, scale insects, leafhoppers as well as planthoppers (Forero 2008, Guo and Yuan 2016, Li et al. 2019). The type specimens of hemipteran insects are important references for the study of taxonomy, systematics, biogeography and pest control. China has a vast territory and spans two zoogeographic regions, the Palaearctic Region and the Oriental Region (Chen et al. 2008, Lei et al. 2015). Due to its heterogeneous environment and diverse habitat types, China is one of the most biologically diverse countries in the world (Myers et al. 2000, Tang et al. 2006, Lu et al. 2018). Up to now, however, the data of type specimens of Chinese hemipteran insects have not been well organised. There is no comprehensive digital resource of hemipteran type specimens available for scientists. In view of the importance of insect type specimens in entomology and biodiversity research, we have constructed a type specimen dataset of the Chinese hemipteran insects in order to provide basic references for future studies.

General description


The aim of this work is to compile the dataset of type specimens of the Hemiptera in China.

Additional information: 

The collection date, specimen gender, preservation institution, geographical distribution and other related information of the holotypes, allotypes and paratypes for species of Hemiptera have been recorded in detail from various data sources, including scientific journals, serial publications, local chronicles, monographs and books. We have compiled almost all type specimen information for hemipteran insects published from 1950 to 2017 in China. The final dataset contains 6,583 records of 3,783 Hemiptera belonging to 1,299 genera and 88 families (Table 1) and covering a large number of areas (Fig. 1). A total of 418 authors participated in the description of the type specimens of Hemiptera and all type specimens are stored in 84 preservation institutions from 14 countries including China, the United Kingdom, Russia, the United States, Australia, Poland, France, Belgium, Japan, Austria, Germany, Netherlands, Singapore and India, among which all holotypes are stored in 66 preservation institutions in 10 countries. The holotype of most species (3,596 species, 99.39%) are preserved in China, with only 22 species (0.61%) stored in nine other countries, as shown in the Table 2.

Table 1.

The diversity of Hemipteran insects included in this dataset.

Families No. of species Percentage of all species (%) No. of genera Percentage of all genera (%)
Cicadellidae 1120 29.61 256 19.71
Miridae 244 6.45 73 5.62
Aphididae 233 6.16 112 8.62
Psyllidae 221 5.84 33 2.54
Membracidae 179 4.73 41 3.16
Delphacidae 169 4.47 88 6.77
Reduviidae 154 4.07 66 5.08
Coreidae 128 3.38 56 4.31
Diaspididae 109 2.88 49 3.77
Pentatomidae 109 2.88 53 4.08
Lygaeidae 88 2.33 40 3.08
Triozidae 86 2.27 20 1.54
Cicadidae 75 1.98 34 2.62
Urostylidae 56 1.48 5 0.38
Aradidae 55 1.45 24 1.85
Pseudococcidae 53 1.4 32 2.46
Pemphigidae 46 1.22 20 1.54
Nabidae 42 1.11 11 0.85
Anthocoridae 37 0.98 6 0.46
Plataspidae 36 0.95 9 0.69
Lachnidae 35 0.93 8 0.62
Tingidae 34 0.9 21 1.62
Acanthosomatidae 29 0.77 7 0.54
Callaphididae 28 0.74 15 1.15
Aphrophoridae 22 0.58 5 0.38
Issidae 21 0.56 10 0.77
Veliidae 21 0.56 5 0.38
Drepanosiphidae 18 0.48 11 0.85
Achilidae 18 0.48 5 0.38
Aphalaridae 17 0.45 11 0.85
Chaitophoridae 17 0.45 3 0.23
Cercopidae 15 0.4 10 0.77
Derbidae 15 0.4 8 0.62
Cydnidae 14 0.37 8 0.62
Ricaniidae 14 0.37 7 0.54
Berytidae 13 0.34 5 0.38
Margarodidae 13 0.34 4 0.31
Hormaphididae 12 0.32 10 0.77
Tropiduchidae 12 0.32 7 0.54
Asterolecaniidae 10 0.26 5 0.38
Greenideidae 10 0.26 4 0.31
Flatidae 9 0.24 7 0.54
Coccidae 9 0.24 7 0.54
Kinnaridae 7 0.19 2 0.15
Dictyopharidae 7 0.19 5 0.38
Adelgidae 6 0.16 4 0.31
Cixiidae 6 0.16 5 0.38
Eurybrachidae 6 0.16 1 0.08
Machaerotidae 6 0.16 2 0.15
Piesmatidae 6 0.16 1 0.08
Aleyrodidae 5 0.13 5 0.38
Fulgoridae 5 0.13 3 0.23
Pyrrhocoridae 5 0.13 5 0.38
Kermesidae 5 0.13 2 0.15
Aphelocheiridae 4 0.11 1 0.08
Calophyidae 4 0.11 2 0.15
Ceratocombidae 4 0.11 1 0.08
Schizopteridae 4 0.11 4 0.31
Kerriidae 4 0.11 4 0.31
Velocipedidae 4 0.11 1 0.08
Eriococcidae 3 0.08 3 0.23
Gerridae 3 0.08 2 0.15
Lecaniodiaspididae 3 0.08 3 0.23
Meenoplidae 3 0.08 2 0.15
Thelaxidae 3 0.08 1 0.08
Rhyparochromidae 3 0.08 1 0.08
Nogodinidae 3 0.08 1 0.08
Lophopidae 2 0.05 2 0.15
Caliscelidae 2 0.05 1 0.08
Saldidae 2 0.05 2 0.15
Stenocephalidae 2 0.05 2 0.15
Scutelleridae 2 0.05 2 0.15
Eubranchidae 2 0.05 2 0.15
Rhophalidae 2 0.05 2 0.15
Notonectidae 1 0.03 1 0.08
Cerococcidae 1 0.03 1 0.08
Naucoridae 1 0.03 1 0.08
Anoeciidae 1 0.03 1 0.08
Leptopodidae 1 0.03 1 0.08
Isometopidae 1 0.03 1 0.08
Liviidae 1 0.03 1 0.08
Lyctocoridae 1 0.03 1 0.08
Mindaridae 1 0.03 1 0.08
Kuwaniidae 1 0.03 1 0.08
Aclerdidae 1 0.03 1 0.08
Tessaratomidae 1 0.03 1 0.08
Phloeomyzidae 1 0.03 1 0.08
Colobathristidae 1 0.03 1 0.08
Total 3783 100 1299 100
Table 2.

The number of holotypes of Hemipteran species preserved by different preservation institutions.

Preservation institution of Holotype Country No. of species Percentage (%)
IZAS China 911 25.18
NWAFU China 590 16.31
NKU China 534 14.76
CAU China 409 11.3
GU China 387 10.7
AAU China 210 5.8
TNHM China 120 3.32
NJAU China 101 2.79
IPPE China 71 1.96
IMNU China 53 1.46
SAU China 38 1.05
SYSU China 37 1.02
KZAS China 13 0.36
BFUC China 13 0.36
NWIPB China 12 0.33
ZJAFU China 10 0.28
SDAU China 8 0.22
JXAU China 8 0.22
BMNH UK 7 0.19
IAPQ China 6 0.17
NMNS China 5 0.14
ZIN Russia 4 0.11
MSTC China 4 0.11
ICSCU China 4 0.11
SAAS China 4 0.11
BJMNH China 4 0.11
FAFU China 3 0.08
SNU China 3 0.08
AHUT China 3 0.08
INRSC China 3 0.08
ISCK China 3 0.08
SWU China 2 0.06
RIRI China 2 0.06
HBAU China 2 0.06
ZISP Russia 2 0.06
ANIC Australia 2 0.06
SU China 1 0.03
SCAU China 1 0.03
AHFP China 1 0.03
HBAF China 1 0.03
FDYN China 1 0.03
FJAS China 1 0.03
GZAS China 1 0.03
NMCU UK 1 0.03
HSFB China 1 0.03
HBMN China 1 0.03
HEBNU China 1 0.03
GZAF China 1 0.03
MNHN France 1 0.03
NEFU China 1 0.03
SCU China 1 0.03
YZU China 1 0.03
PCPC China 1 0.03
NHMW Austria 1 0.03
NCHU China 1 0.03
TARI China 1 0.03
CATAS China 1 0.03
YLNU China 1 0.03
PPLS China 1 0.03
IMAU China 1 0.03
PSQS China 1 0.03
NCSU USA 1 0.03
MIZ Poland 1 0.03
IAEAS China 1 0.03
IRSNB Belgium 1 0.03
HUS Japan 1 0.03
Total 3618 100
Figure 1.  

Geographical locations of the type specimens of Chinese hemipteran insects.

This article provides a detailed description of the data source, structure and processing of the type specimen dataset of the Chinese hemipteran insects and presents the potential reuse value of this dataset. We are committed to making this dataset a dynamic one by following the principles of open science and constantly updating available new records. Through this work, we hope to promote further development of insect data collation and provide assistance to the research of biodiversity and entomology.

Sampling methods

Sampling description: 

Data Sources

The dataset mainly collected the type specimens of Chinese Hemiptera published by domestic and foreign scientists from 1950 to 2017. Our data sources consisted of two parts, one of which is mainly from the book series Catalogue of Insect Type Specimens Deposited in China (Cui et al. 2007, Cui et al. 2009, Bai et al. 2014). This series of books mainly records the data of insect type specimens produced in China published from 1950 to 2010 and the references mostly come from journals, chorographies, serial publications and monographs. Specifically, professional journals and chorographies mainly include the Acta Entomologica Sinica, Entomotaxonomia, Zoological Systematics, Wuyi Science Journal, Zoological Research, Acta Zoologica Sinica, Scientia Silvae Sinicae, Journal of Beijing Forestry University, Entomological Journal of East China, Journal of South China Agricultural University, Sichuan Journal of Zoology, Journal of Ningxia Agricultural College, Journal of Northwest Forestry University, Acta Agriculturae Boreali-occidentalis Sinica, Journal of Northwest A & F University, Journal of Southwest Forestry College and the Journal of Southwest Agricultural University. Serial publications mainly include the Fauna Sinica, Collected Papers of Entomological Research, the Insect Fauna in Henan Province and the Insects of Fujian Province. Monographs mainly include the Insects of the Hengduan Mountains and the Insects of the Three Gorge Reservoir Area of Yangtze River.

In addition, we also searched relevant literature published from 2000 to 2017 based on the Zoological Records in order to include recent species records and make the dataset more comprehensive. The search entry used was (new speci* or new tax*) and (Hemiptera or Homoptera) and (China). We retrieved 371 literature records, with information including the authors, title, abstract, publication date and journal information of each record. Based on these records, we obtained complete published article for subsequent specimen data collection. There were eight records about extinct species and one without a new species description, which was excluded from data collection.

Data collection and processing

We searched and collected the type specimen information of each new Hemiptera, including the species/subspecies name and its taxonomic status, the year of publication, as well as the gender, distribution, preservation institution and collection date of the holotype, allotype and paratype, respectively. In addition, each row of data was marked with its literature source and literature authors. In the original literature, several items, such as the species name, literature authors, preservation institution and collection date, were expressed in various ways. For example, some species names were with named person, while others were not. The literature authors might include both Chinese and foreign colleagues, and their names were written in different formats. Some names of preservation institutions were abbreviated, while others were with full names. Therefore, for the species names, we standardised them into the form of genus name plus species name. Literature authors were standardised as the last names followed by the initials of given names. The collection date was recorded as year, month and day. We used abbreviations for all preservation institutions for the sake of standardisation and their corresponding full names were shown in Table 3. Most literature only recorded the names of collection localities of the type specimens. In order to make the dataset more convenient for future users, we georeferenced the longitude and latitude of each distribution site using Google Maps. The coordinate precision is approximately 1,000 m. We recorded the few distribution records that provided coordinates. We translated the names of distribution sites from Chinese into English. For the literature sources, due to many species being published in Chinese, we compiled a separate ‘Literature’ column uniformly presented in English, but retained the original Chinese literature information in a ‘Original literature’ column.

Table 3.

Abbreviations and full names of the preservation institutions of type specimens for Hemipteran insects in China.



The full name of the preservation institution



Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui, China



Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Ningxia, China



Anhui Forest Pest Control Station, Hefei, Anhui, China



Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, Anhui, China



Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO, Canberra, Australia



Insect Collection, the Department of Forestry Protection, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China



Beijing Museum of Nature History, Beijing, China



Bhopal Museum, Hawaii, USA



Natural History Museum, London, UK



Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA



Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences Environment and Plant Protection Institute, Haikou, Hainan, China



Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China



California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, CA, USA



Collection Ernst Heiss, Tiroler Landesmuseum, Innsbruck, Austria



Collection of Li He, Chengdu, China



College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China



Hunan Academy of Forestry, Changsha, Hunan, China



The Forestry Department of Yunnan Province, Kunming, Yunnan, China



Institute of Entomology, Fujian Agriculture of Science, Fuzhou, Fujian, China



Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou, China



Biological Research Laboratory, Guangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanning, Guangxi, China



Guizhou Academy of Forestry, Guiyang, Guizhou, China



Guizhou Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, Guizhou, China



Shijiazhuang Orchard Research Institute, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China



Agricultural University of Huabei, Baoding, Hebei, China



Museum of Natural History, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China



Hebei University, Baoding, China



Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China



Huangshan City Forestry Bureau of Anhui Province, Huangshan, Anhui, China



Laboratory of Systematic Entomology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan



Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning, China



Institute of Animal and Plant Quarantine, Yunnan, China



Insect Collection, Gold Mantis School of Architecture and Urban Environment, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China



Inner Mongolia College of Forestry, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China



Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China



Institute for Natural Resources in Sichuan, Chengdu, Sichuan, China



Shanghai Institute of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China



The Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles, Belgium



Laboratory of Insect Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Atsugi, Japan



The Institute of South China Karst, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang, Guizhou, China



Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China



Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China



Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China



Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS, Warsaw, Poland



The Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, France



Museum fuÈr Naturkunde der Humboldt-UniversitaÈt, Berlin, Germany



Anhui Maanshan Science and Technology Commission, Maanshan, Anhui, China



National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, China



North Carolina State University Insect Collection, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA



Nieser and Chen Collection, Tiel, The Netherlands



Institute of Entomology, College of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China



Naturehistorisches Museum in Wien, Wien, Austria



Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China



Institute of Entomology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, China



National Museum of Cardiff, UK



National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung, Taiwan, China



Entomological Museum of Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China



Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, Qinghai, China



Private Collection of Pingping Chen, Beijing, China



Plant Protection Laboratory of Shenyang Garden Science Institute, Shenyang, Liaoning, China



The Plant Protection Station of Qiannan State, Guizhou, China



Research Institute of Resource Insects, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Kunming, Yunnan, China



Zoological Reference Collection, Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, Singapore



College of Plant protection, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan, China



Insect Collection of Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China



South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China



Animal Herbarium, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China



The Research Center of Scale Insects, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an, Shandong, China



Shanghai Botanical Garden, Shanghai, China



Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, Shanxi , China



Department of horticultural science and technology of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China



Southwest University, Chongqing, China



Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China



Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Taichung, Taiwan, China



Tianjin Natural History Museum, Tianjin, China



National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C., USA



Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China



Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone RAS, Yakutsk, Russia



College of Life Sciences, Yulin Normal University, Yulin, Guangxi ,China



Insect Collection of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China



Russian Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute, St.Petersburg, Russia



The Zoological Institute RAS, St. Petersburg, Russia



The Research Center of Scale Insects, Zhejiang A&F University, Lin’an, Zhejiang, China



Zoological Survey of India

Quality control: 

After the completion of the original data collection, we checked all data records individually and standardised the format. In order to investigate whether the taxonomic information of each species/subspecies has changed, we checked the species/subspecies name and taxonomic status of each species/subspecies through the Catalogue of Life ( and some other taxonomic websites for specific groups of Hemiptera, such as the Aphid Species File (, the Systematic Database of the Scale Insects of the World (, the Coreoidea Species File ( and the Lygaeoidea Species File ( If the species/subspecies name and its taxonomic status changed, we recorded them in corresponding fields of the dataset and the results showed that 11.9% of the species/subspecies names have changed since their original description. These changes are important records representing the taxonomic status of these species in different historical periods. In addition, we also checked and validated the geographical locations of the type specimens and their corresponding latitudes and longitudes in detail, based on original literature.

Geographic coverage




3°51′N-53°33′N; 73°33′E-135°05′E.

Taxonomic coverage


Type specimens information for a total of 3,783 species of Hemiptera belonging to 1,299 genera and 88 families was collected.

Temporal coverage


Time range: 1950-2017

Usage licence

Usage licence: 
Creative Commons Public Domain Waiver (CC-Zero)

Data resources

Data package title: 
A dataset on type specimens of Hemipteran insects in China.
Number of data sets: 
Data set name: 
A dataset on type specimens of Hemipteran insects in China.

The final dataset is presented in Suppl. material 1, with the title of A dataset on type specimens of Hemipteran insects in China. At the same time, the dataset is also deposited in the DataOpen repository: The corresponding website is Each row of the dataset represents the type specimen information of a species/subspecies, and if a species/subspecies contains multiple paratypes, it corresponds to multiple rows. The dataset contains 30 fields, as shown below:

Column label Column description
ID The unique number for each record.
Family Family name of species/subspecies.
Family change If the taxonomic status of a species/subspecies has changed in history, this indicates its current family name.
Genus Genus name of species/subspecies.
Genus change If the taxonomic status of a species/subspecies has changed in history, this indicates its current genus name.
Species/Subspecies name The name of species/subspecies in a uniform format.
Species/Subspecies name change If the name of a species/subspecies has changed in history, this indicates its current name.
Species/Subspecies names in the original literature Species/Subspecies names recorded with various formats in original literature.
Published year The year in which the species/subspecies was published.
Gender of holotype The gender of the holotype used for species/subspecies description. This data item follows the original literature.
Distribution of holotype The geographical location of the holotype.
Latitude of holotype The latitude of the geographical location of the holotype.
Longitude of holotype The Longitude of the geographical location of the holotype.
Collection time of holotype Collection time of the holotype in a uniform format.
Preservation institution of holotype The abbreviation for the preservation institution of the holotype.
Gender of allotype The gender of the allotype used for species/subspecies description. This data item follows the original literature.
Distribution of allotype The geographical location of the allotype.
Latitude of allotype The latitude of the geographical location of the allotype.
Longitude of allotype The longitude of the geographical location of the allotype.
Collection time of allotype Collection time of the allotype in a uniform format.
Preservation institution of allotype The abbreviation for the preservation institution of the allotype.
Gender of paratype The gender of the paratype used for species/subspecies description. This data item follow the original literature.
Distribution of paratype The geographical location of the paratype.
Latitude of paratype The latitude of the geographical location of the paratype.
Longitude of paratype The longitude of the geographical location of the paratype.
Collection time of paratype Collection time of the paratype in a uniform format.
Preservation institution of paratype The abbreviation for the preservation institution of the paratype.
Literature The literature source of the species/subspecies, which is uniformly presented in English. If a journal name has been changed, its new name is reserved.
Original literature Original literature information without modification.
Literature authors The authors of the Literature.


This study was supported by National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFE0203100) and Fujian Provincial Department of Science & Technology (2015J06005).

Author contributions

X.H. and J.L. conceived and designed the study. J.L., H.L., Y.W. and L.Y. performed the data collection and collation. J.L. and X.H. executed the data analysis and drafted the manuscript. X.H. contributed resources during the study.


Supplementary material

Suppl. material 1: A dataset on type specimens of Hemipteran insects in China 
Authors:  Junjie Li, Huanhuan Liu, Yangxue Wu, Longqin Ye, Xiaolei Huang
Data type:  A plain text table on the type specimens of Hemipteran insects in China
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