Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic Paper
Print
Taxonomic Paper
Southern Ocean Asteroidea: a proposed update for the Register of Antarctic Marine Species
expand article infoCamille VE Moreau, Antonio Aguera, Quentin Jossart, Bruno Danis
‡ Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), 50 avenue F. Roosevelt 1050, Brussels, Belgium
Open Access

Abstract

Background

The Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS, De Broyer et al. 2015) is the regional component of the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS Editorial Board 2015) in the Southern Ocean. It has been operating for the last ten years, with a special effort devoted towards its completion after the International Polar Year (IPY) in 2007-2008, in the framework of the Census of Antarctic Marine Life (CAML, 2005 - 2010). Its objective is to offer free and open access to a complete register of all known species living in the Southern Ocean, building a workbench of the present taxonomic knowledge for that region. The Antarctic zone defined by this dynamic and community-based tool has been investigated with a particular interest. The Sub-Antarctic zone was a secondary objective during the establishment of the RAMS and is still lacking the impulse of the scientific community for some taxa.

New information

In the present study, more than 13,000 occurrences records of Asteroidea (Echinodermata) have been compiled within the RAMS area of interest and checked against the RAMS species list of sea stars, using WoRMS Taxon Match tool. Few mismatches (basionym mistakes : i.e. original name misspelled or incorrect) were found within the existing list and 97 unregistered species are actually occurring within the RAMS boundaries. After this update, the number of Asteroidea species was increased by around 50%, now reaching 295 accepted species.

Keywords

Asteroidea, Sea stars, Southern Ocean, RAMS, WoRMS, Register of Antarctic Marine Species, Biodiversity, Checklist

Introduction

The Register of Antarctic Marine Species, RAMS

RAMS is a collaborative and dynamic information system managing Southern Ocean marine taxon names and related information (De Broyer et al. 2015). The main objective of RAMS is to establish a benchmark of the present taxonomic knowledge of the Southern Ocean biodiversity (De Broyer et al. 2011).

In a recent appraisal of RAMS, Jossart et al. (2015)​ underscored the number of 10,294 described species of which 8,297 are accepted marine species (viz. checked by taxonomic experts). Among these species, 537 (~6.5%) were reported as accepted species names for echinoderms and 198 (~2.4%) as accepted names for sea star species.

After 10 years of service, RAMS still displays several spatial gaps, especially with regards to species occurring in the sub-Antarctic zone, described as the area below the sub-Tropical front (Deacon 1984, Rintoul 2007) and North of the Polar Front.

In order to complete the taxonomic information for the class Asteroidea, we propose in this work an updated version of the checklist of Southern Ocean sea stars species occurring within the RAMS area of interest.

Materials and methods

Area of interest

As described in De Broyer and Danis (2011) the RAMS area of interest is extending from the coast of the Antarctic continent to the sub-Tropical front. Convenient operational limits have been defined (Table 1; Fig. 1), splitting the Southern Ocean into two zones: the Antarctic zone and the sub-Antarctic zone.

RAMS area of interest. Operational northern limits in the different sector of the Southern Ocean for both the Antarctic zone and the sub-Antarctic zone.

Sector

Longitude range

Northern limit

Antarctic zone

South Atlantic Sector

60°W-50°W

57°S

50°W-30°E

50°S

Indian Sector

30°E-80°E

50°S

80°E-150°E

55°S

South Pacific Sector

150°E-60°W

60°S

Sub-Antarctic zone

Atlantic & Indian Sectors

60°W-140°E

43°S

South Pacific Sector

140°E-176°W

48°S

176°W-80°W

45°S

80°W-72°W

41°S

Figure 1.

Occurrences of RAMS (light grey dots) and Proposed-RAMS (orange dots) sea star species. The Antarctic zone is located below the green line and the Sub-Antarctic zone between the green and dark red lines. The Polar Front (black line) and the Sub-Tropical Front (dashed black line) are also shown.

Data collection

More than 13,000 occurrences records were agregated from different sources including global information systems such as the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), initiatives such as the Biogeographic Atlas of the Southern Ocean (De Broyer et al. 2014), historic records mined from the literature pertaining to the early exploration of the Southern Ocean (e.g. Sladen 1889), recently published checklists (e.g. Gutt et al. 2014) or unpublished cruise records. Only the specimens identified at a species level, regardless of their depth (shelf, slope, deep-sea)  were kept for the preparation of this checklist.

The validity of each species name was controlled using the Taxa Match Tool available in RAMS (http://www.marinespecies.org/rams/aphia.php?p=match) and WoRMS (http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=match) to ensure its validity and presence in the RAMS checklist.

Data resources

Complete checklist of Southern Ocean Asteroidea

The data underpinning the analyses reported in this paper are deposited at GBIF, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, http://ipt.pensoft.net/resource?r=southern_ocean_asteroidea&v=1.1

Checklist of RAMS Asteroidea species

Abyssaster diadematus (Sladen, 1883)

Material    Download as CSV 

Abyssaster planus (Sladen, 1883)

Material    Download as CSV 

Acodontaster capitatus (Koehler, 1912)

Material    Download as CSV 

Acodontaster conspicuus (Koehler, 1920)

Material    Download as CSV 

Acodontaster elongatus (Sladen, 1889)

Material    Download as CSV 

Acodontaster hodgsoni (Bell, 1908)

Material    Download as CSV 

Acodontaster marginatus (Koehler, 1912)

Material    Download as CSV 

Adelasterias papillosa (Koehler, 1906)

Material    Download as CSV 

Allostichaster capensis (Perrier, 1875)

Material    Download as CSV 

Anasterias antarctica (Lütken, 1857)

Material    Download as CSV 

Anasterias asterinoides Perrier, 1875

Material    Download as CSV 

Anasterias directa (Koehler, 1920)

Material    Download as CSV 

Anasterias mawsoni (Koehler, 1920)

Material    Download as CSV 

Anasterias pedicellaris Koehler, 1923

Material    Download as CSV 

Anasterias perrieri (E. A. Smith, 1876)

Material    Download as CSV 

Anasterias rupicola (Verrill, 1876)

Material    Download as CSV 

Anasterias sphoerulata (Koehler, 1920)

Material    Download as CSV 

Anasterias spirabilis (Bell, 1881)

Material    Download as CSV 

Anasterias studeri Perrier, 1891

Material    Download as CSV 

Anasterias suteri (deLoriol, 1894)

Material    Download as CSV 

Anseropoda antarctica Fisher, 1940

Material    Download as CSV 

Anteliaster australis Fisher, 1940

Material    Download as CSV 

Anteliaster scaber (E. A. Smith, 1876)

Material    Download as CSV 

Asterina fimbriata Perrier, 1875

Material    Download as CSV 

Astropecten brasiliensis Müller & Troschel, 1842

Material    Download as CSV 

Bathybiaster loripes Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Belgicella racowitzana Ludwig, 1903

Material    Download as CSV 

Benthopecten pedicifer (Sladen, 1885)

Material    Download as CSV 

Caimanaster acutatus Clark, 1962

Material    Download as CSV 

Calyptraster tenuissimus Bernasconi, 1966

Material    Download as CSV 

Calyptraster vitreus Bernasconi, 1972

Material    Download as CSV 

Ceramaster grenadensis (Perrier, 1881)

Material    Download as CSV 

Ceramaster patagonicus (Sladen, 1889)

Material    Download as CSV 

Cheiraster (Luidiaster) antarcticus (Koehler, 1907)

Material    Download as CSV 

Cheiraster (Luidiaster) gerlachei Ludwig, 1903

Material    Download as CSV 

Cheiraster (Luidiaster) hirsutus (Studer, 1884)

Material    Download as CSV 

Cheiraster (Luidiaster) planeta (Sladen, 1889)

Material    Download as CSV 

Chitonaster cataphractus Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Chitonaster felli (H.E.S. Clark, 1971)

Material    Download as CSV 

Chitonaster johannae Koehler, 1908

Material    Download as CSV 

Chondraster elattosis H.L. Clark, 1923

Material    Download as CSV 

Cladaster analogus Fisher, 1940

Material    Download as CSV 

Cosmasterias lurida (Philippi, 1858)

Material    Download as CSV 

Crossaster penicillatus Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Cryptasterias brachiata Koehler, 1923

Material    Download as CSV 

Cryptasterias turqueti (Koehler, 1906)

Material    Download as CSV 

Ctenodiscus australis Lütken, 1871

Material    Download as CSV 

Ctenodiscus procurator Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Cuenotaster involutus (Koehler, 1912)

Material    Download as CSV 

Cycethra frigida (Koehler, 1917)

Material    Download as CSV 

Cycethra macquariensis Koehler, 1920

Material    Download as CSV 

Cycethra verrucosa (Philippi, 1857)

Material    Download as CSV 

Diplasterias brandti (Bell, 1881)

Material    Download as CSV 

Diplasterias brucei (Koehler, 1908)

Material    Download as CSV 

Diplasterias kerguelenensis (Koehler, 1917)

Material    Download as CSV 

Diplasterias meridionalis (Perrier, 1875)

Material    Download as CSV 

Diplasterias octoradiata (Studer, 1885)

Material    Download as CSV 

Diplasterias radiata (Koehler, 1923)

Material    Download as CSV 

Diplodontias singularis (Müller & Troschel, 1843)

Material    Download as CSV 

Diplopteraster clarki Bernasconi, 1937

Material    Download as CSV 

Diplopteraster peregrinator (Sladen, 1882)

Material    Download as CSV 

Diplopteraster semireticulatus (Sladen, 1882)

Material    Download as CSV 

Diplopteraster verrucosus (Sladen, 1882)

Material    Download as CSV 

Dytaster felix Koehler, 1907

Material    Download as CSV 

Echinaster smithi Ludwig, 1903

Material    Download as CSV 

Eremicaster crassus (Sladen, 1883)

Material    Download as CSV 

Eremicaster pacificus (Ludwig, 1905)

Material    Download as CSV 

Eremicaster vicinus Ludwig, 1907

Material    Download as CSV 

Freyastera tuberculata (Sladen, 1889)

Material    Download as CSV 

Freyella attenuata Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Freyella drygalskii Döderlein, 1927

Material    Download as CSV 

Freyella formosa Korovchinsky, 1976

Material    Download as CSV 

Freyella fragilissima Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Freyella giardi Koehler, 1908

Material    Download as CSV 

Freyella heroina Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Freyella mutabila Korovchinsky, 1976

Material    Download as CSV 

Ganeria attenuata Koehler, 1907

Material    Download as CSV 

Ganeria falklandica Gray, 1847

Material    Download as CSV 

Ganeria hahni Perrier, 1891

Material    Download as CSV 

Gaussaster antarcticus (Sladen, 1889)

Material    Download as CSV 

Glabraster antarctica (E. A. Smith, 1876)

Material    Download as CSV 

Granaster nutrix (Studer, 1885)

Material    Download as CSV 

Henricia diffidens (Koehler, 1923)

Material    Download as CSV 

Henricia fisheri A.M. Clark, 1962

Material    Download as CSV 

Henricia obesa (Sladen, 1889)

Material    Download as CSV 

Henricia pagenstecheri (Studer, 1885)

Material    Download as CSV 

Henricia parva Koehler, 1912

Material    Download as CSV 

Henricia praestans (Sladen, 1889)

Material    Download as CSV 

Henricia smilax (Koehler, 1920)

Material    Download as CSV 

Henricia studeri Perrier, 1891

Material    Download as CSV 

Hippasteria falklandica Fisher, 1940

Material    Download as CSV 

Hippasteria phrygiana (Parelius, 1768)

Material    Download as CSV 

Hymenaster caelatus Sladen, 1882

Material    Download as CSV 

Hymenaster campanulatus Koehler, 1908

Material    Download as CSV 

Hymenaster coccinatus Sladen, 1882

Material    Download as CSV 

Hymenaster crucifer Sladen, 1882

Material    Download as CSV 

Hymenaster densus Koehler, 1908

Material    Download as CSV 

Hymenaster edax Koehler, 1908

Material    Download as CSV 

Hymenaster formosus Sladen, 1882

Material    Download as CSV 

Hymenaster fucatus Koehler, 1908

Material    Download as CSV 

Hymenaster graniferus Sladen, 1882

Material    Download as CSV 

Hymenaster latebrosus Sladen, 1882

Material    Download as CSV 

Hymenaster pellucidus Thomson, 1873

Material    Download as CSV 

Hymenaster perspicuus Ludwig, 1903

Material    Download as CSV 

Hymenaster praecoquis Sladen, 1882

Material    Download as CSV 

Hymenaster sacculatus Sladen, 1882

Material    Download as CSV 

Hymenodiscus distincta (Sladen, 1889)

Material    Download as CSV 

Hyphalaster inermis Sladen, 1883

Material    Download as CSV 

Hyphalaster scotiae Koehler, 1907

Material    Download as CSV 

Kampylaster incurvatus Koehler, 1920

Material    Download as CSV 

Kenrickaster pedicellaris A.M. Clark, 1962

Material    Download as CSV 

Labidiaster annulatus Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Labidiaster radiosus Lütken, 1872

Material    Download as CSV 

Leptychaster flexuosus (Koehler, 1920)

Material    Download as CSV 

Leptychaster kerguelenensis E. A. Smith, 1876

Material    Download as CSV 

Leptychaster magnificus (Koehler, 1912)

Material    Download as CSV 

Leptychaster melchiorensis (Bernasconi, 1969)

Material    Download as CSV 

Lethasterias australis Fisher, 1923

Material    Download as CSV 

Lonchotaster tartareus Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Lophaster densus Fisher, 1940

Material    Download as CSV 

Lophaster gaini Koehler, 1912

Material    Download as CSV 

Lophaster stellans Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Lophaster tenuis Koehler, 1920

Material    Download as CSV 

Luidia clathrata (Say, 1825)

Material    Download as CSV 

Lysasterias adeliae (Koehler, 1920)

Material    Download as CSV 

Lysasterias belgicae (Ludwig, 1903)

Material    Download as CSV 

Lysasterias chirophora (Ludwig, 1903)

Material    Download as CSV 

Lysasterias digitata A.M. Clark, 1962

Material    Download as CSV 

Lysasterias hemiora Fisher, 1940

Material    Download as CSV 

Lysasterias heteractis Fisher, 1940

Material    Download as CSV 

Lysasterias joffrei (Koehler, 1920)

Material    Download as CSV 

Lysasterias lactea (Ludwig, 1903)

Material    Download as CSV 

Lysasterias perrieri (Studer, 1885)

Material    Download as CSV 

Macroptychaster accrescens (Koehler, 1920)

Material    Download as CSV 

Mediaster pedicellaris (Perrier, 1881)

Material    Download as CSV 

Mirastrella biradialis Fisher, 1940

Material    Download as CSV 

Neosmilaster georgianus (Studer, 1885)

Material    Download as CSV 

Neosmilaster steineni (Studer, 1885)

Material    Download as CSV 

Notasterias armata (Koehler, 1911)

Material    Download as CSV 

Notasterias bongraini (Koehler, 1912)

Material    Download as CSV 

Notasterias candicans (Ludwig, 1903)

Material    Download as CSV 

Notasterias haswelli Koehler, 1920

Material    Download as CSV 

Notasterias pedicellaris (Koehler, 1907)

Material    Download as CSV 

Notasterias stolophora Fisher, 1940

Material    Download as CSV 

Notioceramus anomalus Fisher, 1940

Material    Download as CSV 

Novodinia novaezelandiae (H.E.S. Clark, 1962)

Material    Download as CSV 

Odinella nutrix Fisher, 1940

Material    Download as CSV 

Odontaster meridionalis (E. A. Smith, 1876)

Material    Download as CSV 

Odontaster penicillatus (Philippi, 1870)

Material    Download as CSV 

Odontaster pusillus Koehler, 1907

Material    Download as CSV 

Odontaster validus Koehler, 1906

Material    Download as CSV 

Paralophaster antarcticus (Koehler, 1912)

Material    Download as CSV 

Paralophaster godfroyi (Koehler, 1912)

Material    Download as CSV 

Paralophaster lorioli (Koehler, 1907)

Material    Download as CSV 

Pectinaster filholi Perrier, 1885

Material    Download as CSV 

Pedicellaster hypernotius Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Pergamaster incertus (Bell, 1908)

Material    Download as CSV 

Pergamaster triseriatus H.E.S. Clark, 1963

Material    Download as CSV 

Peribolaster folliculatus Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Peribolaster macleani Koehler, 1920

Material    Download as CSV 

Perknaster antarcticus (Koehler, 1906)

Material    Download as CSV 

Perknaster aurantiacus Koehler, 1912

Material    Download as CSV 

Perknaster aurorae (Koehler, 1920)

Material    Download as CSV 

Perknaster charcoti (Koehler, 1912)

Material    Download as CSV 

Perknaster densus Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Perknaster fuscus Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Perknaster sladeni (Perrier, 1891)

Material    Download as CSV 

Persephonaster facetus (Koehler, 1907)

Material    Download as CSV 

Poraniopsis echinaster Perrier, 1891

Material    Download as CSV 

Porcellanaster ceruleus Wyville Thomson, 1877

Material    Download as CSV 

Psalidaster mordax Fisher, 1940

Material    Download as CSV 

Pseudarchaster discus Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Psilaster charcoti (Koehler, 1906)

Material    Download as CSV 

Pteraster affinis Smith, 1876

Material    Download as CSV 

Pteraster florifer Koehler, 1920

Material    Download as CSV 

Pteraster gibber (Sladen, 1882)

Material    Download as CSV 

Pteraster hirsutus (Sladen, 1882)

Material    Download as CSV 

Pteraster koehleri A.M. Clark, 1962

Material    Download as CSV 

Pteraster rugatus Sladen, 1882

Material    Download as CSV 

Pteraster spinosissimus (Sladen, 1882)

Material    Download as CSV 

Pteraster stellifer Sladen, 1882

Material    Download as CSV 

Radiaster gracilis (H.L. Clark, 1916)

Material    Download as CSV 

Remaster gourdoni Koehler, 1912

Material    Download as CSV 

Rhopiella hirsuta (Koehler, 1920)

Material    Download as CSV 

Saliasterias brachiata Koehler, 1920

Material    Download as CSV 

Scotiaster inornatus Koehler, 1907

Material    Download as CSV 

Smilasterias clarkailsa O'Loughlin & O'Hara, 1990

Material    Download as CSV 

Smilasterias scalprifera (Sladen, 1889)

Material    Download as CSV 

Smilasterias triremis (Sladen, 1889)

Material    Download as CSV 

Solaster notophrynus Downey, 1971

Material    Download as CSV 

Solaster regularis Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Styracaster armatus Sladen, 1883

Material    Download as CSV 

Styracaster chuni Ludwig, 1907

Material    Download as CSV 

Styracaster horridus Sladen, 1883

Material    Download as CSV 

Styracaster robustus Koehler, 1908

Material    Download as CSV 

Tremaster mirabilis Verrill, 1880

Material    Download as CSV 

Vemaster sudatlanticus Bernasconi, 1965

Material    Download as CSV 

Zoroaster tenuis Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Checklist of Proposed-RAMS Asteroidea species

Allostichaster farquhari McKnight, 2006

Material    Download as CSV 

Allostichaster insignis (Farquhar, 1895)

Material    Download as CSV 

Allostichaster polyplax (Muller & Troschel, 1844)

Material    Download as CSV 

Anasterias laevigata (Hutton, 1879)

Material    Download as CSV 

Anthenoides cristatus (Sladen, 1889)

Material    Download as CSV 

Astromesites primigenius (Mortensen, 1925)

Material    Download as CSV 

Astropecten polyacanthus Müller & Troschel, 1842

Material    Download as CSV 

Astrostole scabra (Hutton, 1872)

Material    Download as CSV 

Benthopecten munidae H.E.S. Clark, 1969

Material    Download as CSV 

Benthopecten pikei H.E.S. Clark, 1969

Material    Download as CSV 

Brisinga chathamica McKnight, 1973

Material    Download as CSV 

Brisingenes multicostata (Verrill, 1894)

Material    Download as CSV 

Ceramaster australis H.E.S. Clark, 2001

Material    Download as CSV 

Cheiraster (Cheiraster) otagoensis Studer, 1883

Material    Download as CSV 

Chitonaster trangae Mah, 2011

Material    Download as CSV 

Clavaporania fitchorum Mah & Foltz, 2014

Material    Download as CSV 

Coscinasterias calamaria (Gray, 1840)

Material    Download as CSV 

Coscinasterias muricata Verrill, 1870

Material    Download as CSV 

Cosmasterias dyscrita H.L. Clark, 1916

Material    Download as CSV 

Crossaster campbellicus McKnight, 1973

Material    Download as CSV 

Crossaster multispinus H.L. Clark, 1916

Material    Download as CSV 

Diplodontias dilatatus (Perrier, 1875)

Material    Download as CSV 

Diplodontias robustus (Fell, 1953)

Material    Download as CSV 

Diplopteraster hurleyi McKnight, 1973

Material    Download as CSV 

Dipsacaster magnificus (H.L. Clark, 1916)

Material    Download as CSV 

Echinaster farquhari Benham, 1909

Material    Download as CSV 

Eratosaster jenae Mah, 2011

Material    Download as CSV 

Freyastera benthophila (Sladen, 1889)

Material    Download as CSV 

Freyella echinata Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Freyellaster polycnema (Sladen, 1889)

Material    Download as CSV 

Fromia monilis (Perrier, 1869)

Material    Download as CSV 

Gilbertaster anacanthus Fisher, 1906

Material    Download as CSV 

Henricia aucklandiae Mortensen, 1925

Material    Download as CSV 

Henricia compacta (Sladen, 1889)

Material    Download as CSV 

Henricia lukinsii (Farquhar, 1898)

Material    Download as CSV 

Henricia ornata (Perrier, 1869)

Material    Download as CSV 

Henricia ralphae Fell, 1958

Material    Download as CSV 

Henricia simplex (Sladen, 1889)

Material    Download as CSV 

Henricia spinulfera (E. A. Smith, 1876)

Material    Download as CSV 

Hymenaster estcourti McKnight, 1973

Material    Download as CSV 

Hymenaster nobilis Wyville Thomson, 1876

Material    Download as CSV 

Hymenodiscus aotearoa (McKnight, 1973)

Material    Download as CSV 

Hymenodiscus submembranacea (Döderlein, 1927)

Material    Download as CSV 

Hyphalaster giganteus Macan, 1938

Material    Download as CSV 

Lithosoma novaezelandiae McKnight, 1973

Material    Download as CSV 

Luidia porteri A.H. Clark, 1917

Material    Download as CSV 

Mediaster arcuatus (Sladen, 1889)

Material    Download as CSV 

Mediaster dawsoni McKnight, 1973

Material    Download as CSV 

Mediaster sladeni Benham, 1909

Material    Download as CSV 

Meridiastra medius (O'Loughlin, Waters & Roy, 2003)

Material    Download as CSV 

Meridiastra oriens (O'Loughlin, Waters & Roy, 2003)

Material    Download as CSV 

Mimastrella cognata (Sladen, 1889)

Material    Download as CSV 

Myxoderma qawashqari (Moyana & Larrain Prat, 1976)

Material    Download as CSV 

Odontaster aucklandensis McKnight, 1973

Material    Download as CSV 

Odontaster benhami (Mortensen, 1925)

Material    Download as CSV 

Odontaster pearsei Janosik & Halanych, 2010

Material    Download as CSV 

Odontaster roseus Janosik & Halanych, 2010

Material    Download as CSV 

Odontohenricia anarea O'Hara, 1998

Material    Download as CSV 

Odontohenricia endeavouri Rowe & Albertson, 1988

Material    Download as CSV 

Ophidiaster confertus H.L. Clark, 1916

Material    Download as CSV 

Paralophaster hyalinus H.E.S. Clark, 1970

Material    Download as CSV 

Paranepanthia aucklandensis (Koehler, 1920)

Material    Download as CSV 

Patiriella regularis (Verrill, 1867)

Material    Download as CSV 

Paulasterias tyleri Mah et al. 2015

Material    Download as CSV 

Pectinaster mimicus (Sladen, 1889)

Material    Download as CSV 

Pentagonaster pulchellus Gray, 1840

Material    Download as CSV 

Peribolaster lictor Fell, 1958

Material    Download as CSV 

Perissasterias monacantha McKnight, 1973

Material    Download as CSV 

Pillsburiaster aoteanus (McKnight, 1973)

Material    Download as CSV 

Pillsburiaster indutilis McKnight, 2006

Material    Download as CSV 

Plutonaster complexus H.E.S Clark & D.G. McKnight, 2000

Material    Download as CSV 

Plutonaster fragilis H.E.S. Clark, 1970

Material    Download as CSV 

Plutonaster hikurangi H.E.S Clark & D.G. McKnight, 2000

Material    Download as CSV 

Plutonaster jonathani H.E.S Clark & D.G. McKnight, 2000

Material    Download as CSV 

Plutonaster knoxi Fell, 1958

Material    Download as CSV 

Plutonaster sirius A.H. Clark, 1917

Material    Download as CSV 

Proserpinaster neozelanicus (Mortensen, 1925)

Material    Download as CSV 

Psalidaster fisheri McKnight, 2006

Material    Download as CSV 

Pseudarchaster garricki Fell, 1958

Material    Download as CSV 

Pseudechinaster rubens H.E.S. Clark, 1962

Material    Download as CSV 

Psilaster acuminatus Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Pteraster bathami Fell, 1958

Material    Download as CSV 

Pteraster robertsoni McKnight, 1973

Material    Download as CSV 

Sclerasterias eustyla (Sladen, 1889)

Material    Download as CSV 

Sclerasterias mollis (Hutton, 1872)

Material    Download as CSV 

Smilasterias irregularis H.L. Clark, 1928

Material    Download as CSV 

Solaster longoi Stampanato & Jangoux, 1993

Material    Download as CSV 

Solaster torulatus Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Sphaeriodiscus mirabilis A.M. Clark, 1976

Material    Download as CSV 

Stichaster australis (Verrill, 1871)

Material    Download as CSV 

Taranuiaster novaezealandiae McKnight, 1973

Material    Download as CSV 

Tarsaster stoichodes Sladen, 1889

Material    Download as CSV 

Zoroaster actinocles Fisher, 1919

Material    Download as CSV 

Zoroaster alternicanthus McKnight, 2006

Material    Download as CSV 

Zoroaster fulgens Thomson, 1873

Material    Download as CSV 

Zoroaster macracantha H.L. Clark, 1916

Material    Download as CSV 

Zoroaster spinulosus Fisher, 1906

Material    Download as CSV 

Analysis

More than 13,000 occurrences records from 295 accepted species have been compiled within the extent of the RAMS area of interest. 198 of these species (67%) were already in the RAMS database and 97 (33%) were new to the system. After this update, the number of Asteroidea species in RAMS will be increased by around 50%.

The seven Orders of the Class Asteroidea are represented in the Southern Ocean. The Valvatida are the most speciose with 8 families, 41 genus and 87 species followed by Forcipulatida (6 families, 30 genus, 78 species), Paxillosida (6 families, 22 genus, 43 species), Velatida (2 families, 6 genus, 37 species), Spinulosida (1 family, 4 genus, 20 species), Brisingida (2 families; 9 genus; 19 species) and Notomyotida (1 family, 4 genus, 2 subgenus, 11 species).

After a careful verification of the RAMS species list for Asteroidea we propose to address the following points. These issues have been taken into account in this paper:

  • Cheiraster (Barbadosaster) echinulatus and Stegnaster wesseli are only described from Central America and should be removed from the RAMS list
  • Spoladaster veneris is only described from Amsterdam and Saint-Paul Islands which are not part of the RAMS area of interest
  • Anthenoides peirceiAstropecten cingulatusCheiraster (Cheiraster) sepitusPeltaster placenta, and Psilaster herwigi do not seem to be distributed in the RAMS area of interest
  • Echinaster (Othilia) brasiliensis is only described from South America and should be removed of the RAMS list​
  • Freyella mutabilia was originally described as Freyella mutabila by Korovchinsky (1976)
  • Mimastrella cognata and Mirastrella cognata are source of a problem. Both genus do exist but Mimastrella cognata and Mirastrella biradialis are the only described species. The genus name being nearly identical, it has lead to a mistake. Mirastrella cognata is an invalid name and should be deleted from RAMS and WoRMS systems

Moreover, we recommend the addition of species from our "Proposed-RAMS" checklist (i.e. species not registered in the RAMS list but present in the RAMS area of interest) to RAMS. None of these species are new to science but their austral distribution range was not properly documented (e.g. species from the Campbell Plateau are reported as New-Zealand species but are also present in the Southern Ocean, species from the French sub-Antarctic Islands, etc...). Interestingly, 22 of the 97 "non-RAMS" species are present in the Antarctic zone. Some have been described recently (e.g. O. roseus and O. pearsei described by Janosik and Halanych (2010)C. trangae described by Mah (2011) or P. tyleri described by Mah et al. 2015) but have not been added to the RAMS.

A final comment pertains to Astropecten polyacanthus, occurring in the RAMS Sub-Antarctic region in a location that is not actually South from the Sub-Tropical Front. This final observation shows that convenient boundaries should be used with care. However, only one species was concerned for a very wide area of interest. A. polyacanthus presence in the RAMS checklist should be discussed by the editors from RAMS and WoRMS.

Discussion

This study highlights the fact that after ten years of effort, the work is still in progress for RAMS. The main objective of covering the Antarctic zone has generally been reached for the class Asteroidea but needs at this point to go through a major update by the editors. Regarding the asteroids, the secondary objective of covering the Sub-Antarctic zone lacked the impulse of the scientific community and we hope that the work presented here will fill the gaps as accurately as possible.

This approach may not bring the same results for all the taxa in the Southern Ocean. Indeed some charismatic fauna are very well known in the RAMS area of interest (e.g. marine mammals), however, we believe that the knowledge concerning the number of species present in the Southern Ocean waters might be significantly increased.

Only few mistakes were found in the existing RAMS list of Asteroidea and should be fixed soon after getting in contact with the editors. The new updated checklist of Asteroidea species will be available through the RAMS website (http://www.marinespecies.org/rams) in early 2016. A way to improve the general system, with the sea stars for model is also in development.

Recent work using genetics on Odontaster species (Janosik and Halanych 2010) highlights the fact that diversity might be higher than expected even in well-studied areas. There is also a lack of ressources for identification and taxonomic work leading to redundant mistakes. In this context, the creation of a digital library, hotlinked with the RAMS and compiling original descriptions, literature materials and DNA barcoding informations for each species will bring the RAMS a step ahead and provide a vital tool for future taxonomic and biogeographic work. Perspectives also include an illustrative determination key using a polytomic approach and the creation of interactive Antarctic Field Guides (http://afg.biodiversity.aq) on the http://www.biodiversity.aq platform (Van de Putte et al. 2015) in order to help the scientific community with the identification process and to enhance data availability.

We believe that the homogenization of available data for all taxa will result in a better understanding of the Southern Ocean and its biogeography, especially in the Sub-Antarctic zone.

Acknowledgements

The work was supported by a "Fonds pour la formation à la Recherche dans l’Industrie et dans l’Agriculture" (FRIA) grants to C. Moreau. This is contribution no.8 to the vERSO project (www.versoproject.be), funded by the Belgian Science Policy Office (BELSPO, contract n°BR/132/A1/vERSO).

References