Biodiversity Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
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Data Paper (Biosciences)
A synopsis of the Bee occurrence data of northern Tanzania
expand article infoJulius V. Lasway‡,§, Neema R. Kinabo, Rudolf F. Mremi, Emanuel H. Martin, Oliver C. Nyakunga, John J. Sanya|, Gration M. Rwegasira, Nicephor Lesio#, Hulda Gideon¤, Alain Pauly«, Connal Eardley», Marcell K. Peters§, Andrew T. Peterson˄, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter§, Henry K. Njovu˅
‡ Department of Wildlife Management, College of African Wildlife Management, Mweka, P.O. Box 3031, Moshi, Tanzania
§ Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology, Biocenter, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany
| Department of Wildlife Tourism, College of African Wildlife Management, Mweka, P.O. Box 3031, Moshi, Tanzania
¶ Department of Crop Science and Hortculture, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3005, Morogoro, Tanzania
# Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute, P.O. Box 661, Arusha, Tanzania
¤ Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH), P.O. Box 4302, Ali Hassan Mwinyi Road, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
« Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (RBINS), O.D. Taxonomy & Phylogeny, Rue Vautier 29, B-1000, Brussels, Belgium
» Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management,, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
˄ Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, United States of America
˅ Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania, P.O. Box 70919, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
Open Access

Abstract

Background

Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) are the most important group of pollinators with about 20,507 known species worldwide. Despite the critical role of bees in providing pollination services, studies aiming at understanding which species are present across disturbance gradients are scarce. Limited taxononomic information for the existing and unidentified bee species in Tanzania make their conservation haphazard. Here, we present a dataset of bee species records obtained from a survey in nothern Tanzania i.e. Kilimanjaro, Arusha and Manyara regions. Our findings serve as baseline data necessary for understanding the diversity and distribution of bees in the northern parts of the country, which is a critical step in devising robust conservation and monitoring strategies for their populations.

New information

In this paper, we present information on 45 bee species belonging to 20 genera and four families sampled using a combination of sweep-netting and pan trap methods. Most species (27, ~ 60%) belong to the family Halictidae followed by 16 species (35.5%) from the family Apidae. Megachilidae and Andrenidae were the least represented, each with only one species (2.2%). Additional species of Apidae and Megachilidae sampled during this survey are not yet published on Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), once they will be available on GBIF, they will be published in a subsequent paper. From a total of 953 occurrences, highest numbers were recorded in Kilimanjaro Region (n = 511), followed by Arusha (n = 410) and Manyara (n = 32), but this pattern reflects the sampling efforts of the research project rather than real bias in the distributions of bee species in northern Tanzania.

Keywords

agriculture, bee pollinator, distribution, disturbance gradient, grazing, species diversity, Tanzania

Introduction

Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) play an important ecological role in ecosystem. They serve a pollination role through mutualistic interactions with plants that in turn maintain the functionality of natural ecosystem, enhancing crop production and hence promoting human well being (Potts et al. 2016). Improved pollination service is essential for biodiversity conservation because plants act as primary producers in ecosystem. Nonetheless, they provide a vast array of ecosystem services: carbon sequestration, soil erosion prevention, nitrification and maintaining water tables, just to name a few. About 94% flowering plants reproduction depend on animal pollination in particular bee pollinators (Ollerton et al. 2011). Therefore, bees are considered as the most important pollinator of crops and wild plants as they can visit more than 90% of the leading 107 global crop types (Klein et al. 2007).

Taxonomic information of bee species in many parts of the world is poorly understood (Williams et al. 2001, Winfree 2010, Eardley et al. 2016) and Tanzania is no exception. The distribution and diversity of wild bee species in Tanzania is equivocal, given the lack of a countrywide bee catalogue and limited scientific studies. Tanzania is renowned for its unique biodiversity and high endemism (URT 2014). With a mainland area of 945,087 km2, lack of information on distribution and diversity of bee species poses a risky scenario, as unknown bee species may dissappear even before they are discovered and documented. On the other hand, decline of bee populations are increasingly becoming a global concern, a situation which jeopardizes provision of pollination sevices to both natural and agro-ecosystems (Westphal et al. 2008, Cameron et al. 2011, Koh et al. 2016, Potts et al. 2016, Tommasi et al. 2021). Nonetheless, knowledge of local bee fauna, including species present and their distribution, is worthy understanding and should be a conservation concern regardless of their importance in the agriculture sector. Research shows that land-use intensification, climate change, introduction of alien invasive species and pathogens are amongst the major driving factors for bee populations declines (Potts et al. 2016, Bartomeus and Dicks 2019). There is also lack of empirical data on synergistic interaction of such factors owing to their interconnection and complexity which impedes the management and conservation of wild bee pollinators (Westphal et al. 2008, Gemmill-Herren et al. 2014, Potts et al. 2016).

In recent years, a few studies have provided partial information on the ecology of bees in Tanzania (Classen et al. 2015, Classen et al. 2017, Classen et al. 2020). However, these studies focused on bee diversity using morphospecies, plant-bee interactions and body size trait along elevation gradients of Mt.Kilimanjaro. Additionally, some studies on bee species conducted in the country were confined to a specific taxon, for example, in the genus Apis (Mumbi et al. 2014) and tribe Meliponini (Hamisi 2019). To date, no studies have comprehensively compiled occurrence of bee species in Tanzania to understand their diversity and distribution. In 2017, the College of African Wildlife Management, Mweka (CAWM), in collaboration with local and international partners, developed a three-year Bee Pollinator Monitoring Project to bridge this information gap. On this account, this paper presents bee occurrence data of northern Tanzania (Kilimanjaro, Arusha and Manyara administrative regions) with reference to an online dataset shared to the wider scientific community through https://doi.org/10.15468/hdcdf3 (Lasway et al. 2021). The result is a qualitative improvement in the availability of primary data on the bee species of this country.

Project description

Title: 

Bee - Pollinator Monitoring Project , Tanzania

Personnel: 

The project is hosted at CAWM, Mweka Tanzania and is being implemented in collaboration with local and international partner institutions. Local institutions include Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute (TAWIRI), Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH), Ministry of Agriculture - Tanzania, Tropical Pesticide Research Institute (TPRI) and National Museum of Tanzania (NMT). Partner institutions from outside Tanzania include the University of Würzburg (Germany), Agricultural Research Council ARC (South Africa), Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences RBINS (Belgium), and the University of Kansas (USA).

Goals: The project's main goal was to determine the current distribution and status of bee pollinators in Tanzania. Other project objectives were:

  • To strengthen the capacity of Tanzanians in the aspects of biodiversity informatics; plant-bee interactions; DNA-based and morphological identification techniques; and collection management;

  • To develop and implement a standardized bee pollinator monitoring programme;

  • To share data on bee species, abundance and their interactions with plants via dedicated databases, such as Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), Tanzania Biodiversity Information Facility (TanBIF) and African Pollinator Initiative (API);

  • To disseminate results to the scientific community through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations; and

  • To raise awareness of the general public on the importance of bee pollinators through various media.

Funding: 

The project is financed by the JRS Biodiversity Foundation, USA.

Sampling methods

Study extent: 

The study was carried out in a set of study sites established in agricultural (transformed), grazing (degraded) and natural savannah (conserved) lands to represent different land-use categories as presented in Table 1. Agriculture intensity was measured, based on magnitude of land use intensification, i.e. moderately intensive agriculture habitat was mainly characterized by smallholder farms with field sizes of less than 1 ha with mixed crops, such as maize, beans and sunflower. It is also characterized by moderate use of agricultural machines and agrochemicals, while intensive agriculture was characterized by monoculture farms. In this habitat, there is a high use of heavy agricultural machines and agricultural inputs (i.e. pesticides and chemical fertilizers). Nonetheless, grazing intensity was measured, based on the visual inspection of on-site signs of obvious grazing like shortened tufts of grass, presence or absence of livestock footprints and by calculating the distance between study sites to bomas (livestock enclosures and living grounds of families holding large herds of livestock) using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Study sites with signs of intensive grazing activity were very near to bomas (average distance 0.09 ± 0.05 (SD) km while study sites with moderate livestock grazing intensity were at a far distance to bomas (i.e. average distance 25.3 ± 27.6 km (SD).

Table 1.

The regional study sites location

Study site Study site ID Latitude Longitude

Elevation

(m a.s.l.)

Region
Miwaleni IA1 -3.4233 37.4604 702 Kilimanjaro
Mjohoroni IA2 -3.3813 37.3836 764 Kilimanjaro
Kahe IA3 -3.4451 37.3564 741 Kilimanjaro
Lambo estate IA4 -3.3095 37.2436 1007 Kilimanjaro
Bomang'ombe IA5 -3.2834 37.1292 1036 Kilimanjaro
West Kilimanjaro IA6 -3.0205 37.0488 1497 Kilimanjaro
West Kilimanjaro IA7 -2.9461 37.0597 1708 Kilimanjaro
Kikatiti IA8 -3.3892 36.9592 1047 Arusha
NARCO IG1 -3.098 36.9852 1359 Kilimanjaro
Lekrumuni IG2 -3.1378 36.9434 1404 Kilimanjaro
Lekrumuni IG3 -3.1508 36.9115 1391 Kilimanjaro
KIA IG4 -3.4504 37.0394 890 Kilimanjaro
Meserani IG5 -3.4079 36.4956 1330 Arusha
Arkatani IG6 -3.418 36.3967 1327 Arusha
Bwawani IG7 -3.4531 36.1923 1314 Arusha
Makuyuni juu IG8 -3.5081 36.1431 1227 Arusha
Njia panda MIA1 -3.3932 37.5191 847 Kilimanjaro
Njia panda MIA2 -3.4375 37.5334 759 Kilimanjaro
Kibo estate MIA3 -3.3044 37.2078 1025 Kilimanjaro
Donyo Moru MIA4 -3.2526 37.0964 1101 Kilimanjaro
New Molomo farm MIA5 -3.1602 37.0356 1376 Kilimanjaro
King'ori MIA6 -3.3058 36.9875 1167 Arusha
Kisongo MIA7 -3.3809 36.5465 1368 Arusha
Nanja MIA8 -3.3981 36.2493 1478 Arusha
Challa MIG1 -3.3162 37.6383 1137 Kilimanjaro
Challa MIG2 -3.3475 37.6357 1023 Kilimanjaro
Holili MIG3 -3.3682 37.5968 940 Kilimanjaro
Dachkona MIG4 -3.1259 37.0264 1380 Kilimanjaro
Mwangaza MIG5 -3.0544 37.0575 1532 Kilimanjaro
KIA MIG6 -3.4187 37.0668 900 Kilimanjaro
NelsonMandela MIG7 -3.4002 36.7848 1216 Arusha
UN MIG8 -3.3562 36.5838 1441 Arusha
Challa SAV1 -3.3091 37.685 945 Kilimanjaro
Challa SAV2 -3.2957 37.6817 954 Kilimanjaro
ANAPA SAV3 -3.2372 36.8663 1406 Arusha
ANAPA SAV4 -3.309 36.8803 1576 Arusha
Manyara ranch SAV5 -3.5657 36.0478 1065 Manyara
TARNAPA SAV6 -3.7476 41.9738 1031 Manyara
TARNAPA SAV7 -3.7944 36.0406 1071 Manyara
TARNAPA SAV8 -3.846 36.0525 1073 Manyara

IA = Intensive Agriculture; IG = Intensive Grazing; MIA = Mid-Intensive Agriculture; MIG = Mid-Intensive Grazing; SAV= Savannah

Sampling description: 

Data were collected in 40 study sites distributed along savannah, grazing and agriculture gradients in the three regions. A paired patch study design (i.e. sampling plots were positioned in two contrasting habitats within each study site) was used to minimize spatial autocorrelation. In each study site, two 50 x 50 m sampling plots were positioned and spaced at least 150 m apart. The coordinates of the plots were recorded at the mid-point between the paired plots. Bee data collection involved a combination of standardized pan trapping and random walk methods. These techniques have successfully been used for sampling bee species in northern Tanzania (Classen et al. 2015, Classen et al. 2017, Classen et al. 2020) and in other parts of the world (e.g. Noyes 1989, Stephen and Rao 2007, Westphal et al. 2008, Yi et al. 2012, Spafford and Lortie 2013). In each plot, four clusters of UV-Reflecting pan traps (each with yellow, white and blue) were installed and left in the field to collect bees for 48 hours. Two of the clusters were installed using a 120 cm pole to increase the chances of collecting bees foraging on shrubs and the other two were installed using a 35 cm pole to capture bees foraging on herbaceous plants. In each of three quota water-filled pan traps, a drop of scentless colourless liquid soap was added to break the surface tension and prevent bees from escaping. The total sampling effort for this technique summed to 1,152 hours per site. For the standardized random walk, two researchers actively collected bees for two hours within each sampling plot using sweep nets. This method summed to a sampling effort of four man-hours per study site.

Quality control: 

Controlling data: For each of the study sites, we recorded the habitat type, GPS coordinates and elevation (metres above sea level, m a.s.l.). The coordinates and elevation of localities were derived from a hand-held Garmin GPS (Model: GPSMAP64s; resolution ± 3 m; Garmin Ltd, Taiwan). In addition, for each study site, information on weather parameters (temperature and precipitation) and forage resources were recorded. The specimens collected were preserved in 70% ethanol before being mounted and identified by afro-tropical bee taxonomists (Alain Pauly and Connal Eardley). Bees were identified following the nomenclatural system of Michener 2007 "The Bees of the World, Second Edition" with the exception of the family Halictidae that followed Pauly 1990 and Pauly 1999. Both Michener (2007) and Halictidae taxonomic publications contain keys, diagnosis and descriptions of bees. The reference collections for identified bee species are available at the CAWM, Mweka.

Geographic coverage

Description: 

The study was conducted in the northern part of Tanzania i.e. Kilimanjaro, Arusha and Manyara regions (Fig. 1). The study regions are located between latitude 3°30’ S and 4°45’ S and longitude 4°30' E and 5°45’ E. The study regions have two rainy seasons: a long rainy season from March to May and a short rainy season in November and December. Average annual rainfall ranges geographically between 1300 mm and 2400 mm. Annual mean maximum temperature (hottest season) is 25.4°C between July and September and minimum temperature (cold season) is 12.8°C between May and June.

Figure 1.  

Map of the study area showing study sites. (a) Location of Tanzania (pale yellow background) on the map of Africa; (b) Location of the study area (pale yellow background) in Tanzania; (c) Enlarged map of the study area showing sampling sites (grey dots) in northern Tanzania i.e Kilimanjaro, Arusha and Manyara regions.

Coordinates: 

3°30’ S and 4°45’ S Latitiude and ; 4°30' E and 5°45’ E Longitude.

Taxonomic coverage

Description: 

This data paper describes a total of 953 occurrences for bee species representing four families, 20 genera and 45 species (Table 2), amongst 20,507 species that have been described worldwide (Ascher and Pickering 2020). Seven families of bee species (Andrenidae, Halictidae, Apidae, Melittidae, Colletidae, Megachilidae and Stenotridae) are currently recognized globally (Michener 2007), though only four (Andrenidae, Apidae, Halictidae and Megachilidae) have been recorded in this study. In this sample, seven species (Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1758), Macrogalea candida (Smith, 1879), Lasioglossum bowkeri (Cockerell, 1920), L. rubritarse (Cockerell, 1937), L. transvaalense (Cameron & Cockerell, 1937), Seladonia foana (Vachal, 1899) and S. hotoni (Vachal, 1903) are reported to occur across all land-use types: agricultural (transformation), grazing (degradation) and natural savannah (conservation), whereas other species are found in a subset of land-use types (Table 3).

Table 2.

Summary of bee occurrence records from northern Tanzania by family.

Class Order Family No. of genera recorded No. of species recorded No. of individuals recorded
Insecta Hymenoptera Andrenidae 1 1 1
Apidae 9 16 570
Halictidae 9 27 352
Megachilidae 1 1 30
Total 20 45 953
Table 3.

Species list of bee data records from northen Tanzania.

Family Genera Scientific name and authorship Land-use type
Andrenidae Andrena Andrena notophila (Cockerell, 1933) Savannah habitat in Arusha region.
Apidae Apis Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1758) Savannah, intensive agriculture, intensive grazing, mid-intensive agriculture and mid-intensive grazing habitat in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Apidae Eucara Eucara macrognatha (Gerstaecker, 1870) Mid-intensive agriculture and mid-intensive grazing habitat in Kilimanjaro region.
Apidae Hypotrigona Hypotrigona gribodoi (Magretti, 1884) Mid-intensive agriculture and mid-intensive grazing habitat in Kilimanjaro region.
Apidae Liotrigona Liotrigona bottegoi (Magretti, 1895) Savannah habitat in Kilimanjaro region.
Apidae Macrogalea Macrogalea candida (Smith, 1879) Savannah, intensive agriculture, intensive grazing, mid-intensive agriculture and mid-intensive grazing habitat in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Apidae Meliponula Meliponula ferruginea (Lepeletier, 1836) Intensive agriculture habitat in Arusha region.
Apidae Meliponula Meliponula togoensis (Stadelmann) Savannah and mid-intensive grazing habitat in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Apidae Pleibena Plebeina armata (Magretti, 1895) Mid-intensive grazing habitat in Kilimanjaro region.
Apidae Schwarzia Schwarzia emmae (Eardley, 2009) Intensive agriculture habitat in Kilimanjaro region.
Apidae Xylocopa Xylocopa caffra (Linnaeus, 1767) Intensive agriculture and mid-intensive grazing habitat in Kilimanjaro region.
Apidae Xylocopa Xylocopa erythrina (Gribodo, 1894) Intensive grazing habitat in Kilimanjaro region.
Apidae Xylocopa Xylocopa flavicollis (DeGeer,1778) Intensive agriculture, mid-intensive agriculture and mid-intensive grazing habitat in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Apidae Xylocopa Xylocopa flavorufa (DeGeer, 1778) Intensive agriculture habitat in Kilimanjaro region.
Apidae Xylocopa Xylocopa inconstans (Smith,1874) Intensive agriculture, intensive grazing, mid-intensive agriculture habitat in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Apidae Xylocopa Xylocopa nigrita (Fabricius, 1775) Intensive agriculture habitat in Kilimanjaro region.
Apidae Xylocopa Xylocopa somalica (Magretti, 1895) Intensive agriculture, intensive grazing, mid-intensive agriculture habitat in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Halictidae Acunomia Acunomia theryi (Gribodo,1894) Intensive agriculture, mid-intensive agriculture habitat in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Halictidae Crocisaspidia Crocisaspidia chandleri (Ashmead,1899) Mid-intensive agriculture habitat in Kilimanjaro region.
Halictidae Crocisaspidia Crocisaspidia forbesii (Kirby, 1900) Intensive grazing habitat in Kilimanjaro region.
Halictidae Lasioglossum Lasioglossum acuiferum (Cockerell, 1935) Savannah, intensive grazing, mid-intensive agriculture and mid-intensive grazing habitat in Manyara, Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Halictidae Lasioglossum Lasioglossum atricrum (Vachal, 1903) Intensive agriculture, mid-intensive grazing habitat in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Halictidae Lasioglossum Lasioglossum bellulum (Vachal, 1910) Intensive agriculture, intensive grazing, mid-intensive agriculture and mid-intensive grazing habitat in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Halictidae Lasioglossum Lasioglossum bowkeri (Cockerell, 1920) Savannah, intensive agriculture, intensive grazing, mid-intensive agriculture and mid-intensive grazing habitat in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Halictidae Lasioglossum Lasioglossum deceptum (Smith, 1853) Intensive agriculture, mid-intensive agriculture habitat in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Halictidae Lasioglossum Lasioglossum hancocki (Cockerell, 1945) Intensive agriculture, intensive grazing, mid-intensive agriculture and mid-intensive grazing habitat in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Halictidae Lasioglossum Lasioglossum matopiense (Cockerell, 1940) Savannah, intensive grazing, mid-intensive agriculture and mid-intensive grazing habitat in Manyara, Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Halictidae Lasioglossum Lasioglossum rubritarse (Cockerell, 1937) Savannah, intensive agriculture, intensive grazing, mid-intensive agriculture and mid-intensive grazing habitat in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Halictidae Lasioglossum Lasioglossum scobe (Vachal, 1903) Intensive agriculture, mid-intensive agriculture habitat in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Halictidae Lasioglossum Lasioglossum transvaalense (Cameron&Cockerell, 1937) Savannah, intensive agriculture, intensive grazing, mid-intensive agriculture and mid-intensive grazing habitat in Manyara, Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Halictidae Macronomia Macronomia armatula (Dalla Torre, 1896) Savannah habitat in Manyara region.
Halictidae Nubenomia Nubenomia reichardia (Strand, 1911) Savannah, intensive agriculture, mid-intensive agriculture habitat in Manyara and Kilimanjaro regions.
Halictidae Pachynomia Pachynomia flavicarpa (Vachal, 1903) Mid-intensive grazing habitat in Kilimanjaro region.
Halictidae Patellapis Patellapis itigiensis (Kuhlmann & Pauly, 2010) Intensive agriculture habitat in Kilimanjaro region.
Halictidae Pseudapis Pseudapis pandeana (Strand, 1914) Mid-intensive agriculture and mid-intensive grazing habitat in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Halictidae Pseudapis Pseudapis usambarae (Pauly, 1990) Mid-intensive agriculture in Kilimanjaro region.
Halictidae Seladonia Seladonia africana (Friese, 1909) Intensive agriculture, mid-intensive agriculture habitat in Kilimanjaro region.
Halictidae Seladonia Seladonia foana (Vachal, 1899) Savannah, intensive agriculture, intensive grazing, mid-intensive agriculture and mid-intensive grazing habitat in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Halictidae Seladonia Seladonia hotoni (Vachal, 1903) Savannah, intensive agriculture, intensive grazing, mid-intensive agriculture and mid-intensive grazing habitat in Manyara, Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Halictidae Seladonia Seladonia lucidipennis (Smith, 1853) Mid-intensive agriculture habitat in Kilimanjaro region.
Halictidae Steganomus Steganomus junodi (Gribodo, 1895) Savannah, mid-intensive agriculture and mid-intensive grazing habitat in Manyara, Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Halictidae Trinomia Trinomia cirrita (Vachal, 1903) Savannah, intensive agriculture,mid-intensive grazing habitat in Manyara and Arusha regions.
Halictidae Zonalictus Zonalictus kabetensis (Cockerell, 1937) Savannah, intensive agriculture habitat in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Halictidae Zonalictus Zonalictus kivuicola (Cockerell, 1937) Savannah, mid-intensive agriculture habitat in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.
Megachilidae Lithurgus Lithurgus pullatus (Vachal, 1903) Savannah, intensive agriculture, mid-intensive agriculture and mid-intensive grazing habitat in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions.

The Halictidae was richest in species, with 27 species, followed by Apidae with 16 species. Two families (Andrenidae and Megachilidae) were represented by single species: Andrena notophila (Cockerell, 1933) and Lithurgus pullatus (Vachal, 1903), respectively (Table 3). Greater numbers of records from Kilimanjaro (511 occurrences), compared to Arusha (410 occurrences) and Manyara (32 occurrences) is attributed to more sample plots in the region and not fewer bee species in Arusha or Manyara regions.

Temporal coverage

Data range: 
2018-8-06 - 2018-12-21.
Notes: 

Bees were collected intermittently between August and December 2018. Two study sites were visited per day for data collection using pan trap and sweep-net methods. Pan traps were left in the field to collect bees for 48 hours before they were emptied and moved to the next study site. Additionally, sweep-netting was used to collect bee species actively for two hours per study site, excluding handling and processing time. Data collection by handnet was conducted when bees were most active in the morning between 9:00 and 11:00 am.

Usage licence

Usage licence: 
Creative Commons Public Domain Waiver (CC-Zero)
IP rights notes: 

These data can be freely used, provided their source is cited.

Data resources

Data package title: 
Occurrence of bees along grazing and agricultural gradients in northern Tanzania
Number of data sets: 
1
Data set name: 
Occurrence of bees along grazing and agricultural gradients in northern Tanzania
Download URL: 
Data format: 
Darwin Core Archive
Description: 

The data were prepared following DARWIN CORE format

Column label Column description
institutionCode The acronym in use by the institution having custody of the information referred to in the record.
basisOfRecord The specific nature of the data record.
occurrenceID The Globally Unique Identifier number for the record.
individualCount The number of individuals that were recorded
habitat A category or description of the habitat in which the Event occurred.
countryCode The standard code for the country in which the Location occurs
decimalLatitude The verbatim original latitude of the Location.
decimalLongitude The verbatim original longitude of the Location.
scientificName The full scientific name including the genus name and the lowest level of taxonomic rank with the authority.
kingdom The full scientific name of the kingdom in which the taxon is classified
eventDate The date or date interval during which the occurrence record was collected.
geodeticDatum The coordinate system and set of reference points upon which the geographic coordinates are based.
coordinateUncertaintyInMetres The horizontal distance from the given decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude in metres, describing the smallest circle containing the whole of the Location.
organismQuantity A number or enumeration value for the quantity of organisms.
organismQuantityType The type of quantification system used for the quantity of organisms
samplingProtocol The description of the method used during sampling
taxonRank The taxonomic rank of the most specific name in the scientificName.
scientificNameAuthorship The authorship information for the scientificName formatted according to the conventions of the applicable nomenclaturalCode.
ScientificName The full scientific name of a taxon.
acceptedNameUsage The full name, with authorship and date information, if known, of the currently valid or accepted taxon.
taxonomicStatus The status of the use of the scientificName as a label for a taxon

Acknowledgements

This project was financially supported by JRS Biodiversity Foundation. We thank the College of African Wildlife Management (CAWM), Mweka for logistic and additional support. We acknowledge the support of Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute (TAWIRI) and Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH) for providing the research clearance permit (TNP/HQ/C.10/13) to undertake the research. We express our sincere thanks to the project field assistants Mr. Bituro Pauly and Ms. Zainab Gwasi Issa for their valuable contribution during the field data collection. We extend our appreciation and thanks to the landowners who have allowed us to use their lands as study sites. Lastly, the technical and overall manuscript review provided by Dr. Bob Mesibov, Prof. Evandson J. Anjos-Silva, Dr. Cory Sheffield, Guillaume Ghisbain and other anonymous reveiwers is greatly appreciated.

References