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Taxonomic Paper
Checklist of the subfamily Adoncholaiminae Gerlach and Riemann, 1974 (Nematoda: Oncholaimida: Oncholaimidae) of the world: genera, species, distribution, and reference list for taxonomists and ecologists
expand article info Daisuke Shimada
‡ Department of Biology, Keio University, 4-1-1, Hiyoshi, Yokohama, 223-8521, Japan
Open Access

Abstract

Background

Adoncholaiminae is one of the seven subfamilies in the free-living aquatic nematode family Oncholaimidae. Nematodes in Adoncholaiminae are found from various water environment of the world. However, a checklist of all Adoncholaiminae species including full literature, especially information of experimental (not taxonomic) works, has not been updated for more than 40 years.

New information

A revised checklist of the subfamily Adoncholaiminae of the world is provided. It contains 31 valid and 13 invalid species names in four genera with synonyms, collection records, and full literature from 1860's to 2015 for each species. A literature survey of total 477 previous papers was conducted in this work, and 362 of them are newly added to checklist.

Keywords

aquatic nematodes, marine, brackish, freshwater, oncholaimid, synonymy, taxonomy, systematics, nomenclature, ecology

Introduction

Adoncholaiminae Gerlach and Riemann, 1974 is a subfamily of free-living aquatic nematode family Oncholaimidae Filipjev, 1916 (phylum Nematoda). It consists of four genera (Lorenzen 1981a, Lorenzen 1994, Shimada and Kajihara 2014), viz. Adoncholaimus Filipjev, 1918, Admirandus, Belogurov and Belogurova 1979, Kreisoncholaimus Rachor, 1969, and Meyersia Hopper, 1967. Metoncholaimoides Wieser, 1953 has been placed in the subfamily before, but Shimada and Kajihara (2014) considered the genus as a junior synonym for Adoncholaimus. Adoncholaiminae morphologically differs from the other six subfamilies of family Oncholaimidae Filipjev, 1916 in the order Oncholaimida Siddiqi, 1983 and suborder Oncholaimina de Conink, 1965 (c.f. Filipjev 1916, Maggenti 1981, Siddiqi 1983, Smol and Coomans 2006, Hodda 2011, Shimada and Kajihara 2014) by the well developed sperm-storage organ (Demanian system) in the female (Rachor 1969, Belogurov and Belogurova 1977a, Belogurov and Belogurova 1977b, Belogurov and Belogurova 1977c, Belogurov and Belogurova 1977d, Belogurov and Belogurova 1989, Smol and Coomans 2006), however there have been no molecular phylogenetic evidences at present. Nematodes belonging to Adoncholaiminae are found from all continents, from the equatorial tropic to the two poles. Most of them are marine or brackish, and some are freshwater species (Smol and Coomans 2006).

A taxonomist who wants to describe new species must collect original descriptions and redescriptions of all congeners by literature research. Complete lists of all species and subspecies names of the genera are exceedingly helpful for taxonomic studies and biodiversity surveys. Such lists are more useful if any other information of individual species are included. In the field of free-living nematodes, there is a comprehensive reference work "The Bremerhaven Checklist of Aquatic Nematodes" (Gerlach and Riemann 1973, Gerlach and Riemann 1974) covering almost all species names of aquatic nematodes with their synonym list, sampling sites, and references before early 1970's. Although many revisions of the specific genera or higher taxa with species lists and taxonomic keys (e.g. Greenslade and Nicholas 1991, Huang and Cheng 2012, Shimada and Kajihara 2014) have been published since 1974, full literature of them is not available today.

This work aims to provide a checklist of Adoncholaiminae species of the world with their synonymy, distribution, and literature information for potential taxonomists who (will) study nematodes in the subfamily. A literature survey of 31 valid and 13 invalid species in Adoncholaiminae was conducted. More than 400 papers in which species names of Adoncholaiminae are found, not only taxonomic descriptions and collection records but also ecological, morphological, physiological, and DNA works, were completely collected. However, references not satisfying criteria of publication in Articles 8 and 9 of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999, International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 2012a, International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 2012b), e.g. theses, symposium abstracts, and some web articles, are excluded.

Total 485 previous papers (see References) including any species names of Adoncholaiminae was found through a literature survey. Of these references, only 115 were also cited by Gerlach and Riemann (1974) in section of Adoncholaiminae. New 362 papers are added to literature in the present study, containing 293 published after 1973, and 69 were published before 1974 but neglected by them. However, most of the latter were cited in other sections of their checklist.

The names of oceans and seas were used as defined by International Hydrographic Organization (1953)

Checklist of the subfamily Adoncholaiminae Gerlach and Riemann, 1974 (Nematoda: Oncholaimida: Oncholaimidae) of the world: genera, species, distribution, and reference list for taxonomists and ecologists

Subfamily Adoncholaiminae Gerlach and Riemann, 1974

Nomenclature: 

Synonym: subtribe Adoncholaimina Gerlach and Riemann, 1974, used first in Belogurov and Belogurova (1978a)

Synonym: subtribe Meyersiina Belogurov and Belogurova, 1978a

Incorrect original spelling: Adoncholaiminini in Belogurov and Belogurova (1978a), Belogurov and Belogurova (1978b), Belogurov and Belogurova (1988), Belogurov and Belogurova (1989)

Incorrect original spelling: Meyersiinini in Belogurov and Belogurova (1978a), Belogurov and Belogurova (1978b), Belogurov and Belogurova (1988), Belogurov and Belogurova (1989)

Type genus: Adoncholaimus Filipjev, 1918 =Metoncholaimoides Wieser, 1953 [by Shimada and Kajihara (2014)]

Other genera: Admirandus Belogurov and Belogurova, 1979; Kreisoncholaimus Rachor, 1969; Meyersia Hopper, 1967

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Notes: 

The latest taxonomic key to genera: Smol and Coomans (2006)

Revisions and reviews of the subfamily: Belogurov and Belogurova 1978a, Belogurov and Belogurova 1978b, Lorenzen 1981a, Belogurov and Belogurova 1988, Belogurov and Belogurova 1989, Lorenzen 1994, Hope 2007, Smol et al. 2014

Genus Adoncholaimus Filipjev, 1918

Nomenclature: 

Synonym: Metoncholaimoides Wieser, 1953

non Adoncholaimus sp. in Menzel (1925) (= Oncholaimus menzeli Schneider, 1937)

nec Adoncholaimus pristiuris in Filipjev and Schuurmans Stekhoven (1941) (= incorrect subsequent spelling of Metoncholaimus pristiurus?)

Etymology: masculine noun, ad (Latin, "to") + genus Oncholaimus [όνχος (Greek, "fang") + λαιμός (Greek, "throat")]

Type species: Adoncholaimus fuscus (Bastian, 1865) Filipjev, 1918

Valid 22 species: A. fuscus; A. aralensis Filipjev, 1924; A. crassicaudus Wieser, 1953; A. daikokuensis Shimada and Kajihara, 2014; A. derjugini (Ssaweljev, 1912) Filipjev, 1918; A. exoptatus Belogurova and Belogurov, 1974; A. fervidus Kirjanova, 1955; A. filicauda (Galtsova, 1976) Shimada and Kajihara, 2014; A. indicus (von Linstow, 1907) Filipjev, 1918; A. islandicus Kreis, 1963; A. lepidus (de Man 1889) Filipjev, 1918; A. longicaudatus Paramonov, 1929; A. longispiculatus Gagarin and Nguyen, 2007; A. oxyuroides (Allgén, 1934) Gerlach and Riemann, 1974; A. panicus Cobb, 1930; A. parvus Gagarin and Nguyen, 2003; A. pseudofervidus Shimada and Kajihara, 2014; A. punctatus (Cobb, 1914) Filipjev, 1924; A. quadriporus Belogurova and Belogurov, 1974; A. squalus (Wieser, 1953) Shimada and Kajihara, 2014; A. thalassophygas (de Man, 1876) Filipjev, 1918; A. ussuriensis Mordukhovich et al., 2015

Invalid 11 species: A. angustatus (Cobb, 1981) Filipjev, 1918; A. austrogeorgiae Allgén, 1959; A. bandaensis Kreis, 1932; A. chilkensis (Stewart, 1914) Kreis, 1934; A. chinensis Huang and Zhang, 2009; A. falklandiae Allgén, 1959; A. meridionalis (Kreis, 1932) Rachor, 1969; A. nudus (Kreis, 1932) Rachor, 1969; A. papillatus Kreis, 1932; A. skawensis (Ditlevsen, 1921) Allgén, 1933; A. taboguillensis (Allgén, 1947) Wieser, 1953

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Notes: 

Original description: Filipjev (1918)

English translation of original description: Filipjev (1968)

The latest taxonomic key to species: Mordukhovich et al. (2015)

Revisions and reviews of the genus: Filipjev (1924), Kreis (1934), Hopper and Cairns (1959), Chitwood (1960), Rachor (1969), Gerlach and Riemann (1974), Belogurov and Belogurova (1977b), Belogurov and Belogurova (1977d), Belogurov and Belogurova (1977c), Belogurov and Belogurova (1977a), Belogurov and Belogurova (1978b), Belogurov and Belogurova (1978a), Platt and Warwick (1983), Belogurov and Belogurova (1988), Belogurov and Belogurova (1989), Keppner and Tarjan (1989), Somerfield and Warwick (1996), Smol and Coomans (2006), Smol et al. (2014), Shimada and Kajihara (2014)

Molecular phylogeny: Litvaitis et al. 2000, Bhadury et al. 2006a, Bhadury et al. 2006b, Sharma et al. 2006, Bhadury et al. 2007, Meldal et al. 2007, Bik et al. 2010a, Bik et al. 2010b

Collection records of unidentified species (Adoncholaimus sp.): see Table 1

References of unidentified species in Adoncholaimus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F
Schulz 1935b Lake Ganzirri, Sicilia Island, Mediterranean Sea Italy brackish ×
Allgén 1942 - - - ×
Riemann 1969 Arensch, Cuxhaven, North Sea Germany plants ×
Ward 1973 Liverpool Bay, Irish Sea United Kingdom muddy or clean sand with gravel ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1979 Urup, Kuril Islands, North Pacific Ocean Russia intertidal ×
Krishnamurthy et al. 1980 Bay of Bengal India mangrove ×
Subramanian et al. 1984 Vellar to Coleroon estuary, Bay of Bengal India mangrove ×
Aryuthaka 1985 (Metoncholaimoides sp.) Yojiro, Kagoshima Bay, North Pacific Ocean Japan sand and seagrasses, 1–3 m deep ×
Gerdes et al. 1985b Gavish Sabkha, along Gulf of Elat, Red Sea Egypt brackish ×
Hodda and Nicholas 1985 Hunter estuary, South Pacific Ocean Australia intertidal mud with plants ×
Hammer 1986 - - - ×
Lambshead 1986 Bute Island, Firth of Clyde, Irish Sea United Kingdom sediment ×
Alongi 1990 Bowling Green Bay, South Pacific Ocean Australia intertidal ×
Matsumoto et al. 1992 Ariake Sea, Eastern China Sea Japan intertidal mud ×
Ólafsson et al. 1993 off Askö, Baltic Sea Sweden 34 m deep ×
Riemann 1995 Porcupine Seabight, North Atlantic Ocean off Ireland deep sea sediment ×
Villano and Warwick 1995 Palude della Rose, Venezia, Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea Italy sediment ×
Blome 1996 Arensch, North Sea Germany intertidal ×
Gee and Somerfield 1997 Sungai Pasir, Malacca Strait Malaysia mangrove ×
Blaxter et al. 1998 - - - ×
Pallo et al. 1998 Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea Latvia; Estonia sediment ×
Somerfield et al. 1998 Merbok estuary, Malacca Strait Malaysia mangrove ×
Gyedu-Ababio et al. 1999 Swartkops estuary, Algoa Bay, Indian Ocean South Africa brackish sediment ×
Moens et al. 1999a Schelde estuary, North Sea The Netherlands sediment ×
Moens et al. 1999b Schelde estuary, North Sea The Netherlands sediment ×
Aarnio 2000 Åland archipelago, Baltic Sea Finland subtidal sand ×
Moens et al. 2000 - - - ×
Warwick and Villano 2000 same as Villano and Warwick 1995 ×
Blaxter 2001 - - - ×
Gagarin 2001 North East Yakutia, Arctic Sea Russia no data ×
Gheskière et al. 2002 De Panne, North Sea Belgium sediment ×
Gwyther and Fairweather 2002 Barwon estuary, Victoria, Bass Strait Australia mud ×
Wu et al. 2002 Chongming, Shanghai, Eastern China Sea China soil with plants ×
Gwyther 2003 Barwon estuary, Victoria, Bass Strait Australia sediment ×
Ullberg and Ólafsson 2003b Sandviken, Askö, Baltic Sea Sweden sand ×
Ullberg and Ólafsson 2003a Sandviken, Askö, Baltic Sea Sweden sand ×
Clarke et al. 2004 - - - ×
Gagarin and Nguyen 2005 Nhue River, Hanoi Vietnam sediment ×
Mullin et al. 2005 no data - sediment ×
Pavlyuk and Trebukhova 2005 Amur Bay, Japan Sea Russia 6.4–7.5 m deep ×
Wu et al. 2005 Shanghai, Eastern China Sea China soil ×
Bhadury et al. 2006a - - - ×
Pavlyuk and Trebukhova 2006 Nha Trang Bay, South China Sea Vietnam sediment ×
Urban-Malinga et al. 2006 Hel Peninsula, Puck Bay, Baltic Sea Poland sediment ×
van Straalen and Roelofs 2006 - - - ×
Chen et al. 2007 Yangtze estuary, Shanghai, Eastern China Sea China plants ×
Pavithran et al. 2007 Central Indian Ocean Basin, Indian Ocean off India deep sea sediment ×
Pavlyuk et al. 2007a Amur Bay, Japan Sea Russia intertidal and subtidal sediment ×
Pavlyuk et al. 2007b same as Pavlyuk et al. 2007a ×
Schratzberger et al. 2007 North Sea off United Kingdom sediment ×
Shen et al. 2007 Qingdao, Yellow Sea China intertidal sand ×
Timm et al. 2007 Reigi Bay, Hiiumaa Island, Baltic Sea Estonia brackish sediment ×
Torres-Pratis and Schizas 2007 Magueyes Island, Caribbean Sea Puerto Rico mangrove ×
Quang et al. 2007 Khe Nhan, Can Gio, South China Sea Vietnam mud among mangrove ×
de Leonardis et al. 2008 Manfredonia, Adriatic Sea; Gallipoli, Ionian Sea, Mediterranean Sea Italy 60–700 m deep ×
Hose et al. 2008 Lake Martin, Victoria Australia freshwater sediment ×
Ivanova et al. 2008 Tikhaya Lagoon, Amur Bay, Japan Sea Russia freshwater and brackish sediment ×
Pavlyuk and Trebukhova 2008 Amur Bay, Japan Sea Russia sediment ×
Chu et al. 2009 - - - ×
Pavithran et al. 2009 Central Indian Ocean Basin, Indian Ocean off India deep sea sediment ×
van Megen et al. 2009 no data The Netherlands soil ×
Willems et al. 2009 Hättorna, Skagerrak Sweden sand, 23–28 m deep ×
Belogurova 2010 Amur Bay; Kozmino, Japan Sea Russia intertidal to subtidal ×
Bik et al. 2010a no data - no data ×

Bik et al. 2010b same as Bik et al. 2010a ×

Nanajkar and Ingole 2010

Karwar; Ratnagiri, Arabian Sea India subtidal sediment ×
Semprucci et al. 2010 Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea Italy sediment ×
Venekey et al. 2010 no data Brazil no data ×
Gyedu-Ababio 2011 Swartkops estuary, Algoa Bay; Gamtoos estuary, St. Francis Bay, Indian Ocean South Africa subtidal sediment ×
Ngo and Vo 2011 Can Gio, Ho Chi Minh, South China Sea Vietnam sediment among mangrove ×
Pavlyuk and Trebukhova 2011 Jeju Island, Eastern China Sea South Korea intertidal sediment ×
Portnova et al. 2011 Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano, Norwegian Sea off Norway 1277–1294 m deep ×
Sawangarreruks et al. 2011 Tha Chin estuary, Gulf of Thailand Thailand sediment among mangrove ×
Tsujino and Uchida 2011 Zigozen, Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea Japan intertidal mud without algae ×
Fonseca and Fehlauer-Ale 2012 São Sebastião, South Atlantic Ocean Brazil intertidal sediment ×
Nguyen et al. 2012 Mekong River Delta, South China Sea Vietnam freshwater sediment ×
van Straalen and Roelofs 2012 - - - ×
Zeppilli et al. 2012 Gulf of Lions, Mediterranean Sea France 265–434 m deep ×
Belogurova 2013 Peter the Great Gulf, Japan Sea Russia 270–800 m deep ×
Carriço et al. 2013 Saint-Nic, North Atlantic Ocean France fine sand ×
Gingold et al. 2013 El Tornillal, Gulf of California Mexico sediment ×
Ngo and Ngo 2013 Can Gio, Long Hòa, Ho Chi Minh Vietnam shrimp growing ponds ×
Pinto et al. 2013 Itamaraca Island, South Atlantic Ocean Brazil sediment among mangrove ×
Sturhan 2013 Hooge Island, North Sea Germany soil ×
Moens et al. 2014 Veerse Meer, North Sea The Netherlands brackish ×
Ngo et al. 2014 Can Gio, Long Hòa, Ho Chi Minh Vietnam sediment among mangrove ×
Portnova et al. 2014a Nyegga, Storegga Slide, Norwegian Sea off Norway 714–739 m deep ×
Portnova et al. 2014b same as Portnova et al. 2014b ×
Zeppilli et al. 2014 Azores Archipelago, North Atlantic Ocean Portuguese 206–1900 m deep ×
Pastor de Ward et al. 2015 San Julián Bay, Santa Cruz, South Atlantic Ocean Argentina intertidal sediment ×

Adoncholaimus fuscus (Bastian, 1865) Filipjev, 1918

Nomenclature: 

Synonym: Oncholaimus fuscus Bastian, 1865

Synonym?: Adoncholaimus oxyuroides Allgén, 1934b [by Wieser (1953), not followed by Shimada and Kajihara (2014)]

Etymology: adjective, fuscus, -a, -um (Latin, "dark")

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 2

References of Adoncholaimus fuscus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F

Bastian 1865

(O. fuscus)

Falmouth, English Channel United Kingdom mud ×

Möbius 1873

(O. fuscus)

- - - ×

Bütschli 1874

(O. fuscus)

Kiel Bay, Baltic Sea Germany no data ×
Villot 1875

(O. fuscus)

- - - ×
von Linstow 1878

(O. fuscus)

- - - ×
de Man 1886

(O. fuscus)

Schelde estuary, Walcheren, North Sea The Netherlands no data ×
de Man 1888

(O. fuscus)

- - - ×
de Man 1889a

(O. fuscus)

- - - ×
de Man 1889b

(O. fuscus)

- - - ×
de Man 1889c

(O. fuscus)

- - - ×
von Linstow 1889

(O. fuscus)

- - - ×
Jägerskiöld 1901

(O. fuscus)

- - - ×
von Linstow 1902

(O. fuscus)

- - - ×
Jägerskiöld 1904

(O. fuscus)

SW coast of Jutland Peninsula, North Sea Denmark no data ×
Stewart 1906

(O. fuscus)

- - - ×
Horsman 1912

(O. fuscus)

Ynyslas, Irish Sea United Kingdom sand ×
Stewart 1914b

(O. fuscus)

- - - ×
Filipjev 1918 - - - ×
Ditlevsen 1919

(O. fuscus)

Snoghøj; Kongebro, Little Belt Denmark intertidal to 15 m deep ×
Allgén 1921

(O. fuscus)

- - - ×
Micoletzky 1921

(O. fuscus)

- - - ×
Filipjev 1924 - - - ×
Allgén 1925

(O. fuscus)

- - - ×
Filipjev 1925 - - - ×
Allgén 1927

(O. fuscus)

Barsebäckshamn, Øresund Sweden algae ×
Schodduyn 1927

(O. fuscus)

Slack estuary, near Boulogne-sur-mer, English Channel France bottom sediment ×
Cobb 1930 - - - ×
von Wülker and Schuurmans Stekhoven 1933 - - - ×
Allgén 1934b

(O. fuscus)

- - - ×
Kreis 1934 - - - ×
Allgén 1935a - - - ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven 1935a Zuiderzee, North Sea The Netherlands no data ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven 1935b Nieuport, English Channel; Zuiderzee, North Sea Belgium; The Netherlands no data ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven et al. 1935 Zuiderzee, North Sea The Netherlands no data ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven 1936b - - - ×
Schulz 1936 Amrum, North Sea Germany subtidal sand ×
Schneider 1939 - - - ×
Bresslau and Schuurmans Stekhoven 1940 Helgoland, North Sea Germany no data ×
de Vos and Redeke 1941 Wadden Sea, North Sea The Netherlands no data ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven 1942a Øresund Belgium no data ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven 1942b Yerseke, North Sea The Netherlands oyster bed ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven 1946 Stockholm Archipelago, Baltic Sea Sweden no data ×
Chitwood 1951 Woods Hole, Massachusetts, North Atlantic Ocean United States no data ×
Gerlach 1953b Kiel Bay, Baltic Sea Germany sand ×
Wieser 1953 - - - ×
Gerlach 1954b - - - ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven 1954 - - - ×
Remane 1955 - - - ×
el Maghraby and Perkins 1956 Wave Crest, Whitstable, North Sea United Kingdom mud on slipway ×
Wieser et al. 1957 Rum Bay, Plymouth, English Channel United Kingdom intertidal mud ×
Gerlach 1958 Kiel Fjord; Vodrups Flak, Kiel Bay, Baltic Sea Germany sand; gravel, 2–13 m deep ×
Capstick 1959 Blyth estuary, North Sea United Kingdom sediment ×
Gerlach 1959 - - - ×
Paramonov 1962

(O. fuscus)

- - - ×
Kreis 1963 - - - ×
de Coninck 1965 - - - ×
Bilio 1966 - - - ×
Coles 1966 Skippers Island, Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex, North Sea United Kingdom soil among plant roots ×

Riemann 1966

(A. aff. fuscus)

Cuxhaven-Groden; Ostemündung, North Sea Germany sand, intertidal; 13–15 m deep ×
Filipjev 1968 Schleswig-Holsteinischen, North Sea Germany plants in salt marsh ×
Paramonov 1968

(O. fuscus)

- - - ×
Hopper 1969 Kingsport, Nova Scotia, North Atlantic Ocean Canada blackish-grey mud among plants ×
Lorenzen 1969 Schleswig-Holsteinischen Germany brackish plants in salt marsh ×
Rachor 1969 same as Rachor 1970 ×
Giere 1970 North Sea Germany sand ×
Rachor 1970 Baltic Sea; North Sea Germany no data ×
Warwick 1971 Lympstone, Exe estuery, English Channel United Kingdom sand ×
Hope and Murphy 1972 - - - ×
Hope 1974 - - - ×
Gerlach and Riemann 1974 - - - ×
Warwick and Gage 1975 Loch Etive, Scotland United Kingdom surface ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1977a - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1977b - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1978a - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1978b - - - ×
Belogurova 1978 Itrup, Kuril Islands, North Pacific Ocean Russia subtidal ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1979 - - - ×
Belogurova and Belogurov 1979 Kuril Islands, North Pacific Ocean Russia 10 m deep ×
Calcoen and de Kegel 1979 Nieuwpoort-Bad, North Sea Belgium sand ×
Maertens and Coomans 1979 - - - ×
Calcoen and de Kegel 1980 - - - ×
Sherman and Coull 1980 Crabhaul Creek, North Inlet, North Atlantic Ocean United States mud with detritus ×
Bouwman 1981 Ems estuary, North Sea Germany intertidal sandy sediment ×
Blome 1982 Sylt Island, North Sea Germany sand ×
Field et al. 1982 Exe estuary, English Channel United Kingdom mud, sand ×
Yoshimura 1982 - - - ×
Bouwman 1983 same as Bouwman 1981 ×
Chabaud et al. 1983 - - - ×
Heip et al. 1983 - - - ×
Platt and Warwick 1983 no data United Kingdom no data ×
Gerdes and Krumbein 1984 - - - ×
Belogurov 1985 - - - ×
Gerdes et al. 1985a Mellum Island, North Sea Germany sand ×

Gerdes et al. 1985b

(O. fuscus)

Gavish Sabkha, along Gulf of Elat, Red Sea Egypt brackish ×
Heip et al. 1985 - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1988 - - - ×
Coomans et al. 1988 - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1989 Far East Russia no data ×
Furstenberg and Vincx 1989 - - - ×
Bussau 1990a Wadden Sea, North Sea Germany sand ×
Bussau 1990b same as Bussau 1990a ×
Kennish 1990 - - - ×
Mohd Long 1990 Forth estuary, Scotland, North Sea United Kingdom mud ×
Trett and Feil 1990 - - - ×
Alkemade et al. 1993 Stroodorpepolder, North Sea The Netherlands brackish, plants leaves ×
Clarke 1993 same as Warwick 1971 ×
Soetaert et al. 1994 Western Scheldt, North Sea The Netherlands sediment ×
Kennedy 1995 Exe estuary, English Channel United Kingdom sand ×
Soetaert et al. 1995 Ems estuary; Somme; Western Scheldt, North Sea Germany; France; Belgium brackish sediment ×
Blome 1996 Borkum; Mellum; Ems estuary; Weser estuary, North Sea Germany intertidal sand; microbial mats ×
Blome and Faubel 1996 off Kaiser-Wuhelm-Koog, Elbe estuary, North Sea Germany sand with mud and shells ×
Moens and Vincx 1997 Western Scheldt, North Sea The Netherlands subtidal to intertidal, sand and mud ×
Platt and Ball 1997 - - - ×
Travizi and Vidaković 1997 Mirna estuary; Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea Croatia silt and sand ×
Yushin and Malakhov 1997 - - - ×
Attrill 1998 - - - ×
Craig and Ashman 1998 Solway Firth, Irish Sea United Kingdom intertidal ×
Moens and Vincx 1998 same as Moens and Vincx 1997 ×
Justine and Jamieson 1999 - - - ×
Moens et al. 1999b Western Scheldt, North Sea The Netherlands mud and coarse sand ×
Moens et al. 1999c Western Scheldt, North Sea The Netherlands intertidal mud ×
Tita et al. 1999 - - - ×
Moens et al. 2000 Molenplaat; Paulina salt marsh, Schelde estuary, North Sea The Netherlands intertidal ×
Litvaitis et al. 2000 Paulina salt marsh, Schelde estuary, North Sea The Netherlands silty sediment ×
de Smet et al. 2001 - - - ×
Justine 2002 - - - ×
Moens et al. 2002 Paulina salt marsh, Schelde estuary, North Sea The Netherlands brackish, lower vegetation zone ×
Tita et al. 2002 Parc du Bic, St. Lawrence estuary, Gulf of St. Lawrence Canada mud and sand ×
Yushin et al. 2002 - - - ×
Bilgrami and Gaugler 2004 - - - ×
Bilgrami and Gaugler 2005 - - - ×
Cook et al. 2005 Southend-on-Sea or Southampton, English Channel United Kingdom sediment ×
Kathiresan and Qasim 2005 Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Indian Ocean India mangrove ×
Moens et al. 2005a Paulina salt marsh, Schelde estuary, North Sea The Netherlands sediment ×
Moens et al. 2005b Western Scheldt, North Sea The Netherlands no data ×
Afanasiev-Grigoriev et al. 2006 - - - ×
Bhadury et al. 2006a England United Kingdom no data ×
Bhadury et al. 2006b same as Bhadury et al. 2006a ×
Haseman 2006 - - - ×
Krassen 2006 - - - ×
Sharma et al. 2006 Aransas Pass, Port Aransas, North Atlantic Ocean United States sediment ×
Smol and Coomans 2006 - - - ×
Bhadury et al. 2007 Tamar estuary, English Channel United Kingdom no data ×
Chinnadurai and Fernando 2007 Vellar estuary, Bay of Bengal India sediment among mangrove ×
Meldal et al. 2007 Southampton Water, English Channel United Kingdom intertidal sediment ×
Fonseca and Gallucci 2008 - - - ×
Moodley et al. 2008 Westerschelde estuary, North Sea The Netherlands mud ×
Semprucci et al. 2008 - - - ×
Arigó et al. 2009 Akrotiri Bay, Mediterranean Sea Cyprus sediment ×
Giere 2009 - - - ×
Huang and Zhang 2009 - - - ×
Leduc 2009 - - - ×
Bik et al. 2010a no data - no data ×
Vandepitte et al. 2010 - - - ×
dos Santos and Moens 2011 - - - ×
Sminova and Fadeeva 2011 Japan Sea Russia sandy sediment ×
Shokoohi et al. 2013 - - - ×
Shoshin 2013 - - - ×
Gibson and Fuentes 2014 - - - ×
Smol et al. 2014 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus aralensis Filipjev, 1924

Nomenclature: 

Incorrect subsequent spelling: Adoncholaimus araliensis in Kreis (1934)

Etymology: adjective, Aral (type locality) + ensis, -is, -e (Latin, suffix)

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 3

References of Adoncholaimus aralensis. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F
Filipjev 1924 Aralsk landing bridge, Aral Sea Kazakhstan brackish ×

Kreis 1934

(A. araliensis)

- - - ×
Schneider 1937 - - - ×
Rachor 1969 - - - ×
Gerlach and Riemann 1974 - - - ×
Tchesunov 1976 Caspian Sea USSR brackish ×
Gagarin 1978 Astrakhan Russia freshwater ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1979 - - - ×
Belogurova and Belogurov 1979 Urup, Kuril Islands, North Pacific Ocean Russia subtidal ×
Mordukhai-Boltovskoi 1979 Caspian Sea USSR brackish ×
Tsalolikhin 1979 Lake Issyk-Kul Kyrgyzstan brackish ×
Gagarin 1981 - - - ×
Tsalolikhin 1982 - - - ×
Tchesunov 1983 Caspian Sea - brackish ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1988 - - - ×
Gagarin and Nguyen 2003 - - - ×
Smol and Coomans 2006 - - - ×
Mokievsky 2009 - - - ×
Gusakov and Gagarin 2012a Lake El'ton Russia brackish ×
Gusakov and Gagarin 2012b same as Gusakov and Gagarin 2012a ×
Shoshin 2013 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus crassicaudus Wieser, 1953

Nomenclature: 

Etymology: adjective, crassus, -a, -um (Latin, "thick") + cauda (Latin, "tail") + us, a, um (Latin, suffix)

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 4

References of Adoncholaimus crassicaudus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; I, Fixation method; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F
Wieser 1953 San Antonio, Valparais, South Pacific Ocean Chile intertidal, filamentous green algae ×
Mawson 1958

Kerguelen Islands, Indian Ocean; Macquarie Island, South Pacific Ocean

French Southern and Antarctic Lands intertidal to 69 m deep, rock; green algae; seaweeds ×
Wieser 1959 same as Wieser 1953 ×
Rachor 1969 - - - ×
Timm and Hackney 1969 Bodega Bay, California United States algae I
Gerlach and Riemann 1974 - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1979 Hopeful Bay, Kerguelen Islands, Indian Ocean French Southern and Antarctic Lands silty sand, 3–30 m deep ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1988 - - - ×
Greenslade 1989 - - - ×
Ingels et al. 2014 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus daikokuensis Shimada and Kajihara, 2014

Nomenclature: 

Etymology: adjective, Daikoku (type locality) + ensis, -is, -e (Latin, suffix)

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Notes: 

Holotype: ICHUM (formerly ZIHU) 4162, Hokkaido University Museum, Sapporo, Japan

References: see Table 5

References of Adoncholaimus daikokuensis. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 Daikoku Island, Hokkaido, North Pacific Ocean Japan intertidal mud in seagrass bed ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus derjugini (Ssaweljev, 1912) Filipjev, 1924

Nomenclature: 

Synonym: Oncholaimus derjugini Ssaweljev, 1912

Etymology: genitive noun, K. Derjugin (person) + i (Latin, suffix)

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 6

References of Adoncholaimus derjugini. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F

Ssaweljev 1912

(O. derjugini)

Mogil'noye Bay, Kildin Island, Barents Sea Russia no data ×
Filipjev 1924 - - - ×
Filipjev 1925 - - - ×
Kreis 1934 - - - ×
Allgén 1957 - - - ×
Rachor 1969 - - - ×
Gerlach and Riemann 1974 - - - ×
de Smet et al. 2001 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus exoptatus Belogurova and Belogurov, 1974

Nomenclature: 

Etymology: adjective, exoptatus, -a, -um (Latin, "greatly desired, longed for")?

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Notes: 

Holotype: Institute of Marine Biology of the Far Eastern Branch, USSR Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, USSR

References: see Table 7

References of Adoncholaimus exoptatus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F
Belogurova and Belogurov 1974 Itrup, Kuril Islands, North Pacific Ocean Russia rhizoids of subtidal algae ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1977a - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1977d - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1979 - - - ×
Belogurova and Belogurov 1979 Kuril Islands, North Pacific Ocean Russia subtidal to intertidal, sand among seagrasses and stones ×
Smolyanko and Belogyrov 1987 - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1988 - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1989 Far East Russia no data ×
Shoshin 2013 - - - ×
Smol et al. 2014 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus fervidus Kirjanova, 1955

Nomenclature: 

Etymology: adjective, fervidus, -a, -um (Latin, "fiery")?

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 8

References of Adoncholaimus fervidus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F
Kirjanova 1955 Japan Sea Russia among algae ×
Kirjanova 1966 same as Kirjanova 1955 ×
Belogurova and Belogurov 1974 Iturup, Kuril Islands, North Pacific Ocean Russia subtidal, sand among barnacles and algal rhizoids ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1977a - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1977d - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1979 Kuril Islands, North Pacific Ocean Russia subtidal mudflat ×
Belogurova and Belogurov 1979 Kuril Islands, North Pacific Ocean Russia supratidal to subtidal, sand among algae, barnacles, and polychaetes ×
Smolyanko and Belogyrov 1987 - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1988 - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1989 Far East Russia no data ×
Pavlyuk et al. 2007a Amur Bay, Japan Sea Russia intertidal ×
Pavlyuk et al. 2007b same as Pavlyuk et al. 2007a ×
Ivanova et al. 2008 Amur Bay, Japan Sea Russia intertidal ×
Pavlyuk et al. 2009 Peter the Great Bay, Japan Sea Russia 30 m deep ×
Belogurova 2010 Amur Bay; Kozmino, Japan Sea Russia intertidal to subtidal ×
Zvyagintsev and Moshchenko 2010 Vladivostok Russia cooling system of power station ×
Shoshin 2013 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus filicauda (Galtsova, 1976) Shimada and Kajihara, 2014

Nomenclature: 

Synonym: Metoncholaimoides filicauda Galtsova, 1976

Etymology: appositive noun, fīlum (Latin, "thread") + cauda (Latin, "tail")

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Notes: 

Holotype: Collection No. 10, Institute of Zoology, USSR Academy of Sciences, Leningrad, USSR

References: see Table 9

References of Adoncholaimus filicauda. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F

Galtsova 1976

(M. filicauda)

White Sea Russia intertidal silty sand ×
Belogurov and Galtsova 1983 - - - ×

Galtsova 1985

(M. filicauda)

same as Galtsova 1976 ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus indicus (von Linstow, 1907) Filipjev, 1918

Nomenclature: 

Synonym: Oncholaimus indicus von Linstow, 1907

Etymology: adjective, indicus, -a, -um (Latin, "Indian")

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 10

References of Adoncholaimus indicus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F

von Linstow 1907

(O. indicus)

Conning, Matla, Bay of Bengal India brackish ×

Stewart 1914a

(O. indicus)

Conning, Matla, Bay of Bengal India brackish ×

Stewart 1914b

(O. indicus)

- - - ×
Filipjev 1918 - - - ×
Filipjev 1924 - - - ×
Menzel 1925 - - - ×
Allgén 1934c - - - ×
Kreis 1934 - - - ×

Schneider 1937

(O. indicus)

- - - ×
Filipjev 1968 - - - ×
Gerlach and Riemann 1974 - - - ×

Kathiresan and Qasim 2005

(O. indicus)

- - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus islandicus Kreis, 1963

Nomenclature: 

Etymology: adjective, islandicus, -a, -um (Latin, "Icelandic")

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 11

References of Adoncholaimus islandicus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F
Kreis 1963 Eyja Fjord, Greenland Sea Iceland mud ×
Rachor 1969 - - - ×
Gerlach and Riemann 1974 - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1977a - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1977d - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1978a - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1978b - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1979 - - - ×
Alekseyev and Dizendorf 1981 near Aniva Bay, Sakhalin, Sea of Okhotsk Russia mud with detritus, 0.6 m deep ×
Furstenberg and Vincx 1989 - - - ×
de Smet et al. 2001 - - - ×
Smol and Coomans 2006 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus lepidus (de Man 1889) Filipjev, 1918

Nomenclature: 

Synonym: Oncholaimus lepidus de Man, 1889

non Oncholaimus lepidus sensu Schneider (1906): see Adoncholaimus thalassophygas

nec Adoncholaimus lepidus sensu Warwick and Gage 1975: see Adoncholaimus panicus

Synonym?: Metoncholaimoides filicauda Wieser 1953 [by Belogurov and Galtsova (1983), not followed by Shimada and Kajihara (2014)]

Etymology: adjective, lepidus, -a, -um (Latin, "agreeable")?

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 12

References of Adoncholaimus lepidus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy; V, developmental biology.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F

de Man 1889b

(O. lepidus)

Walcheren, North Sea The Netherlands brackish soil among plant roots ×
von Linstow 1889

(O. lepidus)

- - - ×
Steiner 1917

(O. lepidus)

- - - ×
Filipjev 1918 - - - ×
Micoletzky 1921

(O. lepidus)

- - - ×
de Man 1922b

(O. lepidus)

- - - ×
Steiner 1922

(O. lepidus)

- - - ×
Filipjev 1924 - - - ×
Allgén 1929b

(O. lepidus)

- - - ×
Allgén 1929c

(O. lepidus)

- - - ×
Allgén 1933

(O. lepidus)

- - - ×
de Coninck and Schuurmans Stekhoven 1933 - - - ×
von Wülker and Schuurmans Stekhoven 1933 - - - ×
Allgén 1934c

(O. lepidus)

- - - ×
Kreis 1934 - - - ×
Schulz 1935a

(O. lepidus)

Kiel Bay, Baltic Sea (in Gerlach and Riemann 1974) Germany coastal groundwater ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven 1935a Zuiderzee, North Sea The Netherlands no data ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven et al. 1935 Zuiderzee, North Sea The Netherlands no data ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven 1936b - - - ×
Schneider 1939 - - - ×
de Coninck 1943 Cape Reykjanes, North Atlantic Ocean Iceland wet terrestrial soil near brackish pond ×
de Coninck 1944 same as de Coninck 1943 ×
Gerlach 1949 Kiel Bay, Baltic Sea Germany otoplana zone and wet sand ×
Goodey 1951

(O. lepidus)

- - - ×
Timm 1952 Chesapeake Bay, North Atlantic Ocean United States no data ×
Gerlach 1953a Tvärminne, Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea Finland otoplana zone; groundwater ×
Gerlach 1953b Kiel Bay, Baltic Sea Germany sand ×
Wieser 1953 - - - ×
Gerlach 1954a - - - ×
Gerlach 1954b - - - ×
Gerlach 1954c - - - ×
Brinck et al. 1955 Simrishamn Beach, Scania, Baltic Sea Sweden coastal groundwater ×
Delamare Deboutteville et al. 1955 - - - ×
Gerlach 1958 - - - ×
Remane and Schlieper 1958 - - - ×
Gerlach 1959 - - - ×
Delamare Deboutteville 1960 - - - ×
Paramonov 1962

(O. lepidus)

- - - ×
Goodey and 1963

(O. lepidus)

- - - ×
Bilio 1966 - - - ×
Bilio 1967 - - - ×
Filipjev 1968 - - - ×

Paramonov 1968

(O. lepidus)

- - - ×
Lorenzen 1969 Schleswig-Holsteinischen Germany plants in brackish salt marsh ×
Rachor 1969 same as Rachor 1970 ×
Rachor 1970 Kiel Bay, Baltic Sea Germany groundwater, sand and gravel ×
Remane and Schlieper 1971 - - - ×
Gerlach and Riemann 1974 - - - ×
Aminova and Galtsova 1978 Chupa, Kandalaksha Gulf, White Sea Russia 30–40 m deep ×
Belogurov and Galtsova 1983 White Sea Russia no data ×
Heip et al. 1983 - - - ×
Platt and Warwick 1983 - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1988 - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1989 Far East Russia no data ×
Furstenberg and Vincx 1989 - - - ×
Voronov and Panchin 1995 Kandalaksha Gulf, White Sea Russia near White Sea Biological Station V
Platt and Ball 1997 - - - ×
de Smet et al. 2001 - - - ×
Gagarin and Nguyen 2003 - - - ×
Smol and Coomans 2006 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus longicaudatus Paramonov, 1929

Nomenclature: 

Etymology: adjective, longus, -a, -um (Latin, "long") + caudatus, -a, -um (Latin, "tailed")

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 13

References of Adoncholaimus longicaudatus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F
Paramonov 1929 Dnieper-Bug estuary; Domakhy, Black Sea Ukraine 5.3–6.4 m deep ×
Gerlach and Riemann 1974 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus longispiculatus Gagarin and Nguyen, 2007

Nomenclature: 

incorrect subsequent spelling: Adoncholaimus longicaudatus in Nguyen and Gagarin (2013a)

Etymology: adjective, longus, -a, -um (Latin, "long") + spiculatus, -a, -um (Latin, "spiculed")

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Notes: 

Holotype: Institute for Biology of Inland Waters, Russian Academy of Sciences, Borok, Russia

Referemces: see Table 14

References of Adoncholaimus longispiculatus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F
Gagarin and Nguyen 2007 Mekong River Delta, Kiu Long River, Ham Luong Vietnam shore lake sediment among mangrove, 1.2 m deep ×
Nguyen and Gagarin 2013a - - - ×

Nguyen and Gagarin 2013b

(A. longicaudatus)

- - - ×
Smol et al. 2014 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus oxyuroides (Allgén, 1934) Gerlach and Riemann, 1974

Nomenclature: 

Synonym: Oncholaimus oxyuroides Allgén, 1934

Etymology: adjective, Oncholaimus oxyuris (species name) + oides (Latin, "resembling")

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 15

References of Adoncholaimus oxyuroides. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F

Allgén 1934c

(O. oxyuroides)

Trelleborg to Ystad, Baltic Sea Sweden brackish plant roots ×

Allgén 1950a

(O. oxyuroides)

Bondhålet, Baltic Sea Sweden brackish plant roots ×
Wieser 1953 - - - ×
Gerlach and Riemann 1974 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus panicus Cobb, 1930

Nomenclature: 

Synonym: Adoncholaimus lepidus sensu Warwick and Gage (1975) [by Platt and Warwick (1983)]

Etymology: adjective, panicus, -a, -um (Latin, "panicky")?

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 16

References of Adoncholaimus panicus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F
Cobb 1930 no data (Massachusetts? in Gerlach and Riemann 1974) - no data ×
Chitwood 1951 Woods Hole, Massachusetts, North Atlantic Ocean United States no data ×
Kreis 1934 - - - ×
Dollfus 1946 - - - ×
Rachor 1969 same as Rachor 1970 ×
Rachor 1970 Schilksee, Kiel Bay, Baltic Sea Germany sand and gravel, 20–50 cm deep from surface ×
Gerlach and Riemann 1974 - - - ×

Warwick and Gage 1975

(A. lepidus)

Loch Etive, Scotland United Kingdom 0–2 m deep ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1977a - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1977d - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1978a - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1978b - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1979 - - - ×
Chabaud et al. 1983 - - - ×
Heip et al. 1983 - - - ×
Platt and Warwick 1983 same as Warwick and Gage 1975 ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1988 - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1989 Far East Russia no data ×
Furstenberg and Vincx 1989 - - - ×
Platt and Ball 1997 - - - ×
de Smet et al. 2001 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus parvus Gagarin and Nguyen, 2003

Nomenclature: 

Etymology: adjective, parvus, -a, -um (Latin, "panicky")?

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Notes: 

Holotype: Institute for Biology of Inland Waters, Russian Academy of Sciences, Borok, Russia

References: see Table 17

References of Adoncholaimus parvus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F
Gagarin and Nguyen 2003 Nhue River, Hanoi Vietnam freshwater, 1.0–2.5 m deep ×
Gagarin and Nguyen 2008a Red River Delta, Bat Lat Vietnam brackish silt, 1.0–1.5 m deep ×
Gagarin and Nguyen 2008b Chu River, Thanh Hoa Vietnam brackish silt, 0.5–1.5 m deep
Gagarin and Nguyen 2008c same as Gagarin and Nguyen 2008a ×
Gagarin and Nguyen 2008d same as Gagarin and Nguyen 2008b ×
Gagarin and Nguyen 2012a Tra Ly River, Thai Bình Vietnam sand, 0.5 m deep ×
Gagarin and Nguyen 2012b same as Gagarin and Nguyen 2012a ×
Nguyen and Gagarin 2013a - - - ×
Nguyen and Gagarin 2013b - - - ×
Smol et al. 2014 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus pseudofervidus Shimada and Kajihara, 2014

Nomenclature: 

Etymology: adjective, pseudo (Latin, "fake") + Adoncholaimus fervidus (species name)

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Notes: 

Holotype: ICHUM (formerly ZIHU) 4184, Hokkaido University Museum, Sapporo, Japan

References: see Table 18

References of Adoncholaimus pseudofervidus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 Mukawa, Hokkaido, North Pacific Ocean Japan intertidal sessile bivalves ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus punctatus (Cobb, 1914) Filipjev, 1924

Nomenclature: 

Synonym: Oncholaimus punctatus Cobb, 1914

Etymology: adjective, punctatus, -a, -um (Latin, "pointed")

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 19

References of Adoncholaimus punctatus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F

Cobb 1914

(O. punctatus)

Cape Breton Island, North Atlantic Ocean Canada freshwater ponds ×

Steiner 1917

(O. punctatus)

- - - ×

Cobb 1918

(O. punctatus)

- - - ×

Micoletzky 1921

(O. punctatus)

- - - ×
Filipjev 1924 - - - ×
Menzel 1925 - - - ×

Imamura 1931

(O. punctatus)

Komaba, Tokyo Japan terrestrial soil ×
Kreis 1934 - - - ×
Chitwood 1951 - - - ×

Goodey 1951

(O. punctatus)

- - - ×
Wieser 1953 - - - ×
Paramonov 1962 - - - ×
Paramonov 1968 - - - ×
Rachor 1969 - - - ×
Gerlach and Riemann 1974 - - - ×
Tsalolikhin 1982 - - - ×

Esser and Buckingham 1987

(O. punctatus)

- - - ×
Smol and Coomans 2006 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus quadriporus Belogurova and Belogurov, 1974

Nomenclature: 

Etymology: appositive noun, quadri (Latin, "four") + porus (Latin, "pore")

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Notes: 

Holotype: Institute of Marine Biology of the Far Eastern Branch, USSR Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, USSR

References: see Table 20

References of Adoncholaimus quadriporus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F
Belogurova and Belogurov 1974 Itrup, Kuril Islands, North Pacific Ocean Russia intertidal sand among barnacles ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1977a - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1977d - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1978a - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1978b - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1979 - - - ×
Belogurova and Belogurov 1979 Kuril Islands, North Pacific Ocean Russia subtidal to intertidal, mud, sand, barnacles, polychaetes, and rhizoids of algae ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1988 - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1989 Far East Russia no data ×
Shoshin 2013 - - - ×
Smol et al. 2014 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus squalus (Wieser, 1953) Shimada and Kajihara, 2014

Nomenclature: 

Synonym: Metoncholaimoides squalus Wieser, 1953

incorrect subsequent spelling: Metoncholaimus squalus in Lorenzen (1976)

Etymology: appositive noun, squalus (Latin, a kind of shark)?

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 21

References of Adoncholaimus squalus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F

Wieser 1953

(M. squalus)

Punta Santa María; Canal FitzRoy, Strait of Magellan Chile intertidal sheltered algae and stones with rich sediment ×

Mawson 1958

(M. squalus)

Kerguelen Islands, Indian Ocean; Macquarie Island, South Pacific Ocean French Southern and Antarctic Lands intertidal mussel bank ×

Wieser 1958

(M. squalus)

- - - ×

Wieser 1959

(M. squalus)

same as Wieser 1953 ×

Hope and Murphy 1972

(M. squalus)

- - - ×

Gerlach and Riemann 1974

(M. squalus)

- - - ×

Galtsova 1976

(M. squalus)

- - - ×

Lorenzen 1976

(M. squalus)

- - - ×

Belogurov and Belogurova 1978a

(M. squalus)

- - - ×

Belogurov and Belogurova 1978b

(M. squalus)

- - - ×

Galtsova 1985

(M. squalus)

- - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1989

(M. squalus)

Far East Russia no data ×

Greenslade 1989

(M. squalus)

- - - ×

Pastor de Ward 1993

(M. squalus)

Deseado estuary, Santa Cruz, South Atlantic Ocean Argentina intertidal algae ×

Pastor de Ward 1998

(M. squalus)

Deseado estuary, Santa Cruz, South Atlantic Ocean Argentina algae ×

Smol and Coomans 2006

(M. squalus)

- - - ×

Ingels et al. 2014

(M. squalus)

- - - ×

Smol et al. 2014

(M. squalus)

- - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus thalassophygas (de Man, 1876) Filipjev, 1918

Nomenclature: 

Synonym: Oncholaimus thalassophygas de Man, 1876

Synonym: Adoncholaimus thalassophygas tvaerminneanus Schneider, 1926 = Oncholaimus lepidus sensu Schneider 1906 [by Filipjev (1929b)]

Etymology: appositive noun, θάλασσα (Greek, "sea") + Φυγάς (Greek, "fugitive")

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 22

References of Adoncholaimus thalassophygas. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; S, physiology; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F

de Man 1876b

(O. thalassophygas)

Walcheren, Middelburg, North Sea The Netherlands brackish soil among plant roots ×
de Man 1876a

(O. thalassophygas)

- - - ×
de Man 1881

(O. thalassophygas)

Walcheren, Middelburg, North Sea The Netherlands brackish soil among plant roots ×
de Man 1884

(O. thalassophygas)

same as de Man 1881 ×

de Man 1886

(O. thalassophygas)

- - - ×
de Man 1889b

(O. thalassophygas)

Walcheren, Middelburg, North Sea The Netherlands brackish soil among plant roots ×
von Linstow 1889

(O. thalassophygas)

- - - ×
von Linstow 1890

(O. thalassophygas)

- - - ×
Schneider 1906

(O. lepidus, O. thalassophygas)

Tvärminne, Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea Finland brackish ×
Ditlevsen 1911

(O. thalassophygas)

Hellerup, Øresund Denmark salt marsh plant roots ×
Vanhöffen 1917

(O. thalassophygas)

Vistula Lagoon, Baltic Sea Prussia brackish ×
Filipjev 1918 - - - ×
de Man 1919

(O. thalassophygas)

same as de Man 1884 ×
Micoletzky 1921

(O. thalassophygas)

- - - ×
de Man 1922a

(O. thalassophygas)

Urk, Zuiderzee, North Sea The Netherlands no data ×
Steiner 1922

(O. thalassophygas)

- - - ×
Filipjev 1924 - - - ×
Schneider 1925a

(O. thalassophygas)

Oldesloe, Holstein Germany saltwater spring ×
Schneider 1925b

(O. thalassophygas)

- - - ×
Riech 1926

(O. thalassophygas)

- - - ×

Schneider 1926

(A. t. tvaerminneanus)

Tvärminne, Finland Bay, Baltic Sea Finland brackish ×
Allgén 1927

(O. thalassophygas)

Barsebäck; Pilhaken, Øresund Sweden mud and green algae; 8–20 m deep ×
Ditlevsen 1927

(O. thalassophygas)

- - - ×
Riech 1927

(O. thalassophygas)

- - - ×
Schneider 1927a

(A. t. tvaerminneanus)

same as Schneider 1926 ×

Schneider 1927b

(A. t. tvaerminneanus)

same as Schneider 1926 ×
de Man 1928 Caen, Ouistreham, English Channel France brackish ×
Allgén 1929a same as Allgén 1929b ×
Allgén 1929b

(O. thalassophygas)

Hälsingborg, Øresund Sweden mud, plant roots, and algae ×
Allgén 1929c

(O. thalassophygas)

- - - ×
Filipjev 1929a Grande Izhora, Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea Russia brackish ×
Filipjev 1929b - - - ×
de Coninck 1930 Assels, Drongen; Zwyn, Knokke Belgium soil ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven 1930 - - - ×
Allgén 1931 - - - ×
de Coninck 1931 - - - ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven 1931 Huiden, Zuiderzee, North Sea The Netherlands marine and brackish ×
Schulz 1932 Kiel Bay, Baltic Sea Germany brackish sand ×
Allgén 1933 Trondheims Fjord, Norwegian Sea Norway coastal ×
de Coninck and Schuurmans Stekhoven 1933 Øresund Belgium brackish ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven 1933 - - - ×
Sick 1933

(O. thalassophygas)

Steiner Bay, Kiel Bay, Baltic Sea Germany brackish detritus and algae ×

von Wülker and Schuurmans Stekhoven 1933

(A. t. tvaerminneanus)

- - - ×
Allgén 1934a Skälderviken,Skåne, Kattegat Sweden brackish algae ×
Allgén 1934b Hallands Väderö; Torekow, Skåne, Kattegat Sweden among plants, 0.5 m deep; shallow water seaweeds ×
Allgén 1934c Trelleborg to Ystad, Baltic Sea Sweden brackish plant roots ×
Kreis 1934 - - - ×
Remane 1934 - - - ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven 1934 Lemster or Urk, Zuiderzee, North Sea The Netherlands brackish ×
Allgén 1935a Øresund Sweden cray, sand, stones, shells, sessile bivalves, plants and algae, 2–30 m deep ×
Allgén 1935b Föhr Island, North Sea Germany no data ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven 1935a Zuiderzee, North Sea The Netherlands no data ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven 1935b Zeebrugge, North Sea Belgium no data ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven et al. 1935 Zuiderzee, North Sea The Netherlands no data ×
Otto 1936 Kiel Bay, Baltic Sea Germany no data ×
Schulz 1936 Amrum, North Sea Germany sand ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven 1936a - - - ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven 1936b - - - ×
Schulz 1938 Amrum, North Sea Germany sand ×
Meuche 1939 Lake Sehlendorfer; Lake Waterneverstorfer Germany brackish ×
Schneider 1939 - - - ×
Bresslau and Schuurmans Stekhoven 1940 Heligoland, North Sea Germany archiannelids and algae ×
de Vos and Redeke 1941 - - - ×
Filipjev and Schuurmans Stekhoven 1941 - - - ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven 1942a Øresund Belgium no data ×
Allgén 1947a - - - ×
Allgén 1947b Hallands Väderö; Torekov, Kattegat Sweden algae and seagrass roots ×
Allgén 1947c - - - ×
Allgén 1949 Balestrand, Norwegian Sea Norway brackish ×
Gerlach 1949 Kiel Bay, Baltic Sea Germany sand, 1–100 m deep; otoplana zone ×
Allgén 1950b Trondheims Fjord, Norwegian Sea Norway algae, seagrasses, and shell sand ×
Goodey 1951

(O. thalassophygas)

- - - ×
Allgén 1953 Kristineberg to Fiskebäckskil, Skagerrak Sweden seagrasses ×
Gerlach 1953a Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea Finland sand, 1–1.5 m deep; otoplana zone ×
Gerlach 1953b North Sea; Baltic Sea; Selker Noor Germany sand; brackish sediment ×
Wieser 1953 - - - ×
Gerlach 1954b - - - ×
Gerlach 1954c - - - ×
Meyl 1954 Barnstorf Germany salt spring ×
Schuurmans Stekhoven 1954 - - - ×
Allgén 1955 - - - ×
Meyl 1955 Barnstorf; Sülldorf Germany salt spring ×
Paetzold 1955 - - - ×
Schütz and Kinne 1955 Kiel Channel Germany brackish ×
el Maghraby and Perkins 1956 Wave Crest, Whitstable, North Sea United Kingdom mud on slipway ×
Gerlach 1958 Flüggesand; Kieler Fjord, Baltic Sea Germany sand, 3–7 m deep ×
Paetzold 1958 Langen Rieth, Numburg Germany salt spring ×
Remane and Schlieper 1958 - - - ×
Allgén 1959 Cumberland, South Atlantic Ocean South Georgia Islands subtidal sediment with stones and algae ×
Capstick 1959 Blyth estuary, North Sea United Kingdom sediment ×
Gerlach 1959 - - - ×
Coles 1960 Skippers Island, Thorpe le Soken, Essex, North Sea United Kingdom brackish soil; marine mud ×
Loof and Oostenbrink 1961 - - - ×

Schütz 1963

(A. thalassophygas)

- - - ×
de Coninck 1965 - - - ×
Bilio 1966 - - - ×
Coles 1966 Skippers Island, Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex, North Sea United Kingdom mud ×
Riemann 1966 Brunsbüttel, Elbe estuary, North Sea Germany no data ×

Schütz 1966

(A. thalassophygas)

- - - ×
Andrássy 1967 - - - ×
Bilio 1967 - - - ×
von Thun 1967 - - - ×
Filipjev 1968 - - - ×
Lorenzen 1969 Meldorf, North Sea Germany no data ×
Rachor 1969 same as Rachor 1970 ×
Gysels 1970 - - - ×
Rachor 1970 Weser River, Bremerhaven, North Sea Germany bank ×
Gerlach 1971 - - - ×
Gerlach and Schrage 1971 - - - ×
Remane and Schlieper 1971 - - - ×
Skoolmun and Gerlach 1971 Weser estuary, North Sea Germany brackish sand ×
Warwick 1971 Exe estuary, English Channel United Kingdom mud ×
Gysels 1972b Groot Cat, Waasland, Overslag Belgium creak ×
Gysels 1972a same as Gysels 1972b ×
Ernst and Goerke 1974 - - - S
Gerlach and Riemann 1974 - - - ×
Goerke and Ernst 1975 North Sea Germany deep sea sediment S
Warwick and Gage 1975 Loch Etive, Scotland United Kingdom 0–2 m deep ×
Wildish 1976 - - - S
Gerlach 1977 Nivå, Øresund Denmark no data ×
Kinne 1977 - - - ×
Andrássy 1978 - - - ×
Lopez et al. 1979 Weser estuary, Bremerhaven, North Sea Germany intertidal diatom film, brackish ×
Zaika and Makarova 1979 - - - ×
Karl 1980 - - - S

Tsalolikhin 1980

(A. talassophygas)

Koporye, Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea Russia no data ×
Bouwman 1981 - - - ×
Lorenzen 1981a - - - ×
Lorenzen 1981b Tvärminne, Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea Finland brackish sand ×
Field et al. 1982 Exe estuary, English Channel United Kingdom mud, sand ×
Tsalolikhin 1982 - - - ×
van Meel 1982 - - - ×
Bouwman 1983 Ems estuary, North Sea The Netherlands sediment ×
Heip et al. 1983 - - - ×
Platt and Warwick 1983 - - - ×
Romeyn and Bouwman 1983 Ems estuary, North Sea The Netherlands no data ×
Schiemer et al. 1983 Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea Finland sand, 5 m deep; mud, 81 m deep ×
Bouwman et al. 1984 Nieuwe Statenzijl, Ems estuary, North Sea The Netherlands mud ×
Jensen 1984 Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea Finland subtidal ×

Eskin and Palmer 1985

(A. cf. thalassophygas)

North Inlet estuary, South Carolina, North Pacific Ocean United States mud without vegetation ×
Heip et al. 1985 - - - ×
Nuss 1985 - - - ×
Vranken et al. 1985 - - - ×
Coomans and Heyns 1986 - - - ×
Little 1986 Swanpool, Falmouth, English Channel United Kingdom brackish lagoon ×
Vranken and Heip 1986a - - - ×
Vranken and Heip 1986b - - - ×
Jensen 1987 - - - ×
Moore 1987 Firth of Forth, Scotland, North Sea United Kingdom brackish ×
Lopez 1988 - - - ×
Prein 1988 - - - ×

Riemann and Schrage 1988

Weser estuary, Bremerhaven, North Sea Germany intertidal mud ×
Coomans 1989 - - - ×
Furstenberg and Vincx 1989 - - - ×
Riemann et al. 1990 Bremerhaven, North Sea Germany intertidal mud, brackish ×
Trett and Feil 1990 - - - ×
Bongers et al. 1991 - - - ×
Hellwig-Armonies et al. 1991 - - - ×
Clarke 1993 same as Warwick 1971 ×
Warwick 1993 - - - ×
Essink and Romeyn 1994 Dollard, Westerwoldse Aa River, North Sea The Netherlands intertidal sand and mud ×
Lorenzen 1994 - - - ×
Kennedy 1995 Exe estuary, English Channel United Kingdom mud ×
Soetaert et al. 1995 Gironde, Bay of Biscay France subtidal sediment ×
Somerfield et al. 1995 - - - ×
Vopel and Arit 1995 Hiddensee Island, Baltic Sea Germany floating cyanobacterial mats, brackish ×
Blome 1996 Ems estuary; Dollart; Weser estuary, North Sea Germany intertidal sand ×
Blome and Faubel 1996 Brokdorf; Außendeich; Mühlenstraßen; Kaiser-Wuhelm-Koog, North Sea Germany sand and mud ×
Jensen 1996 - - - ×
Moens and Vincx 1997 Western Scheldt estuary, North Sea The Netherlands subtidal to high tide level, sand and mud ×
Ólafsson and Elmgren 1997 off Askö, Baltic Sea Sweden 37 m deep ×
Platt and Ball 1997 - - - ×
Attrill 1998 - - - ×
Essink and Keidel 1998 Westerwoldse Aa River, North Sea The Netherlands intertidal sand and mud ×
Perry and Aumann 1998 - - - ×
Moens et al. 1999b - - - ×
Moens et al. 1999d - - - ×
de Smet et al. 2001 - - - ×
Höss et al. 2001 - - - ×
Tchesunov 2001 - - - ×
Lee 2002 - - - ×
Haitzer et al. 2002 - - - ×
Riemann and Helmke 2002 Weser estuary, Bremerhaven, North Sea Germany intertidal, brackish ×
Wetzel et al. 2002 Fährinsel Island, Baltic Sea Germany macroalgal mats ×
Essink 2003 - - - ×
Steinberg 2003 - - - ×
Höckelmann et al. 2004 - - - ×
Robinson 2004 - - - ×
Arroyo et al. 2006 Åland Archipelago, Baltic Sea Finland subtidal sand ×
Moens et al. 2006 - - - ×
O'Halloran et al. 2006 - - - ×
Smol and Coomans 2006 - - - ×
Filip and Claus 2008 - - - ×
Arigó et al. 2009 Akrotiri Bay, Mediterranean Sea Cyprus sediment ×
Vandepitte et al. 2010 - - - ×
Ólafsson et al. 2013 Åland Archipelago, Baltic Sea Finland fine sediment with algae ×
Urban-Malinga et al. 2013 Vistula Lagoon, Baltic Sea Poland and Russia brackish, 27 m deep ×
Ingels et al. 2014 - - - ×
Kooijman 2014 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×
Urban-Malinga et al. 2014 Puck Bay, Baltic Sea Poland 0.7–0.8 m deep ×
Boufahja et al. 2015 - - - ×
Hannachi et al. 2015

(O. thalassophygas)

Wadi Henna Tunisia freshwater sediment ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus ussuriensis Mordukhovich et al., 2015

Nomenclature: 

Etymology: adjective, Ussury (type locality) + ensis, -is, -e (Latin, suffix)

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Notes: 

Holotype: MN UY 14-2 A1, Zoological Museum of Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

References: see Table 23

References of Adoncholaimus ussuriensis. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 Ussury Bay, Peter the Great Bay, Japan Sea Russia sand in subtidal seagrass bed ×

Adoncholaimus angustatus (Cobb, 1891) Filipjev, 1918

Nomenclature: 

Invalid: transferred to the genus Viscosia by Kreis (1934)

Synonym: Oncholaimus angustatus Cobb, 1891

Etymology: adjective, angustatus, -a, -um (Latin, "narrowed")

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 24

References of Adoncholaimus angustatus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy

Reference Collection T E M O C
Cobb 1891 Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F

Cobb 1891

(O. angustatus)

Indian Ocean Arabia sand ×
Filipjev 1918 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus austrogeorgiae Allgén, 1959

Nomenclature: 

Invalid: treated as a species inquirenda by Shimada and Kajihara (2014)

Etymology: genitive noun, Austrogeorgia (Latin, "South Georgia") + e (Latin, suffix)

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 25

References of Adoncholaimus austrogeorgiae. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F
Allgén 1959 Grytviken, South Georgia Island, South Atlantic Ocean South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands kelp rhizoids ×
Gerlach and Riemann 1974 - - - ×
Ingels et al. 2014 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus bandaensis Kreis, 1932

Nomenclature: 

Invalid: transferred to the genus Meyersia by Hopper (1967); see Meyersia bandaensis

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Adoncholaimus chilkensis (Stewart, 1914) Kreis, 1934

Nomenclature: 

Invalid: treated as a species inquirenda by Shimada and Kajihara (2014)

Synonym: Oncholaimus chilkensis Stewart, 1914

Etymology: adjective, Chilka (type locality) + ensis, -is, -e (Latin, suffix)

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Notes: 

Holotype: No. ZEV. 6237/7, Indian Museum, Kolkata, India

References: see Table 26

References of Adoncholaimus chilkensis. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F

Stewart 1914b

(O. chilkensis)

Chilka Lake, Madras, Bay of Bengal India filamentous algae ×
Annandale 1915

(O. chilkensis)

Chilka Lake, Madras, Bay of Bengal India sponges ×
Menzel 1925

(O. chilkensis)

- - - ×
Kreis 1932

(O. chilkensis)

- - - ×
Allgén 1934c

(O. chilkensis)

- - - ×
Kreis 1934 - - - ×
Baylis 1936

(O. chilkensis)

- - - ×
Panikkar and Aiyar 1937

(O. chilkensis)

- - - ×
Rachor 1969 - - - ×
Gerlach and Riemann 1974 - - - ×
Belogurov et al. 1980

(O. chilkensis)

- - - ×
Tsalolikhin 1982 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus chinensis Huang and Zhang, 2009

Nomenclature: 

Invalid: synonymized with Admirandus multicavus by Mordukhovich et al. (2015); see Admirandus multicavus

Etymology: adjective, China (type locality) + ensis, -is, -e (Latin, suffix)

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Notes: 

Holotype: LUH 001 (LUL 08801), Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China

Adoncholaimus falklandiae Allgén, 1959

Nomenclature: 

Invalid: treated as a species inquirenda by Shimada and Kajihara (2014)

Etymology: genitive noun, Falkland (type locality) + iae (Latin, suffix)

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 27

References of Adoncholaimus falklandiae. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F
Allgén 1959 Port William, East Falkland, South Atlantic Ocean Falkland Islands sand and algae, 40 m deep ×
Gerlach and Riemann 1974 - - - ×
Ingels et al. 2014 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×

Adoncholaimus meridionalis Kreis, 1932

Nomenclature: 

Invalid: transferred to the genus Meyersia by Hopper 1967; see Meyersia meridionalis

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Adoncholaimus nudus Kreis, 1932

Nomenclature: 

Invalid: transferred to the genus Kreisoncholaimus by Rachor (1969); see Kreisoncholaimus nudus

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Adoncholaimus papillatus Kreis, 1932

Nomenclature: 

Invalid: transferred to the genus Admirandus by Shimada and Kajihara (2014); see Admirandus papillatus

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Adoncholaimus skawensis (Ditlevsen, 1922) Allgén, 1933

Nomenclature: 

Invalid: transferred to the genus Oncholaimus again by Allgén (1935b)

Synonym: Oncholaimus skawensis Ditlevsen, 1922

Etymology: adjective, Skaw (type locality) + ensis, -is, -e (Latin, suffix)

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 28

References of Adoncholaimus skawensis. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F

Ditlevsen 1922

(O. skawensis)

Skaw, Skagen, Skagerrak or Kattegat Denmark algae, hydroids, and stones ×
Allgén 1933 Munkholmen; Tautra, Trondheim Norway 8–60 m deep ×

Adoncholaimus taboguillensis (Allgén, 1947) Wieser, 1953

Nomenclature: 

Invalid: treated as a species inquirenda by Shimada and Kajihara (2014)

Synonym: Viscosia taboguillensis Allgén, 1947

Etymology: adjective, Taboguilla (type locality) + ensis, -is, -e (Latin, suffix)

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 29

References of Adoncholaimus taboguillensis. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F

Allgén 1947a

(V. taboguillensis)

Taboguilla Island, Bay of Panama, North Pacific Ocean Panama coral ×

Allgén 1951

(V. taboguillensis)

Contadora Island, Bay of Panama, North Pacific Ocean Panama sand and stone, 8–10 m deep ×
Wieser 1953 - - - ×
Gerlach and Riemann 1974 - - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×

Genus Admirandus Belogurov and Belogurova, 1979

Nomenclature: 

Etymology: masculine noun, admirandus, -a, -um (Latin, "remarkable";"wonderful")?

Type species: Admirandus multicavus Belogurov and Belogurova, 1979

Valid three species: A. multicavus; A. belogurovi Tchesunov et al., 2010; A. papillatus (Kreis, 1932) Shimada and Kajihara, 2014

The genus name was published in Belogurov and Belogurova (1977a), Belogurov and Belogurova (1977d), Belogurov and Belogurova (1978a), Belogurov and Belogurova (1978b) prior to original description, but had been unavailable before Belogurov and Belogurova 1979 [Article 13.1 of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999)]

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Notes: 

Original description: Belogurov and Belogurova (1979)

Revisions and reviews of the genus: Belogurov and Belogurova (1977b), Belogurov and Belogurova (1977a), Belogurov and Belogurova (1978b), Belogurov and Belogurova (1978a), Belogurov and Belogurova (1988), Belogurov and Belogurova (1989), Tchesunov et al. (2010), Smol et al. (2014), Mordukhovich et al. (2015)

Admirandus multicavus Belogurov and Belogurova, 1979

Nomenclature: 

Etymology: appositive noun, multi (Latin, "many") + cavus, -a, -um (Latin, "hole")

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Notes: 

Holotype: MN-92, Department of Zoology, Far Eastern State University, Vladivostok, USSR

References: see Table 30

References of Admirandus multicavus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F
Belogurov and Belogurova 1978a - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1978b - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1979 Slavyanka, Japan Sea Russia sand and gravel in lagoon ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1988 - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1989 Far East Russia no data ×
Pavlyuk et al. 2007a Amur Bay, Japan Sea Russia intertidal ×
Pavlyuk et al. 2007b same as Pavlyuk et al. 2007a ×
Ivanova et al. 2008 Amur Bay, Japan Sea Russia brackish sediment ×
Pavlyuk and Trebukhova 2008 Amur Bay, Japan Sea Russia subtidal sediment ×

Huang and Zhang 2009

(A. chinensis)

Lianyungang to Rizhao, Yellow Sea China intertidal muddy sand ×
Ivanova et al. 2009 Russky Island, Japan Sea Russia intertidal ×
Belogurova 2010 Amur Bay; Kozmino; Russky Island, Japan Sea Russia intertidal to subtidal ×
Tchesunov et al. 2010 - - - ×
Shoshin 2013 - - - ×
Smol et al. 2014 - - - ×

Shimada and Kajihara 2014

(A. chinensis)

- - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Admirandus belogurovi Tchesunov et al., 2010

Nomenclature: 

Etymology: genitive noun, O.I. Belogurov (person) + i (Latin, suffix)

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Notes: 

Holotype: Department of Nematology, Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR), Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam

References: see Table 31

References of Admirandus belogurovi. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F
Tchesunov et al. 2010 Be estuary, Nha Trang Bay, South China Sea Vietnam intertidal silty sand among mangrove ×
Mokievsky et al. 2011a Be estuary, Nha Trang Bay, South China Sea Vietnam intertidal silty sand among mangrove ×
Mokievsky et al. 2011b same as Mokievsky et al. 2011a ×
Smol et al. 2014 - - - ×
Mordukhovich et al. 2015 - - - ×

Admirandus papillatus (Kreis, 1932) Shimada and Kajihara, 2014

Nomenclature: 

Synonym: Adoncholaimus papillatus Kreis, 1932

Etymology: adjective, papillatus, -a, -um (Latin, "having papillae")

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 32

References of Admirandus papillatus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F

Kreis 1932

(A. papillatus)

Batavia, Java Sea; Saparua Island, Banda Sea (in Micoletzky and Kreis 1930) Indonesia mud; algae in rocky shore ×

Kreis 1934

(A. papillatus)

same as Kreis 1932 ×

Gerlach and Riemann 1974

(A. papillatus)

- - - ×

Furstenberg and Vincx 1989

(A. papillatus)

Sundays estuary, Indian Ocean South Africa brackish, intertidal ×

Smol and Coomans 2006

(A. papillatus)

- - - ×
Shimada and Kajihara 2014 - - - ×

Genus Kreisoncholaimus Rachor, 1969

Nomenclature: 

Etymology: masculine noun, H.A. Kreis (person) + genus Oncholaimus

Type and only valid species: Kreisoncholaimus nudus (Kreis, 1932) Rachor, 1969

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Notes: 

Original description: Rachor (1969)

Revisions and reviews of genus: Gerlach and Riemann (1974), Belogurov and Belogurova (1977a), Belogurov and Belogurova (1977d), Belogurov and Belogurova (1978a), Belogurov and Belogurova (1978b), Belogurov and Belogurova (1988), Belogurov and Belogurova (1989), Keppner and Tarjan (1989), Smol and Coomans (2006), Smol et al. (2014)

Kreisoncholaimus nudus (Kreis, 1932) Rachor, 1969

Nomenclature: 

Synonym: Adoncholaimus nudus Kreis, 1932

Etymology: adjective, nudus, -a, -um (Latin, "naked")

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Notes: 

Holotype: unknown

References: see Table 33

References of Kreisoncholaimus nudus. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F

Kreis 1932

(A. nudus)

Saparua Island, Banda Sea (in Micoletzky and Kreis 1930) Indonesia algae in rocky shore ×
Kreis 1934

(A. nudus)

same as Kreis 1932 ×
Rachor 1969 - - - ×
Rachor 1970 - - - ×
Hope and Murphy 1972 - - - ×
Gerlach and Riemann 1974 - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1978a - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1978b - - - ×
Chabaud et al. 1983 - - - ×
Belogurov and Belogurova 1988 - - - ×
Smol and Coomans 2006 - - - ×
Smol et al. 2014 - - - ×

Genus Meyersia Hopper, 1967

Nomenclature: 

Etymology: feminine noun, S.P. Meyers (person) + ia (Latin, prefix)

Type species: Meyersia major Hopper, 1967

Valid five species: M. major; M. bandaensis (Kreis, 1932) Hopper, 1967; M. japonica Yoshimura, 1982; M. meridionalis (Kreis, 1932) Hopper, 1967; M. minor Hopper, 1967

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Notes: 

Original description: Hopper (1967)

Revisions and reviews of genus: Rachor (1969), Gerlach and Riemann (1974), Belogurov and Belogurova (1977b), Belogurov and Belogurova (1977d), Belogurov and Belogurova (1977c), Belogurov and Belogurova (1977a), Belogurov and Belogurova (1978b), Belogurov and Belogurova (1978a), Platt and Warwick (1983), Belogurov and Belogurova (1988), Belogurov and Belogurova (1989), Keppner and Tarjan (1989), Smol and Coomans (2006), Smol et al. (2014)

Collection records of unidentified species (Meyersia sp.): see Table 34

References of unidentified species in Meyersia. Abbreviations: C, citation; D, description; E, ecology; F, feeding and culture; G, genus diagnosis; L, species list of genus; M, morphology; N, DNA taxonomy; O, other experiment; P, population and fauna; R, taxonomic revision; T, taxonomy.

Reference Collection T E M O C
Locality Country Habitat D G R L N P F
Gourbault et al. 1995 Moorea Island, South Pacific Ocean French Polynesia intertidal coral sand ×
Villano and Warwick 1995 Palude della Rose, Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea Italy sediment ×
Warwick and Villano 2000 same as Villano and Warwick 1995