Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic Paper
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Taxonomic Paper
An update to the taxonomy and distribution of the Arabian Tapinoma Foerster, 1850 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with an illustrated key and remarks on habitats
expand article infoMahmoud M Abdel-Dayem‡,§, Hathal Mohammed Al Dhafer|,, Abdulrahman S Aldawood, Mostafa R Sharaf
‡ Plant Protection Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
§ Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
| King Saud University, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Open Access

Abstract

Background

Tapinoma Foerster belongs to the ant subfamily Dolichoderinae and the vast majority of its species are arboreal or generalised foragers. The genus is composed of 70 described species, 22 known subspecies and six valid fossil species worldwide, while from the Arabian Peninsula, three species have been recorded so far.

New information

Ants of the genus Tapinoma of the Arabian Peninsula are reviewed, keyed and illustrated, based on the worker caste. Three species are diagnosed, T. melanocephalum (Fabricius, 1793), T. simrothi Krausse, 1911 and T. wilsoni Sharaf & Aldawood, 2012. We present the first illustrated key to the Arabian Tapinoma, enhanced by automontage images to facilitate species recognition. New distributional data for species are presented, based on recently-collected material from the region and literature records. Information on habitats' preference and biology of species are given.

Keywords

Afrotropical Region, Dolichoderinae, endemic, Middle East

Introduction

The Arabian Peninsula, in western Asia, covers a surface area of 3.2 million km2 comprising Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Yemen (Fig. 1). It turns out to be a very interesting biogeographic area, since it straddles the Afrotropical, the Palaearctic and, to a lesser extent, the Oriental realms (Larsen 1984, Hölzel 1998). With its location at the interchange of three biogeographic realms, the Arabian Peninsula shares faunal elements from those three Regions (Zunino and Zullini 1995, Abdel-Dayem et al. 2018, Abdel-Dayem et al. 2019, Ziani et al. 2019, Abdel-Dayem et al. 2020, Letardi et al. 2020). Several faunistic contributions have shed light on zoogeography of the Arabian ants, indicating the predominance of Afrotropical species in the south-western mountains of the Arabian Peninsula and extending southwards to Yemen and eastwards to the Dhofar Province of Oman. While the species from the Palearctic prevail outside this mountainous range including the vast desert regions of the central and northern Arabia, in addition to the countries of the eastern region (Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, Qatar and UAE) (Collingwood 1985, Collingwood and Agosti 1996, Collingwood et al. 1997, Collingwood et al. 2011, Sharaf et al. 2014, Sharaf et al. 2018, Sharaf et al. 2020a, Sharaf et al. 2020b, Sharaf et al. 2021).

Figure 1.  

Map of the Arabian Peninsula.

The genus Tapinoma was described with the type-species T. collina (junior synonym of Tapinoma erraticum), by monotypy (Foerster 1850). With 71 described species, 24 known subspecies and six valid fossil species, Tapinoma is one of the largest genera of the subfamily Dolichoderinae (Bolton 2021). The vast majority of species are arboreal (Shattuck 1992) or generalised foragers (Brown 2000), with a remarkable preference for attending honeydew-producing insects (Venkataramaiah and Rehman 1989).

The genus was recorded and keyed for the first time from the Arabian Peninsula by two species, Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius 1793) and T. simrothi Krausse 1911, collected from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and Oman (Collingwood 1985). The faunal study of the ant species of the Arabian Peninsula (Collingwood and Agosti 1996) reported T. melanocephalum from Yemen and T. simrothi from Kuwait and Yemen. Tapinoma melanocephalum and T. simrothi were collected from UAE by Collingwood et al. (1997), Collingwood et al. (2011). The rare species T. wilsoni Sharaf & Aldawood, 2012 was described from the Al Sarawat Mountains of Saudi Arabia, based on the worker caste (Sharaf et al. 2012). Recently, Al-keridis et al. (2021) described the queen of T. wilsoni and presented the first key of the Arabian Tapinoma, based on the queen caste. More recently, Sharaf et al. (2020b) reported T. melanocephalum and T. simrothi from the State of Qatar.

Tapinoma melanocephalum and T. simrothi, are widely spread either in urban sites or wild habitats of the Arabian Peninsula, including agricultural fields and date palm farms (Collingwood 1985). The two species are frequently collected by research projects concerned with the environment and agriculture of the Region (Sharaf et al. 2012). Due to the documented relationships between numerous dolichoderine ants (e.g. T. simrothi) and a wide range of sap-sucking insects, such as mealybugs (e.g. Sharaf and Aldawood 2011, Xu et al. 2019) and aphids (e.g. Addicott 1978, Venkataramaiah and Rehman 1989), ecological and biological studies of these ant species are necessary from an agricultural perspective, since it is likely that they contribute in the protection and distribution of such agricultural pests.

The aims of this study are to provide an illustrated key to facilitate Tapinoma species recognition, study the geographical distribution of species and give notes on species habitat preference.

Materials and methods

In total, 457 specimens were collected from countries of the Arabian Peninsula (Suppl. material 1) using different collecting techniques including hand picking (HP), Light trap (LT), Malaise trap (MT), pitfall trap (PT), sifting tray (SF), sweeping net (SW) and Yellow Pan trap (YPT). Specimens were examined using a stereomicroscope Leica M205 with an optical resolution of 0.952 µm, 20.5:1 zoom, 7.8x to 160x magnification and up to 1050 lp/mm resolution (with 2.0x objective). Digital colour images of each species were taken using a Leica DFC450 digital camera with a Leica Z16 APO microscope and LAS (v.3.8) software. The images are available online on AntWeb (http://www.AntWeb.org) and are accessible through unique specimen identifiers (e.g. CASENT0906356). The species names follow the online catalogue of ants of the world (Bolton 2021). Distribution maps were made using DIVA-GIS (version 7.5.0.0). Throughout the work, “w” stands for worker/workers, “q” for queen castes.

Abbreviations of Museums

BMNH, The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom.

CASC, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA.

KSMA, King Saud University Museum of Arthropods, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

JWPC, James Wetterer Private Collection, Wilkes Honors College, Florida Atlantic University, 5353 Parkside Drive, Jupiter, FL 33458, USA

WMLC, World Museum Liverpool, Liverpool, U.K.

Taxon treatments

Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius, 1793)

Nomenclature

Formica melanocephala Fabricius, 1793: 353 (w.) [Note: neotype w. designated by: Guerrero 2018: 499. Colombia: Magdalena. Guerrero, 2018: 499, also nominates “paraneotypes”. Under ICZN rules no such category exists.] French Guiana. Neotropic.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Oman
    ; locality:
    Qurayat
    ; verbatimElevation:
    39 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    23.2046
    ; decimalLongitude:
    58.9692
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2016-04-08
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Mostafa Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2016
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  2. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Oman
    ; locality:
    Ayn Hamran
    ; verbatimElevation:
    106 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    17.09952
    ; decimalLongitude:
    54.28403
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Sweeping
    ; eventDate:
    2017-11-20
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Mostafa Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  3. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Oman
    ; locality:
    Ayn Hamran
    ; verbatimElevation:
    56 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    17.08631
    ; decimalLongitude:
    54.28043
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Sifting try
    ; eventDate:
    2017-11-22
    ; individualCount:
    10
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Mostafa Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  4. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Oman
    ; locality:
    Ayn Sahlanot
    ; verbatimElevation:
    151 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    17.14766
    ; decimalLongitude:
    54.17878
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Malaise trap
    ; eventDate:
    2017-11-16
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Mostafa Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
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  5. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Oman
    ; locality:
    Dhalkout
    ; verbatimElevation:
    34 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    16.70703
    ; decimalLongitude:
    53.25068
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
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    ; samplingProtocol:
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    ; eventDate:
    2017-11-19
    ; individualCount:
    11
    ; sex:
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    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Mostafa Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
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    en
    ; collectionCode:
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    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
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    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  6. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Oman
    ; locality:
    Dhalkout
    ; verbatimElevation:
    43 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    16.70492
    ; decimalLongitude:
    53.24453
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Sifting try
    ; eventDate:
    2017-11-18
    ; individualCount:
    7
    ; sex:
    worker
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    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Mostafa Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
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    2017
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  7. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Oman
    ; locality:
    Dhalkout Rd., Aghbaroot Village
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1034 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    16.79818
    ; decimalLongitude:
    53.55392
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Sifting try
    ; eventDate:
    2017-11-18
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Mostafa Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  8. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Oman
    ; locality:
    El-Ebreien
    ; verbatimElevation:
    903 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    23.14069
    ; decimalLongitude:
    57.31261
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2017-01-21
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Mostafa Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  9. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Oman
    ; locality:
    Alraha Village
    ; verbatimElevation:
    74 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    23.56665
    ; decimalLongitude:
    58.1763
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2017-01-18
    ; individualCount:
    8
    ; sex:
    worker
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    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Mostafa Sharaf
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    Mostafa R. Sharaf
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    2017
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  10. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Oman
    ; locality:
    Muscat
    ; verbatimElevation:
    81 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    23.6176
    ; decimalLongitude:
    58.49364
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2016-04-07
    ; individualCount:
    6
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Mostafa Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2016
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  11. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Oman
    ; locality:
    Salalah
    ; decimalLatitude:
    17.02
    ; decimalLongitude:
    54.08
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    none specified
    ; eventDate:
    1905-06-07
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    M. Gallagher
    ; identifiedBy:
    Cedric A. Collingwood
    ; dateIdentified:
    1988
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    WMLC
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  12. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Oman
    ; locality:
    Wahiba Sands
    ; decimalLatitude:
    21.33
    ; decimalLongitude:
    59.13
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    none specified
    ; eventDate:
    1905-06-06
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    M. Gallagher
    ; identifiedBy:
    Cedric A. Collingwood
    ; dateIdentified:
    1988
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    WMLC
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  13. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Oman
    ; locality:
    Alkhoud Village
    ; verbatimElevation:
    63 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    23.57154
    ; decimalLongitude:
    58.12166
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2017-01-19
    ; individualCount:
    5
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Mostafa Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  14. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Oman
    ; locality:
    Fanga
    ; verbatimElevation:
    166 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    23.45336
    ; decimalLongitude:
    58.11807
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2017-01-20
    ; individualCount:
    4
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Mostafa Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2017
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  15. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Oman
    ; locality:
    Nakhl
    ; verbatimElevation:
    322 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    23.38803
    ; decimalLongitude:
    57.82937
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2016-04-02
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Mostafa Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2016
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  16. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Qatar
    ; locality:
    Rawdet Rashed
    ; decimalLatitude:
    25.233433
    ; decimalLongitude:
    51.204767
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2005-03-12
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Mahmoud Abdel-Dayem
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2005
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  17. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Wadi Bagara
    ; verbatimElevation:
    436 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    18.79287
    ; decimalLongitude:
    42.01857
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2012-11-10
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Mostafa Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2012
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  18. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    United Arab Emirates
    ; locality:
    Palm Deira
    ; decimalLatitude:
    25.276
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.3
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    none specified
    ; eventDate:
    2012-05-16
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    James Wetterer
    ; identifiedBy:
    James K. Wetterer
    ; dateIdentified:
    2012
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    JWPC
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  19. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    United Arab Emirates
    ; locality:
    Al-Jubail
    ; decimalLatitude:
    25.351
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.382
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    none specified
    ; eventDate:
    2012-05-16
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    James Wetterer
    ; identifiedBy:
    James K. Wetterer
    ; dateIdentified:
    2012
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    JWPC
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  20. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Yemen
    ; locality:
    Dehejamo
    ; verbatimElevation:
    563 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    12.59049
    ; decimalLongitude:
    54.05205
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    none specified
    ; eventDate:
    2014-04-22
    ; individualCount:
    9
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Mostafa Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  21. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Yemen
    ; locality:
    Dixam, Wadi Zereg
    ; verbatimElevation:
    279 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    12.46868
    ; decimalLongitude:
    54.01091
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-04-24
    ; individualCount:
    6
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Mostafa Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  22. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Yemen
    ; locality:
    Himihil Protectorate
    ; verbatimElevation:
    372 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    12.57615
    ; decimalLongitude:
    54.30651
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-04-23
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Mostafa Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  23. scientificName:
    Tapinoma melanocephalum
    ; country:
    Yemen
    ; locality:
    Lehanoh
    ; verbatimElevation:
    931 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    12.57583
    ; decimalLongitude:
    54.04836
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-04-22
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Mostafa Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen

Diagnosis

Worker. This is an easily recognised species by its bicoloured body (Fig. 2a, b), with head and mesosoma pale brown to dark brown, antennae, maxillary palps and mandibles pale brown to yellow, gaster and legs pale yellow. Head in full-face view with scapes, when laid back from their insertions, surpass posterior margin of head (Fig. 2c); eyes located in front of mid-length of head (Fig. 2c). The size is small (1.20–1.90 mm) and mesosoma is without dorsal hairs.

Figure 2.

Tapinoma melanocephalum, CASENT0922277, Michele Esposito, AntWeb.org.

abody in profile.  
bbody in dorsal view.  
chead in full-face view.  
Previous records: 

KUWAIT: Kuwait City, 29.37°N, 47.98°E (Collingwood and Agosti 1996). OMAN: Hawiyah, 22.39°N, 58.85°E (Collingwood 1988); Mintirib, 22.56°N, 58.03°E (Collingwood 1988); Salalah, 17.02°N, 54.08°E (Collingwood 1988); Umm Qishrib, (Collingwood 1988); Wahiba Sands, 21.33°N, 59.13°E (Collingwood 1985). QATAR: Rawdet Rashed, 25°14.006’N, 51°12.286’E (Sharaf et al. 2020b). SA: Hofuf (Collingwood 1985); Al Qatif, (Collingwood 1985). UAE: Abu Dhabi, Al-Ain, 24.13°N, 55.80°E (Collingwood et al. 2011); Abu Dhabi, Al-Ajban, 24.56°N, 55.34°E (Collingwood et al. 2011); Sharjah, Sharjah Desert Park, 25.28°N, 55.70°E (Collingwood et al. 2011). YEMEN: Aden Chalet, 12.83°N, 45.00°E (Collingwood and Agosti 1996); Socotra Is., Hoq, 12.60°N, 54.35°E (Collingwood et al. 2004); Socotra Is., Wadi Daneghan, 12.62°N, 54.07°E (Collingwood et al. 2004); Socotra Is., Goeeh, 12.53°N, 54.17°E (Collingwood et al. 2004); Socotra Is., Farmihin, 12.53°N, 53.93°E (Collingwood et al. 2004); Socotra Is., Dirhashas, 12.53°N, 53.86°E (Collingwood et al. 2004); Socotra Is., Homhil, 12.57°N, 54.32°E (Collingwood et al. 2004); Lahj, 13.06°N, 44.88°E (Collingwood and van Harten 2001); Al Kowd, 13.09°N, 45.37°E (Collingwood and van Harten 2001); Mayfa'ah, 14.33°N, 46.00°E (Collingwood and van Harten 2001).

Distribution

Tapinoma melanocephalum is a widely distributed invasive species that is spread by human commerce especially in the Tropics and Subtropics of the Old and New Worlds (Wetterer 2009) with an unknown native range. The species is widely spread in several countries of the Arabian Peninsula, including SA and Oman (Collingwood 1985), Yemen (Collingwood and Agosti 1996), UAE (Collingwood et al. 1997), the Socotra Archipelago (Sharaf et al. 2017) and, recently, it has been reported from Qatar (Sharaf et al. 2020b).

Ecology

The species inhabits a broad range of habitats worldwide (Sharaf et al. 2017), including both humid and dry soil of wild and urban localities, in homes, restaurants, hospitals, well-heated buildings and greenhouses (Wetterer 2009), under bark and stones, in leaf litter and sometimes nests are built in walls and potted plants indoors (Smith and Whitman 1992, Ellison et al. 2012), in moist soil of lawn and grasses and under debris (Oster and Wilson 1978) or in opportunistic places (Hölldobler and Wilson 1990). In the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen), the species was observed foraging on a tree located on a mountainside next to a stream drainage where the soil was moist and the area was dominated by the ponerine ant, Brachyponera sennaarensis (Mayr, 1862) and Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Pteridaceae) (Sharaf et al. 2017). It also inhabits localities rich in organic matter of animal faeces in date palm plantations (Phoenix dactylifera L.) (Sharaf et al. 2017). Workers attend honeydew-excreting insects for honeydew (Venkataramaiah and Rehman 1989) and also feed on both dead and live insects and when disturbed workers are running erratically and rapidly. (Smith 1965).

Tapinoma simrothi Krausse, 1911

Nomenclature

Tapinoma erraticum var. simrothi Krausse, 1911a: 18 (w.) Italy (Sardinia). Palearctic.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Khobar, Prince Sultan Palace
    ; verbatimElevation:
    8 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    26.34625
    ; decimalLongitude:
    50.2177
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2013-12-20
    ; individualCount:
    9
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  2. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Qatif, Ar Rimal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    26.49865
    ; decimalLongitude:
    50.00488
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2013-12-17
    ; individualCount:
    5
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  3. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Buraydah
    ; verbatimElevation:
    633 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    26.2159
    ; decimalLongitude:
    44.041383
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2011-09-17
    ; individualCount:
    9
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    M.R. Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2011
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  4. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Afif
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1052 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    23.90005
    ; decimalLongitude:
    42.88075
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2015-01-17
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  5. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Al Aflag, Layla
    ; verbatimElevation:
    562 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    22.23719
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.69951
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-01-21
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  6. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Al Ghat
    ; verbatimElevation:
    670 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    26.02495
    ; decimalLongitude:
    44.9365
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-06-07
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  7. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Al Ghat
    ; verbatimElevation:
    679 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    26.02219
    ; decimalLongitude:
    44.9876
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-09-13
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  8. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Al Ghat
    ; verbatimElevation:
    653 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    26.06582
    ; decimalLongitude:
    44.91929
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2015-10-31
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  9. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Al Hayer
    ; verbatimElevation:
    587 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.55755
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.74115
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2013-10-09
    ; individualCount:
    6
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    M.R. Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  10. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Al Hayer
    ; verbatimElevation:
    467 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.54645
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.74156
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-04-11
    ; individualCount:
    4
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  11. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Al Kharj
    ; verbatimElevation:
    453 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.1436
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.24252
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-01-19
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  12. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Al Kharj
    ; verbatimElevation:
    451 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.29615
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.15553
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-09-08
    ; individualCount:
    9
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  13. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Ammariya
    ; verbatimElevation:
    633 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    23.8333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    45
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2008-07-07
    ; individualCount:
    17
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    M.R. Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2008
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  14. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Dirab
    ; verbatimElevation:
    604 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.41867
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.65408
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-09-18
    ; individualCount:
    5
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  15. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Hawtat Bani Tamim
    ; verbatimElevation:
    582 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    23.45943
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.81895
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2015-02-19
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  16. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Hawtat Sudayr
    ; verbatimElevation:
    732 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    25.59162
    ; decimalLongitude:
    45.61245
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2015-01-31
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  17. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Huraymila
    ; verbatimElevation:
    785 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    25.127861
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.088278
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2011-02-07
    ; individualCount:
    9
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    M.R. Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2011
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  18. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Huraymila
    ; verbatimElevation:
    791 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    25.12799
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.11783
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-02-22
    ; individualCount:
    4
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  19. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Huraymila
    ; verbatimElevation:
    785 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    25.09757
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.10106
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-02-22
    ; individualCount:
    9
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  20. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Huraymila
    ; verbatimElevation:
    786 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    25.12037
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.12265
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-02-22
    ; individualCount:
    5
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  21. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Huraymila
    ; verbatimElevation:
    771 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    25.12636
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.15782
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-02-22
    ; individualCount:
    4
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  22. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Huraymila
    ; verbatimElevation:
    801 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    25.09358
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.08141
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-02-22
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  23. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    King Saud University Campus
    ; verbatimElevation:
    687 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.716667
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.616667
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2009-10-19
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    M.R. Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2009
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  24. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    King Saud University Campus
    ; verbatimElevation:
    687 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.716667
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.616667
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2013-03-15
    ; individualCount:
    18
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  25. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    King Saud University Campus
    ; verbatimElevation:
    671 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.721683
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.622083
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2013-03-11
    ; individualCount:
    28
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  26. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    King Saud University Campus
    ; verbatimElevation:
    681 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.72185
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.621183
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2013-03-07
    ; individualCount:
    8
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  27. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Majmaa
    ; verbatimElevation:
    722 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    25.91771
    ; decimalLongitude:
    45.33556
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-06-05
    ; individualCount:
    4
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  28. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Majmaa
    ; verbatimElevation:
    746 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    25.93117
    ; decimalLongitude:
    45.35802
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-09-13
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  29. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Malham
    ; verbatimElevation:
    711 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    25.15427
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.28214
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-09-15
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  30. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Mozahmyia
    ; verbatimElevation:
    677 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.45125
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.20202
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-01-25
    ; individualCount:
    9
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  31. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Mozahmyia
    ; verbatimElevation:
    641 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.46553
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.2201
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-01-25
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  32. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Mozahmyia
    ; verbatimElevation:
    648 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.48388
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.26317
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-01-25
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  33. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Na'jan
    ; verbatimElevation:
    513 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.06858
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.1725
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-12-13
    ; individualCount:
    6
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  34. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Oyaina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    749 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.90665
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.389917
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2010-04-28
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    M.R. Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2010
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  35. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Riyadh City, Al Emam University
    ; verbatimElevation:
    650 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.81658
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.71162
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-09-08
    ; individualCount:
    15
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  36. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Shaqra
    ; verbatimElevation:
    728 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    25.26655
    ; decimalLongitude:
    45.26779
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-05-30
    ; individualCount:
    5
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  37. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Shaqra
    ; verbatimElevation:
    891 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    25.12131
    ; decimalLongitude:
    45.48365
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2015-01-23
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  38. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Tebrak
    ; verbatimElevation:
    724 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.32406
    ; decimalLongitude:
    45.47128
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-11-29
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  39. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Thadiq
    ; verbatimElevation:
    735 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    25.2936
    ; decimalLongitude:
    45.87102
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-04-26
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  40. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Wadi El Dawaser
    ; verbatimElevation:
    706 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    20.49008
    ; decimalLongitude:
    44.76018
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-01-22
    ; individualCount:
    6
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  41. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Wadi El Dawaser
    ; verbatimElevation:
    686 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    22.7774
    ; decimalLongitude:
    44.78624
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2015-02-22
    ; individualCount:
    5
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  42. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Wadi El Dawaser
    ; verbatimElevation:
    694 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    22.47942
    ; decimalLongitude:
    44.78839
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2015-02-22
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  43. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Wadi Hanifa
    ; verbatimElevation:
    633 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.658983
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.60345
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2010-01-15
    ; individualCount:
    6
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    M.R. Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2010
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  44. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Wadi Hanifa
    ; verbatimElevation:
    641 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.67088
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.59513
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2013-04-11
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    M.R. Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  45. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Wadi Hanifa
    ; verbatimElevation:
    654 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.67089
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.58061
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Pitfall trap
    ; eventDate:
    2014-02-14
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  46. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Wadi Hanifa
    ; verbatimElevation:
    684 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.74123
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.56113
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Pitfall trap
    ; eventDate:
    2014-09-18
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  47. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Wadi Hanifa
    ; verbatimElevation:
    674 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.73507
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.57518
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Pitfall trap
    ; eventDate:
    2014-09-18
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  48. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Wadi Janadriya
    ; verbatimElevation:
    603 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.8773
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.82031
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2014-11-19
    ; individualCount:
    4
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  49. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Wadi Qarina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    633 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    25.9365
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.833
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Pitfall trap
    ; eventDate:
    2009-11-05
    ; individualCount:
    4
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    M.R. Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2009
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  50. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Zulfi
    ; verbatimElevation:
    635 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    26.27192
    ; decimalLongitude:
    44.77071
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Pitfall trap
    ; eventDate:
    2014-01-18
    ; individualCount:
    4
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  51. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Zulfi
    ; verbatimElevation:
    623 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    26.27996
    ; decimalLongitude:
    44.80443
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Pitfall trap
    ; eventDate:
    2014-01-18
    ; individualCount:
    12
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2014
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  52. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Oyaina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    749 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    24.90665
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.389917
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2010-04-28
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    queen
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    M.R. Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2010
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  53. scientificName:
    Tapinoma simrothi
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Wadi El Dawaser
    ; verbatimElevation:
    686 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    22.7774
    ; decimalLongitude:
    44.78624
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2015-02-22
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    queen
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Salman
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen

Diagnosis

Worker. Head in full-face view with strongly convex sides and nearly straight posterior margin (Fig. 3c); anterior central margin with a median well-defined notch, deeper than broad; with head in full-face view, scape surpassing posterior margin of head by about one third of its length (Fig. 3c); metanotal groove distinct (Fig. 3a); propodeal dorsum short, meeting declivity at an obtuse angle; colour uniform dark brown to black, tarsi yellow-brown; whole body covered with appressed pubescence (Fig. 3a, b).

Figure 3.

Tapinoma simrothi, CASENT0263927, Estella Ortega, AntWeb.org.

abody in profile.  
bbody in dorsal view.  
chead in full-face view.  
Previous records: 

KUWAIT: Failaka Island; Kuwait; Wadi Umm al-Rumam (Collingwood & Agosti 1996). OMAN: Wahiba Sands (Collingwood 1985). SA: Al Qatif (Collingwood 1985). UAE: Al-Ain (Collingwood et al. 2011). YEMEN: AI-Mahwit (Collingwood and Agosti 1996).

Distribution

A Palearctic species (Borowiec 2014) originally described from Italy. It is a broadly distributed species in the Arabian Peninsula (Collingwood 1985, Collingwood and Agosti 1996, Collingwood et al. 2011, Sharaf et al. 2018), Egypt (Sharaf 2006), Iran (Pashaei Rad et al. 2018) and Turkey (Kiran and Karaman 2012).

Ecology

In SA, T. simrothi was found nesting amongst roots of lawns, attending mealybugs and co-existing with Solenopsis abdita (Sharaf and Aldawood 2011). The species also attends Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 for honeydew and the latter gains protection from predators in return (Karami-jamour et al. 2018). The species was nesting under stones next to Acacia trees of the desert habitats of the Riyadh Province.

Tapinoma wilsoni Sharaf & Aldawood, 2012

Nomenclature

Tapinoma wilsoni Sharaf & Aldawood, 2012c: 38, figs. 1-3 (w.) Saudi Arabia. Afrotropic.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Tapinoma wilsoni
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Dhi Ayn Archaeological Village
    ; verbatimElevation:
    741 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    19.9297
    ; decimalLongitude:
    41.4427
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2011-05-15
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    M.R. Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2012
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  2. scientificName:
    Tapinoma wilsoni
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Dhi Ayn Archaeological Village
    ; verbatimElevation:
    741 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    19.9297
    ; decimalLongitude:
    41.4427
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2011-05-15
    ; individualCount:
    29
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    M.R. Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2012
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  3. scientificName:
    Tapinoma wilsoni
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Dhi Ayn Archaeological Village
    ; verbatimElevation:
    741 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    19.9297
    ; decimalLongitude:
    41.4427
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    2015-04-11
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    A. Polaszek
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  4. scientificName:
    Tapinoma wilsoni
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Dhi Ayn Archaeological Village
    ; verbatimElevation:
    735 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    19.9297
    ; decimalLongitude:
    41.4427
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    none specified
    ; eventDate:
    2011-09-23
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    queen
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    F.S. Esteves
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2012
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    CASC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  5. scientificName:
    Tapinoma wilsoni
    ; country:
    Saudi Arabia
    ; locality:
    Dhi Ayn Archaeological Village
    ; verbatimElevation:
    728 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    19.9297
    ; decimalLongitude:
    41.4427
    ; georeferenceProtocol:
    label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Hand picking
    ; eventDate:
    2016-04-11
    ; individualCount:
    4
    ; sex:
    worker
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    M.R. Sharaf
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mostafa R. Sharaf
    ; dateIdentified:
    2016
    ; language:
    en
    ; collectionCode:
    KSMA
    ; datasetName:
    Ants
    ; ownerInstitutionCode:
    KSU
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen

Diagnosis

Worker. Head in full-face view longer than broad with shallowly convex posterior margin and sides; anterior clypeal margin broadly and distinctly concave; scapes, in full-face view, surpass posterior margin of head by about 1/6 of its length; all funicular segments distinctly longer than broad (Fig. 4c); metanotal groove indistinct; propodeum in profile with the transition from dorsum to declivity sharply defined, the declivity concave and the angle with a raised apex (Fig. 4a); colour yellow to brown-yellow, antennae and legs uniform yellow (Fig. 4a, b).

Figure 4.

Tapinoma wilsoni, CASENT0280973, Estella Ortega, AntWeb.org.

abody in profile.  
bbody in dorsal view.  
chead in full-face view.  
Previous records: 

SA: Al Bahah, Dhi Ayn Archaeological Village, 19.9297°N, 41.4427°E, 741 m alt. (Sharaf et al. 2012)

Distribution

Saudi Arabia.

Ecology

Tapinoma wilsoni was found foraging on the ground surface of a Banana farm in Dhi Ayn Archeological Village, a semi-isolated area that is completely surrounded by high mountains of the Al Sarawat Mountains (KSA) and the soil is clay and humid (Sharaf et al. 2012). Nothing is known about the biology of the species. The species is co-existing with the ant species Carebara arabica (Collingwood & van Harten, 2011), Tetramorium sericeiventre Emery, 1877, Pheidole minuscula Bernard, 1953, Trichomyrmex destructor (Jerdon, 1851) and Monomorium exiguum Forel, 1894.

Identification keys

Key to the Arabian species of the genus Tapinoma

1 Propodeum in profile with the transition from dorsum to declivity sharply defined, the declivity concave and the angle with a raised apex (Fig. 5a) T. wilsoni Sharaf & Aldawood
Propodeum in profile with the transition from dorsum to declivity has a rounded angle (Fig. 5b) 2
2 Larger species, TL more than 2.0 mm; anterior clypeal margin with a deep median notch (Fig. 5c); colour darker, uniformly blackish-brown or black T. simrothi Krausse
Smaller species, TL less than 2.0 mm; anterior clypeal margin with only a shallow median concavity (Fig. 5d); head and mesosoma dark yellowish-brown, gaster yellow T. melanocephalum (Fabricius)
Figure 5.

Key illustrations. Michele Esposito, AntWeb.org.

aTapinoma wilsoni profile showing the concave declivity and sharply defined raised angle, CASENT0919800.  
bTapinoma imrothi profile showing the rounded outline between propodeal dorsum and declivity, CASENT0919801.  
chead in full-face view of Tapinoma simrothi showing the median clypeal notch, CASENT0919801.  
dhead in full-face view of Tapinoma melanocephalum showing the absence of the clypeal notch, CASENT0922277.  

Discussion

Amongst the three Arabian Tapinoma species, T. simrothi is the most widespread species, followed by T. melanocephalum, whereas T. wilsoni is the rarest species with a limited geographic distribution confined to the type locality (Dhi Ayn Archeological Village) at the Al Sarawat Mountains, KSA) (Figs 6, 7, 8). The wide geographic distribution of T. melanocephalum is related to the broad habitat preference of the species (Smith 1965, Oster and Wilson 1978, Venkataramaiah and Rehman 1989, Hölldobler and Wilson 1990, Smith and Whitman 1992, Wetterer 2009, Ellison et al. 2012, Sharaf et al. 2017). Tapinoma simrothi is broadly distributed, especially in public gardens and agricultural fields of the Central Region of the Arabian Peninsula and with apparent associations with the sap-sucking insects for honeydew (Collingwood et al. 2011, Sharaf and Aldawood 2011). The species is also widely spread in the wild sites of the deserts in Riyadh Province, especially near to Acacia trees. The ability of species to inhabit both urban and wild habitats of the Arabian Peninsula identifies the wide geographic distribution.

Figure 6.  

Distribution map of Tapinoma melanocephalum.

Figure 7.  

Distribution map of Tapinoma simrothi.

Figure 8.  

Distribution map of Tapinoma wilsoni.

Acknowledgements

The authors thank James Wetterer and James Trager for useful comments, Brian Fisher, Michele Esposito and Estella Ortega for help in photographing specimens. We are grateful to Shahzad Salman for assistance in the fieldwork. This study was supported by NSTIP Strategic Technologies Programs (project number 12-ENV2825-02) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Author contributions

All authors contributed equally to this manuscript.

References

Supplementary material

Suppl. material 1: Appendix 1. Material examined data 
Authors:  Mahmoud S. Abdel-Dayem, Hathal M. Aldhafer, Abdulrahman S. Aldawood, Mostafa R. Sharaf
Data type:  Occurrences
Brief description: 

Distribution data of the examined material