Biodiversity Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
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Data Paper (Biosciences)
Morphological, calorific and nutritive characteristics of 656 freshwater invertebrates taxa
expand article infoAxelle Moreau, Christine Dupuy§, Pierrick Bocher§, Sébastien Farau
‡ Fédération Départementale des Chasseurs de la Vendée, Les Minées, Route de Château Fromage, 85010 La Roche-sur-Yon, France
§ Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-La Rochelle University, 17000 La Rochelle, France
Open Access

Abstract

Background

The Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment (FADA) project estimated that freshwater animal species represent 9.5% of the 1.2 million species described. Knowing that freshwater represents only 0.01% of the earth's surface, these wetlands are suitable habitats for a great part of the world's total biodiversity. However, it has been shown that there is a lack of knowledge on these species, including freshwater invertebrates. Nevertheless, they play a key role in the majority of freshwater ecosystems and in their foodweb networks. Freshwater invertebrates are the food resource of many species, such as fish and birds. The knowledge of their morphological, energetic and nutritive characteristics allows a better understanding of their selection by predators (size, energy intake etc.), but also leads to the improvement of wetland management. Although information about freshwater invertebrates exists in literature, they are generally heterogeneous, dispersed and difficult to collect. To facilitate the accessibility of these data and, thus, optimise and accelerate research projects including freshwater invertebrates, we propose a literature review describing 14 morphological and nutritive characteristics (size, dry weight, gross energy, crude protein etc.) for 656 taxa of freshwater invertebrates.

New information

This dataset is a review from 104 publications from 1935 to 2020, compiling 14 characteristics when available (size, dry weight, gross energy, crude protein etc.) for 656 taxa of freshwater invertebrates.

Keywords

freshwater invertebrates, invertebrate biometry, gross energy, protein, lipid, fiber, nitrogen free extract, ash, water

Introduction

In twenty years, the estimated world’s total number of species has increased from 3 to 30 million (May 1990) to between 3 and 100 million (May 2010). Currently, 1.2 million species have been listed, but it was estimated that about 86% of terrestrial species and 91% of oceanic species are still to be described (Mora et al. 2011). Invertebrates would represent 60% of known species and three quarters of new species identified each year (Chapman 2009). Occupying the majority of habitats, they could potentially represent a significant part of the global biomass (Ellwood and Foster 2004). They play a key role in most trophic webs (Vanni 2002, Hornung and Foote 2006, McCarthy et al. 2009) and some are even good indicators of the environmental quality (Stork and Eggleton 1992, Hodkinson and Jackson 2005).

Wetlands are amongst the most impacted environments by climate change (Dawson et al. 2003, Erwin 2009). They have particularly declined worldwide, losing at least 50% of their surface since the beginning of the 19th century (Finlayson et al. 1999, Davidson 2014, Gardner et al. 2015). However, some species depend directly on these habitats, such as fish (Gilinsky 1984, Diehl 1992, Garvey et al. 1994, Bouffard and Hanson 2006, McCarthy et al. 2009) or birds (e.g. Bolduc and Afton 2004, Taft and Haig 2005, Ma et al. 2010), particularly because of the available food resources, such as freshwater invertebrates (Covich et al. 1999). The links between freshwater invertebrates and waterbirds were examined (Goss-Custard 1977, Colwell and Landrum 1993, Lillie and Evrard 1994, Weber and Haig 1997, Brodmann and Reyer 1999, Elmberg et al. 2000, Halse et al. 2000, Arzel et al. 2009, Guareschi et al. 2015), but remain insufficiently explored (Sanders 2000, Prather et al. 2013). The lack of knowledge about freshwater invertebrate abundance and diversity is, therefore, an important issue for the conservation of the species living in these environments, but also for their habitats management (Vanni 2002). Knowing the species that contribute to this diversity, as well as their morphological characteristics, energetic value or nutritional composition (Fredrickson and Reid 1988, Zwarts and Blomert 1992, Davis and Smith 2001), would improve the understanding of the prey-predator interactions (Nudds and Bowlby 1984, Anderson and Smith 2000). For example, waterfowl feed on aquatic invertebrates and, consequently, the abundance, accessibility, size or even the energetic values of these foods affect the use of foraging habitats by waterfowl (Ma et al. 2010).

Invertebrates are very sensitive to environmental variations, included climate change (Lawrence and Soame 2004, Prather et al. 2013, Khamis et al. 2014) and affect finally ecosystem functions and associated ecosystem services (Lavelle et al. 2006, Prather et al. 2013, Khamis et al. 2014). Some of them are also very sensitive to the water physico-chemical variations and are indicators of its quality, especially since beginning of anthropogenic pollution (Gaufin and Tarzwell 1952, Gaufin and Tarzwell 1956, Hellawell 1986, Dallinger 1994). Obtaining knowledge on freshwater invertebrates is, therefore, essential for the habitat and species conservation (Vicente 2010), but also to answer the global change (Strayer 2010, Collier et al. 2016).

Studies in literature were more specifically focused on knowledge of the orders and families, in particular, according to their stages of development (larvae, nymphs, adults) and their sizes, but it appears as still incomplete and insufficient (Vicente 2010, Strayer and Dudgeon 2010, Collier et al. 2016). If information exists, it is generally heterogeneous, scattered or restricted to local journals and, therefore, not widely distributed (Strayer 2006, Balian et al. 2008b, Strayer and Dudgeon 2010, Appeltans et al. 2012), especially when the interest is on other factors, such as the individuals weight, the energetic value or the nutritional composition (proteins, lipids etc.). Even if some books or publications have a high level of details (Cumminns and Wuycheck 1971, Nudds and Bowlby 1984, Anderson and Smith 2000, James et al. 2012), none includes all information about these physical, nutritive or energetic characteristics, placing limits to the progress of some studies. Indeed, the skills of researchers or managers do not always include know-how in taxa or species identification (Krieger 1992).

Thus, the available information in literature is generally uncommon (Strayer 2006, James et al. 2012) and/or difficult to collect (Krieger 1992). The solution for acquiring these data may be to characterise all the taxa detected and collected. However, this option raises problems related to the availability of technological tools, time (taxa collection, sorting and identification, when this skill is available, are long) (James et al. 2012) or financial (Krieger 1992, Strayer 2006) because of the human resources and the material to be mobilised. These points constitute obstacles to the progress of some studies or even points of renunciation.

In order to facilitate the accessibility of these data and, thus, promote research projects on the importance of freshwater invertebrates in wetland ecosystems, we propose a literature review of the main biological characteristics of all freshwater invertebretates available in literature up to 2020.

Geographic coverage

Description: 

This literature review concerns the worldwide freshwater wetlands (lakes, rivers, marshes, temporary and permanent ponds etc.).

Taxonomic coverage

Description: 

This dataset describes 656 taxa of freshwater invertebrates (Table 1).

Table 1.

Number of described taxa.

Phylum

Subphylum

Class

Subclass

Order

Suborder

Familly

Genus

Species

Annelida

-

Clitellata

2

2

3

10

14

14

-

-

Polychaeta

1

1

1

1

0

-

Arthropoda

Chelicerata

1

2

1

1

2

1

-

-

Crustacea

4

4

12

10

44

66

98

-

Hexapoda

2

1

13

15

98

325

209

Mollusca

-

Bivalvia

2

2

-

5

6

7

-

-

Gastropoda

3

6

1

14

17

21

Plathelminthes

-

1

1

1

1

3

5

5

Taxa included:
Rank Scientific Name
phylum Annelida
subclass Hirudinida
genus Haemopis
family Hirudinidae
genus Macrobdella
family Erpobdellidae
species Dina dubia
genus Erpobdella
species Erpobdella obscura
species Erpobdella octoculata
species Erpobdella punctata
family Glossiphoniidae
species Glossiphonia complanata
species Helobdella stagnalis
species Theromyzon rude
family Piscicolidae
subclass Oligochaeta
family Naididae
species Aulodrilus pigueti
species Branchiodrilus semperi
species Dero limosa
genus Limnodrilus
family Opistocystidae
family Tubificidae
genus Tubifex
family Lumbriculidae
species Lumbriculus variegatus
species Stylodrilus heringianus
class Polychaeta
family Nereidae
family Hydrachnidiae
genus Limnochares
subclass Aranae
order Anostraca
species Branchinecta paludosa
species Streptocephalus sealii
order Diplostraca
suborder Cladocera
species Acantholeberis curvirostris
family Bosminidae
genus Bosmina
species Bosmina coregoni
species Bosmina hagmanni
species Bosmina longirostris
species Bythotrephes longimanus
family Chydoridae
genus Alona
species Alona affinis
species Alona costata
species Alona rectangula
species Alonella exigua
species Alonella nana
species Chydorus sphaericus
species Eurycercus lamellatus
species Graptoleberis testudinaria
species Leydigia leydigi
species Pleuroxus aduncus
species Acroperus harpae
species Dunhevedia crassa
family Daphniidae
species Ceriodaphnia quadrangula
species Ceriodaphnia reticulata
species Ceriodaphnia silvestrii
genus Daphnia
species Daphnia ambigua
species Daphnia cristata
species Daphnia cucullata
species Daphnia dubia
species Daphnia galeata
species Daphnia gessneri
species Daphnia hyalina
species Daphnia magna
species Daphnia pulex
species Diaphanosoma spinulosum
species Moina dubia
species Scapholeberis mucronata
species Simocephalus vetulus
species Holopedium gibberum
family Leptodoridae
species Leptodora kindtii
species Leptodora kindtii
species Moina macrocopa
species Moina micrura
species Moina mongolica
species Polyphemus pediculus
species Diaphanosoma brachyurum
species Diaphanosoma pauscispinosum
family Cyzicidae
species Caenestheriella setosa
family Leptestheriidae
family Lynceidae
species Lynceus brachyurus
order Notostraca
species Lepidurus couesii
species Chirocephalopsis bundyi
order Amphipoda
genus Eogammarus
species Chelicorophium curvispinum
genus Corophium
species Crangonyx gracilis
species Crangonyx richmondensis
species Gammaracanthus lacustris
family Gammaridae
genus Gammarus
species Gammarus fasciatus
species Gammarus fossarum
species Gammarus lacustris
species Gammarus pulex
species Gammarus roeseli
genus Hyalella
species Hyalella azteca
species Hyalella curvispina
species Pallasiola quadrispinosa
species Paracalliope fluviatilis
family Pontogammaridae
species Monoporeia affinis
species Pontoporeia hoyi
family Talitridae
order Decapoda
genus Aegla
species Aegla neuquensis
family Astacidae
family Cambaridae
species Faxonius virilis
species Atyaephyra desmarestii
species Macrobrachium rosenbergii
species Palaemon lamarrie
species Samastacus spinifrons
genus Orconectes
order Isopoda
genus Gnorimosphaeroma
family Asellidae
genus Asellus
species Asellus aquaticus
species Caecidotea racovitzai
species Lirceus lineatus
species Proasellus meridianus
family Sphaeromatidae
species Austridotea annectens
family Mysidae
species Mysis relicta
species Tenagomysis chiltoni
subclass Copepoda
species Limnocalanus macrurus
species Acanthocyclops robustus
species Mesocyclops ogunnus
family Diaptomidae
species Argyrodiaptomus azevedoi
species Diaptomus arcticus
species Diaptomus clavipes
species Diaptomus leptopus
species Diaptomus minutus
species Diaptomus siciloides
species Eudiaptomus gracilis
species Eudiaptomus padanus
species Heliodiaptomus cinctus
species Notodiaptomus cearensis
species Notodiaptomus evaldus
species Notodiaptomus iheringi
species Eurytemora affinis
order Cyclopoida
family Cyclopidae
genus Cyclops
species Cyclops abyssorum
species Cyclops bicuspidatus
species Macrocyclops albidus
species Mesocyclops edax
species Thermocyclops hyalinus
order Harpacticoida
class Ostracoda
family Cyprididae
species Stenocypris malcolmsonii
order Collembola
order Coleoptera
family Dytiscidae
species Agabus bifarius
species Colymbetes sculptilis
species Cybister tripunctatus
genus Dytiscus
species Dytiscus marginalis
species Rhantus frontalis
family Gyrinidae
species Gyrinus maculiventris
species Enochrus hamiltoni
species Galerucella nymphaeae
family Curculionidae
family Elmidae
species Ancronyx variegata
genus Austrelmis
species Macronychus glabratus
genus Promoresia
genus Stenelmis
genus Optioservus
family Hydrophilidae
genus Cylomissus
species Enochrus carinatus
species Hydrophilus olivaceus
species Tropisternus setiger
genus Ectopria
genus Psephenus
species Anchytarsus bicolor
genus Hydrocyphon
order Diptera
family Athericidae
genus Atherix
species Atherix ibis
genus Dasyoma
family Dolichopodidae
family Empididae
family Ephydridae
family Stratiomyiidae
genus Caloparyphus
species Hedriodiscus truquii
genus Stratiomys
family Syrphidae
genus Eristalis
family Tabanidae
genus Chrysops
genus Tabanus
suborder Nematocera
family Blephariceridae
genus Edwardsina
genus Blepharicera
family Ceratopogonidae
genus Palpomyia
genus Chaoborus
species Chaoborus flavicans
family Chironomidae
genus Ablabesmyia
species Ablabesmyia pulchripennis
genus Chironomus
species Chironomus modestus
species Chironomus plumosus
species Chironomus tentans
species Chironomus zealandicus
genus Cladopelma
genus Cladotanytarsus
genus Coelotanypus
genus Cricotopus
genus Dicrotendipes
species Dicrotendipes tenuiforceps
species Endochironomus albipennis
genus Glyptotendipes
species Glyptotendipes barbipes
species Heterotrissocladius grimshawi
genus Metriocnemus
species Microtendipes pedellus
genus Pagastiella
species Parakiefferiella nigra
genus Paratrichocladius
genus Paucispinigera
species Phaenopsectra albescens
genus Polypedilum
species Polypedilum uncinatum
genus Procladius
genus Psectrocladius
species Psectrocladius semicirculatus
species Psectrotanypus dyari
genus Tanytarsus
species Tanytarsus lewisi
genus Zavrelia
family Culicidae
species Aedes aegypti
species Aedes canadensis
species Culex pipiens
family Dixidae
genus Dixa
family Limoniidae
species Aphrophila neozelandica
genus Hexatoma
genus Lipsothrix
genus Molophilus
genus Dicranota
genus Pedicia
genus Pilaria
family Psychodidae
genus Clogmia
genus Psychoda
family Sciaridae
family Simuliidae
genus Austrosimulium
genus Simulium
family Tipulidae
genus Hexatoma
genus Tipula
species Tipula abdominalis
order Ephemeroptera
genus Baetisca
family Caenidae
genus Caenis
species Caenis diminuta
species Caenis horaria
species Caenis robusta
family Ephemerellidae
species Cincticostella nigra
species Cincticostella orientalis
genus Drunella
species Drunella basalis
genus Ephemerella
species Ephemerella aurivillii
species Eurylophella temporalis
genus Serratella
species Teloganopsis punctisetae
family Ephemeridae
genus Ephemera
species Ephemera japonica
species Ephemera strigata
genus Blasturus
genus Deleatidium
species Habrophlebia vibrans
genus Leptophlebia
species Leptophlebia vespertina
genus Meridialaris
species Nousia bella
genus Paraleptophlebia
species Paraleptophlebia westoni
species Penaphlebia chilensis
genus Zephlebia
species Ephoron album
family Potamanthidae
genus Tricorythodes
genus Ameletus
species Ameletopsis perscitus
species Chiloporter eatoni
family Ametropodidae
family Baetidae
genus Acentrella
species Acentrella gnom
species Baetiella japonica
genus Baetis
species Baetis thermicus
genus Callibaetis
species Centroptilum luteolum
species Cloeon dipterum
genus Heterocloeon
genus Pseudocloeon
species Coloburiscus humeralis
family Heptageniidae
genus Cinygmula
genus Ecdyonurus
species Ecdyonurus dispar
genus Epeorus
species Epeorus dispar
species Epeorus ikanonis
species Epeorus latifolium
species Epeorus pleuralis
genus Heptagenia
species Kageronia fuscogrisea
genus Leucrocuta
species Maccaffertium meririvulanum
genus Nixe
genus Rhithrogena
species Stenacron carolina
species Stenacron interpunctatum
genus Stenonema
species Stenonema modestum
genus Isonychia
species Isonychia japonica
genus Nesameletus
genus Metamonius
species Siphlonisca aerodromia
genus Siphlonurus
order Hemiptera
species Aphelocheirus vittatus
family Belostomatidae
species Lethocerus deyrollei
species Lethocerus indicus
family Corixidae
species Callicorixa audeni
species Corisella mercenaria
species Corixa punctata
species Cymatia americana
family Gerridae
family Nepidae
species Laccotrephes japonensis
species Laccotrephes maculatus
species Laccotrephes ruber
family Notonectidae
species Notonecta glauca
species Notonecta kirbyi
species Neoplea striola
species Microvelia macgregori
order Hymenoptera
order Lepidoptera
family Pyralidae
genus Petrophila
order Megaloptera
family Corydalidae
species Archichauliodes diversus
species Corydalus cornutus
species Nigronia serricornis
species Parachauliodes continentalis
species Protohermes grandis
family Sialidae
genus Sialis
species Sialis aequalis
species Sialis itasca
species Sialis lutaria
species Sialis velata
order Neuroptera
order Odonata
suborder Anisoptera
family Aeshnidae
genus Aeshna
species Aeshna interrupta
species Cordulegaster maculata
species Cordulia aenea
genus Epitheca
species Epitheca cynosura
species Epitheca semiaquea
species Neurocordulia molesta
genus Dromogomphus
family Gomphidae
genus Gomphus
species Lanthus vernalis
species Megalogomphus superbus
species Progomphus obscurus
species Sieboldius albardae
family Libellulidae
species Celithemis fasciata
species Crocothemis servilia
species Erythemis simplicicollis
species Ladona deplanata
genus Libellula
species Plathemis lydia
genus Procordulia
species Sympetrum internum
suborder Zygoptera
family Calopterygidae
genus Calopteryx
family Coenargionidae
genus Argia
species Argia vivida
species Coenagrion angulatum
species Coenagrion resolutum
species Enallagma boreale
genus Ischnura
species Ischnura elegans
genus Xanthocnemis
family Lestidae
species Lestes congener
species Lestes disjunctus
species Lestes dryas
species Lestes malabaricus
species Lestes rectangularis
order Orthoptera
order Plecoptera
species Austroperla cyrene
species Klapopteryx kuscheli
species Stenoperla prasina
species Antarctoperla michaelseni
species Aubertoperla illiesi
species Limnoperla jaffueli
species Notoperla archiplatae
species Notoperlopsis femina
species Potamoperla myrmidon
species Senzilloides panguipulli
genus Zelandobius
genus Zelandoperla
genus Allocapnia
species Allocapnia rickeri
family Chloroperlidae
genus Sweltsa
genus Leuctra
family Nemouridae
genus Amphinemura
species Amphinemura delosa
species Amphinemura wui
species Prostoia completa
genus Tallaperla
genus Acroneuria
species Acroneuria abnormis
species Acroneuria evoluta
species Agnetina capitata
species Beloneuria georgiana
genus Caroperla
species Eccoptura xanthenes
species Kamimuria uenoi
species Kempnyela genualis
genus Kiotina
genus Neoperla
species Neoperla clymene
genus Paragnetina
species Paragnetina kansensis
genus Perla
genus Perlesta
species Perlesta placida
species Perlinella drymo
species Pictetoperla gayi
family Perlodidae
species Clioperla clio
genus Isogenus
genus Isoperla
species Isoperla bilineata
species Isoperla namata
species Isoperla signata
species Malirekus hastatus
genus Perlodes
genus Stavsolus
species Pteronarcys dorsata
species Pteronarcys scotti
genus Strophopteryx
species Strophopteryx limata
genus Taeniopteryx
species Taeniopteryx lita
order Trichoptera
family Ecnomidae
species Ecnomus tenellus
family Hydropsychidae
genus Aoteapsyche
genus Cheumatopsyche
species Cheumatopsyche infascia
genus Hydropsyche
species Hydropsyche albicephala
species Hydropsyche dissimulata
species Hydropsyche elissoma
species Hydropsyche pellucidula
species Hydropsyche sparna
species Hydropsyche incommoda
species Macronema pseudoneura
species Macrostemum carolina
genus Smicridea
genus Chimarra
genus Dolophilodes
family Polycentropodidae
genus Cyrnus
species Cyrnus crenaticornis
species Cyrnus flavidus
species Cyrnus trimaculatus
genus Neureclipsis
genus Polycentropus
species Polycentropus flavomaculatus
family Psychomyiidae
species Lype diversa
species Tinodes waeneri
species Stenopsyche marmorata
species Stenopsyche sauteri
genus Brachycentrus
species Brachycentrus etowahensis
genus Micrasema
species Micrasema quadriloba
genus Phylloicus
species Olinga feredayi
genus Pycnocentrodes
species Goera japonica
genus Helicopsyche
genus Lepidostoma
family Leptoceridae
genus Athripsodes
species Athripsodes aterrimus
genus Ceraclea
species Mystacides longicornis
species Mystacides nigra
genus Nectopsyche
genus Oecetis
species Triaenodes tardus
family Limnephilidae
genus Anabolia
species Anabolia bimaculata
species Anabolia furcata
species Dicosmoecus jozankeanus
species Hydatophylax festivus
species Ironoquia parvula
genus Limnephilus
species Limnephilus janus
species Limnephilus rhombicus
species Philarctus quaeris
species Potamophylax cingulatus
species Pycnopsyche guttifera
species Pycnopsyche lepida
species Pycnopsyche luculenta
species Pycnopsyche scabripennis
species Molanna angustata
genus Psilotreta
family Phryganeidae
species Agrypnia obsoleta
genus Phryganea
species Phryganea cinerea
genus Ptilostomis
family Sericostomatidae
species Agarodes libalis
species Fattigia pele
species Parasericostoma ovale
genus Glossosoma
species Glossosoma altaicum
species Glossosoma nigrior
species Glossosoma ussuricum
family Hydrobiosidae
genus Neoatopsyche
genus Rheochorema
genus Cailloma
family Hydroptilidae
genus Hydroptila
genus Orthotrichia
genus Oxyethira
genus Paroxyethira
family Rhyacophilidae
genus Rhyacophila
species Rhyacophila kawamurae
species Rhyacophila vao
family Corbiculidae
species Dreissena polymorpha
family Sphaeriidae
genus Pisidium
species Pisidium casertanum
family Hyriidae
family Unionidae
species Anodonta cataracta
species Elliptio complanata
species Leptodea ochracea
species Parreysia favidens
species Parreysia khadakvaslaensis
class Gastropoda
family Viviparidae
species Bellamya dissimilis
family Amnicolidae
species Amnicola stenothyroides
family Bithyniidae
species Bithynia tentaculata
family Hydrobiidae
species Potamopyrgus antipodarum
family Bithyniidae
species Elimia cahawbensis
species Elimia carinifera
species Elimia fascinans
species Elimia variata
species Pleurocera canaliculatum
family Thiaridae
species Melanoides tuberculata
family Valvatidae
species Valvata cristata
species Succinea ovalis
family Acroloxidae
species Chilina gibbosa
species Chilina patagonica
family Lymnaeidae
species Lymnaea stagnalis
species Radix peregra
family Physidae
family Planorbidae
genus Ancylus
species Anisus vortex
genus Gyraulus
species Gyraulus albus
species Gyraulus crista
species Hippeutis complanatus
species Planorbis indicus
phylum Platyhelminthes
class Rhabditophora
order Tricladida
species Dendrocoelum lacteum
species Cura foremanii
species Dugesia tigrina
genus Girardia
species Girardia tigrina
species Polycelis nigra

Temporal coverage

Notes: 

The oldest publication was published in 1935 and the most recent in 2020.

Usage licence

Usage licence: 
Creative Commons Public Domain Waiver (CC-Zero)

Data resources

Data package title: 
Freshwater invertebrates characteristics data
Number of data sets: 
1
Data set name: 
Freshwater invertebrates characteristics data
Data format: 
.txt
Description: 

This dataset describes 14 characteristics (size, dry weight, gross energy, crude protein etc.) for 656 taxa of freshwater invertebrates (Suppl. material 1). Headers corresponding to variable names are included as the first row in the data file. Each characteristic is subdivided into two categories, "value" corresponding to the value of the variable with sometimes a note corresponding to the comment associated with the value ("WS" for "with shell" and "SR" for "shell removed") and "reference" corresponding to the literature reference (Suppl. material 2). The datasets are deposited in Dryad (doi: 10.5061/dryad.j3tx95xfg).

Column label Column description
ID Unique number corresponding to a described taxa
Phylum Identification of taxa (Phylum)
Subphylum Identification of taxa (Subphylum)
Class Identification of taxa (Class)
Subclass Identification of taxa (Subclass)
Order Identification of taxa (Order)
Suborder Identification of taxa (Suborder)
Family Identification of taxa (Familly)
Genus Identification of taxa (Genus)
Species Identification of taxa (Genus + Species)
Taxa Identification of taxa (Taxa)
LifeStage The life stage of the taxa, i.e. "Larvae", "Larvae I", "Larvae II", "Larvae III", "Larvae IV", "Larvae V", "Larvae VI", "Nymph", "Pupae" or "Adult".
TL (value) Total length in millimetres
HW/SW (value) Head width / Shell width in millimetres
BL/SL (value) Body length / Shell length in millimetres
WW (value) Wet weight in milligrams
DW (value) Dry weight in milligrams
GE-WW (value) Gross energy in cal/g of wet weight
GE-DW (value) Gross energy in cal/g of dry weight
GE-AFDW (value) Gross energy in cal/g of ash free dry weight
Protein (value) Crude protein in % of aggregate dry weight
Lipid (value) Crude lipid in % of aggregate dry weight
Fibre (value) Crude fibre in % of aggregate dry weight
NFE (value) Nitrogen Free Extract in % of aggregate dry weight
Ash (value) Ash in % of aggregate dry weight
Water (value) Water in % of aggregate dry weight

Additional information

Steps of database building

  1. Classification and characteristics of freshwater invertebrates: A literature review of the different morphological, calorific and nutritive characteristics of freshwater invertebrates was established. They were classified from phylum to species from three manuals of references (Balian et al. 2008a, Thorp and Covich 2009, Thorp and Rogers 2011). In this review, 104 scientific publications were used and 14 criteria were described: total length, head width or shell width, body length or shell length, wet weight, dry weight, gross energy of wet weight, gross energy of dry weight, gross energy of ash free dry weight, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre, nitrogen free extract, proportion of ash and water.
  2. Referencing and retranscription of literature values: Publications presenting original data or non-published data from another study were cited. Within publications, the values of the different criteria were represented heterogeneously (e.g. different measure units, taxonomic level). Due to this heterogeneity, all values were transformed to obtain a homogeneous set of measurement units and taxonomic level (i.e. μm in mm, µg in mg, kcal/g in cal/g, J/g in cal/g (1 J = 0.239006 cal), kJ/g in cal/g).

Prospects for use

Scientific literature shows that abundance of food resource is one of the first things that the animal ecologists measure when they want to understand the species they are studying, whether it is individual behaviour, reproduction or even population dynamics (Newton 1998). Thus, estimates of biomass or the calorific equivalent of freshwater organisms are necessary in the study of the food ecology of fish, amphibians or even birds. For example, the availability of food is often considered to be a fundamental factor affecting the migration and reproduction of animals, especially birds. For example, Anatidae conventionally have a diet dominated by seeds and plant matter in winter, but aquatic invertebrates dominate in spring and summer (Krapu and Reinecke 1994). Thus, the annual migration of Anatidae between the wintering and breeding site is often explained by the exploitation of abundant food resources at higher latitudes to increase breeding success (Berthold et al. 2003). In addition, many scientists agree that migration is programmed according to local peaks of food abundance at successive stopover sites in order to feed during migration and prepare for reproduction (Ankney et al. 1991, Drent and Daan 2002). After prenuptial migration, the majority of surface ducks must efficiently replenish fat and protein stores because egg formation and incubation are expensive processes (Alisauskas and Ankney 1992). Consequently, the abundance of food appears to be a decisive factor in the choice of breeding habitat (Pöysä et al. 2000). For all these reasons, the abundance, biomass and nutritional value of invertebrates are essential in studying habitat choice, reproductive success and annual cycles of dabbling ducks (Batt et al. 1992). In addition, prey size is essential to understand the food ecology of the organisms studied. For example, the Northern Shoveler has a spatula-shaped beak made up of many lamellae. This physical characteristic allows it to select only small prey, giving it a specific food niche. Thus, it is important to know the size of the prey available in order to understand the use of a site by this species.

The abundance, biomass and nutritional value of freshwater invertebrates are, therefore, essential in the study of predatory of freshwater invertebrates (Towers et al. 1994). The most common method for determining the wet or dry weight of aquatic invertebrates is to directly weigh individual specimens (Smock 1980). However, this approach often takes time and is prone to error if individuals were fixed (Downing 1984). Indeed, preservative often modifies the fresh mass of conserved invertebrates (Johnston and Cunjak 1999). The dry mass measurement has the disadvantage of rendering the sample unusable for further examination following the drying process (Towers et al. 1994). In this case, a table synthesising the biometric and calorific data of freshwater invertebrates is a real benefit for the ecologist. Indeed, this table will allow freshwater ecologists to estimate biomass, energy and size class of freshwater invertebrates at survey sites quickly and economically.

However, it is important to note that there is variation in calorific values due to the collection season, the diet of the organisms and the sex of the individuals (Arzel et al. 2009). In addition, there is variation in individual values because the measurements taken almost always include the intestinal contents of the organisms or because females carrying eggs should have the highest values for a given species (Cumminns 1967). Given the errors that environmentalists face, it might be more realistic to use a median or overall calorific value. For the taxon studied, this value is, thus, easily obtainable thanks to this table. Indeed, the comparison of values for the same species obtained in different laboratories should allow problems due to seasonal differences, habitat and diet to be overcome (Johnston and Cunjak 1999).

References

Supplementary materials

Suppl. material 1: Freshwater invertebrates characteristics data 
Authors:  Moreau A
Data type:  Morphological, calorific and nutritive
Suppl. material 2: Reference code 
Authors:  Moreau A
Data type:  References