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General research article
Checklist of host plants of insect galls in the state of Goiás in the Midwest Region of Brazil
expand article infoWalter Santos de Araújo, Eder Dasdoriano Porfírio Júnior§, Bárbara Araújo Ribeiro, Taiza Moura Silva, Elienai Cândida e Silva, Frederico Augusto Guimarães Guilherme|, Claudia Scareli-Santos, Benedito Baptista dos Santos
‡ Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil
§ Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Brasília, Brazil
| Universidade Federal de Goiás, Jataí, Brazil
¶ Universidade Federal do Tocantins, Araguaína, Brazil
Open Access

Abstract

Background

Surveys of host plants of insect galls have been performed in different regions of Brazil. The knowledge of species of host plants of insect galls is fundamental to further studies of plant-galling insect interactions. However, a list of host plant species of gall-inducing insects has not yet been compiled for the flora of the Midwest Region of Brazil.

New information

We provide a compilation of the plant species reported to host insect galls in the Cerrado of the state of Goiás in the Midwest Region of Brazil. Altogether we found records for 181 species of 47 families of host plants, which hosted 365 distinct gall morphotypes.

Keywords

Cerrado, galls, Goiás, host plants, Neotropical savannas, plant-insect interactions

Introduction

Insect galls are structures formed by the development of larvae or nymphs in the interior of plant tissues (Mani 1964, Rohfritsch 1982, Stone and Schönrogge 2003). Galls develop by hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the plant cells, which changes all of the structure of the attacked plant organ (Moura et al. 2008). Because of the intimate level of interaction between gall-inducing insects and their host plants at histological and cellular scale, these insects are considered the most specialized guild of herbivores (Stone and Schönrogge 2003, Carneiro et al. 2009, Fernandes and Santos 2014). Due to this high degree of specialization, knowledge regarding the identity of host plant species is fundamental to studies of plant-galling insect interactions.

It is already known that there exists a high diversity of insect galls in the Neotropics (Gagné 1994, Fernandes and Santos 2014), mainly in the savannas located in central Brazil (Araújo et al. 2014b). A likely explanation for this is the great diversity of plants in the region (Espírito-Santo and Fernandes 2007), since richness of host plants is an important factor in explaining the distribution patterns of insect galls (Araújo et al. 2014b). Considering that each species of plant is a potential host for galling, a greater local and regional diversity of plant species implies greater galling species richness (Mendonça 2007). Several studies in Brazil have produced local and regional lists of host plant species and their associated galls, especially in the South and Southeast regions (e.g. Gonçalves-Alvim and Fernandes 2001, Maia and Fernandes 2004, Mendonça 2007, Maia et al. 2008, Bregonci et al. 2010), while in other regions, such as the Midwest, surveys are still scarce (Araújo et al. 2013). In the present work, we provide a compilation of plant species that have been recorded to host insect galls in the state of Goiás in the Midwest Region of Brazil.

Material and methods

We compiled data from different surveys of plant species that are hosts of insect galls from several locations in the state of Goiás in the Midwest Region of Brazil (Fig. 1). We also included data from the Distrito Federal, which is a separate political entity, but is surrounded by the state of Goiás. All records of hosts and galls were collected between 2005 and 2013 in different types of vegetation that comprise the Cerrado biome (Table 1). We included data published in local checklists (e.g. Santos et al. 2010, Araújo et al. 2011, Araújo et al. 2014a) as well as unpublished data. The identification of the plants was made by comparison with the collections of Universidade Federal de Goiás, herbarium, literature, as well as consultation with specialists. We checked the synonymy using The Plant List database (www.theplantlist.org). In addition to the list of host plants, we provide a short morphological characterization of gall morphotypes (plant organ, gall form and gall color) associated with each host plant species. The use of gall morphotypes is a commonly used and reliable parameter because evidence indicates that each gall morphospecies (examples in Fig. 2) is unique to a particular gall-inducing insect (Stone and Schönrogge 2003), and each galling species is specific to a particular host plant (Abrahamson et al. 1998). Insect galls can be differentiated from galls induced by other organisms, such as mites and nematodes, because they form an internal chamber where the immature insect develops (see Fig. 2f). Furthermore, insect galls are relatively large structures (in cm scale) and usually closed (internal chamber has no opening to the outside), unlike other galls induced by animals. Insect galls were collected and taken to laboratory where they were dissected to obtain the immature and adults gall-inducing insects. It was not our objective to list the species (or taxa) of the gall-inducing insects responsible for the galls observed in the plants of our survey. For details about galling insect taxa associated with each host plant species the original studies should be consulted.

Description of the sites and vegetation formations in which insect galls were sampled in the state of Goiás, Midwest, Brazil. 2005-2013.

Code

Sampled site

Municipaly

Vegetation type

Geocoordinate

Altitude (m)

Reference

1

Parque Estadual da Serra dos Pireneus

Pirenópolis

Savanna, Rock Savanna, Semidecidual Forest, Riparian Forest

15°49'S, 48°53'W

1,156

Araújo et al. 2011

2

Pedreira da Prefeitura

Pirenópolis

Savanna

15°50'S, 48°55'W

840

Unpublished

3

Reserva da UEG

Anápolis

Savanna

16°22'S, 48°56'W

1,097

Unpublished

4

Floresta Nacional de Silvânia

Silvânia

Grassland, Savanna, Semidecidual Forest, Riparian Forest

16°38'S, 48°39'W

963

Unpublished

5

Fazenda do Geraldo

Silvânia

Savanna

16°40'S, 48°18'W

837

Unpublished

6

Condomínio Itanhangá

Goiânia

Savanna

16°33'S, 49°17'W

762

Araújo et al. 2013

7

Bosque Saint Hilaire

Goiânia

Semidecidual Forest

16°36'S, 49°15'W

795

Santos et al. 2010

8

Zona Rural de Senador Canedo

Senador Canedo

Savanna

16°43'S, 49°06'W

774

Unpublished

9

Fazenda Bom Sucesso

Senador Canedo

Savanna

16°42'S, 49°02'W

749

Unpublished

10

Banana Menina

Hidrolânia

Savanna

16°59'S, 49°14'W

893

Unpublished

11

Zona Rural de Bela Vista

Bela Vista

Savanna

15°57'S, 48°56'W

809

Unpublished

12

Condomínio Del Rey

Caldas Novas

Savanna

17°42'S, 48°38'W

702

Santos et al. 2012

13

Fazenda Caiapônia

Caiapônia

Semidecidual Forest

16°56'S, 51°49'W

703

Unpublished

14

Fazenda Lajeado

Jataí

Savanna

17°53'S, 51°38'W

756

Unpublished

15

Estação Ecológica da UFG

Jataí

Semidecidual Forest

17°56'S, 51°42'W

646

Unpublished

16

Jardim Botânico Mata do Açude

Jataí

Semidecidual Forest

17°56'S, 51°43'W

618

Unpublished

17

Parque Nacional das Emas

Mineiros

Savanna, Grassland

17°56'S, 52°56'W

878

Araújo et al. 2014a

18

REBIO Contagem

Brasília

Savanna

15°37'S, 47°52'W

994

Unpublished

19

APA Cafuringa

Brasília

Savanna

15°31'S, 47°57'W

873

Unpublished

Figure 1.

Localization of the sites in which insect galls were sampled in the state of Goiás, Midwest, Brazil. 2005-2013. The number of each site corresponds to code in the Table 1.

Figure 2.

Examples of insect galls recorded to state of Goiás, Midwest, Brazil. 2005-2013. a) Stem gall of Apion sp. (Coleoptera, Brentidae) on Diospyros hispida (Ebenaceae); b) Stem gall of Palaeomystella oligophaga (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae) on Macairea radula (Melastomataceae); c) Leaf galls of Neotrioza sp. (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) on Psidium salutare (Myrtaceae); d) Leaf gall of Myrciariamyia admirabilis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) on Erythroxylum suberosum (Erythroxylaceae); e) Leaf gall of an undetermined Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) on Anadenanthera peregrina (Fabaceae); f) Leaf galls of an undetermined Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) on Qualea parviflora (Vochysiaceae) with the detail of a larva in the internal chamber.

Results

We recorded a total of 181 species of 47 families of plants that host insect galls in the state of Goiás (Table 2). Seventy-three (40.3%) plant species are registered as gall hosts for the first time to Goiás. Associated with plant species were 365 gall morphotypes, of which 192 (52.6%) had previously been recorded and 173 (47.4%) are new records. The plant families with the highest gall richness were Fabaceae, Malpighiaceae, Myrtaceae, Vochysiaceae, Sapindaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Burseraceae, Sapotaceae, Styracaceae and Asteraceae. These 10 families exhibited 58% of the insect gall morphotype richness and 52.4% of the total number of host plant species. The family Fabaceae hosted 58 gall morphotypes, while Malpighiaceae, Myrtaceae and Vochysiaceae had 29, 28 and 23 gall morphotypes, respectively.

Host plants (families and species) and insect galls (occurrence organ, form and color) recorded in the state of Goiás, Central-western Brazil. 2005-2013. References: A = Santos et al. 2010; B = Araújo et al. 2011; C = Santos et al. 2012; D = Araújo et al. 2014a; * = new record.

Host family

Host species

Plant organ

Gall form

Gall color

Reference

Anacardiaceae

Anacardium humile A.St.-Hil.

Leaf

Conical

Green

B

Anacardiaceae

Anacardium occidentale L.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Anacardiaceae

Anacardium occidentale L.

Leaf

Globose

Brown

*

Anacardiaceae

Astronium graveolens Jacq.

Leaf

Globose

Red

*

Anacardiaceae

Astronium graveolens Jacq.

Stem/Leaf

Globose

Yellow

*

Anacardiaceae

Litharea molleoides (Vell.) Engl.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Annonaceae

Annona coriacea Mart.

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

B; D

Annonaceae

Annona coriacea Mart.

Leaf

Globose

Green

B; D

Annonaceae

Annona coriacea Mart.

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Brown

B; D

Annonaceae

Bocageopsis mattogrossensis (R.E.Fr.) R.E.Fr.

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

D

Annonaceae

Duguetia furfuracea (A. St.-Hil.) Saff.

Leaf

Globose

Green

*

Annonaceae

Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

*

Apocynaceae

Aspidosperma macrocarpon Mart.

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

D

Apocynaceae

Aspidosperma macrocarpon Mart.

Leaf

Conical

Green

D

Apocynaceae

Aspidosperma nobile Müll.Arg.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

D

Apocynaceae

Aspidosperma tomentosum Mart.

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

B

Araliaceae

Schefflera macrocarpa (Seem) D.C. Frodin

Leaf

Discoid

Bege

*

Araliaceae

Schefflera macrocarpa (Seem) D.C. Frodin

Leaf

Globose

Yellow

*

Araliaceae

Schefflera morototoni Aubl.

Leaf

Ellipsoid

Green

A

Araliaceae

Schefflera vinosa (Cham. & Schltdl.) Frodin & Fiaschi

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Brown

D

Araliaceae

Schefflera vinosa (Cham. & Schltdl.) Frodin & Fiaschi

Petiole

Ellipsoid

Brown

D

Asteraceae

Eremanthus erythropappus (DC.) MacLeish

Leaf

Globoid

Green

D

Asteraceae

Eremanthus goyazensis (Gardner) Sch. Bip.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Rust

*

Asteraceae

Eremanthus sp.

Midvein

Globose

Brown

*

Asteraceae

Heterocondylus alatus (Vell.) King and H. Rob.

Leaf

Ellipsoid

Green

*

Asteraceae

Piptocarpha rotundifolia (Less.) Baker

Leaf

Discoid

Green

D

Asteraceae

Piptocarpha rotundifolia (Less.) Baker

Leaf

Globose

Bege

*

Asteraceae

Piptocarpha rotundifolia (Less.) Baker

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Green

D

Asteraceae

Piptocarpha rotundifolia (Less.) Baker

Stem

Globose

Brown

*

Asteraceae

Vernonia polysphaera Baker

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

*

Bignoniaceae

Arrabidaea sp.

Leaf/Stem

Globose

Yellow

A

Bignoniaceae

Arrabidaea sp.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Green

A; B

Bignoniaceae

Handroanthus ochraceus (Cham.) Mattos

Leaf

Conical

Brown

D

Bignoniaceae

Handroanthus ochraceus (Cham.) Mattos

Stem

Globose

Green

*

Bignoniaceae

Macfadyena sp.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Green

*

Bignoniaceae

Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. and Hook. f. ex S. Moore

Leaf

Ellipsoid

Green

*

Bignoniaceae

Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. and Hook. f. ex S. Moore

Leaf

Globose

Yellow

*

Bignoniaceae

Tabebuia sp.

Leaf

Conical

Green

C

Boraginaceae

Cordia sellowiana Cham.

Leaf

Globose

Brown

*

Burseraceae

Protium heptaphyllum March.

Leaf

Marginal roll

Green

*

Burseraceae

Protium heptaphyllum March.

Leaf

Cylindrical

Green

*

Burseraceae

Protium heptaphyllum March.

Leaf

Conical

Green

B

Burseraceae

Protium heptaphyllum March.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Burseraceae

Protium heptaphyllum March.

Leaf

Globose

Brown

*

Burseraceae

Protium heptaphyllum March.

Leaf

Globose

Green

A

Burseraceae

Protium heptaphyllum March.

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Brown

A

Burseraceae

Protium heptaphyllum March.

Stem

Globose

Green

*

Burseraceae

Protium sp.

Leaf

Ellipsoid

Green

*

Burseraceae

Protium sp.

Leaf/Stem

Ellipsoid

Green

*

Burseraceae

Protium sp.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Green

*

Calophyllaceae

Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc.

Leaf

Globoid

Brown

D

Calophyllaceae

Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc.

Leaf

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Calophyllaceae

Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc.

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Brown

D

Calophyllaceae

Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc.

Midvein

Amorphous

Brown

D

Calophyllaceae

Kielmeyera grandiflora (Wawra) Saddi

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

D

Calophyllaceae

Kielmeyera rubriflora Camb.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

*

Calophyllaceae

Kielmeyera sp.

Leaf

Globose

Green

*

Caryocaraceae

Caryocar brasiliense Cambess.

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

C

Caryocaraceae

Caryocar brasiliense Cambess.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

*

Caryocaraceae

Caryocar brasiliense Cambess.

Leaf

Ellipsoid

Yellow

*

Caryocaraceae

Caryocar brasiliense Cambess.

Leaf

Globose

Yellow

B; D

Caryocaraceae

Caryocar brasiliense Cambess.

Leaf

Globoid

Yellow

B; C; D

Caryocaraceae

Caryocar brasiliense Cambess.

Petiole

Globoid

Brown

*

Caryocaraceae

Caryocar brasiliense Cambess.

Stem

Amorphous

Brown

C

Caryocaraceae

Caryocar glabrum (Aubl.) Pers.

Leaf

Globose

Green

*

Celastraceae

Cheiloclinium cognatum (Miers) A.C. Sm.

Midvein

Globose

Brown

*

Celastraceae

Maytenus sp.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Celastraceae

Maytenus sp.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Celastraceae

Plenckia populnea Reissek

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

*

Chrysobalanaceae

Couepia grandiflora (Mart. and Zucc.) Benth. and Hook.

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

*

Chrysobalanaceae

Hirtella glandulosa Spreng.

Leaf

Globose

Yellow

*

Chrysobalanaceae

Hirtella sp.

Leaf

Globose

Brown

*

Chrysobalanaceae

Licania humilis Cham. & Schltdl.

Leaf

Marginal roll

Green

*

Chrysobalanaceae

Licania humilis Cham. & Schltdl.

Leaf

Globose

Brown

*

Chrysobalanaceae

Licania humilis Cham. & Schltdl.

Midvein

Globoid

Brown

D

Chrysobalanaceae

Licania tomentosa Benth.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

A

Clusiaceae

Calophylum brasiliensis Camb.

Leaf

Globose

Green

B

Clusiaceae

Clusia sp.

Leaf

Amorphous

Red

B

Combretaceae

Terminalia argentea Mart. and Zucc.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

C

Combretaceae

Terminalia argentea Mart. and Zucc.

Leaf

Globose

Brown

B

Connaraceae

Connarus suberosus Planch.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

D

Connaraceae

Connarus suberosus Planch.

Leaf

Globose

Brown

C

Connaraceae

Connarus suberosus Planch.

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Brown

D

Connaraceae

Connarus suberosus Planch.

Stem

Globose

Brown

*

Connaraceae

Rourea induta Planch.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

D

Connaraceae

Rourea induta Planch.

Leaf

Discoid

Red

*

Dichapetalaceae

Tapura sp.

Leaf

Globose

Green

*

Dilleniaceae

Davilla elliptica A.St.-Hil.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

B; C; D

Dilleniaceae

Davilla elliptica A.St.-Hil.

Leaf

Ellipsoid

Green

B; C

Dilleniaceae

Davilla elliptica A.St.-Hil.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

D

Ebenaceae

Diospyros burchelii Hern.

Leaf

Amorphous

Green

B

Ebenaceae

Diospyros hispida A.DC.

Leaf

Globose

Yellow

C

Ebenaceae

Diospyros hispida A.DC.

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

D

Ebenaceae

Diospyros hispida A.DC.

Leaf

Globoid

Yellow

D

Ebenaceae

Diospyros hispida A.DC.

Stem

Globose

Green

C

Erythroxylaceae

Erythroxylum campestre A. St.-Hil.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Erythroxylaceae

Erythroxylum deciduum A. St.-Hil.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Erythroxylaceae

Erythroxylum deciduum A. St.-Hil.

Terminal bud

Globose

Brown

C

Erythroxylaceae

Erythroxylum engleri O.E.Schulz

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

D

Erythroxylaceae

Erythroxylum sp.

Leaf

Ellipsoid

Yellow

*

Erythroxylaceae

Erythroxylum sp.

Stem

Globose

Brown

*

Erythroxylaceae

Erythroxylum suberosum A.St.-Hil.

Leaf

Amorphous

Red

B; C

Erythroxylaceae

Erythroxylum suberosum A.St.-Hil.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Erythroxylaceae

Erythroxylum suberosum A.St.-Hil.

Leaf

Marginal roll

Green

C

Erythroxylaceae

Erythroxylum suberosum A.St.-Hil.

Leaf

Globose

Red

*

Erythroxylaceae

Erythroxylum suberosum A.St.-Hil.

Leaf

Marginal leaf roll

Green

D

Erythroxylaceae

Erythroxylum tortuosum Mart.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

*

Erythroxylaceae

Erythroxylum tortuosum Mart.

Leaf

Globose

Red

*

Euphorbiaceae

Manihot sp.

Leaf

Conical

Red

A

Euphorbiaceae

Manihot tripartita (Spreng.) Müll. Arg.

Leaf

Conical

Green

C

Euphorbiaceae

Maprounea guianensis Aubl.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Green

*

Fabaceae

Acosmium dasycarpum (Vogel) Yakovlev

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

C

Fabaceae

Acosmium dasycarpum (Vogel) Yakovlev

Leaf

Discoid

Green

B

Fabaceae

Anadenanthera falcata (Benth.) Speg.

Leaf

Globoid

Red

D

Fabaceae

Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Spreng.

Leaf

Conical

Yellow

*

Fabaceae

Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Spreng.

Leaf

Globose

Red

B

Fabaceae

Andira cujabensis Benth.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

D

Fabaceae

Andira cujabensis Benth.

Leaf

Conical

Green

D

Fabaceae

Andira cujabensis Benth.

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Brown

D

Fabaceae

Andira cujabensis Benth.

Petiole

Globoid

Brown

D

Fabaceae

Andira paniculata Benth.

Leaf

Amorphous

Green

B

Fabaceae

Andira paniculata Benth.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

B

Fabaceae

Andira paniculata Benth.

Leaf

Ellipsoid

Green

B

Fabaceae

Andira sp.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Fabaceae

Andira sp.

Leaf

Ellipsoid

Green

*

Fabaceae

Andira sp.

Leaf

Globose

Green

C

Fabaceae

Bauhinia curvula Benth.

Leaf

Globose

Yellow

*

Fabaceae

Bauhinia curvula Benth.

Leaf

Globose

Brown

*

Fabaceae

Bauhinia curvula Benth.

Leaf

Globose

Green

*

Fabaceae

Bauhinia curvula Benth.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Fabaceae

Bauhinia sp.1

Leaf

Globose

red

*

Fabaceae

Bauhinia sp.1

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

A

Fabaceae

Bauhinia sp.1

Stem

Globose

Brown

*

Fabaceae

Bauhinia sp.2

Leaf

Globose

Brown

C

Fabaceae

Bauhinia sp.3

Leaf

Globose

Branca

*

Fabaceae

Bauhinia sp.3

Leaf

Globose

Green

C

Fabaceae

Bauhinia sp.4

Leaf

Globose

Green

*

Fabaceae

Bauhinia ungulata L.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

A

Fabaceae

Bauhinia ungulata L.

Midvein

Globose

Red

B

Fabaceae

Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth

Leaf

Discoid

Green

D

Fabaceae

Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Green

D

Fabaceae

Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.

Leaf

Bilobed

Brown

C

Fabaceae

Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

C

Fabaceae

Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.

Leaf

Globose

Yellow

*

Fabaceae

Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.

Leaf

Globose

Brown

*

Fabaceae

Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Fabaceae

Dalbergia miscolobium Benth.

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

*

Fabaceae

Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

*

Fabaceae

Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

B

Fabaceae

Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

A; D

Fabaceae

Inga cylindrica (Vell.) Mart.

Leaf

Cylindrical

Green

A

Fabaceae

Inga cylindrica (Vell.) Mart.

Leaf

Globose

Green

A

Fabaceae

Inga cylindrica (Vell.) Mart.

Midvein

Globose

Green

A

Fabaceae

Inga marginata Willd.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Fabaceae

Inga sp.

Leaf

Globose

Brown

*

Fabaceae

Inga sp.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Fabaceae

Inga uruguensis Hooker et Arnott

Leaf

Globose

Green

A

Fabaceae

Leotolobium dasycarpum Vogel

Leaf

Discoid

Green

D

Fabaceae

Leotolobium dasycarpum Vogel

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Green

D

Fabaceae

Machaerium opacum Vog.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

*

Fabaceae

Machaerium opacum Vog.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Fabaceae

Piptadenia sp.

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

A

Fabaceae

Piptadenia sp.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Grey

*

Fabaceae

Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Fabaceae

Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

*

Fabaceae

Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

D

Fabaceae

Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Brown

D

Fabaceae

Tachigali aurea Tul.

Leaf

Ellipsoid

Brown

D

Fabaceae

Tachigali vulgaris L.G.Silva & H.C.Lima

Leaf

Globoid

Yellow

D

Lauraceae

Nectandra cuspidata Nees

Leaf

Discoid

Green

A

Loganiaceae

Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Loganiaceae

Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil.

Leaf

Globose

Green

C

Loranthaceae

Struthanthus sp.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

B

Malpighiaceae

Banisteriopsis argyrophylla (A. Juss.) B. Gates

Leaf

Globose

Green

*

Malpighiaceae

Banisteriopsis megaphylla (A. Juss.) B. Gates

Leaf

Globose

Green

*

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima basiloba A. Juss.

Leaf

Globose

Brown

*

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima coccolobifolia Kunth

Leaf

Conical

Green

D

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima coccolobifolia Kunth

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

D

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima coccolobifolia Kunth

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

D

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima guilleminiana Brad. and Mark.

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

B

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima laxiflora Griseb.

Leaf

Conical

Yellow

*

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima laxiflora Griseb.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima pachyphylla A. Juss.

Leaf

Conical

Yellow

B

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima pachyphylla A. Juss.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

*

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima pachyphylla A. Juss.

Leaf

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima pachyphylla A. Juss.

Leaf

Vírgula

Yellow

*

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima pachyphylla A. Juss.

Leaf

Conical

Brown

D

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima pachyphylla A. Juss.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

D

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima pachyphylla A. Juss.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima pachyphylla A. Juss.

Stem

Globose

Brown

C

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima sp.1

Leaf

Conical

Green

*

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima sp.2

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima sp.3

Leaf

Conical

Yellow

B

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima sp.3

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Green

*

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima verbascifolia (L.) DC.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

D

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima verbascifolia (L.) DC.

Leaf

Conical

Yellow

*

Malpighiaceae

Byrsonima verbascifolia (L.) DC.

Leaf

Globose

Purple

*

Malpighiaceae

Diplopterys pubipetala (A. Juss.) W.R. Anderson and C. Cav. Davis

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Malpighiaceae

Heteropterys byrsonimifolia A. Juss.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

*

Malpighiaceae

Heteropterys byrsonimifolia A. Juss.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Malpighiaceae

Peixotoa sp.

Leaf

Globose

Green

C

Malpighiaceae

Pterandra pyroidea A. Juss.

Leaf

Globose

Yellow

B

Malvaceae

Eriotheca gracilipes (K.Schum.) A.Robyns

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

*

Malvaceae

Eriotheca gracilipes (K.Schum.) A.Robyns

Leaf

Discoid

Green

D

Malvaceae

Eriotheca gracilipes (K.Schum.) A.Robyns

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Green

D

Malvaceae

Eriotheca gracilipes (K.Schum.) A.Robyns

Midvein

Globoid

Brown

D

Malvaceae

Eriotheca pubescens (Mart. & Zucc.) Schott & Endl.

Leaf

Globoid

Brown

C

Malvaceae

Eriotheca pubescens (Mart. & Zucc.) Schott & Endl.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

*

Malvaceae

Eriotheca pubescens (Mart. & Zucc.) Schott & Endl.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Malvaceae

Pseudobombax longiflorum (Mart. and Zucc.) A. Robyns

Leaf

Conical

Red

B; C

Malvaceae

Sida micrantha A.St.-Hil

Leaf/Stem

Globose

Yellow

B

Melastomataceae

Macairea radula (Bonpl.) DC.

Leaf/Stem

Globose

Yellow

B

Melastomataceae

Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana

Leaf

Globoid

Brown

B; C; D

Melastomataceae

Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

D

Melastomataceae

Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana

Leaf

Discoid

Bege

*

Melastomataceae

Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana

Leaf

Globose

Brown

*

Melastomataceae

Miconia sp.1

Stem

Globose

Green

*

Melastomataceae

Miconia sp.2

Leaf

Amorphous

Brown

*

Melastomataceae

Miconia sp.2

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Melastomataceae

Miconia sp.3

Inflorescence

Globose

Brown

*

Meliaceae

Guarea sp.

Stem

Globose

Brown

*

Myristicaceae

Virola sebifera Aubl.

Leaf

Globose

Green

*

Myrsinaceae

Rapanea guianensis Aubl.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Myrtaceae

Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess.) O.Berg

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

D

Myrtaceae

Eugenia aurata O.Berg

Leaf

Discoid

Black

D

Myrtaceae

Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth) DC.

Leaf

Ellipsoid

Green

B

Myrtaceae

Eugenia sp.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Myrtaceae

Eugenia ternatifolia Cambess.

Leaf

Globoid

Green

D

Myrtaceae

Myrcia bella Cambess.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

D

Myrtaceae

Myrcia bella Cambess.

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Green

D

Myrtaceae

Myrcia camapuanensis N.Silveira

Midvein

Globoid

Brown

D

Myrtaceae

Myrcia guianensis (Aubl.) DC.

Leaf

Globoid

Green

D

Myrtaceae

Myrcia guianensis (Aubl.) DC.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

D

Myrtaceae

Myrcia guianensis (Aubl.) DC.

Midvein

Globoid

Brown

D

Myrtaceae

Myrcia guianensis (Aubl.) DC.

Midvein

Conical

Green

D

Myrtaceae

Myrcia multiflora (Lam.) DC.

Leaf

Globoid

Green

D

Myrtaceae

Myrcia rostrata DC

Leaf

Discoid

Green

A

Myrtaceae

Myrcia sp.1

Leaf

Globose

Green

B

Myrtaceae

Myrcia sp.1

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Myrtaceae

Myrcia sp.1

Stem

Globose

Green

*

Myrtaceae

Myrcia sp.2

Leaf

Globose

Green

A

Myrtaceae

Myrcia sp.2

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Myrtaceae

Myrcia sp.3

Axillary bud

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Myrtaceae

Myrcia variabilis DC.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

D

Myrtaceae

Myrcia vestita DC.

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

D

Myrtaceae

Psidium laruotteanum Cambess.

Leaf

Globoid

Brown

D

Myrtaceae

Psidium laruotteanum Cambess.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

D

Myrtaceae

Psidium laruotteanum Cambess.

Leaf

Marginal leaf roll

Green

D

Myrtaceae

Psidium myrtoides O.Berg

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

*

Myrtaceae

Psidium myrtoides O.Berg

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Myrtaceae

Psidium salutare var. pohlianum (O.Berg) Landrum

Leaf

Globose

Green

B

Nyctaginaceae

Guapira gracilifolia (Vell.) Reitz

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

*

Nyctaginaceae

Guapira noxia (Netto) Lundell

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

D

Nyctaginaceae

Guapira noxia (Netto) Lundell

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Brown

D

Nyctaginaceae

Guapira noxia (Netto) Lundell

Midvein

Globoid

Brown

D

Nyctaginaceae

Guapira sp.

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

*

Nyctaginaceae

Guapira sp.

Leaf

Globose

Green

*

Nyctaginaceae

Guapira sp.

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Green

*

Nyctaginaceae

Guapira sp.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Nyctaginaceae

Neea theifera Oerst.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

C

Ochnaceae

Ouratea hexasperma (A.St.-Hil.) Baill.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

B; C; D

Ochnaceae

Ouratea hexasperma (A.St.-Hil.) Baill.

Stem

Globose

Brown

*

Ochnaceae

Ouratea spectabilis (Mart.) Engl.

Leaf

Conical

Brown

D

Ochnaceae

Ouratea spectabilis (Mart.) Engl.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

D

Piperaceae

Piper arboreum Aubl.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

A

Piperaceae

Piper arboreum Aubl.

Stem

Ellipsoid

marron

A

Piperaceae

Piper arboreum Aubl.

Stem

Globose

Green

B

Piperaceae

Piper sp.

Leaf

Globose

Green

*

Proteaceae

Roupala montana Aubl.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

B; C; D

Proteaceae

Roupala montana Aubl.

Leaf

Conical

Green

C

Proteaceae

Roupala montana Aubl.

Leaf

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Proteaceae

Roupala montana Aubl.

Leaf

Ellipsoid

Green

*

Proteaceae

Roupala montana Aubl.

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Green

D

Proteaceae

Roupala montana Aubl.

Petiole

Ellipsoid

Red

D

Proteaceae

Roupala montana Aubl.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Ramnaceae

Rhamnidium elaeocarpum Reissek

Stem

Globose

Brown

*

Rubiaceae

Alibertia edulis (Rich.) A. Rich. Ex DC.

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

*

Rubiaceae

Alibertia sp.1

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Rubiaceae

Alibertia sp.2

Leaf

Discoid

Orange

*

Rubiaceae

Coussarea sp.

Leaf

Globose

Yellow

*

Rubiaceae

Coussarea sp.

Stem

Globose

Green

*

Rubiaceae

Palicourea rigida Kunth

Leaf

Globoid

Brown

D

Rubiaceae

Palicourea rigida Kunth

Leaf

Amorphous

Bege

*

Rubiaceae

Palicourea rigida Kunth

Leaf

Globose

Yellow

B

Rubiaceae

Palicourea sp.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Salicaceae

Casearia sylvestris Sw.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

D

Salicaceae

Casearia sylvestris Sw.

Leaf

Globose

Green

*

Sapindaceae

Cupania sp.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Green

*

Sapindaceae

Matayba guianensis Aubl.

Leaf

Globose

Green

*

Sapindaceae

Matayba sp.

Leaf

Conical

Green

*

Sapindaceae

Matayba sp.

Midvein

Globose

Green

*

Sapindaceae

Serjania lethalis A. St.-Hil.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Sapindaceae

Serjania obtusidentata Radlk

Leaf

Discoid

Green

A

Sapindaceae

Serjania obtusidentata Radlk

Leaf/Stem

Ellipsoid

Green

A

Sapindaceae

Serjania sp.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Sapindaceae

Serjania sp.

Leaf

Ellipsoid

Green

*

Sapindaceae

Serjania sp.

Leaf

Globose

Brown

*

Sapindaceae

Serjania sp.

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Brown

B

Sapindaceae

Serjania sp.

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Green

*

Sapindaceae

Serjania sp.

Stem

Conical

Brown

*

Sapindaceae

Serjania sp.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Sapotaceae

Chrysophylum marginatum (Hook. and Arn.) Radlk.

Leaf

Globose

Green

*

Sapotaceae

Micropholis sp.

Leaf

Globose

Green

B

Sapotaceae

Micropholis sp.

Stem

Globose

Brown

B

Sapotaceae

Pouteria ramiflora (Mart.) Radlk.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

D

Sapotaceae

Pouteria ramiflora (Mart.) Radlk.

Leaf

Globose

Green

*

Sapotaceae

Pouteria ramiflora (Mart.) Radlk.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

B

Sapotaceae

Pouteria sp.

Leaf

Discoid

Red

*

Sapotaceae

Pouteria torta (Mart.) Radlk.

Leaf

Conical

Green

D

Sapotaceae

Pouteria torta (Mart.) Radlk.

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

D

Sapotaceae

Pouteria torta (Mart.) Radlk.

Leaf

Conical

Brown

D

Sapotaceae

Pouteria torta (Mart.) Radlk.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

C

Siparunaceae

Siparuna guianensis Aubl.

Leaf

Cylindrical

Green

*

Siparunaceae

Siparuna guianensis Aubl.

Leaf

Ellipsoid

Yellow

*

Siparunaceae

Siparuna guianensis Aubl.

Leaf

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Siparunaceae

Siparuna guianensis Aubl.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Green

*

Siparunaceae

Siparuna guianensis Aubl.

Stem

Globose

Brown

*

Siparunaceae

Siparuna guianensis Aubl.

Stem

Globose

Green

A

Siparunaceae

Siparuna sp.

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Green

*

Smilacaceae

Smilax fluminensis Steud.

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

*

Smilacaceae

Smilax fluminensis Steud.

Leaf

Globose

Green

*

Smilacaceae

Smilax sp.

Leaf

Globose

Green

B

Solanaceae

Solanum sp.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Styracaceae

Styrax acuminatus Pohl.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

*

Styracaceae

Styrax acuminatus Pohl.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Styracaceae

Styrax ferrugineus Nees and Mart.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

*

Styracaceae

Styrax ferrugineus Nees and Mart.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

C

Styracaceae

Styrax pohlii A.DC.

Leaf

Conicle

Green

*

Styracaceae

Styrax pohlii A.DC.

Leaf

Globoid

Brown

A

Styracaceae

Styrax pohlii A.DC.

Leaf

Globoid

Green

B

Styracaceae

Styrax pohlii A.DC.

Leaf

Erythrocyte

Brown

A

Styracaceae

Styrax pohlii A.DC.

Leaf

Globoid (abaxial)

Brown

A

Styracaceae

Styrax pohlii A.DC.

Leaf

Discoid (adaxial)

Brown

B

Styracaceae

Styrax pohlii A.DC.

Stem

Fusiform

Brown

A; B

Styracaceae

Styrax pohlii A.DC.

Stem

Globoid

Brown

A; B

Styracaceae

Styrax sp.

Leaf

Globose

Green

B

Ulmaceae

Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg.

Leaf

Discoid

Yellow

A

Ulmaceae

Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg.

Leaf/Stem

Conical

Green

*

Ulmaceae

Trema micrantha (L.) Blume

Leaf

Ellipsoid

White

A

Ulmaceae

Trema micrantha (L.) Blume

Leaf

Globose

Green

A

Ulmaceae

Trema micrantha (L.) Blume

Stem

Globose

Brown

A

Verbenaceae

Aegiphyla sp.

Leaf

Globose

Green

*

Vochysiaceae

Qualea grandiflora Mart.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

B; C

Vochysiaceae

Qualea grandiflora Mart.

Leaf

Globoid

Green

D

Vochysiaceae

Qualea grandiflora Mart.

Leaf

Conical

Green

D

Vochysiaceae

Qualea grandiflora Mart.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

C

Vochysiaceae

Qualea grandiflora Mart.

Leaf

Globose

Brown

*

Vochysiaceae

Qualea grandiflora Mart.

Stem

Globose

Brown

C

Vochysiaceae

Qualea multiflora Mart.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

D

Vochysiaceae

Qualea multiflora Mart.

Leaf

Discoid

Brown

*

Vochysiaceae

Qualea multiflora Mart.

Leaf

Star

Green

C

Vochysiaceae

Qualea multiflora Mart.

Leaf

Globose

Brown

C

Vochysiaceae

Qualea multiflora Mart.

Leaf

Laminar

Green

*

Vochysiaceae

Qualea multiflora Mart.

Midvein

Ellipsoid

Brown

D

Vochysiaceae

Qualea multiflora Mart.

Stem

Globose

Brown

*

Vochysiaceae

Qualea parviflora Mart.

Leaf

Conical

Green

C; D

Vochysiaceae

Qualea parviflora Mart.

Leaf

Star

Green

D

Vochysiaceae

Qualea parviflora Mart.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

B; D

Vochysiaceae

Qualea parviflora Mart.

Leaf

Star

Red

B; D

Vochysiaceae

Qualea parviflora Mart.

Leaf

Globose

Yellow

*

Vochysiaceae

Qualea parviflora Mart.

Leaf

Vulcano

Green

*

Vochysiaceae

Qualea parviflora Mart.

Stem

Ellipsoid

Brown

*

Vochysiaceae

Qualea parviflora Mart.

Stem

Globose

Brown

*

Vochysiaceae

Salvertia convallariaeodora A.St.-Hil.

Leaf

Globose

Brown

B

Vochysiaceae

Vochysia sp.

Leaf

Discoid

Green

C; D

The genera Byrsonima (Malpighiaceae), Qualea (Vochysiaceae) and Myrcia (Myrtaceae) were the richest in gall morphotypes, with 22, 21 and 17 morphotypes, respectively. Byrsonima pachyphylla A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae), Protium heptaphyllum March. (Burseraceae), Qualea parviflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae), and Styrax pohlii A.DC. (Styracaceae) were the host species with the most diverse gall morphotypes. Other important host species were: Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (Caryocaraceae) (7), Qualea multiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae) (7), Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae) (7), Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae) (6) and Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Siparunaceae) (6).

Discussion

We have systematically compiled the results of studies on plant species that host insect galls in the Cerrado of the state of Goiás for the first time, which resulted in new records of 73 (40.3%) plant species and 173 (47.4%) gall morphospecies. Our results corroborate previous studies that indicate Fabaceae as the plant family that hosts the greatest diversity of galling insects in the Neotropical Region (Gagné 1994, Maia and Fernandes 2004, Araújo et al. 2014b, Fernandes and Santos 2014). Local studies in different regions of Brazil found the same pattern (Gonçalves-Alvim and Fernandes 2001, Santos et al. 2010, Araújo et al. 2011, Araújo et al. 2013, Araújo et al. 2014a). Fabaceae is the most diverse plant family of the Cerrado with nearly 800 species, and so it is not surprising that it hosts the highest diversity of insect galls (Araújo et al. 2014b).

We found that Byrsonima, Qualea and Myrcia were the genera hosting the greatest number of gall morphotypes. These results differ from that observed in other regions of Brazil. For example, Mendonça 2007] found the genera Mikania (Asteraceae), Eugenia (Myrtaceae) and Guapira (Nyctaginaceae) to host the greatest diversity of galls in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Southern Brazil. In the Brazilian Southeast, the genera Myrcia (Myrtaceae), Ocotea (Lauraceae) and Paullinia (Sapindaceae) hosted the most diversity of galls in the state of São Paulo (Maia et al. 2008), while Baccharis (Asteraceae) hosted the greatest richness of galls in state of Minas Gerais (Fernandes et al. 1996). With regards to host plant species, some species stand out as super-hosts of insect galls in Goiás, such as Byrsonima pachyphylla, Protium heptaphyllum, Qualea parviflora and Styrax pohlii. In a previous study, Maia and Fernandes 2004] recorded seven morphotypes of galls on P. heptaphyllum in Cerrado areas of Minas Gerais. Our compilation also adds new gall records for some host species. Galls on Siparuna guianensis were registered for the first time in the Neotropics by Santos et al. 2010] with only one gall morphotype, while in the present compilation six gall morphotypes are associated with this host plant.

Most of the studies performed in Brazil have shown a high diversity of galling insects in the Cerrado (Gonçalves-Alvim and Fernandes 2001, Maia and Fernandes 2004, Santos et al. 2010, Araújo et al. 2011), one of the most fragmented biomes of the world (Klink and Machado 2005). To maintain this high gall diversity it is essential that the remaining fragments of Cerrado are preserved and retain a high diversity of native plants (Araújo et al. 2014b). In the state of Goiás, areas of native vegetation are very small and the majority is widely fragmented (Cunha et al. 2007). Given the eminent risk of destruction of the remaining vegetation, inventories of host plants and their associated insect galls are urgently needed to provide a foundation for further understanding these interactions. We hope that this compilation can serve as an important tool for gall inventories and provide a theoretical reference for new studies in the state of Goiás and in all of Brazil.

Author contributions

WSA, BAR, TMS, ECS, FAGG, CSS and BBS collect data in field and help in data compilation. WSA created the map and formated the figures. WSA and EDPJ wrote the manuscript. All authors read the manuscript and contributed with suggestions.

References