Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic paper
Print
Taxonomic paper
The Giant Resin Bee, Megachile sculpturalis Smith: New Distributional Records for the Mid- and Gulf-south USA
expand article infoKatherine A. Parys, Amber D. Tripodi§, Blair J. Sampson|
‡ USDA-ARS Southern Insect Management Research Unit, Stoneville, MS, United States of America
§ USDA-ARS Pollinating Insect: Biology, Management and Systematics Research Unit, Logan, UT, United States of America
| USDA-ARS Southern Horticultural Research Unit, Poplarville, MS, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

Background

Megachile (Callomegachile) sculpturalis Smith, the giant resin bee, is an adventive species in the United States. First established in the United States during the early 1990s, records currently exist from most states east of the Mississippi River along with Iowa and Kansas.

New information

New distributional records are presented for Megachile (Callomegachile) sculpturalis Smith, an introduced bee. Additional records presented here expand the known distribution southwest through Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Texas. An updated host plant list containing new records is also presented, expanding the number of known floral associations.

Keywords

Callomegachile, adventive, introduced, invasive species, distribution, range expansion, Giant Resin Bee, Megachile sculpturalis

Introduction

The giant resin bee, Megachile (Callomegachile) sculpturalis Smith, is a large, distinctive bee, adventive to the United States and Europe (Hinojosa-Díaz 2008, Quaranta et al. 2014). Originally found throughout the eastern Palearctic and Oriental regions including Japan, China, and other parts of eastern Asia, it was introduced into the United States and first collected from North Carolina in 1994 (Mangum and Brooks 1997). The range rapidly expanded across North America from the original location, reaching southwest to Alabama by 1999, north to Canada by 2002, northwest to Wisconsin by 2004, northeast to Maine by 2008, and westward to Kansas by 2008 (Hinojosa-Díaz 2008, Kondo et al. 2000, Mangum and Brooks 1997, Mangum and Sumner 2003, Mazurkiewicz 2010, Paiero and Buck 2003, Wolf and Ascher 2008).

The previously known distribution included most states east of the Mississippi River, with the exception of Mississippi (Mazurkiewicz 2010, Maier 2005, Tonietto and Ascher 2008). Niche modeling predicted that the western edge of range expansion will eventually stretch to western Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota, areas of the western coast, along with sections of Mexico and the West Indies (Hinojosa-Díaz et al. 2005). This species has also been recently introduced into Europe and is currently established in France, Switzerland, and Italy (Quaranta et al. 2014, Amiet 2012, Vereecken and Barbier 2009, Gihr and Westrich 2013). Megachile sculpturalis is polylectic, but it has been speculated that they may preferentially pollinate plants that have been introduced into North America from its native range (Laport and Minckley 2012). Females prefer to nest in sites located in cavities (i.e. hollow stems or holes made by other insects) in shaded areas, and at least 0.5 m above the ground (Iwata 1933).

Characters to differentiate M. sculpturalis from native megachilids are presented in (Michener 2007), but it is currently the only species in the subgenus Callomegachile Michener widely established in the Nearctic region. Easily differentiated from native bees by a large, narrow, elongated body, female M. sculpturalis range in size from 22 – 27 mm, while males are considerably smaller at 14 – 19 mm with a distinctly wide yellowish “moustache” on their lower face; both sexes have prominently infuscated wings (Fig. 1) (Batra 1998). An additional species in the same subgenus as M. sculpturalis, Megachile umbripennis Smith, has been recently observed in southern Florida and New Jersey, but this bee is considerably smaller in size than M. sculpturalis (Ascher and Pickering 2015. Another relative of M. sculpturalis, Megachile (Callomegachile) rufipennis F., originally from Africa has become established in the Greater Antilles, but has not been observed in Nearctic areas (Genaro 1996, Pasteels 1965).

Figure 1.

Megachile sculpturalis. All images taken at the same scale.

adorsal view female.
blateral view male. Scale bar = 2mm.
clateral view female.

There are currently 19 species of introduced megachilid bees in the continental United States, including M. sculpturalis (Droge 2015). As introductions of non-native species have continued, evidence that some species pose threats to biodiversity and native ecosystems has increased (Simberloff et al. 2013). Noting the distribution, presence, and establishment of adventive species is important for documenting future impacts on native communities (Cane 2003). Megachile sculpturalis is a xylophilous (wood-loving) bee; however, females are incapable of boring their own cavities in wood. Instead, they are known to occupy abandoned nests of similarly sized bees, notably the nests of native carpenter bees, Xylocopa virginica (L.) (Batra 1998, Mangum and Brooks 1997). More recently, female M. sculpturalis have been observed aggressively evicting carpenter bee females from their nests (Laport and Minckley 2012, Roulston and Malfi 2012). Within their native range M. sculpturalis occupy nesting sites abandoned by a variety of other species (Iwata 1933).

Materials and methods

Collection data from adult specimens of M. sculpturalis taken in the mid- and gulf-south, in addition to specimens from Florida and Michigan, were gathered from both institutions and personal collections. Institutional collections used in the manuscript are listed below; acronyms, when available, follow Evenhuis (2015) and the global registry of biodiversity repositories (GRBio 2015). Personal collections from research studies include those of Mike Arduser (MA; surveys from Missouri), Zach Scott (ZS; survey data from Rhode Island), and the authors (designated by initials), and are designated as such.

UAAM - The Arthropod Museum, University of Arkansas, Department of Entomology, Fayetteville, AR

MEM - Mississippi Entomological Museum, Mississippi State University, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology, & Plant Pathology, Mississippi State, MS

SFAC - Stephen F. Austin State University, Department of Biology, Nacogdoches, TX

UMIC - University of Mississippi, Department of Biology, University, MS

BBSL - United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Bee Biology and Systematics Laboratory, Logan, UT

Taxon treatment

Megachile (Callomegachile) sculpturalis Smith, 1853

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Arkansas
    ; county:
    Benton
    ; municipality:
    Gentry
    ; locality:
    Chesney Prairie
    ; decimalLatitude:
    36.221636
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -94.484357
    ; year:
    2012
    ; month:
    6
    ; day:
    20
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    20-6-2012
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    BBSL
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  2. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Arkansas
    ; county:
    Benton
    ; municipality:
    Rogers
    ; locality:
    Searles Prairie
    ; decimalLatitude:
    36.356395
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -94.144186
    ; year:
    2012
    ; month:
    6
    ; day:
    20
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    20-6-2012
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    BBSL
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  3. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Arkansas
    ; county:
    Madison
    ; municipality:
    Hindsville
    ; decimalLatitude:
    36.206389
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -93.850278
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Xylocopa virginica trap
    ; year:
    2012
    ; month:
    6
    ; day:
    19
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    19-6-2012
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    BBSL
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  4. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Arkansas
    ; county:
    Washinton
    ; municipality:
    Fayetteville
    ; locality:
    University of Arkansas
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36° 04’ 20.24 N, 94° 10’ 24.98 W
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    36° 04’ 20.24 N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    94° 10’ 24.98 W
    ; decimalLatitude:
    36.072289
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -94.173606
    ; year:
    2012
    ; month:
    6
    ; day:
    2
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    2.VI.2012
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    T. D. Edwards
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; language:
    en
    ; institutionCode:
    UAAM
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  5. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Arkansas
    ; county:
    Washinton
    ; municipality:
    Fayetteville
    ; locality:
    World Peace Wetland Prairie
    ; decimalLatitude:
    36.051894
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -94.172728
    ; year:
    2011
    ; month:
    6
    ; day:
    29
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jun-29-2011
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    UAAM
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  6. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Florida
    ; county:
    Alachua
    ; municipality:
    Gainesville
    ; locality:
    University of Florida
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    29.650428, -82.342365
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    29.650428
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -82.342365
    ; decimalLatitude:
    29.650428
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -82.342365
    ; year:
    2013
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    8
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-08-2013
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Clinton E. Trammel & Amber D. Tripodi
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    BBSL
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  7. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Florida
    ; county:
    Alachua
    ; municipality:
    Gainesville
    ; locality:
    University of Florida
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    29.650428, -82.342365
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    29.650428
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -82.342365
    ; decimalLatitude:
    29.650428
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -82.342365
    ; year:
    2013
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    8
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-08-2013
    ; individualCount:
    12
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Clinton E. Trammel & Amber D. Tripodi
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    ADT
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  8. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Florida
    ; county:
    Alachua
    ; municipality:
    Gainesville
    ; locality:
    University of Florida
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    29.650428, -82.342365
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    29.650428
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -82.342365
    ; decimalLatitude:
    29.650428
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -82.342365
    ; year:
    2013
    ; month:
    6
    ; day:
    21
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jun-21-2015
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; sex:
    1 male, 2 female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    BBSL
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  9. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Florida
    ; county:
    Alachua
    ; municipality:
    Gainesville
    ; locality:
    University of Florida
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    29.650428, -82.342365
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    29.650428
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -82.342365
    ; decimalLatitude:
    29.650428
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -82.342365
    ; year:
    2013
    ; month:
    6
    ; day:
    21
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jun-21-2015
    ; individualCount:
    59
    ; sex:
    2 male, 57 female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    ADT
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  10. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Louisiana
    ; county:
    West Feliciana
    ; municipality:
    St. Francisville
    ; decimalLatitude:
    30.792733
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -91.249833
    ; year:
    2013
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    4
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-04-2013
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    ADT
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  11. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Michigan
    ; county:
    Berrien
    ; municipality:
    Watervlivet
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    42.179430, -86.258730
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    42.179430
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -86.258730
    ; decimalLatitude:
    42.179430
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -86.258730
    ; year:
    2015
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    31
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-31-2015
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    BBSL
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  12. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Michigan
    ; county:
    Berrien
    ; municipality:
    Watervlivet
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    42.179430, -86.258730
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    42.179430
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -86.258730
    ; decimalLatitude:
    42.179430
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -86.258730
    ; year:
    2015
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    31
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-31-2015
    ; individualCount:
    11
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    ADT
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  13. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Mississippi
    ; county:
    Grenada
    ; municipality:
    Scobey
    ; locality:
    Cascilla Road
    ; locationRemarks:
    old wooden goat barn, nesting in holes made by Xylocopa
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    33°53’34” N, -89°55’09” W
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    33°53’34” N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -89°55’09” W
    ; decimalLatitude:
    33.892778
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -89.919167
    ; samplingProtocol:
    at large
    ; year:
    2015
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    4
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-04-2015
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    M. L. Whitten
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Katherine A. Parys
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    BBSL
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  14. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Mississippi
    ; county:
    Grenada
    ; municipality:
    Scobey
    ; locality:
    Cascilla Road
    ; locationRemarks:
    old wooden goat barn, nesting in holes made by Xylocopa
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    33°53’34” N, -89°55’09” W
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    33°53’34” N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -89°55’09” W
    ; decimalLatitude:
    33.892778
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -89.919167
    ; samplingProtocol:
    at large
    ; year:
    2015
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    4
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-04-2015
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    M. L. Whitten
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Katherine A. Parys
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    MEM
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  15. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Mississippi
    ; county:
    Grenada
    ; municipality:
    Scobey
    ; locality:
    Cascilla Road
    ; locationRemarks:
    old wooden goat barn, nesting in holes made by Xylocopa
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    33°53’34” N, -89°55’09” W
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    33°53’34” N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -89°55’09” W
    ; decimalLatitude:
    33.892778
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -89.919167
    ; samplingProtocol:
    at large
    ; year:
    2015
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    4
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-04-2015
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    M. L. Whitten
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Katherine A. Parys
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    KAP
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  16. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Mississippi
    ; county:
    Lafayette
    ; municipality:
    Oxford
    ; year:
    2005
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    25
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-25-2005
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    UMIC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  17. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Mississippi
    ; county:
    Lafayette
    ; municipality:
    Oxford
    ; locality:
    University of Mississippi Campus
    ; locationRemarks:
    taken from golden raintree, Koelreuteria paniculata
    ; year:
    2008
    ; month:
    4
    ; day:
    15
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Apr-15-2008
    ; individualCount:
    7
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Jonas King
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    UMIC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  18. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Mississippi
    ; county:
    Lafayette
    ; municipality:
    Oxford
    ; locality:
    University of Mississippi Campus
    ; year:
    2013
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    12
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-12-2013
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; sex:
    1 male, 1 female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Clinton E. Trammel & Amber D. Tripodi
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    BBSL
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  19. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Mississippi
    ; county:
    Lafayette
    ; municipality:
    Oxford
    ; locality:
    University of Mississippi Campus
    ; decimalLatitude:
    34.365225
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -89.534050
    ; year:
    2013
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    12
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-12-2013
    ; individualCount:
    4
    ; sex:
    2 male, 2 female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Clinton E. Trammel & Amber D. Tripodi
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Amber D. Tripodi
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    ADT
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  20. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Mississippi
    ; county:
    Tallahatchie
    ; municipality:
    Paynes
    ; locality:
    Shook Rd and Hwy 35
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Bycatch in pheromone trap for moths
    ; year:
    2015
    ; month:
    5
    ; day:
    23
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    May-23-2015
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    John Austin Coleman and Severino Signa
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Katherine A. Parys
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    MEM
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  21. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Mississippi
    ; county:
    Tallahatchie
    ; municipality:
    Paynes
    ; locationRemarks:
    old pig barn, nesting in holes made by Xylocopa
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    33°55’29” N, -90°03’53” W
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    33°55’29” N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -90°03’53” W
    ; decimalLatitude:
    33.924722
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.064722
    ; samplingProtocol:
    by net
    ; year:
    2015
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    6
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-06-2015
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Katherine A. Parys and Nathan S. Little
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Katherine A. Parys
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    BBSL
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  22. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Mississippi
    ; county:
    Tallahatchie
    ; municipality:
    Paynes
    ; locationRemarks:
    old pig barn, nesting in holes made by Xylocopa
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    33°55’29” N, -90°03’53” W
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    33°55’29” N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -90°03’53” W
    ; decimalLatitude:
    33.924722
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.064722
    ; samplingProtocol:
    by net
    ; year:
    2015
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    6
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-06-2015
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Katherine A. Parys and Nathan S. Little
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Katherine A. Parys
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    MEM
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  23. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Mississippi
    ; county:
    Oktibbeha
    ; locality:
    3 mi East of Starkville
    ; locationRemarks:
    Collected in Vitex agnus-castus flowers
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    33°25’47”N, -88°44’01” W
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    33°25’47”N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -88°44’01” W
    ; year:
    2008
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    20
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-20-2008
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    JoVonn G. Hill
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    MEM
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  24. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Mississippi
    ; county:
    Oktibbeha
    ; locality:
    3 mi East of Starkville
    ; locationRemarks:
    Collected in Vitex agnus-castus flowers
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    33°25’47”N, -88°44’01” W
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    33°25’47”N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -88°44’01” W
    ; year:
    2008
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    27
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-27-2008
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; sex:
    1 male, 1 female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    JoVonn G. Hill
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    MEM
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  25. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Mississippi
    ; county:
    Oktibbeha
    ; locality:
    3 mi East of Starkville
    ; locationRemarks:
    Collected in Vitex agnus-castus flowers
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    33°25’47”N, -88°44’01” W
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    33°25’47”N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -88°44’01” W
    ; year:
    2008
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    29
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-29-2008
    ; individualCount:
    5
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    JoVonn G. Hill
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    MEM
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  26. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Mississippi
    ; county:
    Pear River
    ; municipality:
    McNeill
    ; locationRemarks:
    emerged from wooden trap nests, 3/8” holes
    ; samplingProtocol:
    wooden trap nests, 3/8” holes
    ; year:
    2011
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    2-7
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    VI-2-7-2011
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Christopher T. Werle
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Blair J. Sampson
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    MEM
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  27. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Mississippi
    ; county:
    Pear River
    ; municipality:
    McNeill
    ; locationRemarks:
    emerged from wooden trap nests, 3/8” holes
    ; samplingProtocol:
    wooden trap nests, 3/8” holes
    ; year:
    2011
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    2-7
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    VI-2-7-2011
    ; individualCount:
    4
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Christopher T. Werle
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Blair J. Sampson
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    BJS
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  28. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Mississippi
    ; county:
    Yalobusha
    ; locality:
    4 mi NE of Coffeeville
    ; locationRemarks:
    on back door of house
    ; samplingProtocol:
    at large
    ; year:
    2004
    ; month:
    8
    ; day:
    6
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    IIX-6-2004
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Ruth Tierce
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    MEM
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  29. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Missouri
    ; county:
    Barry
    ; locationRemarks:
    cleared ridge top for cattle grazing, Flowering plants nearby: water hemlock, poke, mullein, blackberries, and Ozark chinquapin
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N36°37'54.770" W93°49'05.382"
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    N36°37'54.770"
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    W93°49'05.382"
    ; decimalLatitude:
    36.631881
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -93.818162
    ; samplingProtocol:
    blue vane trap
    ; year:
    2015
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    June 28- July 3, 2015
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    C. Zirkle
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    UAAM
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  30. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Missouri
    ; county:
    Barry
    ; locationRemarks:
    cleared ridge top for cattle grazing, Flowering plants nearby: water hemlock and Ozark chinquapin
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    N36°37'38.993" W93°49'11.257"
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    N36°37'38.993"
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    W93°49'11.257"
    ; decimalLatitude:
    36.627498
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -93.819794
    ; samplingProtocol:
    blue vane trap
    ; year:
    2015
    ; month:
    6
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    June 21 - 28, 2015
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; sex:
    1 male, 1 female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    C. Zirkle
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    UAAM
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  31. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Missouri
    ; county:
    Lincoln
    ; locality:
    Cuivre River State Park
    ; year:
    2006
    ; month:
    6
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jun-2006
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Bruce Schutte
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mike Arduser
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    MA
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  32. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Missouri
    ; county:
    Pettis
    ; municipality:
    Drover's Prairie
    ; locality:
    South of Sedalia about 10 miles
    ; year:
    2010
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    10
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-10-2010
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Mike Arduser
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mike Arduser
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    MA
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  33. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Missouri
    ; county:
    St. Louis
    ; municipality:
    St. Louis City
    ; locality:
    City Museum
    ; locationRemarks:
    emerged from old log house
    ; year:
    2004
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    5
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-05-2004
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    George Diehl Jr. & Mike Arduser
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mike Arduser
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    MA
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  34. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Missouri
    ; county:
    St. Louis
    ; municipality:
    St. Louis City
    ; locality:
    St. Louis Zoo
    ; year:
    2007
    ; month:
    6
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jun-2007
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Jane Stevens
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Mike Arduser
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    MA
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  35. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Rhode Island
    ; county:
    Washington
    ; municipality:
    Kingston
    ; locality:
    University of Rhode Island East Farm
    ; decimalLatitude:
    31.620610
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -94.647550
    ; year:
    2014
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    30
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jul-30-2014
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    male
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Zach Scott
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Zach Scott
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    ZS
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  36. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Tennessee
    ; county:
    Henderson
    ; municipality:
    Lexington
    ; locationRemarks:
    taken in back yard
    ; decimalLatitude:
    35.681934
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -88.365206
    ; samplingProtocol:
    By Hand, In Yard
    ; year:
    2015
    ; month:
    6
    ; day:
    22
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    Jun-22-2015
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    A. Hays
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    BBSL
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
    ; informationWithheld:
    Street Address
  37. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Tennessee
    ; county:
    Rutherford
    ; locality:
    Stone's River Glade
    ; locationRemarks:
    Collected on Rudbeckia sp. in cedar glade
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°52'24" N 86°26'09" W
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    35°52'24" N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    86°26'09" W
    ; decimalLatitude:
    35.873333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -86.435833
    ; year:
    2009
    ; month:
    7
    ; day:
    23
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    VII-23-2009
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; sex:
    female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Beverly A. Smith
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    MEM
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  38. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Texas
    ; county:
    Nacogdoches
    ; locality:
    Steven F. Austin State University Campus
    ; verbatimElevation:
    97 m
    ; locationRemarks:
    on Vitex agnus-castus flowers (chaste tree)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    31.62061°; - 94.64755°
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    31.62061°
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    -94.64755°
    ; decimalLatitude:
    31.620610
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -94.647550
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; sex:
    1 male, 1 female
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; preparations:
    whole animal (pinned)
    ; recordedBy:
    Dan Bennett
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; disposition:
    in collection
    ; identifiedBy:
    Dan Bennett
    ; type:
    PhysicalObject
    ; institutionCode:
    SFAC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  39. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Mississippi
    ; county:
    Noxubee
    ; locality:
    Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Richard Brown
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; type:
    Event
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
  40. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Texas
    ; county:
    Huntsville
    ; locality:
    Sam Houston State University
    ; year:
    2014
    ; month:
    7
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    John Pascarella
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; type:
    Event
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation
  41. scientificName:
    Megachile sculpturalis Smith, 1853
    ; taxonomicStatus:
    accepted
    ; kingdom:
    Animalia
    ; phylum:
    Arthropoda
    ; class:
    Insecta
    ; order:
    Hymenoptera
    ; family:
    Megachilidae
    ; vernacularName:
    Giant Resin Bee
    ; nomenclaturalCode:
    ICZN
    ; genus:
    Megachile
    ; subgenus:
    Callomegachile
    ; specificEpithet:
    sculpturalis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Smith, 1853
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States
    ; countryCode:
    US
    ; stateProvince:
    Mississippi
    ; county:
    Neshoba
    ; municipality:
    Philadelphia
    ; year:
    2015
    ; month:
    7
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Jeff Harris
    ; occurrenceStatus:
    present
    ; type:
    Event
    ; basisOfRecord:
    HumanObservation

Distribution

Specimen and observational data presented here expand the known distribution of M. sculpturalis to every state east of the Mississippi River and several western states including Arkansas, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Nebraska, and Texas (Fig. 2). Hinojosa-Díaz et al. (2005) used niche modeling to predict the expansion of the range in the United States, and current data continue to support that model (e.g., Hinojosa-Diaz 2008). While specimen records had previously been reported from Tennessee in the literature (Mangum and Sumner 2003), the records presented were in the far eastern portion of the state. Museum records now extend the distribution west within the state and include Rudbeckia sp. (Asteraceae/Compositae) as a new floral host from specimen data presented here. Record of M. sculpturalis from Rhode Island was anecdotally mentioned in Maier (2005) but never confirmed with collected specimens. The first record of M. sculpturalis west of the Mississippi River dates to 2004 (♀, St. Louis, MO) and is reported here for the first time. An examination of collections from Oklahoma did not yield any records in that state, in spite of records nearby in Arkansas, Missouri, and Texas. Records presented here and in other manuscripts show clear geographic expansion over time (Fig. 3), but it appears that the formal documentation of records lags behind the actual expansion.

Figure 2.

Map of eastern US showing newly reported records collected from new (starred) specimen data presented here (green circles, observation records from personal communications, Bugguide and GBIF iNaturalist records (grey circles), the GBIF online specimen database (black circles) and in the literature (orange squares). See Suppl. material 1.

Figure 3.

Map of eastern US showing collection/observation dates for M. sculpturalis. Data compiled from new reports in this study (starred), as well as other sources. See Suppl. material 1.

Discussion

Introduced bees can have a variety of undesirable effects including competition with native bees for both nesting sites and floral resources, transmission of diseases to native species, changes in seed set of native plants, and pollination of introduced plants (Goulson 2003). Negative interactions have been observed between M. sculpturalis and the native X. virginica, though long-term effects of these aggressive behaviors on Xylocopa populations are unknown (Laport and Minckley 2012, Roulston and Malfi 2012). Nesting sites made by X. virginica were present at field locations where specimens were collected in both Paynes and Scobey, MS, and both species were observed simultaneously during the summer of 2015. Specimens of M. sculpturalis collected from Pearl River Co., MS emerged from 3 of 17 (18%) occupied wooden trap nests constructed of 3/8” holes while trying to collect Osmia sp. It is highly likely that negative interactions exist with not only Xylocopa, but with Osmia and other cavity nesting species that would utilize a nest chamber of a similar diameter.

Other non-native bee populations preferentially pollinate floral resources that have also been introduced (Hanley and Goulson 2003, Morales and Aizen 2002). Host plant records for M. sculpturalis indicate that the majority of published records have been collected from plants not native to North America (Table 1). Current floral host plant associations include 43 species (30 species and an additional 13 genera without species names) in 21 families. While pollination is an important ecosystem service and provides an economic benefit to agricultural production, none of the plants listed in Table 1 are considered to be prominent crops in the mid-or gulf-south.

List of host plants associated with M. sculpturalis. Records are taken from scientific literature, photographs on Bugguide that included plant associations, and specimen data. Information concerning whether plants are native to North America and standardized plant names were found using The Plant List (2015) and references therein

Host Plant

Status in North America

Data Location

Apiaceae

Daucus carota L.

Introduced

Bugguide (e.g. Wilder (2009))

Apocyanaceae

Asclepias sp.

--

Mangum and Sumner (2003)

Asclepias syriaca L.

Native

Ascher (2001), Maier (2005)

Asteraceae/Compositae

Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.

Introduced

Ascher (2001)

Liatris sp.

--

Bugguide (e.g. Phillips (2014))

Liatris spicata (L.) Willd.

Native

Bugguide (e.g. Balaban and Balaban (2011))

Rudbeckia sp.

--

In specimen data above (MEM)

Solidago sp.

--

Maier (2005)

Bigonaniaceae

Catalpa sp.

--

Norden (2008)

Catalpa speciosa (Warder) Engelm.

Native

Batra (1998), Mangum and Sumner (2003)

Boraginaceae

Echium vulgare L.

Introduced

Bugguide (e.g. Harrison (2014))

Crassulaceae

Sedum sp.

--

Bugguide (e.g. Moisset (2007))

Ericaceae

Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC.

Native

Batra (1998), Mangum and Sumner (2003)

Fagaceae

Castanea sp.

--

Quaranta et al. (2014)

Lamiaceae

Lavandula sp.

--

Vereecken and Barbier (2009)

Origanum laevigatum Boiss.

Introduced

Bugguide (e.g. Roos (2013))

Perovskia artemisioides Boiss

Introduced

Ascher (2001)

Perovskia atriplicifolia Benth.

Introduced

Mazurkiewicz (2010)

Pycnanthemum sp.

--

Bugguide (e.g. Simpson and Simpson (2012))

Vitex sp.

--

Mangum and Sumner (2003)

Vitex agnus-castus L.

Introduced

Hall and Ascher (2010), In specimen data above (MEM)

Leguminosea

Dunbaria villosa (Thunb.) Makino

= Dumbaria villosa

Introduced

Batra 1998, Iwata 1933

Lathyrus latifolius L.

Introduced

Ascher (2001), Mangum and Sumner (2003), O'Brien and Craves (2008), Hinojosa-Díaz et al. (2005)

Lespedza sp.

--

Batra (1998)

Melilotus albus Medik.

Introduced

Ascher (2001), Paiero and Buck (2003)

Millettia japonica (Siebold &Zucc.) A. Gray

Introduced

Batra (1998), Iwata (1933)

Phaseolus vulgaris L.

Introduced

Batra (1998), Iwata (1933)

Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi.

Introduced

Mangum and Brooks (1997)

Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Sanjappa & Pradeep

Introduced

Iwata (1933)

Robinia sp.

-- Quaranta et al. (2014)

Securigera varia (L.) Lassen

= Coronilla varia L.

Introduced

Ascher (2001)

Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott

= Sophora japonica L.

Introduced

Hinojosa-Díaz et al. (2005), Mangum and Sumner (2003), Matteson et al. (2008)

Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp

= Vigna catiang var. sinensis

= Vigna sinensis (L.) Savi ex Hassk.

Introduced

Batra (1998), Iwata (1933)

Lythraceae

Lagerstroemia indica L.

Introduced

Batra (1998)

Lythrum salicaria L.

Introduced

Mangum and Sumner (2003), Maier (2005), Maier (2009), O'Brien and Craves (2008)

Myrtaceae

Eucalyptus sp.

--

Quaranta et al. (2014)

Oleaceae

Chionanthus sp.

--

Norden (2008)

Ligustrum sp.

--

Norden (2008), Quaranta et al. (2014)

Ligustrum lucidum W.T. Aiton

Introduced

Mangum and Sumner (2003), Hinojosa-Díaz et al. (2005)

Ligustrum vulgare L.

Introduced

Batra (1998)

Plantaginaceae

Veronicastrum virginicum (L.) Farw.

Native

Paiero and Buck (2003), O'Brien and Craves (2008)

Plumbaginaceae

Limonium carolinianum (Walter) Britton

Native

Maier (2005)

Rosaceae

Rubus sp.

--

Quaranta et al. (2014)

Rubiaceae

Cephalanthus sp.

--

Bugguide (e.g. Borchelt (2015))

Rutaceae

Citrus japonica Thunb.

= Fortunella margarita Swingle

Introduced

Batra (1998)

Sapindaceae

Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm.

Introduced

Mangum and Brooks (1997), Mangum and Sumner (2003), Hinojosa-Díaz et al. (2005), Batra (1998), In specimen data above (UMIC)

Scrophulariaceae

Buddleja sp.

= Buddleia sp.

--

Wolf and Ascher (2008)

Buddleja davidii Franch

Introduced

Mangum and Sumner (2003)

Verbascum thapsus L.

Introduced

Ascher (2001)

Vitaceae

Parthenocissus sp.

--

Quaranta et al. (2014)

Specimens of M. sculpturalis were intercepted at the port of Baltimore in cargo shipped from Japan previous to establishment in 1968 and 1976 (Batra 1998). As cavity nesters that actively utilize holes made by other species, range expansion within the United States likely includes movement in wood. Distribution on wood in various forms is one of the most common methods by which invasive species are spread (Moore 2005). Additional locations with established populations of X. virginica were identified in Washington, Bolivar, and Sunflower Counties, MS and Chicot Co., AR but no M. sculpturalis were observed, suggesting that distributions are not continuous. The current known distribution of M. sculpturalis appears to be limited to locations where someone has noticed that these flying insects are not the commonly encountered Xylocopa. At several collection locations in MS, property owners were unaware of the presence of M. sculpturalis and allowed us to examine Xylocopa nesting locations, revealing new distributional points. This suggests that especially in locations where multiple species occur, they are easily mistaken for Xylocopa. Of the records examined from the mid- and gulf-south, it appears that specimens are rarely collected by non-specialists.

Large distinctive bees that have been introduced to an area, like M. sculpturalis and others, can be monitored through online entomology and photography groups (e.g. Bugguide 2015) often before peer reviewed literature can be published. Eight of the new host plant records presented (Table 1) are from photographs posted on Bugguide, while traditional collection information specimen data provided only one new floral record.

Acknowledgements

Special thanks to Paul Lago (University of Mississippi), Victoria Bayless and Brittany Owens (Louisiana State Arthropod Museum, Louisiana State University), Jeffery Barnes and Clinton Trammel (University of Arkansas- Fayetteville), Richard Brown (Mississippi Entomological Museum, Missisisppi State University), Jeff Harris (Mississippi State University), Nick Seiter (University of Arkansas- Monticello), Daniel Bennett (Stephen F. Austin State University), John Pascarella (Sam Houston State University), Alex Wild (University of Texas- Austin), Mike Arduser (Missouri Department of Conservation, Retired), Michael Ferro (Clemson University; formerly Louisiana State Arthropod Museum, Louisiana State University), Jack Grubaugh (University of Tennessee- Martin), Elizabeth Bergey (University of Oklahoma Biological Survey- Norman), Jackie Lee (University of Oklahoma- Stillwater), Alexandra Harmon-Threatt (University of Illinois- Urbana-Champaign), Steve Alm, Zach Scott, and Mark Mello (University of Rhode Island), Howard Ginsberg (USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Coastal Field Station; University of Rhode Island), and Chris Werle (USDA-ARS; Louisiana State University), for checking reference collections for specimens. Thank you to Lanie Bourgeois and Nathan Little for comments and constructive criticism on early versions of this manuscript.

References

Supplementary material

Suppl. material 1: Supplementary table 1 - occurence data
Authors:  K. A. Parys, A. D. Tripodi, B. J. Sampson
Data type:  occurences
Brief description: 

spreadsheet containing occurence information for M. sculpturalis specimens.