Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic Paper
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Taxonomic Paper
Moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera) of Delhi, India: An illustrated checklist based on museum specimens and surveys
expand article infoJ. Komal, P. R. Shashank, Sanjay Sondhi§, Sohail Madan|, Yash Sondhi, Naresh M. Meshram#, S. S. Anooj
‡ National Pusa Collection, Division of Entomology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India
§ Titli Trust, 49 Rajpur Road Enclave, Dhoran Khas, near IT Park, P.O. Gujrada, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
| Conservation Education Centre - ABWLS, Delhi Asola Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary, Near Karni Singh Shooting Range, New Delhi, India
¶ Department of Biology, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, United States of America
# ICAR- Central Citrus Research Institute, Nagpur, India
Open Access

Abstract

Background

There have been several recent checklists, books and publications about Indian moths; however, much of this work has focused on biodiversity hotspots such as North-east India, Western Ghats and Western Himalayas. There is a lack of published literature on urban centres in India, despite the increased need to monitor insects at sites with high levels of human disturbance. In this study, we examine the moths of Delhi, the national capital region of India, one of the fastest growing mega-metropolitan cities. We present a comprehensive checklist of 338 moths species using 8 years of light trapping data (2012-2020) and examining about 2000 specimens from historical collections at the National Pusa Collection of ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (NPC-IARI) spanning over 100 years (1907-2020). The checklist comprises moths from 32 families spanning 14 superfamilies with Noctuoidea (48.5%) and Pyraloidea (20.4%) being the the two most dominant superfamilies. We provide links to images of live individuals and pinned specimens for all moths and provide detailed distribution records and an updated taxonomic treatment.

New information

This is the first comprehensive annotated checklist of the moths of Delhi. The present study adds 234 species to the biodiversity of moths from Delhi that were not reported previously, along with illustrations for 195 species.

Keywords

species checklist, biodiversity inventory, Pusa, Heterocera, India

Introduction

Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758 which includes butterflies and moths, is one of the largest insect orders consisting of 45 super families and having 157,424 species described (Van Nieukerken et al. 2011). It constitutes 10% of the total described species of living organisms (Mallet 2007). Of these, moths form roughly 85% of all known Lepidoptera, with over 12000 known species of moths from the Indian subcontinent (Chandra 2007). Moths are ecologically and economically significant as a primary food source for vertebrate insectivores, as pests of crop plants (Common 1990), pollinators (MacGregor et al. 2015), food for humans (Zagrobelny et al. 2009) and model organisms in scientific research (Roe and Just 2009). Nevertheless, the recent reports on insect decline are alarming and it is also evident in decline in moth diversity and abundance around the world (Hallmann et al. 2020). Numerous factors contribute to the decline of moths, such as rapid urbanisation, habitat loss, artificial light, intensive agriculture, pesticide pollution and lack of conservation policies (Dennis et al. 2019). These reports on global insect declines highlight the need for better conservation and management; however, they need to occur in tandem with ongoing monitoring and cataloguing of insects. Much of the work on Indian moth fauna was done pre-independence, including Hampson (1891), Hampson (1892), Hampson (1894), Hampson (1895), Hampson (1896), Fletcher (1920), Fletcher (1932), Fletcher (1933), Moore (1880), Moore (1882), Moore (1884), Bell and Scott (1937) and while they are extensive contributions to Indian moth fauna, these works are in need of a systematic update with additional modern surveys and current taxonomy. The more recent studies on moth fauna by Indian authors have been growing in number and include surveys, based checklists on the moth fauna of specific regions, viz. Mathew and Rahmathulla (1995) (Silent Valley National Park, Kerala, 318 species), Rose (2002) (Jatinga, Assam, 81 species), Shubhalaxmi et al. (2011) (northern Western Ghats, 418 species), Gurule and Nikam (2013) (northern Maharashtra, 245 species), Sondhi and Sondhi (2016) (Garhwal, Uttarakhand, 248 species), Singh et al. (2017) (North East Jharkhand, 81 species), Dey et al. (2018) (Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, 291 species), Sondhi et al. (2018) (Agastyamalai Biosphere Reserve, Kerala, 282 species), Dar et al. (2020) (Jammu and Kashimir, 461 species) and Bhagat (2020) (Jammu and Kashmir, and Ladakh, 55 species). There has been a tendencey to focus on studying regions of higher biodiversity, including the Western and Eastern Himalayas and the Western Ghats; however, there has been much less work done from regions with higher levels of human disturbance or metropolitian cities in India.

In this study, we focus on the moth fauna of Delhi, the National capital territory of India, one of the largest growing metropolitan centres in the world with an estimated population of 23 million (MPD 2021). Delhi, with a geographical coverage of 783 km2 , extends on the western bank of River Yamuna between 28º12' and 28º53' N latitude and 76º50' and 77º23' E longitude and is bound on the northeast by the Indo-Gangetic plain and on the southeast by the Thar Desert (Dakshini 1968). The prominent component of the natural vegetation is the Delhi Ridge forest which is an outcrop of the Aravali Hills, one of the oldest chains of hills in the world. Open scrub forest, classified under the Tropical Dry Thorn Forest type (Champion and Seth 1968), covers a large extent of the ridge. Such vegetation type is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid zones of the Earth where the total annual rainfall ranges from 50-100 mm. Tree species commonly found in Delhi, in such vegetation include, Acacia leucoplachia, Prosopis cineraria, Ziziphus nummularia, Anogeissus pendula etc. (Maheshwari 1953, Maheshwari 1963). Additionally, Prosopis juliflora, an exotic species introduced, as part of the afforestation drive, also dominates this thorny vegetation (Sinha 2014). Another prominent feature of the natural vegetation in Delhi is the Dichanthium-Cenchrus-Lasiurus grasslands (Dabadghao et al. 1973). The fertile alluvial plains of the State support agricultural crops which also influence the moth diversity of the region by favouring many heteroceran agricultural pests. Donahue (1966), in his study of Butterflies of Delhi, identified two distinct habitats in Delhi: the arid xerophytic Aravalli Ridge (Delhi Ridge) and mesophytic urban nursery area. Though the city is a highly urbanised landscape with a human population of about 16.75 million (as per 2011 census), it holds a forest cover of about 13.18% (Forest Survey of India 2019), one of the largest percentages of forest cover when compared to other Indian cities. This, along with factors like the presence of the Yamuna River and its nearness to the Himalayas, adds to factors that augment biodiversity of the area. Much of the rainfall in Delhi is received during the months of July to August during which the otherwise dry vegetation shows luxuriant growth and supports the insect diversity.

In general, the insect fauna of Delhi has received less attention with only very few groups like butterflies (Lepidoptera) (Biswas et al. 2017) and Odonata (Nazneen 2019) being well documented. The studies on moth fauna of Delhi were always insufficient, the State fauna series of Delhi, published by the Zoological Survey of India in the year 1997, included only 11 species of moths (Ghosh and Varshney 1997). Later, after two decades, Paul et al. (2016) added 36 species of moths to the biodiversity of Delhi which included mostly agricultural pests. The recent checklist of moths of Delhi consists of only 74 species (Paul et al. 2017, Paul 2021).

There are limited studies in India that have utilised moth collections preserved in museums and none that have integrated this with primary survey data and secondary data from literature and citizen science projects. In the present work, we have studied the moth collections at National Pusa Collection, Division of Entomology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (NPC-IARI) which is one of the four important Lepidoptera collections in India (Smetacek 2011). NPC houses over 0.4 million specimens, comprising 56000 specimens of Lepidoptera representing 3300 species. NPC has an illustrious history in agriculturally important insect pest collection. Famous lepidopterists such as T.B. Fletcher and Edward Meyrick, worked on these collections prior to India’s independence. However, after independence, there are only a few experts on moths who could visit and work on these collections. In the current study, we studied all the moths that are collected from Delhi housed in NPC-IARI, including our own observations from 2012-2020 and data from different citizen science portals. An illustrated checklist of the 338 moths found in Delhi, along with up-to-date taxonomic treatment, are presented.

Materials and methods

Museum specimens

In the present study, the biodiversity of moths of the region was studied by an exhaustive exploration of the museum holdings of the National Pusa Collection, Department of Entomology at ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Delhi (NPC-IARI) which is one of the largest insect repositories in Asia for agricultural pests since the 1900s. The specimens of moths belonging to Delhi were sorted separately for the present study. A database has been created from individual specimens, based on label data including the name of the collector, date of collection, method of collection, associated host plants and sex. This includes more than 1500 specimens since 1907 up to 2020 which can be accessed at Moths of Delhi, India dataset. Furthermore, identification and reconfirmation of all the specimens was done and were updated to their current taxonomic positions. All the representative species were photographed with a Cannon 70D with a 100 mm macro lens. The micromoths were photographed with a digitalised camera Leica DFC 425C on the Leica 19205FA Stereozoom Automountage microscope.

Field surveys

Field surveys were conducted from 2012 to 2020 by setting up light traps at different locations, viz. the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (ICAR- IARI), Pusa (28.04°N, 77.12°E), Rashtrapathi Bhawan (28.61°N, 77.19°E) and Asola Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary (28.4762°N, 77.23°E). This accounted for a total of 73 survey nights. The light traps were set after sunset during the evening hours generally for 5 hours from 6 to 11 PM using a Mercury vapour bulb of 160 W. Most of the time, electrical mains were available for surveys, but a portable diesel-based generator was used to set the light traps at the locations without a source of electricity. All the moths were photographed in the field using a Cannon 70D with a 100 mm macro lens.

Identification and preparation of checklist

The available literature was used to identify the moths, including Barlow (1982), Holloway (1999), Holloway (1998), Holloway (1996), Holloway (1993), Holloway (1989), Holloway (1986), Holloway (1987), Holloway (1983), Holloway (1985), Holloway (2003), Holloway (2011), Holloway (1997), Holloway (1988), Bell and Scott (1937), Kononenko and Pinratana (2005), Kononenko and Pinratana (2013), Moore (1880), Moore (1882), Moore (1884), Schintlmeister and Pinratana (2007), Zolotuhin and Pinratana (2005), Kirti and Singh (2015), Kirti and Singh (2016), Kendrick (2002), Hampson (1891), Hampson (1895), Robinson et al. (1994) and Inoue et al. (1996).

Along with the above museum collection data and surveys, additionally, data from citizen science internet portals, such as the Moths of India (http://www.mothsofindia.org/; Sondhi et al. 2021), iNaturalist (https://www.inaturalist.org) and India Biodiversity (http://indiabiodiversity.org/), were also used to prepare the checklist. For a few morphospecies, we could not identify up to species and we have mentioned only genera name and numbers.

Finally, a comprehensive checklist has been prepared by including all the data from museum specimens, field surveys, available literature and citizen science portals. The classification system used by Van Nieukerken et al. (2011) was followed. Systematic arrangement was made alphabetically, the checklist being presented below with notes mentioning previous reports. Additional data related to materials studied can be accessed here: http://ipt.pensoft.net/resource?r=moths_of_delhi&v=1.8. Representative species photographs of museum specimens and also those captured in the field are arranged into plates alphabetically.

Checklist

Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758

Bombyx mori (Linnaeus, 1758)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 1a

Figure 1.

Adults:

aBombyx mori  
bTrilocha varians  
cEupterote undata  
dCephonodes hylas  
eHippotion boerhaviae  
fHippotion celerio 

Trilocha varians (Walker, 1855)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 1b

Eupterote fabia (Cramer, 1780)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Eupterote undata Blanchard, [1844]

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 1c

Cephonodes hylas (Linnaeus, 1771)

Notes: 

Inaturalist, Present study; Fig. 1d

Daphnis nerii (Linnaeus, 1758)

Notes: 
Present study

Hippotion boerhaviae (Fabricius, 1775)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 1e

Hippotion celerio (Linnaeus, 1758)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017, Present study; Fig. 1f

Hyles lineata (Fabricius, 1775)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 2a

Figure 2.

Adults:

aHyles lineata  
bMacroglossum neotroglodytus  
cNephele hespera  
dTheretra alecto  
eTheretra nessus  
fClanis sp.  

Macroglossum neotroglodytus Kitching & Cadiou, 2000

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 2b

Macroglossum stellatarum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Notes: 

Present study

Nephele hespera (Fabricius, 1775)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 2c

Theretra alecto (Linnaeus, 1758)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 2d

Theretra nessus (Drury, 1773)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 2e

Theretra oldenlandiae (Fabricius, 1775)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Theretra silhetensis (Walker, 1856)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Clanis phalaris (Cramer, 1777)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Clanis sp.

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 2f

Leucophlebia lineata Westwood, 1847

Notes: 

Present study

Acherontia lachesis (Fabricius, 1798)

Notes: 
Present study

Acherontia styx (Westwood, 1847)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017, Present study; Fig. 3a

Figure 3.

Adults:

aAcherontia styx  
bAgrius convolvuli  
cPsilogramma increta  
dPhycodes minor  
eExinotis catachlora  
fColeophora sp.  

Agrius convolvuli (Linnaeus, 1758)

Notes: 

Kumar et al. 2012, Paul et al. 2017, Present study; Fig. 3b

Psilogramma increta (Walker 1865)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017, Present study; Fig. 3c

Psilogramma sp.

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Phycodes minor Moore, 1881

Notes: 

Fig. 3d

Exinotis catachlora Meyrick, 1916

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 3e

Coleophora sp.

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 3f

Ascalenia crypsiloga (Meyrick, 1915)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 4a

Figure 4.

Adults:

aAscalenia crypsiloga  
bAnatrachyntis sp.  
cEthmia acontias  
dPsorosticha zizyphi  
eAnarsia ephippias  
fHelcystogramma engraptum  

Anatrachyntis sp.

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 4b

Ethmia acontias Meyrick, 1906

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 4c

Ethmia sp.

Notes: 
Present study

Psorosticha zizyphi (Stainton, 1859)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 4d

Anarsia ephippias Meyrick, 1908

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 4e

Anarsia lineatella Zeller, 1839

Notes: 
Present study

Helcystogramma engraptum (Meyrick, 1918)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 4f

Helcystogramma hibisci (Stainton, 1859)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 5a

Figure 5.

Adults:

aHelcystogramma hibisci  
bPhthorimaea operculella  
cPseudodoxia albinea  
dEretmocera impactella  
eStathmopoda sp.  
fChiasmia nora  

Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, 1873)

Notes: 

Kumar et al. 2012, Present study; Fig. 5b

Pseudodoxia albinea Meyrick 1914

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 5c

Eretmocera impactella (Walker, 1864)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 5d

Stathmopoda sp.

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 5e

Chiasmia fidoniata (Guenee, 1858)

Notes: 

Present study

Chiasmia frugaliata (Guenee, 1858)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Chiasmia nora (Walker, 1861)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 5f

Chiasmia sp. 1

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Chiasmia sp. 2

Notes: 
Present study

Cleora acaciaria (Boisduval, 1833)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Cleora cornaria (Guenée, 1857)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Cleora sp.

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 6a

Figure 6.

Adults:

aCleora sp.  
bHyperythra swinhoei  
cPetelia sp.  
dRhodometra sacraria  
eScardamia metallaria  
fOrnithospila avicularia  

Hyperythra lutea (Stoll, [1781])

Notes: 

Present study

Hyperythra swinhoei Butler, 1880

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 6b

Hyposidra talaca (Walker, 1860)

Notes: 

Present study

Isturgia arenacearia (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

Notes: 
Present study

Isturgia disputaria (Guenée, [1858])

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Petelia medardaria Herrich-Schäffer, [1856]

Notes: 
Present study

Petelia sp.

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 6c

Rhodometra sacraria (Linnaeus, 1767)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017, Present study; Fig. 6d

Scardamia metallaria Guenée, 1858

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 6e

Hemithea aestivaria (Hübner, 1799)

Notes: 

Present study

Ornithospila avicularia (Guenée, 1857)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 6f

Pelagodes veraria (Guenée, 1857)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Pelagodes / Thalassodes sp.

Notes: 
Present study

Pingasa dispensata (Walker, 1860)

Notes: 
Present study

Thalassodes quadraria (Guenee, 1857)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Thalassodes sp. 1

Notes: 
Present study

Thalassodes sp. 2

Notes: 
Present study

Eupithecia ultimaria Boisduval, 1840

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 7a

Figure 7.

Adults:

aEupithecia ultimaria  
bCraspediopsis sp.  
cScopula nesciaria  
dScopula relictata  
eScopula sp.  
fTraminda mundissima  

Pasiphila rectangulata (Linnaeus, 1758)

Notes: 
Present study

Craspediopsis sp.

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 7b

Haematopis grataria (Fabricius, 1798)

Notes: 
Inaturalist

Problepsis vulgaris Butler, 1889

Notes: 
Present study

Scopula nesciaria (Walker, 1861)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 7c

Scopula relictata (Walker, 1866)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 7d

Scopula subpunctaria (Herrich-Schäffer, 1847)

Notes: 

Present study

Scopula sp. 1

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Scopula sp.

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 7e

Traminda mundissima (Walker, 1861)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017; Fig. 7f

Phazaca theclata (Guenée, 1858)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 8a

Figure 8.

Adults:

aPhazaca theclata  
bAcrocercops phaeomorpha  
cAcrocercops trissoptila  
dCaloptilia soyella  
eEuspilapteryx sp.  
fPhyllocnistis citrella  

Acrocercops phaeomorpha Meyrick, 1919

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 8b

Acrocercops trissoptila Meyrick, 1921

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 8c

Caloptilia soyella (van Deventer, 1904)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 8d

Euspilapteryx sp.

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 8e

Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, 1856

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 8f

Chilena similis Walker, 1855

Notes: 

Present study

Chilena strigula Walker, 1865

Notes: 
Present study

Kunugia latipennis (Walker, 1855)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 9a

Figure 9.

Adults:

aKunugia latipennis  
bStreblote sp.  
cHyblaea puera  
dAsota caricae  
eAsota ficus  
fDigama hearseyana  

Streblote dorsalis (Walker, 1866)

Notes: 
Present study

Streblote siva (Lefèbvre, 1827)

Notes: 
Present study

Streblote sp.

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 9b

Trabala vishnou (Lefebvre, 1827)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Hyblaea puera (Cramer, 1777)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 9c

Asota caricae (Fabricius, 1775)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 9d

Asota ficus (Fabricius, 1775)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017, Present study; Fig. 9e

Digama hearseyana Moore ,1859

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017, Present study; Fig. 9f

Plecoptera reflexa Guenée, 1852

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 10a

Figure 10.

Adults:

aPlecoptera reflexa  
bAgylla pallens  
cAloa moorei  
dAmata cyssea  
eAmata sperbius  
fCreatonotos gangis  

Agylla pallens (Hampson, 1894)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 10b

Aloa lactinea (Cramer, 1777)

Notes: 

Present study

Aloa lineola (Fabricius, 1793)

Notes: 
Present study

Aloa moorei (Butler, 1875)

Notes: 

Rajesh et al. 2012, Present study; Fig. 10c

Amata cyssea Stoll, 1782

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017, Present study; Fig. 10d

Amata sperbius (Fabricius, 1787)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 10e

Argina astrea (Drury, 1773)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Creatonotos gangis (Linnaeus, 1763)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017, Present study; Fig. 10f

Eressa confinis (Walker, 1854)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 11a

Figure 11.

Adults:

aEressa confinis  
bMangina syringa  
cPsichotoe duvaucelii  
dSpilosoma obliqua  
eUtethesia pulchella  
fAutoba olivacea  

Mangina syringa (Cramer, 1775)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 11b

Olepa ricini (Fabricius, 1775)

Notes: 

Kumar et al. 2012, Present study

Psichotoe duvaucelii Boisduval, 1829

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 11c

Spilosoma obliqua (Walker, 1855)

Notes: 

Kumar et al. 2012, Present study;Fig. 11d

Utethesia pulchella (Linnaeus, 1758)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017, Present study; Fig. 11e

Autoba olivacea Walker, [1858]

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 11f

Autoba silicula Swinhoe, 1897

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 12a

Figure 12.

Adults:

aAutoba silicula  
bHiccoda nigripalpis  
cEudocima phalonia  
dLyncestis amphix  
eOraesia cf. emarginata   
fPolydesma umbricola  

Hiccoda nigripalpis (Walker, 1866)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 12b

Metachrostis badia Swinhoe, 1886

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Eudocima materna (Linnaeus, 1767)

Notes: 
Present study

Eudocima phalonia (Linnaeus, 1763)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 12c

Lyncestis amphix (Cramer, 1777)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 12d

Oraesia emarginata (Fabricius, 1794)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Oraesia cf. emarginata (Fabricius, 1794)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 12e

Polydesma umbricola Boisduval, 1833

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 12f

Acantholipes circumdata Walker, 1858

Notes: 

Present study

Achaea janata (Linnaeus, 1758)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017, Present study; Fig. 13a

Figure 13.

Adults of a. Achaea janata; b. Attatha ino; c. Bastilla joviania; d. Buzara onelia; e. Dysgonia nr. torrida; f. Entomogramma torsa

aAchaea janata  
bAttatha ino  
cBastilla joviania  
dBuzara onelia  
eDysgonia nr. torrida   
fEntomogramma torsa  

Antarchaea cucullata Moore, 1885

Notes: 

Present study

Attatha ino (Drury, 1782)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017; Fig. 13b

Attatha regalis (Moore, 1872)

Notes: 
Present study

Bastilla crameri (Moore, 1885)

Notes: 
Present study

Bastilla joviania (Stoll, 1782)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 13c

Buzara onelia (Guenée, 1852)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 13d

Dysgonia crameri (Moore, 1885)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Dysgonia nr. torrida (Guenee, 1852)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017; Fig. 13e

Entomogramma torsa Guenée, 1852

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 13f

Erebus macrops (Linnaeus, 1768)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 14a

Figure 14.

Adults of a. Erebus macrops; b. Ericeia inangulata; c. Grammodes geometrica; d. Grammodes stolida; e. Mocis frugalis; f. Ophisma gravata

aErebus macrops  
bEriceia inangulata  
cGrammodes geometrica  
dGrammodes stolida  
eMocis frugalis  
fOphisma gravata  

Ericeia inangulata (Guenée, 1852)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 14b

Grammodes geometrica (Fabricius, 1775)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 14c

Grammodes stolida (Fabricius, 1775)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 14d

Mocis frugalis (Fabricius, 1775)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 14e

Mocis undata (Fabricius, 1775)

Notes: 
Present study

Ophiusa triphaenoides (Walker, 1858)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Ophisma gravata Guenée, 1852

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 14f

Pandesma anysa Guenée, 1852

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 15a

Figure 15.

Adults of a. Pandesma anysa; b. Pandesma quenavadi; c. Pericyma albidens; d. Pericyma glaucinans; e. Pericyma umbrina; f. Spirama sp.

aPandesma anysa  
bPandesma quenavadi  
cPericyma albidens  
dPericyma glaucinans  
ePericyma umbrina  
fSpirama sp.  

Pandesma quenavadi Guenée, 1852

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 15b

Pandesma sp.

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Pericyma albidens (Walker, 1865)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 15c

Pericyma glaucinans (Guenée, 1852)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 15d

Pericyma umbrina (Guenée, 1852)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 15e

Sphingomorpha chlorea (Cramer, 1777)

Notes: 

Present study

Spirama helicina (Hubner, 1831)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017, Present study

Spirama retorta (Clerk,1764)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Spirama sp.

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 15f

Tathorhynchus exsiccata (Lederer, 1855)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 16a

Figure 16.

Adults:

aTathorhynchus exsiccate  
bTrigonodes hyppasia  
cEublemma anachoresis  
dEublemma bifasciata  
eEublemma cochylioides  
fEublemma parva  

Thyas coronata (Fabricius, 1775)

Notes: 

Present study

Trigonodes hyppasia (Cramer, 1779)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017; Fig. 16b

Eublemma anachoresis (Wallengren, 1863)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017; Fig. 16c

Eublemma bifasciata (Moore, 1881)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 16d

Eublemma cochylioides (Guenée, 1852)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 16e

Eublemma parva (Hübner, 1808)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 16f

Eublemma roseana (Moore, 1881)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 17a

Figure 17.

Adults:

aEublemma roseana  
bEublemma scitula  
cAnticarsia irrorata  
dHydrillodes lentalis  
eNodaria cingala  
fHypena laceratalis  

Eublemma scitula (Rambur, 1833)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 17b

Anticarsia irrorata (Fabricius, 1781)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 17c

Hydrillodes lentalis (Guenee, 1854)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 17d

Nodaria cingala Moore, [1885]

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 17e

Hypena laceratalis Walker, 1859

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 17f

Hypena peruvialis Schaus, 1904

Notes: 

Present study

Hypena sp.

Notes: 
Paul et al., 2017

Rhynchina obliqualis (Kollar, 1844)

Notes: 
Present study

Rhynchina xylina Swinhoe, 1886

Notes: 
Present study

Euproctis cervina (Moore, 1877)

Notes: 

Present study;Fig. 18a

Figure 18.

Adults:

aEuproctis cervina  
bEuproctis fraterna  
cEuproctis xanthorrhoea  
dLaelia testacea  
eOlene mendosa  
fAnomis flava  

Euproctis fraterna (Moore, [1883])

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 18b

Euproctis lunata Walker, 1855

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Euproctis lutea (Fabricius, 1775)

Notes: 
Present study

Euproctis similis (Füssli, 1775)

Notes: 
Present study

Euproctis varians (Walker, 1855)

Notes: 
Present study

Euproctis virguncula Walker, 1855

Notes: 
Present study

Euproctis xanthorrhoea (Kollar, 1848)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 18c

Euproctis sp. 1

Notes: 
Present study

Euproctis sp. 2

Notes: 
Present study

Laelia testacea (Walker, 1855)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 18d

Lymantria sp.

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Olene mendosa (Hübner, 1823)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 18e

Orvasca subnotata Walker, 1865

Notes: 
Present study

Psalis pennatula (Fabricius, 1793)

Notes: 
Present study

Somena scintillans (Walker, 1856)

Notes: 

Kumar et al. 2012, Present study

Anomis flava (Fabricius, 1775)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017; Fig. 18f

Anomis involuta (Walker, [1858])

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 19a

Figure 19.

Adults of a. Anomis involuta; b. Syntomoides imaon; c. Calesia haemorrhoa; d. Anumeta atrosignata; e. Acontia catenula; f. Acontia lucida

aAnomis involuta  
bSyntomoides imaon  
cCalesia haemorrhoa  
dAnumeta atrosignata  
eAcontia catenula  
fAcontia lucida  

Syntomoides imaon (Cramer, 1780)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 19b

Calesia haemorrhoa Guenée, 1852

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 19c

Anumeta atrosignata Walker, 1858

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 19d

Chlumetia transversa (Walker, 1863)

Notes: 

Present study

Acontia basifera Walker, [1858]

Notes: 
Present study

Acontia catenula (Walker, 1865)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 19e

Acontia lucida (Hufnagel, 1766)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017; Fig. 19f

Acontia marmoralis (Fabricius, 1794)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 20a

Figure 20.

Adults:

aAcontia marmoralis  
bAcontia notabilis  
cAcontia sexpunctata  
dEmmelia semipallida  
eAegocera venulia  
fMatopo selecta  

Acontia notabilis (Walker, 1857)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 20b

Acontia opalinoides Guenée, 1852

Notes: 

Present study

Acontia sexpunctata (Fabricius, 1794)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 20c

Emmelia lunana (Fabricius, 1794)

Notes: 
Present study

Emmelia semipallida (Warren, 1913)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 20d

Athetis bremusa (Swinhoe, 1885)

Notes: 
Present study

Athetis obtusa (Hampson, 1891)

Notes: 
Present study

Athetis placida (Moore, [1884])

Notes: 
Present study

Aedia leucomelas (Linnaeus, 1758)

Notes: 
Present study

Aegocera venulia (Cramer, [1777])

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 20e

Matopo selecta (Walker, 1865)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 20f

Amyna axis (Guenée, 1852)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 21a

Figure 21.

Adults:

aAmyna axis  
bPerigea galaxia  
cDeltote marginate  
dMaliattha signifera  
eOzarba mallarba  
fOzarba punctigera  

Perigea galaxia Butler, 1883

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 21b

Cretonia vegetus (Swinhoe, 1885)

Notes: 
Present study

Deltote marginata (Walker, 1866)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 21c

Maliattha signifera (Walker, [1858])

Notes: 

Inaturalist; Fig. 21d

Ozarba mallarba Swinhoe, 1885

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 21e

Ozarba punctigera Walker, 1865

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 21f

Ozarba rufula Hampson, 1910

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 22a

Figure 22.

Adults:

aOzarba rufula  
bHelicoverpa armigera  
cHelicoverpa assulta  
dHeliothis peltigera  
eAgrotis ipsilon  
fAgrotis segetum  

Ozarba venata Butler, 1889

Notes: 

Present study

Adisura atkinsoni Moore, 1881

Notes: 

Kumar et al. 2012, Present study

Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner, 1809)

Notes: 

Kumar et al. 2012, Paul et al. 2017; Fig. 22b

Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée, 1852)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017; Fig. 22c

Heliothis peltigera (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017, Present study; Fig. 22d

Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel, 1766)

Notes: 

Kumar et al. 2012, Paul et al. 2017, Present study; Fig. 22e

Agrotis segetum (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

Notes: 

Kumar et al. 2012, Present study; Fig. 22f

Agrotis spinifera (Hübner, 1808)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 23a

Figure 23.

Adults:

aAgrotis spinifera  
bDichagyris flammatra  
cLeucania comma  
dMudaria cornifrons  
eMythimna separata  
fPolytela cliens  

Dichagyris flammatra (Schiffermuller, 1775)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017; Fig. 23b

Leucania comma (Linnaeus, 1761)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 23c

Leucania irregularis (Walker, 1857)

Notes: 
Present study

Leucania loreyi (Duponchel, 1827)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Mudaria cornifrons Moore, 1893

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 23d

Mythimna separata (Walker, 1865)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017; Fig. 23e

Polytela cliens (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1874)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 23f

Polytela gloriosae (Fabricius, 1781)

Notes: 

Present study

Sasunaga tenebrosa (Moore, 1867)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 24a

Figure 24.

Adults:

aSasunaga tenebrosa  
bSesamia uniformis  
cSpodoptera exigua  
dSpodoptera litura  
eAutographa nigrisigna  
fChrysodeixis chalcites  

Sesamia uniformis (Dudgeon, 1905)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 24b

Spodoptera exigua (Hubner, 1808)

Notes: 

Kumar et al. 2012, Paul et al. 2017, Present study; Fig. 24c

Spodoptera litura (Fabricius, 1775)

Notes: 

Kumar et al. 2012, Paul et al. 2017 Present study; Fig. 24d

Spodoptera pecten Guenee, 1852

Notes: 
Present study

Xestia sp. (Hübner, 1790)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Autographa nigrisigna (Walker, 1857)

Notes: 

Kumar et al. 2012, Paul et al. 2017; Fig. 24e

Chrysodeixis acuta (Doubleday, 1843)

Notes: 

Kumar et al. 2012; Paul et al. 2017

Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper, 1789)

Notes: 

Kumar et al. 2012; Paul et al. 2017; Fig. 24f

Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday, 1843)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017, Present study; Fig. 25a

Figure 25.

Adults:

aChrysodeixis eriosoma  
bThysanoplusia orichalcea  
cTrichoplusia ni  
dArcyophora dentula  
eCarea angulata  
fEarias cupreoviridis  

Ctenoplusia albostriata (Bremer & Grey, 1853)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017, Present study

Erythroplusia pyropia (Butler, 1879)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Thysanoplusia daubei (Boisduval, 1840)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017

Thysanoplusia orichalcea (Fabricius, 1775)

Notes: 

Paul et al. 2017; Present study; Fig. 25b

Trichoplusia ni (Hubner, 1803)

Notes: 

Kumar et al. 2012, Present study; Fig. 25c

Arcyophora dentula (Lederer, 1869)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 25d

Aquis orbicularis (Walker, 1858)

Notes: 
Present study

Carea angulata (Fabricius, 1793)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 25e

Earias cupreoviridis (Walker, 1862)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 25f

Earias insulana (Boisduval, 1833)

Notes: 

Kumar et al. 2012, Paul et al. 2017, Fig. 26a

Figure 26.

Adults:

aEarias insulana  
bEarias vittella  
cGiaura sceptica  
dMaurilia iconica  
eSelepa celtis  
fSelepa docilis  

Earias vittella (Fabricius, 1794)

Notes: 

Kumar et al. 2012, Present study; Fig. 26b

Giaura sceptica (Swinhoe, 1885)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 26c

Labanda semipars (Walker, 1858)

Notes: 
Present study

Maurilia iconica (Walker, 1857)

Notes: 

Present study; Fig. 26d