Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic Paper
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Taxonomic Paper
New records of chalcidid (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) pupal parasitoids from India
expand article infoPrakash Gowri, Sagadai Manickavasagam§, Rasappan Kanagarajan§
‡ Annamalai University, Faculty of Agriculture, Chidambaram, India
§ Annamalai University, Department of Entomology, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Open Access

Abstract

Background

Chalcidids are one of the most important parasitoids of pupae of agriculturally important pests belonging to orders like Lepidoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Such an important group has not been studied consistently by any team of workers from any country apart from the notable contributions by Boucek, Steffan, Delvare and Narendran. (Boucek 1988, Steffan 1973, Delvare 1992 and Narendran 1989). On a personal note, Dr. John S Noyes of Natural History Museum London agrees with this view as expressed with the second author and hence we felt that we can initiate further work on this group within India. We currently hold hundreds of unidentified specimens of this family in our department collection confirming that we will have much work to do over a long period of time.

New information

New distribution records of Chalcididae from Andhra Pradesh (Brachymeria megaspila, B. minuta, Dirhinus anthracia and D. auratus), Bihar (B. podagrica, B. excarinata, B. hearseyi, D. anthracia, D. auratus, D. pilifer, Epitranus erythrogaster and Psilochalcis carinigena), Karnataka (B. apicicornis), Manipur (B. euploeae, D. auratus and E. erythrogaster), Mizoram (B. euploeae and D. anthracia), Nagaland (B. euploeae), Himachal Pradesh (B. alternipes), and Tamil Nadu (B. apicicornis, D. anthracia, D. deplanatus, D. pilifer, D. bakeri, E. observator, E. elongatulus, P. keralensis and P. soudanensis) and union territories Andaman & Nicobar Islands (B. podagrica, B. excarinata, E. erythrogaster and P. carinigena) and Pudhucherry (B. albicrus, D. anthracia, D. auratus, E. erythrogaster and P. kerelensis) are documented from the unidentified material mentioned above.

Keywords

Insecta, Chalcidoidea, Distributional records, India

Introduction

Members of the family Chalcididae are predominantly primary endoparasitoids of Lepidoptera and Diptera, though a few species attack Hymenoptera, Coleoptera and Neuroptera (Gibson 1996). Though there are about 90 genera and 1530 species globally, only 29 genera and 214 species are reported from India (Noyes 2015) indicating that the Indian fauna is poorly known. In India, Mani 1989, Mani and Kurian 1953, Mani and Dubey 1972, Mani et al. 1973, and Mani et al. 1974 previously worked on this group. Other few notable contributions are by Joseph et al. 1973 (described 21 new species, 7 new sub species and made revisions of 43 known species of Oriental Brachymeria) and Narendran 1989 (described 4 new genera, 88 new species and made revisions of 37 known genera and 242 known species). Since then, work on Indian Chalcididae dwindled. In this paper, we document new records of Chalcididae from different states and union territories of India as outlined above.

Materials and methods

Parasitoids were collected from Indian states Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tamil Nadu and union territories, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Pudhucherry using yellow pan traps in different ecosystems. Specimens were dried using hexamethyldisilazane as described by Brown (1993) and card mounted using the standard procedure adopted by Noyes (1982). Specimens identified were deposited in the Parasitoid Taxonomy and Biocontrol laboratory, Department of Entomology, Annamalai University (EDAU).

Taxon treatments

Brachymeria albicrus (Klug) 1834

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Pudhucherry
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    03/13/2011
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Manickavasagam
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

This species is so far known from Odisha and Tamil Nadu (Noyes 2015) and is a new record for Pudhucherry (Fig. 1).

Figure 1.

Brachymeria albicrus (Klug)

aScutellum dorsal view
bHind leg

Brachymeria alternipes (Walker) 1871

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Himachal Pradesh
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    09/23/1981
    ; individualCount:
    12
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Not known
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

B. alternipes is so far known from Arunachal Pradesh (Sheela et al. 2003), Tamil Nadu and Manipur (Narendran 1989) and is a new record for Himachal Pradesh (Fig. 2).

Figure 2.

Brachymeria alternipes (Walker)

aHead & part of mesosoma lateral view
bGaster & hind leg

Brachymeria apicicornis (Cameron) 1911

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Tamil Nadu
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    08/12/2009
    ; individualCount:
    13
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    N. Gowthaman
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  2. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Karnataka
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    09/24/2014
    ; individualCount:
    17
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Sowmiya
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  3. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Pudhucherry
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    03/13/2011
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Manickavasagam
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

B. apicicornis is so far known from Kerala (Narendran 1989) and is a new record for Tamil Nadu and Karnataka (Fig. 3).

Figure 3.

Brachymeria apicicornis (Cameron)

aGaster dorso lateral
bHind leg

Brachymeria euploeae (Westwood) 1837

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Manipur
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    02/18/2014
    ; individualCount:
    20
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Sophis Singh
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  2. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Mizoram
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    12/30/2014
    ; individualCount:
    5
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Sophis Singh
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  3. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Nagaland
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    12/20/2014
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Sophis Singh
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

This species so far known from Andaman and Nicobar island, Tripura, (Sheela et al. 2003) Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarkhand and West Bengal (Narendran 1989) and is a new record for Manipur, Mizoram and Nagaland (Fig. 4).

Figure 4.

Brachymeria euploeae (Westwood)

Brachymeria excarinata Gahan 1925

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Bihar
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    01/27/2015
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Abhinav Kumar
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  2. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Andaman and Nicobar islands
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    05/21/2012
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Manickavasagam and A. Ramesh Kumar
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

B. excarinata is so far known from Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu (Joseph et al. 1973) and is a new record for Bihar and Andaman and Nicobar islands (Fig. 5).

Figure 5.

Brachymeria excarinata Gahan

Brachymeria hearseyi (Kirby) 1883

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Bihar
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    07/08/2014
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Abhinav Kumar
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  2. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Manipur
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    02/18/2014
    ; individualCount:
    20
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Sophis Singh
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  3. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Mizoram
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    12/13/2014
    ; individualCount:
    5
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Sophis Singh
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  4. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Nagaland
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    12/22/2014
    ; individualCount:
    4
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Sophis Singh
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

B. hearseyi is so far known from Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Sheela et al. 2003) and West Bengal (Joseph et al. 1973) and is a new record for Bihar (Fig. 6).

Figure 6.

Brachymeria hearseyi (Kirby)

aHead frontal showing scrobe
bFore wing

Brachymeria megaspila (Cameron) 1907

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Andhra Pradesh
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    03/20/2010
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    T. Krishna Chaitanya
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

B. megaspila is so far known from Assam, Kerala and Madhya Pradesh (Narendran 1989) and is a new record for Andhra Pradesh (Fig. 7).

Figure 7.

Brachymeria megaspila (Cameron)

Brachymeria minuta (Linnaeus) 1767

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Andhra Pradesh
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    03/20/2010
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    T. Krishna Chaitanya
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

This species is so far known from Karnataka, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal (Narendran 1989) and is a new record for Andhra Pradesh (Fig. 8).

Figure 8.

Brachymeria minuta (Linnaeus)

Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius) 1787

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Bihar
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    01/27/2015
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Abhinav Kumar
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash, S. Manickavasagam and R.Kanagarajan
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  2. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Andaman and Nicobar islands
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    05/21/2012
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Manickavasagam and A. Ramesh kumar
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash, S. Manickavasagam and R.Kanagarajan
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

B. podagrica is so far known from Madhya Pradesh, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu and Tripura (Joseph et al. 1973) and is a new record for Bihar and Andaman and Nicobar islands (Fig. 9).

Figure 9.

Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius)

Dirhinus anthracia Walker 1846

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Tamil Nadu
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    2014-04-04 and 2014-07-29
    ; individualCount:
    40
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  2. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Pudhucherry
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    03/13/2011
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Manickavasagam
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  3. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Andhra Pradesh
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    01/06/2011
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    T. Krishna Chaitanya
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  4. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Bihar
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    02/22/2014
    ; individualCount:
    6
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Abhinav Kumar
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  5. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Mizoram
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    12/30/2014
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Sophis singh
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

D. anthracia is so far known from Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Punjab, Tripura and Uttar Pradesh (Narendran 1989) and is a new record for Tamil Nadu, Pudhucherry, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Mizoram (Fig. 10).

Figure 10.

Dirhinus anthracia Walker

aPart of mesosoma dorsal
bPropodeum, petiole and gastral segment 1

Dirhinus auratus Ashmead 1905

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Pudhucherry
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    03/13/2011
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Manickavasagam
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  2. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Andhra Pradesh
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    10/03/2010
    ; individualCount:
    7
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    T. Krishna Chaitanya
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  3. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Bihar
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    04/22/2014
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Abhinav Kumar
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  4. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Manipur
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    11/29/2014
    ; individualCount:
    4
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Sophis Singh
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  5. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Tamil Nadu
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    09/21/2014
    ; individualCount:
    14
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    N. Gowthaman and S. Palanivel
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  6. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Bihar
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    01/07/2015
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Abhinav Kumar
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

This species is so far known from Delhi, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal (Noyes 2015) and is a new record for Pudhucherry, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Manipur (Fig. 11).

Figure 11.

Dirhinus auratus Ashmead

Dirhinus bakeri (Crawford) 1915

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Tamil Nadu
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    03/02/2013
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Palanivel
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

D. bakeri is so far known from Delhi, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal (Noyes 2015) and is a new record for Tamil Nadu (Fig. 12).

Figure 12.

Dirhinus bakeri (Crawford)

aMid part of soma
bFore wing

Dirhinus deplanatus Boucek & Narendran 1981

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Tamil Nadu
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    2014-02-22 and 2014-07-29
    ; individualCount:
    6
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    M. Ayyam Perumal, S. Palanivel and R.Kanagarajan
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

D. deplanatus is so far known from Bihar, Delhi and Odisha (Narendran 1989) and is a new record for Tamil Nadu (Fig. 13).

Figure 13.

Dirhinus deplanatus Boucek & Narendran

Dirhinus pilifer Boucek & Narendran 1981

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Tamil Nadu
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    09/21/2014
    ; individualCount:
    14
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    N. Gowthaman and S. Palanivel
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  2. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Bihar
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    01/07/2015
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Abhinav Kumar
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

D. pilifer is so far known from Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal (Noyes 2015) and is a new record Tamil Nadu and Bihar (Fig. 14).

Figure 14.

Dirhinus pilifer Boucek & Narendran

Epitranus elongatulus (Motschulsky) 1863

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Tamil Nadu
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    02/24/2014
    ; individualCount:
    6
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    N. Gowthaman and M. Ayyam Perumal
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

E. elongatulus is so far known from Delhi and Kerala (Narendran 1989) and is a new record for Tamil Nadu (Fig. 15).

Figure 15.

Epitranus elongatulus (Motschulsky)

aPropodeum & petiole
bFore wing

Epitranus erythrogaster Cameron 1888

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Pudhucherry
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    03/13/2011
    ; individualCount:
    11
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Manickavasagam
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  2. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Bihar
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    02/22/2014
    ; individualCount:
    10
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Abhinav Kumar
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  3. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Manipur
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    02/18/2014
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Sophis Singh
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  4. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Andaman and Nicobar islands
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    05/20/2012
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Manickavasagam and A. Rameshkumar
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

This species is so far known from Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal (Boucek 1982) and is a new record for Pudhucherry, Bihar, Manipur and Andaman and Nicobar islands (Fig. 16).

Figure 16.

Epitranus erythrogaster Cameron

aAntenna
bMesosoma

Epitranus observator Walker 1862

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Tamil Nadu
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    11/12/2014
    ; individualCount:
    3
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Palanivel and M. Ayyam Perumal
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

E. observator is so far known from Andaman and Nicobar island, Delhi, Gujarat, Karnataka, Odisha, Rajastan, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal (Boucek 1982) and is a new record for Tamil Nadu (Fig. 17).

Figure 17.

Epitranus observator Walker

aHind tibia
bHead lateral

Psilochalcis carinigena (Cameron) 1907

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Bihar
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    01/22/2015
    ; individualCount:
    1
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    Abhinav Kumar
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash, S. Manickavasagam and R.Kanagarajan
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  2. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Andaman and Nicobar island
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    05/20/2012
    ; individualCount:
    4
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Manickavasagam and A. Rameshkumar
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash, S. Manickavasagam and R.Kanagarajan
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

P. carinigena is so far known from Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Tripura and West Bengal (Narendran 1989) and is a new record for Bihar and Andaman and Nicobar island (Fig. 18).

Figure 18.

Psilochalcis carinigena (Cameron)

aHead frontal
bHind leg

Psilochalcis keralensis Narendran 1989

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Pudhucherry
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    03/13/2011
    ; individualCount:
    8
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Manickavasagam
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU
  2. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Tamil Nadu
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    07/29/2014
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Palanivel and N. Gowthaman
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

This species is so far known only from Kerala and Tripura (Narendran 1989) and is a new record for Tamil Nadu and Pudhucherry (Fig. 19).

Figure 19.

Psilochalcis keralensis Narendran

Psilochalcis soudanensis (Steffan) 1951

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. continent:
    Asia
    ; country:
    India
    ; countryCode:
    IND
    ; stateProvince:
    Tamil Nadu
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Yellow pan trap
    ; eventDate:
    05/02/2014
    ; individualCount:
    2
    ; lifeStage:
    adult
    ; recordedBy:
    S. Palanivel and M. Ayyam Perumal
    ; identifiedBy:
    J. Gowri Prakash and S. Manickavasagam
    ; institutionID:
    Department of Entomology, Annamalai University
    ; institutionCode:
    EDAU

Distribution

This species is so far known from Andhra Pradesh, Delhi and Odisha (Narendran 1989) and is a new record for Tamil Nadu (Fig. 20).

Figure 20.

Psilochalcis soudanensis (Steffan)

Acknowledgements

The senior author is thankful to Dr. P. M. Sureshan, Station-in-charge and Mrs. Emilyamma, Scientist for permitting to use the reference collections of Chalcididae housed at Western ghats regional research station, Zoological Survey of India, Kozhikhode, Kerala and Dr. J. Poorani, Principal Scientist (Entomology) to refer to chalcidid collections at National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources, Indian council of Agricultural Research, Bangalore. Dr. John S Noyes's (Natural History Museum, London) help in language correction is gratefully acknowledged.

Author contributions

J. Gowri Prakash – Collection, Identification, Image Capturing, Manuscript Preparation

S. Manickavasagam- Collection, Identification, Image Capturing, Manuscript Preparation

R. Kanagarajan - Collection, Identification

References