Biodiversity Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
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Data Paper (Biosciences)
Spiders of the Udmurt Republic, Russia
expand article info Artëm Sozontov
‡ Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology (IPAE UB RAS), Ekaterinburg, Russia
Open Access

Abstract

Background

The long-term project "Spiders of the Udmurt Republic" (2007–2018) aimed to research spiders' regional fauna and zoogeography, diversity (including spatial and seasonal patterns) and habitat preferences. We performed the collection of spiders in all natural zones of the republic, habitats and vegetation layers, both at permanent sampling plots and through ad-hoc sampling en route.

New information

The dataset includes occurrences from 53 geographical points with 10,500 records and more than 35,000 specimens. This increases the existing data on Russian spiders on GBIF by four times, from 11,000 (excluding iNaturalist observations) to 46,000. The dataset allows for the exploration of regional fauna, local and general species distribution, spider phenology and habitat preferences for the purposes of monitoring and conservation.

Keywords

Araneae, Aranei, abundance, diversity, life stage, occurrence, southern taiga, specimen, Udmurtia

Introduction

L.K. Krulikovskiy provided the first data related to spiders of Udmurt Republic (Krulikovskiy 1892, Krulikovskiy 1908, Krulikovskiy 1915). A long time later, V.P. Tyshchenko noted ten spider species occurring in the Udmurt Republic in his book (Tyshchenko 1971). T.L. Zubko carried out the first detailed faunistic research on the spiders of the Republic between 1978 and 1981 where she recorded 72 spider species (Zubko and Roshchinenko 1981), but her collection is currently lost.

In 2007, I started studying the spiders of Udmurtia with a focus on their fauna, diversity, biogeography, ecology and community structure. The study was conducted in cooperation with Prof. S.L. Esyunin (Perm State University) and Prof. S.V. Dedyukhin (Udmurt State University). The first published article (Sozontov and Esyunin 2012) increased the number of known species by 2.5 times (Table 1). In 2013, the entire research history was reviewed to summarise all published data and outline prospects of future investigations (Sozontov 2013). Following this, a number of articles about the region's fauna, biogeography and taxonomy were published (Adakhovskiy et al. 2012, Sozontov and Esyunin 2015, Esyunin and Sozontov 2015, Sozontov 2015a). Finally, the manuscript of my own PhD thesis "Fauna and ecology of spiders (Aranei) of the Udmurt Republic: diversity, habitat distribution, community structure" contains an integrated analysis of all the data concerning spider fauna structure and origins, spider community diversity and structure and their spatiotemporal variation (Sozontov 2018).

Table 1.

Spiders' faunistic data accumulation within the Udmurt Republic.

Reference

Number of spider species

recorded

in the paper

new to the

regional fauna

total

in the region

Krulikovskiy 1892

1

1

1

Krulikovskiy 1908

4

3

4

Krulikovskiy 1915

1

0

4

Tyshchenko 1971

10

10

14

Zubko and Roshchinenko 1981

72

66

80

Zubko 2001

3

1

81

Sozontov and Esyunin 2012

195

122

203

Sozontov 2012a

1

1

204

Sozontov 2012b

17

5

209

Adakhovskiy et al. 2012

2

0

209

Sozontov and Esyunin 2014

158

47

256

Sozontov and Shirobokova 2014

40

40

296

Ermolaev et al. 2014

26

2

298

Sozontov and Esyunin 2015

2

0

298

Esyunin and Sozontov 2015

1

0

298

Sozontov 2015a

18

4

302

Sozontov 2015b

34

9

311

Sozontov 2018 (manuscript)

402

91

402

Sozontov 2021

403

1

403

This research project was conducted according to the principles and methods of ecological-faunistic investigations (Dedyukhin 2011). The main idea of this approach is combining detailed study of reference local faunas (Chernov and Penev 1993, Penev 1996, Penev 1997) and ad-hoc sampling en route. The ecological-faunistic approach assumes sampling in all natural zones of the Republic, habitats and vegetation layers (from soil litter to canopy) with relevant methods. Thus, we collected quantitative data on eight local faunas and species occurrences at 45 occasional points, which are helpful for exploring the regional distribution of species and maximising the proportion of discovered fauna. Well-studied local faunas for the project are marked in purple on the map shown in Fig. 1 and include the "Siva" permanent field study station, Ust-Belsk, Golushurma, Sokolovka, "Sirius" SNT, Novye Zyatci, Chutyr and Hohryaki. Table 2 contains their coordinates and amount of material collected.

Table 2.

Well-studied local faunas

Name Coordinates Samples Specimens Observed habitats
"Siva" permanent field study station

56.827

53.905

912 2,888 Bottomland meadows, dark coniferous forests with lime, edges of deciduous forests, floodplain oak forests, floodplain steppificated meadows, open lake/pond shores, unheated buildings, upland meadows, watershed lime-forests, pine forests, sloping stepped meadows
Ust-Belsk 55.898 53.484 581 1,791 Agrocoenoses, floodplain oak forests, floodplain stepped meadows, heated buildings, open lake/pond shores, open river banks, pine forests, riverine deciduous forest strips, sloping stepped meadows, spruce-fir forests, unheated buildings
Golushurma

56.002

52.701

457 1,952 Edges of deciduous forests, open lake/pond shores, riverine deciduous forest strips, sloping stepped meadows, spruce-fir forests, upland meadows
Sokolovka

56.281

54.054

544 7,492 Bottomland meadows, edges of mixed forests, floodplain oak forests, floodplain stepped meadows, sloping stepped meadows, upland meadows
"Sirius" SNT

57.033

53.144

826 3,047 Dark coniferous forests with lime, pine forests
Novye Zyatci

57.434

52.515

147 575 Dark coniferous forests with lime, edges of pine-forests, open raised bogs, pine forests
Chutyr

57.376

53.252

828 2,447 Agrocoenoses, alder groves, bottomland meadows, dark coniferous forests with lime, edges of mixed forests, edges of pine-forests, floodplain stepped meadows, open raised bogs, open river banks, sloping stepped meadows, spruce-fir forests, unheated buildings, upland meadows
Hohryaki

56.923

53.317

123 773 Dark coniferous forests with lime, heated buildings, watershed lime-forests
Figure 1.  

The studied region and localities of collection (all symbols). Purple circles show well-studied local faunas. The red star shows Izhevsk, the capital of the Udmurt Republic.

Project description

Title: 

Spiders of the Udmurt Republic

Personnel: 
Artëm Sozontov

Sampling methods

Study extent: 

The dataset includes spider (order Araneae) species occurrences within administrative borders of the Udmurt Republic. The collection contains material picked up over 12 years, from 2007 to 2018. Occurrences presented in the dataset come from 53 geographical points providing around 10,500 records in the dataset with more than 35,000 specimens recorded (Sozontov 2021). This amount of data extends the current presence of Russian spiders on GBIF by approximately four times, from 11,000 (excluding iNaturalist observations) to 46,000 (Gbif.Org 2020). Typical seasonal coverage is from May to September, with a few exceptions. The total ratio of spiders by years and months is provided in Fig. 2. There is a total of 53 observed sampling places, collapsing to 21 types of biotopes: floodplain oak forests, riverine deciduous forest strips, watershed lime-forests, pine forests, spruce-fir forests, dark coniferous forests with lime, floodplain stepped meadows, bottomland meadows, upland meadows, sloping stepped meadows, edges of deciduous forests, edges of mixed forests, edges of pine-forests, open raised bogs, forested raised bogs, open lake/pond shores, open river banks, alder groves, buildings (heated and unheated) and agrocoenoses (agricultural fields, orchards, flower and kitchen gardens).

Figure 2.  

Distribution of collected material across years and months.

Sampling description: 

Field studies were carried out using common methods: lines of pitfall traps, entomological nets, litter sifting and manual collecting (Tyshchenko 1971, Woodcock 2005, Oliger 2010). Plastic cups with a 7 cm diameter served as pitfall traps and 4% acetic acid with a pellet of surface-active substance as killing and preserving agents. Trap lines included 5 to 15 traps, with a spacing of 3 m. Spiders from grass, shrub and canopy (lower than 3 m) layers were collected using an entomological net of 35 cm hoop diameter and 150 cm handle length. All the pitfall traps and some of the entomological net-sweeping samples are quantitative and can be normalised to 100 trap-days or 200 sweeps. The litter sifting and manual collecting samples are qualitative.

Quality control: 

All collected spider specimens were wet-preserved in 70% alcohol. Stored material is shared between the Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology (IPAE UB RAS, Ekaterinburg, the vast majority), Perm State University (Perm), Udmurt State University (Izhevsk) and the Zoological Museum of the Moscow State University (Moscow). Aside from our own material, the dataset involves the purposeful collections of Svetlana Shirobokova, Konstantin Tatarkin, Evgenia Shirobokova, Alesya Uskova and Sergey Dedyukhin and specimens occasionally collected by other colleagues, listed as legitimate collectors in the "recordedBy" DarwinCore column. The majority of the material has identification to species level (71%) and almost all the remaining to genus level (29%, primarily juveniles). Species identification was performed mainly by the author; about 10% of specimens were cross-checked or identified by Prof. S.L. Esyunin (Perm). Taxonomy nomenclature complies with the World Spider Catalog (World Spider Catalog 2021).

Step description: 

The dataset is not a part of any ongoing projects.

Geographic coverage

Description: 

All collecting points are limited by administrative borders of the Udmurt Republic, one of the federal subjects of the Russian Federation (Fig. 3). Being 42,000 km2 in area, it extends 300 km in a north-south direction and 200 km in a west-east direction. The studied region belongs to the east of the Russian plain, borders with the western piedmont of the Ural Mountains and is situated in the interstream area of the Vyatka and Kama Rivers (Illarionov 2009). Relief of the Republic can be defined as a hilly plain. Regional altitudes lie within 52 and 333 m a.s.l. (Podsosova 1972); collecting points lie between 61 and 254 m a.s.l. The territory includes southern taiga (1/3) and mixed forest (2/3) subzones; the southernmost area is under the intense influence of the forest-steppe (Shadrin 1999, Baranova et al. 2010), which reflects on spider fauna notably.

Figure 3.  

The position of the Udmurt Republic (red area) relatively to Russia (yellow borders) and other countries (cyan borders).

Coordinates: 

55.857 and 58.557 Latitude; 51.129 and 54.471 Longitude.

Taxonomic coverage

Description: 

The dataset includes 403 identified spider species of 181 genera and 26 families. About 25,000 individuals are identified to the species level (23,645 adult and 1,296 juvenile specimens) and about 10,000 individuals to the genus level (305 adult and 9678 juvenile specimens). Amongst them, there are 321 individuals with unclear species status and requiring further taxonomic investigations, belonging to Linyphiidae (189), Clubionidae (38), Thomisidae (24), Lycosidae (20), Theridiidae (13), Titanoecidae (9), Gnaphosidae (5), Tetragnathidae (5), Araneidae (5), Philodromidae (5), Dictynidae (3), Salticidae (2), Hahniidae (1), Cheiracanthiidae (1) and Mimetidae (1). Some of the linyphiids (16 adult and 223 juvenile specimens) remain identified only at the family level.

Taxa included:
Rank Scientific Name Common Name
order Araneae Clerck, 1757 Spiders

Temporal coverage

Notes: 

2007-06-21 through 2018-08-02

Usage licence

Usage licence: 
Other
IP rights notes: 

Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.

Data resources

Data package title: 
Spiders of the Udmurt Republic, Russia
Number of data sets: 
1
Data set name: 
Spiders of the Udmurt Republic, Russia
Data format: 
Darwin Core
Description: 

The dataset is based on the results of a long-term project, "Spiders of the Udmurt Republic" (2007–2018), with some additional data. Samples come from 53 geographical points providing about 10,500 records in the dataset with more than 35,000 specimens recorded. There are 403 spider species in the studied fauna, of 181 genus and 26 families (Table 3). The collected specimens have the age-sex distribution: males (40%), females (28%), subadult spiders (11%) and juveniles (21%). The dataset can help to explore regional fauna, regional and general species distribution, their monitoring, conservation, phenology and relationships with biotic and abiotic conditions.

Table 3.

The list of the spiders of the Udmurt Republic with the number of collected specimens and the number of localities and types of habitats where a species occurs.

Family Species Individuals Localities Habitats
Agelenidae Agelena labyrinthica (Clerck, 1758) 1 1 1
Agelenidae Tegenaria domestica (Clerck, 1758) 43 5 4
Anyphaenidae Anyphaena accentuata (Walckenaer, 1802) 6 3 2
Araneidae Aculepeira ceropegia (Walckenaer, 1802) 33 10 10
Araneidae Agalenatea redii (Scopoli, 1763) 125 10 9
Araneidae Araneus alsine (Walckenaer, 1802) 6 5 5
Araneidae Araneus angulatus Clerck, 1758 29 12 10
Araneidae Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1758 49 16 15
Araneidae Araneus marmoreus Clerck, 1758 42 18 14
Araneidae Araneus nordmanni (Thorell, 1870) 1 1 1
Araneidae Araneus quadratus Clerck, 1758 80 11 13
Araneidae Araneus saevus (L. Koch, 1872) 1 1 1
Araneidae Araneus sturmi (Hahn, 1831) 8 3 7
Araneidae Araniella proxima (Kulczyński, 1885) 15 10 7
Araneidae Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772) 14 5 5
Araneidae Cercidia prominens (Westring, 1851) 30 10 8
Araneidae Cyclosa conica (Pallas, 1772) 29 11 7
Araneidae Cyclosa oculata (Walckenaer, 1802) 3 3 3
Araneidae Hypsosinga heri (Hahn, 1831) 10 5 5
Araneidae Hypsosinga pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831) 39 9 9
Araneidae Hypsosinga sanguinea (C. L. Koch, 1844) 7 5 5
Araneidae Larinioides cornutus (Clerck, 1758) 53 13 11
Araneidae Larinioides ixobolus (Thorell, 1873) 26 9 8
Araneidae Larinioides patagiatus (Clerck, 1758) 72 18 16
Araneidae Larinioides sclopetarius (Clerck, 1758) 1 1 1
Araneidae Larinioides suspicax (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1876) 47 7 10
Araneidae Leviellus stroemi (Thorell, 1870) 31 6 5
Araneidae Mangora acalypha (Walckenaer, 1802) 124 19 19
Araneidae Neoscona adianta (Walckenaer, 1802) 11 5 5
Araneidae Nuctenea silvicultrix (C. L. Koch, 1835) 1 1 1
Araneidae Singa hamata (Clerck, 1758) 137 28 19
Araneidae Singa nitidula C. L. Koch, 1844 24 12 8
Cheiracanthiidae Cheiracanthium erraticum (Walckenaer, 1802) 93 24 18
Cheiracanthiidae Cheiracanthium oncognathum Thorell, 1871 1 1 1
Cheiracanthiidae Cheiracanthium pennyi O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1873 5 4 3
Clubionidae Clubiona caerulescens L. Koch, 1867 13 6 7
Clubionidae Clubiona diversa O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1862 2 2 2
Clubionidae Clubiona frisia Wunderlich & Schuett, 1995 1 1 1
Clubionidae Clubiona germanica Thorell, 1871 2 2 2
Clubionidae Clubiona lutescens Westring, 1851 10 7 6
Clubionidae Clubiona neglecta O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1862 13 11 8
Clubionidae Clubiona pallidula (Clerck, 1758) 10 5 6
Clubionidae Clubiona phragmitis C. L. Koch, 1843 12 4 2
Clubionidae Clubiona pseudoneglecta Wunderlich, 1994 2 2 1
Clubionidae Clubiona reclusa O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1863 10 5 5
Clubionidae Clubiona similis L. Koch, 1867 1 1 1
Clubionidae Clubiona stagnatilis Kulczyński, 1897 14 7 7
Clubionidae Clubiona subsultans Thorell, 1875 3 2 2
Dictynidae Argenna patula (Simon, 1874) 2 2 2
Dictynidae Argenna subnigra (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1861) 17 8 8
Dictynidae Argyroneta aquatica (Clerck, 1758) 5 5 4
Dictynidae Brigittea latens (Fabricius, 1775) 1 1 1
Dictynidae Dictyna arundinacea (Linnaeus, 1758) 344 23 21
Dictynidae Dictyna major Menge, 1869 2 1 1
Dictynidae Dictyna pusilla Thorell, 1856 13 7 9
Dictynidae Dictyna uncinata Thorell, 1856 54 11 11
Dictynidae Emblyna mitis (Thorell, 1875) 1 1 1
Dictynidae Hackmania prominula (Tullgren, 1948) 5 4 4
Dictynidae Lathys heterophthalma Kulczyński, 1891 9 3 2
Dictynidae Lathys humilis (Blackwall, 1855) 3 1 1
Gnaphosidae Berlandina cinerea (Menge, 1872) 1 1 1
Gnaphosidae Callilepis nocturna (Linnaeus, 1758) 21 11 8
Gnaphosidae Drassodes pubescens (Thorell, 1856) 22 8 7
Gnaphosidae Drassodes villosus (Thorell, 1856) 8 5 4
Gnaphosidae Drassyllus lutetianus (L. Koch, 1866) 222 15 18
Gnaphosidae Drassyllus praeficus (L. Koch, 1866) 54 12 11
Gnaphosidae Drassyllus pusillus (C. L. Koch, 1833) 150 14 14
Gnaphosidae Gnaphosa lugubris (C. L. Koch, 1839) 5 1 1
Gnaphosidae Gnaphosa montana (L. Koch, 1866) 10 6 5
Gnaphosidae Haplodrassus cognatus (Westring, 1861) 9 6 6
Gnaphosidae Haplodrassus moderatus (Kulczyński, 1897) 4 2 2
Gnaphosidae Haplodrassus pseudosignifer Marusik, Hippa & Koponen, 1996 332 11 14
Gnaphosidae Haplodrassus signifer (C. L. Koch, 1839) 45 9 8
Gnaphosidae Haplodrassus silvestris (Blackwall, 1833) 104 10 6
Gnaphosidae Haplodrassus soerenseni (Strand, 1900) 210 9 11
Gnaphosidae Haplodrassus umbratilis (L. Koch, 1866) 402 12 13
Gnaphosidae Micaria aenea Thorell, 1871 1 1 1
Gnaphosidae Micaria formicaria (Sundevall, 1831) 24 10 7
Gnaphosidae Micaria fulgens (Walckenaer, 1802) 1 1 1
Gnaphosidae Micaria nivosa L. Koch, 1866 1 1 1
Gnaphosidae Micaria pulicaria (Sundevall, 1831) 17 12 11
Gnaphosidae Micaria silesiaca L. Koch, 1875 7 2 3
Gnaphosidae Micaria subopaca Westring, 1861 2 1 2
Gnaphosidae Scotophaeus scutulatus (L. Koch, 1866) 1 1 1
Gnaphosidae Zelotes azsheganovae Esyunin & Efimik, 1992 69 10 10
Gnaphosidae Zelotes clivicola (L. Koch, 1870) 128 5 4
Gnaphosidae Zelotes electus (C. L. Koch, 1839) 1 1 1
Gnaphosidae Zelotes exiguus (Müller & Schenkel, 1895) 17 3 2
Gnaphosidae Zelotes latreillei (Simon, 1878) 88 16 19
Gnaphosidae Zelotes longipes (L. Koch, 1866) 141 5 5
Gnaphosidae Zelotes mundus (Kulczyński, 1897) 1 1 1
Gnaphosidae Zelotes petrensis (C. L. Koch, 1839) 86 6 5
Gnaphosidae Zelotes pseudogallicus Ponomarev, 2007 34 1 2
Gnaphosidae Zelotes subterraneus (C. L. Koch, 1833) 314 14 10
Hahniidae Antistea elegans (Blackwall, 1841) 169 8 9
Hahniidae Cicurina cicur (Fabricius, 1793) 4 4 4
Hahniidae Hahnia nava (Blackwall, 1841) 20 5 5
Hahniidae Hahnia ononidum Simon, 1875 156 12 11
Hahniidae Hahnia pusilla C. L. Koch, 1841 95 6 8
Hahniidae Hahnia sibirica Marusik, Hippa & Koponen, 1996 4 1 1
Hahniidae Mastigusa arietina (Thorell, 1871) 7 3 4
Linyphiidae Abacoproeces saltuum (L. Koch, 1872) 276 16 12
Linyphiidae Agyneta affinis (Kulczyński, 1898) 85 9 10
Linyphiidae Agyneta cauta (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1903) 5 3 3
Linyphiidae Agyneta conigera (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1863) 73 2 4
Linyphiidae Agyneta mollis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1871) 3 2 2
Linyphiidae Agyneta olivacea (Emerton, 1882) 80 1 2
Linyphiidae Agyneta ramosa Jackson, 1912 2 2 2
Linyphiidae Agyneta rurestris (C. L. Koch, 1836) 2 2 2
Linyphiidae Agyneta saaristoi Tanasevitch, 2000 9 4 5
Linyphiidae Agyneta subtilis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1863) 154 5 5
Linyphiidae Allomengea scopigera (Grube, 1859) 54 6 6
Linyphiidae Allomengea vidua (L. Koch, 1879) 12 3 4
Linyphiidae Anguliphantes angulipalpis (Westring, 1851) 81 11 9
Linyphiidae Araeoncus crassiceps (Westring, 1861) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Asthenargus paganus (Simon, 1884) 2 2 2
Linyphiidae Baryphyma trifrons (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1863) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Bathyphantes approximatus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1871) 2 2 2
Linyphiidae Bathyphantes gracilis (Blackwall, 1841) 111 5 4
Linyphiidae Bathyphantes nigrinus (Westring, 1851) 54 6 7
Linyphiidae Bathyphantes parvulus (Westring, 1851) 5 3 4
Linyphiidae Bolyphantes alticeps (Sundevall, 1833) 28 12 11
Linyphiidae Centromerita bicolor (Blackwall, 1833) 10 2 5
Linyphiidae Centromerus arcanus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1873) 15 3 4
Linyphiidae Centromerus brevipalpus (Menge, 1866) 14 1 2
Linyphiidae Centromerus clarus (L. Koch, 1879) 11 1 2
Linyphiidae Centromerus incilium (L. Koch, 1881) 24 2 1
Linyphiidae Centromerus sylvaticus (Blackwall, 1841) 63 8 14
Linyphiidae Ceratinella brevipes (Westring, 1851) 12 3 4
Linyphiidae Ceratinella brevis (Wider, 1834) 37 7 8
Linyphiidae Cnephalocotes obscurus (Blackwall, 1834) 8 4 2
Linyphiidae Diplocephalus connatus Bertkau, 1889 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Diplocephalus dentatus Tullgren, 1955 6 1 1
Linyphiidae Diplocephalus latifrons (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1863) 18 2 2
Linyphiidae Diplocephalus picinus (Blackwall, 1841) 81 11 10
Linyphiidae Diplostyla concolor (Wider, 1834) 243 12 16
Linyphiidae Dismodicus bifrons (Blackwall, 1841) 10 4 5
Linyphiidae Drapetisca socialis (Sundevall, 1833) 8 5 6
Linyphiidae Entelecara acuminata (Wider, 1834) 4 2 3
Linyphiidae Entelecara congenera (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1879) 2 2 2
Linyphiidae Erigone atra Blackwall, 1833 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Erigone dentipalpis (Wider, 1834) 12 6 5
Linyphiidae Erigonella hiemalis (Blackwall, 1841) 5 3 2
Linyphiidae Erigonella ignobilis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1871) 3 2 3
Linyphiidae Floronia bucculenta (Clerck, 1758) 5 4 3
Linyphiidae Glyphesis cottonae (La Touche, 1946) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Glyphesis nemoralis Esyunin & Efimik, 1994 10 2 2
Linyphiidae Gnathonarium dentatum (Wider, 1834) 2 2 2
Linyphiidae Gongylidiellum latebricola (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1871) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Gongylidiellum murcidum Simon, 1884 5 2 2
Linyphiidae Gongylidium rufipes (Linnaeus, 1758) 43 5 5
Linyphiidae Helophora insignis (Blackwall, 1841) 131 15 10
Linyphiidae Hylyphantes graminicola (Sundevall, 1830) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Hypomma bituberculatum (Wider, 1834) 4 2 4
Linyphiidae Hypomma fulvum (Bösenberg, 1902) 2 1 1
Linyphiidae Hypselistes jacksoni (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1903) 2 1 1
Linyphiidae Incestophantes crucifer (Menge, 1866) 3 2 2
Linyphiidae Kaestneria pullata (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1863) 7 5 5
Linyphiidae Lepthyphantes leprosus (Ohlert, 1865) 2 2 2
Linyphiidae Linyphia hortensis Sundevall, 1830 5 2 3
Linyphiidae Linyphia tenuipalpis Simon, 1884 11 4 2
Linyphiidae Linyphia triangularis (Clerck, 1758) 174 24 22
Linyphiidae Lophomma punctatum (Blackwall, 1841) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Macrargus carpenteri (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1895) 11 2 1
Linyphiidae Macrargus rufus (Wider, 1834) 55 2 3
Linyphiidae Maro pansibiricus Tanasevitch, 2006 5 3 2
Linyphiidae Maso sundevalli (Westring, 1851) 16 6 7
Linyphiidae Megalepthyphantes nebulosus (Sundevall, 1830) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Megalepthyphantes pseudocollinus Saaristo, 1997 21 5 6
Linyphiidae Metapanamomops kaestneri (Wiehle, 1961) 31 1 1
Linyphiidae Micrargus herbigradus (Blackwall, 1854) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Micrargus subaequalis (Westring, 1851) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Microlinyphia impigra (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1871) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Microlinyphia pusilla (Sundevall, 1830) 29 8 9
Linyphiidae Microneta viaria (Blackwall, 1841) 93 13 10
Linyphiidae Minyriolus pusillus (Wider, 1834) 59 7 4
Linyphiidae Moebelia penicillata (Westring, 1851) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Neriene clathrata (Sundevall, 1830) 20 12 9
Linyphiidae Neriene emphana (Walckenaer, 1841) 71 18 12
Linyphiidae Neriene montana (Clerck, 1758) 73 17 14
Linyphiidae Neriene peltata (Wider, 1834) 6 6 5
Linyphiidae Neriene radiata (Walckenaer, 1841) 34 10 8
Linyphiidae Obscuriphantes obscurus (Blackwall, 1841) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Oedothorax apicatus (Blackwall, 1850) 9 3 4
Linyphiidae Oedothorax gibbosus (Blackwall, 1841) 11 4 5
Linyphiidae Oedothorax retusus (Westring, 1851) 3 3 3
Linyphiidae Oryphantes angulatus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1881) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Ostearius melanopygius (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1880) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Palliduphantes alutacius (Simon, 1884) 54 8 7
Linyphiidae Panamomops mengei Simon, 1926 15 6 7
Linyphiidae Pelecopsis mengei (Simon, 1884) 4 3 3
Linyphiidae Peponocranium praeceps Miller, 1943 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Pityohyphantes phrygianus (C. L. Koch, 1836) 6 3 4
Linyphiidae Pocadicnemis pumila (Blackwall, 1841) 25 6 7
Linyphiidae Porrhomma convexum (Westring, 1851) 8 2 2
Linyphiidae Porrhomma microphthalmum (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1871) 2 2 2
Linyphiidae Porrhomma pygmaeum (Blackwall, 1834) 21 8 8
Linyphiidae Praestigia kulczynskii Eskov, 1979 2 1 1
Linyphiidae Saaristoa abnormis (Blackwall, 1841) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Sauron rayi (Simon, 1881) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Silometopus elegans (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1873) 4 3 2
Linyphiidae Silometopus reussi (Thorell, 1871) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Stemonyphantes conspersus (L. Koch, 1879) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Stemonyphantes lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) 9 5 6
Linyphiidae Tallusia experta (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1871) 2 1 2
Linyphiidae Tapinocyba affinis Lessert, 1907 4 1 1
Linyphiidae Tapinocyba biscissa (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1873) 23 1 2
Linyphiidae Tapinocyba insecta (L. Koch, 1869) 12 6 5
Linyphiidae Tapinopa longidens (Wider, 1834) 10 7 4
Linyphiidae Tenuiphantes alacris (Blackwall, 1853) 2 2 2
Linyphiidae Tenuiphantes cristatus (Menge, 1866) 2 1 1
Linyphiidae Tenuiphantes mengei (Kulczyński, 1887) 74 11 10
Linyphiidae Tenuiphantes nigriventris (L. Koch, 1879) 36 11 6
Linyphiidae Tenuiphantes tenebricola (Wider, 1834) 260 8 6
Linyphiidae Thyreosthenius parasiticus (Westring, 1851) 9 2 2
Linyphiidae Tibioplus diversus (L. Koch, 1879) 8 2 2
Linyphiidae Trematocephalus cristatus (Wider, 1834) 9 6 7
Linyphiidae Trichoncus affinis Kulczyński, 1894 19 1 1
Linyphiidae Trichoncus vasconicus Denis, 1944 16 1 1
Linyphiidae Trichopterna cito (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1873) 2 1 1
Linyphiidae Troxochrota scabra Kulczyński, 1894 6 3 2
Linyphiidae Troxochrus scabriculus (Westring, 1851) 19 3 3
Linyphiidae Walckenaeria alticeps (Denis, 1952) 40 4 5
Linyphiidae Walckenaeria antica (Wider, 1834) 34 4 4
Linyphiidae Walckenaeria atrotibialis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1878) 115 9 7
Linyphiidae Walckenaeria cucullata (C. L. Koch, 1836) 34 3 3
Linyphiidae Walckenaeria dysderoides (Wider, 1834) 3 2 2
Linyphiidae Walckenaeria furcillata (Menge, 1869) 5 1 2
Linyphiidae Walckenaeria lepida (Kulczyński, 1885) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Walckenaeria mitrata (Menge, 1868) 3 3 3
Linyphiidae Walckenaeria nudipalpis (Westring, 1851) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Walckenaeria picetorum (Palmgren, 1976) 1 1 1
Linyphiidae Walckenaeria vigilax (Blackwall, 1853) 2 2 2
Liocranidae Agroeca brunnea (Blackwall, 1833) 53 7 6
Liocranidae Agroeca cuprea Menge, 1873 27 6 6
Liocranidae Agroeca lusatica (L. Koch, 1875) 13 5 6
Liocranidae Agroeca makarovae Esyunin, 2008 2 1 1
Liocranidae Agroeca proxima (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1871) 163 10 9
Lycosidae Acantholycosa lignaria (Clerck, 1758) 12 5 4
Lycosidae Alopecosa aculeata (Clerck, 1758) 673 8 6
Lycosidae Alopecosa cuneata (Clerck, 1758) 1307 15 16
Lycosidae Alopecosa fabrilis (Clerck, 1758) 3 2 2
Lycosidae Alopecosa farinosa (Herman, 1879) 105 3 4
Lycosidae Alopecosa inquilina (Clerck, 1758) 6 5 3
Lycosidae Alopecosa pulverulenta (Clerck, 1758) 336 12 16
Lycosidae Alopecosa solitaria (Herman, 1879) 63 2 2
Lycosidae Alopecosa sulzeri (Pavesi, 1873) 3 3 2
Lycosidae Alopecosa taeniata (C. L. Koch, 1835) 18 3 3
Lycosidae Arctosa cinerea (Fabricius, 1777) 4 2 1
Lycosidae Arctosa figurata (Simon, 1876) 35 3 4
Lycosidae Arctosa leopardus (Sundevall, 1833) 17 5 4
Lycosidae Arctosa lutetiana (Simon, 1876) 3 2 2
Lycosidae Arctosa stigmosa (Thorell, 1875) 11 4 4
Lycosidae Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata (Ohlert, 1865) 2 2 1
Lycosidae Lycosa singoriensis (Laxmann, 1770) 1 1 1
Lycosidae Mustelicosa dimidiata (Thorell, 1875) 138 2 2
Lycosidae Pardosa agrestis (Westring, 1861) 116 16 13
Lycosidae Pardosa agricola (Thorell, 1856) 41 7 6
Lycosidae Pardosa alacris (C. L. Koch, 1833) 32 5 4
Lycosidae Pardosa amentata (Clerck, 1758) 83 8 11
Lycosidae Pardosa fulvipes (Collett, 1876) 2425 26 22
Lycosidae Pardosa lugubris (Walckenaer, 1802) 970 29 23
Lycosidae Pardosa maisa Hippa & Mannila, 1982 43 3 2
Lycosidae Pardosa paludicola (Clerck, 1758) 77 19 13
Lycosidae Pardosa palustris (Linnaeus, 1758) 2430 23 20
Lycosidae Pardosa plumipes (Thorell, 1875) 40 11 9
Lycosidae Pardosa prativaga (L. Koch, 1870) 214 13 12
Lycosidae Pardosa pullata (Clerck, 1758) 1 1 1
Lycosidae Pardosa schenkeli Lessert, 1904 3 1 1
Lycosidae Pardosa sphagnicola (Dahl, 1908) 124 16 12
Lycosidae Pirata piraticus (Clerck, 1758) 60 13 9
Lycosidae Pirata piscatorius (Clerck, 1758) 9 6 5
Lycosidae Pirata tenuitarsis Simon, 1876 4 2 2
Lycosidae Piratula hygrophila (Thorell, 1872) 260 16 17
Lycosidae Piratula insularis (Emerton, 1885) 2 1 1
Lycosidae Trochosa ruricola (De Geer, 1778) 829 22 23
Lycosidae Trochosa spinipalpis (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1895) 21 10 11
Lycosidae Trochosa terricola Thorell, 1856 343 18 12
Lycosidae Xerolycosa miniata (C. L. Koch, 1834) 387 18 14
Lycosidae Xerolycosa nemoralis (Westring, 1861) 260 14 14
Mimetidae Ero furcata (Villers, 1789) 8 5 4
Miturgidae Zora nemoralis (Blackwall, 1861) 57 5 6
Miturgidae Zora spinimana (Sundevall, 1833) 40 13 8
Oxyopidae Oxyopes ramosus (Martini & Goeze, 1778) 10 6 4
Philodromidae Philodromus aureolus (Clerck, 1758) 1 1 1
Philodromidae Philodromus cespitum (Walckenaer, 1802) 149 18 18
Philodromidae Philodromus emarginatus (Schrank, 1803) 5 5 5
Philodromidae Philodromus fuscomarginatus (De Geer, 1778) 1 1 1
Philodromidae Philodromus margaritatus (Clerck, 1758) 3 2 1
Philodromidae Philodromus poecilus (Thorell, 1872) 11 7 5
Philodromidae Rhysodromus histrio (Latreille, 1819) 22 4 4
Philodromidae Thanatus arenarius L. Koch, 1872 212 6 4
Philodromidae Thanatus formicinus (Clerck, 1758) 16 6 5
Philodromidae Thanatus sabulosus (Menge, 1875) 22 8 8
Philodromidae Thanatus striatus C. L. Koch, 1845 7 5 6
Philodromidae Tibellus maritimus (Menge, 1875) 24 10 11
Philodromidae Tibellus oblongus (Walckenaer, 1802) 129 26 20
Pholcidae Pholcus alticeps Spassky, 1932 3 3 2
Phrurolithidae Phrurolithus festivus (C. L. Koch, 1835) 78 15 15
Pisauridae Dolomedes fimbriatus (Clerck, 1758) 24 11 7
Pisauridae Dolomedes plantarius (Clerck, 1758) 47 9 11
Pisauridae Pisaura mirabilis (Clerck, 1758) 17 10 7
Salticidae Aelurillus v-insignitus (Clerck, 1758) 2 1 1
Salticidae Attulus dzieduszyckii (L. Koch, 1870) 38 8 4
Salticidae Attulus floricola (C. L. Koch, 1837) 22 9 7
Salticidae Attulus saltator (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1868) 5 3 2
Salticidae Attulus terebratus (Clerck, 1758) 11 6 5
Salticidae Ballus chalybeius (Walckenaer, 1802) 14 11 11
Salticidae Dendryphantes rudis (Sundevall, 1833) 15 2 6
Salticidae Euophrys frontalis (Walckenaer, 1802) 1 1 1
Salticidae Evarcha arcuata (Clerck, 1758) 266 33 22
Salticidae Evarcha falcata (Clerck, 1758) 95 23 17
Salticidae Heliophanus auratus C. L. Koch, 1835 53 11 12
Salticidae Heliophanus camtschadalicus Kulczyński, 1885 1 1 1
Salticidae Heliophanus cupreus (Walckenaer, 1802) 7 4 4
Salticidae Heliophanus dubius C. L. Koch, 1835 5 3 4
Salticidae Heliophanus flavipes (Hahn, 1832) 19 6 5
Salticidae Heliophanus lineiventris Simon, 1868 2 1 1
Salticidae Marpissa muscosa (Clerck, 1758) 1 1 1
Salticidae Marpissa pomatia (Walckenaer, 1802) 5 4 4
Salticidae Marpissa radiata (Grube, 1859) 7 2 2
Salticidae Neon reticulatus (Blackwall, 1853) 6 3 3
Salticidae Phlegra fasciata (Hahn, 1826) 19 7 7
Salticidae Pseudeuophrys erratica (Walckenaer, 1826) 1 1 1
Salticidae Pseudicius encarpatus (Walckenaer, 1802) 4 1 1
Salticidae Salticus cingulatus (Panzer, 1797) 8 3 3
Salticidae Sibianor aurocinctus (Ohlert, 1865) 1 1 1
Salticidae Sibianor larae Logunov, 2001 2 2 2
Salticidae Sibianor tantulus (Simon, 1868) 1 1 1
Salticidae Synageles venator (Lucas, 1836) 3 2 3
Salticidae Talavera aequipes (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1871) 8 4 4
Salticidae Talavera aperta (Miller, 1971) 3 2 2
Salticidae Talavera petrensis (C. L. Koch, 1837) 1 1 1
Sparassidae Micrommata virescens (Clerck, 1758) 79 14 18
Tetragnathidae Metellina mengei (Blackwall, 1869) 8 5 5
Tetragnathidae Metellina merianae (Scopoli, 1763) 1 1 1
Tetragnathidae Metellina segmentata (Clerck, 1758) 108 14 18
Tetragnathidae Pachygnatha clercki Sundevall, 1823 14 7 7
Tetragnathidae Pachygnatha degeeri Sundevall, 1830 175 7 11
Tetragnathidae Pachygnatha listeri Sundevall, 1830 212 14 12
Tetragnathidae Tetragnatha dearmata Thorell, 1873 46 12 8
Tetragnathidae Tetragnatha extensa (Linnaeus, 1758) 238 20 18
Tetragnathidae Tetragnatha montana Simon, 1874 17 8 7
Tetragnathidae Tetragnatha nigrita Lendl, 1886 17 4 5
Tetragnathidae Tetragnatha obtusa C. L. Koch, 1837 12 9 8
Tetragnathidae Tetragnatha pinicola L. Koch, 1870 134 19 17
Tetragnathidae Tetragnatha shoshone Levi, 1981 11 2 2
Tetragnathidae Tetragnatha striata L. Koch, 1862 14 3 2
Theridiidae Asagena phalerata (Panzer, 1801) 25 5 6
Theridiidae Crustulina guttata (Wider, 1834) 53 10 10
Theridiidae Crustulina sticta (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1861) 2 2 2
Theridiidae Cryptachaea riparia (Blackwall, 1834) 2 2 2
Theridiidae Dipoena torva (Thorell, 1875) 1 1 1
Theridiidae Enoplognatha ovata (Clerck, 1758) 54 15 15
Theridiidae Episinus angulatus (Blackwall, 1836) 5 4 4
Theridiidae Episinus truncatus Latreille, 1809 9 7 7
Theridiidae Euryopis flavomaculata (C. L. Koch, 1836) 78 13 10
Theridiidae Euryopis saukea Levi, 1951 5 1 3
Theridiidae Lasaeola prona (Menge, 1868) 1 1 1
Theridiidae Lasaeola tristis (Hahn, 1833) 5 5 5
Theridiidae Neottiura bimaculata (Linnaeus, 1767) 33 14 14
Theridiidae Parasteatoda lunata (Clerck, 1758) 8 3 4
Theridiidae Parasteatoda simulans (Thorell, 1875) 5 3 3
Theridiidae Parasteatoda tabulata (Levi, 1980) 43 8 7
Theridiidae Phylloneta impressa (L. Koch, 1881) 136 23 17
Theridiidae Phylloneta sisyphia (Clerck, 1758) 18 10 7
Theridiidae Platnickina tincta (Walckenaer, 1802) 2 1 2
Theridiidae Robertus arundineti (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1871) 17 9 10
Theridiidae Robertus lividus (Blackwall, 1836) 57 10 9
Theridiidae Robertus neglectus (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1871) 4 3 3
Theridiidae Robertus scoticus Jackson, 1914 1 1 1
Theridiidae Simitidion simile (C. L. Koch, 1836) 4 2 2
Theridiidae Steatoda albomaculata (De Geer, 1778) 8 2 1
Theridiidae Steatoda bipunctata (Linnaeus, 1758) 88 14 11
Theridiidae Steatoda castanea (Clerck, 1758) 27 12 8
Theridiidae Steatoda grossa (C. L. Koch, 1838) 46 7 5
Theridiidae Theridion innocuum Thorell, 1875 7 1 2
Theridiidae Theridion pictum (Walckenaer, 1802) 55 9 11
Theridiidae Theridion pinastri L. Koch, 1872 5 2 3
Theridiidae Theridion varians Hahn, 1833 49 14 13
Thomisidae Coriarachne depressa (C. L. Koch, 1837) 6 3 1
Thomisidae Ebrechtella tricuspidata (Fabricius, 1775) 161 20 19
Thomisidae Misumena vatia (Clerck, 1758) 127 21 18
Thomisidae Ozyptila claveata (Walckenaer, 1837) 29 3 4
Thomisidae Ozyptila praticola (C. L. Koch, 1837) 359 19 16
Thomisidae Ozyptila trux (Blackwall, 1846) 72 10 14
Thomisidae Psammitis sabulosus (Hahn, 1832) 1 1 1
Thomisidae Spiracme striatipes (L. Koch, 1870) 164 12 8
Thomisidae Tmarus piger (Walckenaer, 1802) 32 12 7
Thomisidae Xysticus audax (Schrank, 1803) 9 4 3
Thomisidae Xysticus bifasciatus C. L. Koch, 1837 41 7 9
Thomisidae Xysticus cristatus (Clerck, 1758) 80 20 17
Thomisidae Xysticus kochi Thorell, 1872 16 7 10
Thomisidae Xysticus lanio C. L. Koch, 1835 5 4 4
Thomisidae Xysticus lineatus (Westring, 1851) 1 1 1
Thomisidae Xysticus luctator L. Koch, 1870 160 8 9
Thomisidae Xysticus luctuosus (Blackwall, 1836) 44 6 6
Thomisidae Xysticus ulmi (Hahn, 1831) 111 29 21
Titanoecidae Titanoeca praefica (Simon, 1870) 2 1 1
Titanoecidae Titanoeca quadriguttata (Hahn, 1833) 11 2 2
Titanoecidae Titanoeca schineri L. Koch, 1872 12 3 3
Titanoecidae Titanoeca spominima (Taczanowski, 1866) 43 3 3
Uloboridae Uloborus walckenaerius Latreille, 1806 2 2 2
Column label Column description
type The nature or genre of the resource. A variable ("PhysicalObject" for preserved specimen, "Event" for observed or missed individuals).
modified The most recent date-time on which the resource was changed. A constant ("YYYY-MM-DD").
language A language of the resource. A constant ("en" = English).
licence A legal document giving official permission to do something with the resource. A constant ("CC_BY_4_0" = Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 Licence).
rightsHolder A person or organisation owning or managing rights over the resource. A constant ("Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology (IPAE), UB RAS").
bibliographicCitation A bibliographic reference for the resource as a statement indicating how this record should be cited (attributed) when used. A variable.
institutionCode The name (or acronym) in use by the institution having custody of the object(s) or information referred to in the record. A constant ("Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology (IPAE), UB RAS").
datasetName The name identifying the dataset from which the record was derived. A constant ("Spiders of the Udmurt Republic").
basisOfRecord The specific nature of the data record. A variable ("PhysicalObject" for preserved specimen, "Event" for observed or missed individuals).
occurrenceID An identifier for the occurrence. A variable, constructed from a combination of Protected Area's name (in case of location belongs to one of them) or "id" and row number.
catalogNumber An identifier (preferably unique) for the record within the dataset or collection. A variable.
recordedBy A list (concatenated and separated) of names of people, groups or organisations responsible for recording the original occurrence. A variable.
individualCount The number of individuals represented present at the time of the Occurrence. A variable.
sex The sex of the biological individual(s) represented in the Occurrence (males, females and juvenile specimens counted, concatenated and separated by "," in case of mix sex-age stages in a sample). A variable.
lifeStage The life stage of the biological individual(s) at the time the Occurrence was recorded. A variable (three terms: "adult", "juvenile" or "adult, juvenile").
occurrenceStatus A statement about the presence or absence of a taxon at a location. A constant ("present").
disposition The current state of a specimen with respect to the collection identified in collectionCode or collectionID. A variable (three terms: "in collection", "missing", "duplicates elsewhere" and "voucher elsewhere").
associatedReferences A list (concatenated and separated) of bibliographic references of literature associated with the Occurrence. A variable.
associatedTaxa A list (concatenated and separated) of identifiers or names of taxa and their associations with the Occurrence. A variable (edificator plant species for forest habitats).
fieldNumber An identifier given to the event in the field. A variable.
eventDate The date-time or interval during which an Event occurred. For occurrences, this is the date-time when the event was recorded. A variable.
startDayOfYear The earliest integer day of the year on which the Event occurred. A variable.
endDayOfYear The latest integer day of the year on which the Event occurred. A variable.
year The four-digit year in which the event occurred, according to the Common Era Calendar. A variable.
month The ordinal month in which the event occurred. A variable.
day The integer day of the month on which the event occurred. A variable.
verbatimEventDate The verbatim original representation of the date and time information for an Event. A variable.
habitat A category of the habitat in which the Event occurred. A variable.
locationID An identifier for the place of field data collection. A variable.
higherGeography A list (concatenated and separated) of geographic names less specific than the information captured in the locality term. A variable with the constant begin ("Europe | Russia | Udmurt Republic").
continent The name of the continent in which the location occurs. A constant ("Europe").
country The name of the country or major administrative unit in which the location occurs. A constant ("Russia").
countryCode The standard code for the country in which the location occurs. A constant ("RU").
stateProvince The name of the next smaller administrative region than country (state, province, canton, department, region etc.) in which the location occurs. A constant ("Udmurt Republic").
county The full, unabbreviated name of the next smaller administrative region than stateProvince in which the Location occurs. A variable.
locality The specific description of the place. Less specific geographic information is provided in other geographic terms (higherGeography, continent, country, stateProvince, county). This term may contain information modified from the original to correct perceived errors or standardise the description. A variable.
verbatimLocality The original textual description of the place. A variable.
minimumElevationInMetres The lower limit of the range of elevation (altitude above sea level), in metres. A variable.
maximumElevationInMetres The upper limit of the range of elevation (altitude above sea level), in metres. A variable.
locationRemarks Comments or notes about the Location. A constant ("Vyatka & Kama interstream area | the Cis-Ural region | western piedmont of the Ural Mountains | the east of the Russian Plain").
decimalLatitude The geographic latitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic centre of a location. A variable.
decimalLongitude The geographic longitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic centre of a location. A variable.
geodeticDatum The ellipsoid, geodetic datum or spatial reference system (SRS) upon which the geographic coordinates given in decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude are based. A constant ("WGS84").
coordinateUncertaintyInMetres The horizontal distance (in metres) from the given decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude describing the smallest circle containing the whole of the location. A variable.
georeferencedBy A list (concatenated and separated) of names of people, groups or organisations who determined the georeference (spatial representation) of the location. A constant ("Sozontov A.N.").
georeferencedDate The date on which the Location was georeferenced. A variable.
identifiedBy A list (concatenated and separated) of names of people, groups, or organisations who assigned the Taxon to the subject. A variable.
dateIdentified The date on which the subject was determined as representing the Taxon. A variable (YYYY-MM-DD).
identificationRemarks Comments or notes about the Identification. A variable.
scientificName The full scientific name, with authorship and date information. A variable.
acceptedNameUsage The full name, with authorship and date information, if known, of the currently valid zoological taxon. A variable.
order The full scientific name of the order in which the taxon is classified. A constant ("Araneae").
family The full scientific name of the family in which the taxon is classified. A variable.
genus The full scientific name of the genus in which the taxon is classified. A variable.
specificEpithet The name of the species epithet of the scientificName. A variable.
scientificNameAuthorship The authorship information for the scientificName, formatted according to the conventions of the applicable nomenclaturalCode. A variable.
taxonRank The taxonomic rank of the most specific name in the scientificName. A variable (three options: "SPECIES", "GENUS" and "FAMILY").

Additional information

Sozontov A (2021). Spiders of the Udmurt Republic, Russia. Version 1.3. Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology (IPAE). Occurrence dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/nvzbxq accessed via GBIF.org on 2021-05-28.

Acknowledgements

I thank all collectors who provided specimens, especially abundant quantitative data: Svetlana A. Shirobokova, Konstantin S. Tatarkin, Evgenia S. Shirobokova, Alesya V. Uskova and others. I am grateful to Dr Sergey L. Esyunin for the help in research planning and species identification, Dr Sergey V. Dedyukhin for help in research planning and organisation and Dr Natalya V. Ivanova and Maxim P. Shashkov for a series of workshops devoted to biodiversity data management.

References