Biodiversity Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
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Data Paper (Biosciences)
Distribution of alpine endemic plants of northern Asia: a dataset
expand article infoElena Brianskaia, Denis Sandanov, Yichao Li§, Zhiheng Wang§
‡ Institute of General and Experimental Biology, Ulan-Ude, Russia
§ Peking University, Beijing, China
Open Access

Abstract

Background

We describe a dataset providing information on the geographic distribution of northern Asian endemic alpine plants. It was obtained by digitising maps from the atlas “Endemic alpine plants of Northern Asia”. Northern Asia includes numerous mountain ranges which may have served as refugia during the Pleistocene ice ages, but there have been no studies that analysed this question. We suggest that this dataset can be applied for better understanding of the alpine endemism in northern Asia.

New information

The dataset includes 13709 species distribution records, representing 211 species from 31 families and 106 genera. Each record provides data regarding the distribution of an individual species. These data provide a foundation for studying northern Asia's endemic alpine species and conducting research on the factors concerning their distribution.

Keywords

dataset, endemic alpine plants, northern Asia, digitising printed maps

Introduction

Being climatically and topographically heterogeneous, mountain ecosystems are characterised by a high degree of plant species diversity (López-Pujol et al. 2011, Hassan et al. 2005). They are often considered to have been potential refugia or buffering zones that either prevented extinction or promoted speciation during the Quaternary glacial-interglacial shifts because of their high spatiotemporal climatic stability (Sandanov et al. 2020, Harrison and Noss 2017, Feng et al. 2016, Sandel et al. 2011). During the Pleistocene glacial periods, ice sheets expanded greatly throughout northern Asia, mountainous regions contributed to the preservation of a number of alpine species (Harrison and Noss 2017, Volkova and Baranova 1980). Malyshev considered nine mountain areas in northern Asia that served as refugia during ice ages of Pleistocene for at least 231 alpine endemic species (Malyshev 1979, Vodopyanova et al. 1974). Alpine endemism was studied for mountain ranges of Siberia, Far East and northern part of Asia (Malyshev 1972, Krasnoborov 1974, Yurtzev 1981, Schlothauer 1990). In more recent studies, it was revealed that Far East has seven centres of edemism (Kozhevnikov 2007). However, despite numerous studies on endemism of northern Asia's alpine plants, it is not considered as an endemism hot spot on a global scale (Harrison and Noss 2017, Hobohm et al. 2019). Moreover, to this date, there have been no studies that quantitatively assess the correlation amongst climate, topography and alpine endemism in northern Asia. We consider the lack of baseline species distribution data is the main reason for this lack. We have developed and are sharing this dataset to address this need and to encourage the quantitative analyses required for developing a better understanding of the alpine endemism in northern Asia (Brianskaia et al. 2021).

General description

Purpose: 

Our primary goal was to digitise species distribution maps of alpine endemics of northern Asia and to encourage use of the data developed.

Additional information: 

Studies of the geographic distribution of endemic alpine plants were very significant in the Soviet botany of the 60s-70s (Tolmachev 1962, Malyshev 1965, Yurtzev 1966, Yurtzev 1968). In 1965, the Soviet commission of the flora and vegetation history sponsored a project on the sudy of northern Asia's endemic plants, particularly the endemic species. The printed atlas was the result of teamwork by the Siberian and All-Soviet Union botanists. The data for the atlas were compiled from the Leningrad (LE), Moscow (MW), Ural (SVER), Siberian (NSK, NS, TK, IRK, SASY) and Far East (VLA) herbaria. The atlas includes a list of the endemic alpine plant species of northern Asia with their habitat characteristics, geographic range and cartographic materials. The distribution maps (Figs 1, 2) were prepared from herbarium specimens whose identification had been checked (Vodopyanova et al. 1974). The list of editors of the atlas includes Vodopyanova N.S., Malyshev L.I., Siplivinskiy V.N., Tolmachev A.I. and Yurtsev B.A. Many different cartographers were involved in preparing the published maps (Table 1). Taxonomy of species in the GBIF dataset is given both as published in the atlas (Vodopyanova et al. 1974) in scientificName column and verified according to the Catalogue of Life (Roskov et al. 2019) and Checklist of Asian Russia Flora (Baikov 2012). The final verified taxonomy was checked with GBIF species matching tool and given in the acceptedNameUsage column.

Table 1.

List of cartographers of each species distribution map.

*in acceptedNameUsage, column numbers are given for the type of the map the species are drawn in: 1) the entire northern Asia maps; 2) the northern Asia maps from 1200 to 1700 E; 3) South Siberia maps from 750 to 1200 E; d) Far East maps including Kamchatka Peninsula, Sakhalin Island and Kuril Islands.

scientificName

acceptedNameUsage*

Cartographer

Cryptogramma raddeana, Dracocephalum fragile, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Crepis polytricha

Cryptogramma raddeana (1), Dracocephalum fragile (3), Fornicium carthamoides (3), Crepis polytricha (3)

Busik V.V.

Microbiota decussata

Microbiota decussata (4)

Gurzenkov N.N., Gorovoy P.G.

Juniperus pseudosabina

Juniperus pseudosabina (3)

Krasnoborov I.M. in consultation with Bardunov L.V., Goloskokov V.P., Kamelin R.V., Kashina L.I., Matsenko A.V.

Ptilagrostis junatovii, Koeleria geniculata, Poa ivanoviae, Festuca sichotensis, Roegneria sajanensis, Delphinum sajanense, Eutrema parviflorum, Draba pygmaea, Rhodiola pinnatifida, Saxifraga brachypetala, Chrysosplenium albertii, Ch. peltatum, Oxytropis jurtzevii, O. sajanensis, Pinguicula algida, P. spathulata, Pyrethrum lanuginosum, Saussurea squarrosa

Ptilagrostis junatovii (3), Koeleria geniculata (3), Poa ivanoviae (3), Festuca sichotensis (1), Elymus sajanensis (3), Delphinum sajanense (3), Eutrema edwardsii (3), Draba pygmaea (3), Rhodiola pinnatifida (3), Saxifraga brachypetala (3), Chrysosplenium albertii (3), Ch. peltatum (3), Oxytropis jurtzevii (3), O. sajanensis (3), Pinguicula algida (1), P. spathulata (1), Pyrethrum lanuginosum (3), Saussurea squarrosa (3)

Malyshev L.I.

Helictotrichon krylovii, Poa lanatiflora

Helictotrichon krylovii (2), Hyalopoa lanatiflora (2)

Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Mikhalyova V.M.

Helictotrichon mongolicum

Helictotrichon mongolicum (3)

Malyshev L.I. in consultation with Vodopyanova N.S.

Koeleria atroviolacea

Koeleria atroviolacea (3)

Gudoshnikov S.V.

Poa altaica

Poa altaica (3)

Vodopyanova N.S., Gudoshnikov S.V., Penkovskaya E.F. in consultation with Busik V.V., Goloskokov V.P., Ivanova M.M., Malyshev L.I.

Poa ircutica, Salix nasarovii, S. torulosa, Chrysosplenium baicalense, Oxytropis kusnetzovii, O. oxyphylloides, Swertia baicalensis

Poa ircutica (3) , Salix nasarovii (3), S. torulosa (3), Chrysosplenium baicalense (3), Oxytropis kusnetzovii (3), O. oxyphylloides (3), Swertia baicalensis (3)

Ivanova M.M.

Poa pseudobbreviata

Poa pseudobbreviata (1)

Matveeva N.V. in consultation with Yurtsev B.A., Malyshev L.I.

Colpodium altaicum

Paracolpodium altaicum (3)

Bardunov L.V. in consultation with Gudoshnikov S.V.

Festuca chionobia

Festuca chionobia (3)

Siplivinskiy V.N. in consultation with Busik V.V.

Leymus interior

Leymus interior (1)

Matveeva N.V.

Eriophorum humile

Eriophorum humile (1)

Petrovskiy V.V., Taraskina N.N. in consultation with Krasnoborov I.M. & Petrochenko Yu.N.

Baethryon uniflorum

Kreczetoviczia uniflora (1)

Petrochenko Yu.N.

Scirpus maximowiczii

Scirpus maximowiczii (1)

Taraskina N.N. in consultation with Alyanskaya N.S., Bogdanova T.V., Maximova M.M., Malyshev L.I. & Yurtsev B.A.

Carex alticola, Saxifraga kruhsiana

Carex alticola (1) , Saxifraga kruhsiana (4)

Siplivinskiy V.N.

Carex karacolica, Oxytropis sumneviczii

Carex caucasica (3), Oxytropis sumneviczii (3)

Polozhiy A.V.

Carex ledebouriana

Carex ledebouriana (1)

Siplivinskiy V.N. in consultation with Busik V.V., Kashina L.I., Mikhalyova V.M., Penkovskaya E.F.

Luzula unalaschkensis ssp. kamtschadalorum

Luzula arcuata (1)

Ivanova M.M. in consultation with Siplivinskiy V.N.

Salix berberifolia ssp. berberifolia, S. berberifolia ssp. brayi, S. berberifolia ssp. fimbriata, S. berberifolia ssp. kamtschatica

Salix berberifolia ssp. berberifolia (3), S. myrsinites (3), S. fimbriata (1), S. kamtschatica (4)

Ivanova M.M., Gudoshnikov S.V. in consultation with Malyshev L.I. & Vodopyanova N.S.

Salix divaricata

Salix divaricata (3)

Ivanova M.M. in consultation with Vodopyanova N.S., Derviz-Sokolova T.G. & Malyshev L.I.

Salix jurtzevii, S. khokhrjakovii, Cardamine conferta, C. pedata, C. victoris, Arabis turczaninovii, Saxigraga redowskii, Oxytropis semiglobosa, Androsace gorodkovii, A. semiperennis, Taraxacum soczavai

Salix jurtzevii (2), S. khokhrjakovii (2), Corydalis gorodkovii (2), Cardamine conferta (2), C. pedata (4), C. victoris (2), Arabis turczaninovii (2), Saxifraga redofskyi (2), Oxytropis ajanensis ssp. semiglobosa (2), Androsace gorodkovii (2), A. semiperennis (2), Taraxacum soczavae (2)

Yurtsev B.A.

Salix rectijulis

Salix rectijulis (3)

Ivanova M.M., Gudoshnikov S.V. in consultation with Krasnoborov I.M. & Derviz-Sokolova T.G.

Salix sajanensis

Salix sajanensis (3)

Ivanova M.M. in consultation with Vodopyanova N.S. & Penkovskaya E.F.

Salix sphenophylla

Salix sphenophylla (1)

Petrovskiy V.V. & Taraskina N.N.

Salix tschuktschorum

Salix tschuktschorum (2)

Derviz-Sokolova T.G. in consultation with Taraskina N.N., Khokhryakov A.P. & Yurtsev B.A.

Salix turczanonowii

Salix turczanonowii (3)

Ivanova M.M., Krasnoborov I.M. in consultation with Malyshev L.I. & Siplivinskiy V.N.

Betula middendorffii

Betula middendorffii (1)

Ogureeva G.N.

Betula rotundifolia

Betula nana ssp. rotundifolia (3)

Vodopyanova N.S., Krasnoborov I.M in consultation with Goloskokov V.P., Ivanova M.M., Kashina L.I. & Malyshev L.I.

Claytonia acutifolia

Claytonia acutifolia (1)

Matveeva N.V., Volkova E.V. in consultation with Yurtsev B.A. & Taraskina N.N.

Claytonia arctica

Claytonia arctica (2)

Matveeva N.V. in consultation with Volkova E.V. & Yurtsev B.A.

Claytonia eschscholtzii

Claytonia eschscholtzii (1)

Matveeva N.V., Volkova E.V. in consultation with Taraskina N.N. & Yurtsev B.A.

Claytonia joanneana

Claytonia joanneana (1)

Matveeva N.V., Volkova E.V. in consultation with Krasnoborov I.M. & Malyshev L.I.

Claytoniella vassilievii

Claytonia vassilievii (2)

Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Petrovskiy V.V. & Taraskina N.N.

Stellaria fischeriana

Stellaria fischeriana (1)

Plieva T.V. & Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Sandomirskaya S.I.

Stellaria sibirica

Stellaria sibirica (4)

Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Khokhryakov A.P.

Arenaria redowskii, A. tschuktschorum

Arenaria redowskii (1), Eremogone tschuktschorum (2)

Petrovskiy V.V. & Taraskina N.N.

Silene chamarensis

Silene chamarensis (3)

Penkovskaya E.F., Siplivinskiy V.N. in consultation with Kashin L.I.

Silene paucifolia

Silene chamarensis ssp. paucifolia (1)

Matveeva N.V., Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Taraskina N.N.

Silene stenophylla

Silene stenophylla (1)

Matveeva N.V., Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Taraskina N.N. & Filipjeva E.O

Melandtium triste

Gastrolychnis tristis (3)

Bardunov L.V. in consultation with Penkovskaya E.F.

Gypsophila sambukii

Gypsophila sambukii (1)

Plieva T.V., Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Busik V.V., Petrochenko Yu.N. & Sandomirskaya S.I.

Gypsophila uralensis

Gypsophila uralensis (1)

Igoshina K.N. in consultation with Latsenkova A.N. & Storozhevaya M.M.

Gypsophila violaceae

Gypsophila violaceae (4)

Shreter A.I. in consultation with Khokhryakov A.P.

Trollius apertus

Trollius apertus (1)

Igoshina K.N. in consultation with Storozheva M.M.

Callianthemum isopyroides

Callianthemum isopyroides (3)

Vodopyanova N.S. in consultation with Malyshev L.I.

Callianthemum sajanense

Callianthemum sajanense (3)

Vodopyanova N.S. in consultation with Goloskokov V.P., Ivanova M.M., Kashina L.I., Krasnoborov I.M. & Malyshev L.I.

Schibateranthis sibirica

Eranthis sibirica (3)

Ivanova M.M. in consultation with Kransborov I.M.

Aquilegia borodinii

Aquilegia borodinii (3)

Vodopyanova N.S., Gudoshnikov S.V., Krasnoborov I.M., Penkovskaya E.F. in consultation with Kashina L.I. & Malyshev L.I.

Aconitum desoulavyi

Aconitum desoulavyi (4)

Gurzenkov N.N. & Gorovoy P.G.

Aconitum paskoi

Aconitum pascoi (3)

Krasnoborov I.M. in consultation with Penkovskaya E.F.

Aconitum sajanense

Aconitum sajanense (3)

Gudoshnikov S.V.

Anemone biarmiensis

Anemonastrum biarmiensis (1)

Igoshina K.N. in consultation with Storozhevaya M.M. & Laschenkova A.N.

Anemone sibirica

Anemonastrum sibiricum (1)

Siplivinskiy V.N. in consultation with Kiseleva A.A., Krasnoborov I.M., Pavlov E.I. & Yurtsev B.A.

Miyakea integrifolia

Miyakea integrifolia (4)

Gorovoy P.P., Gurzenkov N.N & Egorova E.M.

Oxygraphis glacialis

Oxygraphis glacialis (1)

Kiseleva A.A. in consultation with Korobkov A.A., Petrovskiy V.V., Taraskina N.N. & Yurtsev B.A.

Papaver canescens

Papaver canescens (3)

Vodopyanova N.S., Penkovskaya E.F. in consultation with Goloskokov V.P., Ivanova M.M., Malyshev L.I. & Siplivinskiy V.N.

Papaver nivale

Papaver nivale (2)

Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Khokhryakov A.P.

Dicentra peregrina

Dicentra peregrina (1)

Pimenov M.G. in consultation with Gorovoy P.P., Taraskina N.N. & Yurtsev B.A.

Corydalis arctica

Corydalis arctica (1)

Plieva T.V., Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Sandomirskaya S.I. & Taraskina N.N.

Corydalis pauciflora

Corydalis pauciflora (3)

Vodopyanova N.S., Krasnoborov I.M. in consultation with Goloskokov V.P., Ivanova M.M. & Malyshev L.I.

Macropodium nivale

Macropodium nivale (3)

Kiseleva A.A. in consultation with Polozhiy A.V.

Smelovskia inopinata, Crepis burejensis

Smelovskia inopinata (4), Crepis burejensis (4)

Gorovoy P.G.

Parrya grandiflora

Pachyneurum grandiflorum (3)

Gudoshnikov S.V.

Ermania parryoides

Ermania parryoides (1)

Taraskina N.N. & Yurtsev B.A.

Gorodkovia jacutica

Gorodkovia jacutica (2)

Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Galaktionova T.V. & Taraskina N.N.

Borodinia baicalensis

Borodinia baicalensis (3)

Petrochenko Yu.N.

Draba ochroleuca

Draba ochroleuca (1)

Malyshev L.I. in consultation with Vodopyanova N.S., Goloskokov V.P., Mikhalyova V.M., Taraskina N.N. & Tolmachev A.I.

Draba turczaninovii

Draba turczaninovii (3)

Malyshev L.I. in consultation with Vodopyanova N.S. & Penkovskaya E.F.

Rhodiola quadrifida

Rhodiola quadrifida (1)

Bardunov L.V. in consultation with Penkovskaya E.F. & Petrochenko Yu. N.

Bergenia crassifolia

Bergenia crassifolia (3)

Ivanova M.M. in consultation with Krasnoborov I.M., Vodopyanova N.S., Goloskokov V.P., Kashina L.I. & Malyshev L.I.

Bergenia pacifica

Bergenia pacifica (4)

Gorovoy P.G & Gurzenkov N.N.

Saxifraga algisii

Saxifraga algisii (1)

Petrochenko Yu. N. & Siplivinskiy V.N.

Saxifraga androsacea

Saxifraga androsacea (3)

Kiseleva A.A.

Saxifraga dahurica

Micranthes davurica (1)

Petrochenko Yu. N. in consultation with Siplivinskiy V.N., Taraskina N.N., Yurtzev B.A.

Saxifraga merkii

Saxifraga merkii (1)

Siplivinskiy V.N. in consultation with Kiseleva A.A., Yurtzev B.A.

Saxifraga melaleuca

Saxifraga melaleuca (3)

Petrochenko Yu. N., Krasnoborov I.M. in consultation with Siplivinskiy V.N.

Saxifraga multiflora

Saxifraga omolojensis (2)

Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Khokhryakov A.P., Voroshilov V.N., Petrovskiy V.V. & Taraskina N.N.

Saxifraga redowskiana

Saxifraga punctata (1)

Korobkov A.A., Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Gorovoy P.G & Khokhryakov A.P.

Saxifraga terektensis

Saxifraga terektensis (3)

Siplivinskiy V.N. in consultation with Kiseleva A.A., Penkovskaya E.F.

Ribes altissimum

Ribes altissimum (3)

Vodopyanova N.S. in consultation with Goloskokov V.P., Ivanova M.M., Kashina L.I. & Malyshev L.I.

Ribes fragrans

Ribes fragrans (1)

Siplivinskiy V.N. in consultation with Kiseleva A.A., Petrochenko Yu.N., Taraskina N.N., Khokhryakov A.P. & Yurtsev B.A.

Ribes graveolens

Ribes graveolens (3)

Vodopyanova N.S., Gudoshnikov S.V. & Krasnoborov I.M.

Potentilla altaica, Saussurea poljakovii

Potentilla altaica (3), Saussurea poljakowii (3)

Vodopyanova N.S.

Potentilla biflora

Potentilla biflora (1)

Busik V.V. in consultation with Taraskina N.N. & Yurtsev B.A.

Potentilla elegans

Potentilla elegans (1)

Petrovskiy V.V., Taraskina N.N. in consultation with Krasnoborov I.M. & Malyshev L.I.

Sieversia pentapetala, S. pusilla

Sieversia pentapetala (4), S. pusilla (1)

Rebristaya O.V.

Novosieversia glacialis

Acomastylis glacialis (1)

Rebristaya O.V. in consultation with Vodopyanova N.S., Malyshev L.I., Petrochenko Yu. N. & Taraskina N.N.

Dryas crenulata

Dryas crenulata (1)

Plieva T.V., Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Galaktionova T.B., Sandomirskaya S.I. & Taraskina N.N.

Dryas grandis

Dryas grandis (1)

Plieva T.V., Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Bylova T.V., Kiseleva A.A., Sandomirskaya S.I. & Taraskina N.N.

Dryas oxyodonta

Dryas oxyodonta (3)

Malyshev L.I. in consultation with Vodopyanova N.S., Goloskokov V.P., Kashina L.I., Krasnoborov I.M.& Polozhiy A.V.

Dryas tschonoskii

Dryas tschonoskii (4)

Gorovoy P.G. in consultation with Egorova E.M. & Voroshilov V.N.

Sanguisorba alpina

Sanguisorba alpina (3)

Kiseleva A.A. in consultation with Kashina L.I., Goloskokov V.P., Krasnoborov I.M. & Polozhiy A.V.

Rosa sichotealinensis, Oxytropis ajanensis

Rosa sichotealinensis (4), Oxytropis ajanensis (4)

Gorovoy P.G. & Gurzenkov N.N.

Trifolium eximium

Trifolium eximium (1)

Ivanova M.M., Krasnoborov I.M., Polozhiy A.V. in consultation with Vodopyanova N.S.

Astragalus saralensis

Astragalus saralensis (3)

Malyshev L.I. in consultation with Vodopyanova N.S., Penkovskaya E.F.

Oxytropis altaica

Oxytropis altaica (3)

Ivanova M.M., Polozhiy A.V. in consultation with Krasnoborov I.M.

Oxytropis heterotricha, O. kodarensis

Oxytropis heterotricha (3), O. kodarensis (3)

Malyshev L.I. & Yurtsev B.A.

Oxytropis mertensiana

Oxytropis mertensiana (1)

Plieva T.V. in consultation with Bylova T.V., Sandomirskaya S.I. & Yurtsev B.A.

Oxytropis nigrescens

Oxytropis nigrescens (1)

Plieva T.V., Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Bylova T.V., Sandomirskaya S.I. & Tolmachev A.I.

Oxytropis ochotensis

Oxytropis ochotensis (2)

Taraskina N.N., Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Khokhryakov A.P.

Hedysarum inundatum

Hedysarum inundatum (3)

Ivanova M.M. in consultation with Vodopyanova N.S. & Taraskina N.I.

Linum boreale

Linum boreale (1)

Igoshina K.N.

Bupleurum euphorbiodes, B. triradiatum, Primula cuneifolia

Bupleurum euphorbiodes (4), B. triradiatum (1), Primula cuneifolia (1)

Gorovoy P.G.

Bupleurum martjanovii

Bupleurum martjanovii (3)

Krasnoborov I.M. in consultation with Gudoshnikov S.V.

Libanotis monstrosa

Sajanella monstrosa (3)

Gudoshnikov S.V.

Schultzia crinita

Schultzia crinita (3)

Busik V.V. in consultation with Gudoshnikov S.V. & Krasnoborov I.M.

Tilingia ajanensis

Tilingia ajanensis (1)

Belyj N.F., Gorovoy P.G., Pimenov M.G.. in consultation with Tikhomirov V.N.

Lithosciadium multicaule

Lithosciadium multicaule (3)

Ivanova M.M. & Siplivinskiy V.N.

Ligusticum mongolicum

Hansenia mongolica (3)

Busik V.V. & Pimenov M.G.

Conioselinum victoris

Magadania victoris (4)

Gorovoy P.G. & Belyj N.F.

Angelica saxatilis

Angelica saxatilis (1)

Pimenov M.G.

Phlojodicarpus villosus

Phlojodicarpus villosus (1)

Pimenov M.G. in consultation with Gorovoy P.G. & Taraskina N.N.

Phlojodicarpus eryngiifolium

Kitagawia eryngiifolia (4)

Gorovoy P.G. in consultation with Sakhno V.G.

Rhododendron adamsii

Rhododendron adamsii (1)

Ivanova M.M., Krasnoborov I.M. in consultation with Galaktionova T.F., Mikhalyova V.M. & Plieva T.V.

Rhododendron aureum

Rhododendron aureum (1)

Krasnoborov I.M. in consultation with Busik V.V., Gorovoy P.G., Kashina L.I., Mikhalyova V.M. & Taraskina N.N.

Rhododendron redowskianum

Rhododendron redowskianum (1)

Siplivinskiy V.N. in consultation with Busik V.V., Mikhalyova V.M., Taraskina N.N. & Yurtsev B.A.

Phyllodoce aleutica

Phyllodoce aleutica (4)

Gorovoy P.G. in consultation with Voroshilova V.N. & Egorova E.M.

Bryanthus gmelinii, Arcterica nana, Campanula chamissonis, Popoviocodonia stenocarpa, P. uyemurae

Bryanthus gmelinii (4), Arcterica nana (4), Campanula chamissonis (4), Popoviocodonia stenocarpa (4), Campanula uyemurae (4)

Shreter A.I.

Cassiope lycopodiodes

Cassiope lycopodiodes (4)

Pimenov M.G. in consultation with Gorovoy P.G.

Cassiope redowskii

Cassiope redowskii (4)

Pimenov M.G.

Diapensia obovata

Diapensia obovata (1)

Siplivinskiy V.N. in consultation with Busik V.V., Mikhalyova B.M. & Taraskina N.N.

Androsace ochotensis

Androsace ochotensis (2)

Petrovskiy V.V. & Taraskina N.N.

Gentiana falcata

Comastoma falcatum (3)

Vodopyanova N.S. in consultation with Goloskokov V.P.

Gentiana grandiflora

Ciminalis grandiflora (3)

Bardunov L.V. in consultation with Krasnoborov I.M. & Petrochenko Yu.N.

Gentiana uniflora

Calathiana uniflora (1)

Vodopyanova N.S. in consultation with Goloskokov V.P., Kashina L.I. & Malyshev L.I.

Swertia komarovii

Swertia komarovii (3)

Ivanova M.M. in consultation with Vodopyanova N.S.

Polemonium pulchellum, Mertensia stylosa

Polemonium pulchellum (3), Mertensia stylosa (3)

Ivanova M.M. in consultation with Krasnoborov I.M.

Mertensia rivularis

Mertensia rivularis (4)

Shreter A.I. in consultation with Krasnoborov I.M.

Dracocephalum popovii

Dracocephalum popovii (3)

Busik V.V. & Siplivinskiy V.N.

Phlomis koraiensis

Phlomis koraiensis (4)

Gorovoy P.G & Gurzenkov N.N.

Veronica sajanensis

Veronica sajanensis (3)

Krasnoborov I.M. in consultation with Kashina L.I.

Pedicularis adamsii

Pedicularis alopecuroides (1)

Vodopyanova N.S. in consultation with Malyshev L.I., Mikhalyova V.M., Taraskina N.N. & Yurtsev B.A.

Pedicularis amoena

Pedicularis amoena (1)

Plieva T.V., Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Busik V.V., Ivanina L.I. & Sandomirskaya S.I.

Pedicularis arguserrata

Pedicularis anthemifolia (3)

Krasnoborov I.M. in consultation with Kashina L.I. & Malyshev L.I.

Pedicularis brachystachys

Pedicularis brachystachys (3)

Gudoshnikov S.V. in consultation with Malyshev L.I.

Pedicularis compacta

Pedicularis compacta (1)

Vodopyanova N.S. in consultation with Goloskokov V.P., Ivanova M.M., Kashina L.I., Krasnoborov I.M., Malyshev L.I. & Storozhevaya M.M.

Pedicularis eriophora

Pedicularis eriophora (4)

Plieva T.V. & Yurtsev B.A.

Pedicularis fissa

Pedicularis fissa (3)

Vodopyanova N.S. in consultation with Ivanova M.M., Kashina L.I., Krasnoborov I.M. & Malyshev L.I.

Pedicularis tristis

Pedicularis tristis (1)

Vodopyanova N.S. in consultation with Goloskokov V.P., Gorovoy P.G., Ivanova M.M., Kashina L.I., Malyshev L.I., Mikhalyova V.M., Penkovskaya E.F., Plieva T.V. & Yurtsev B.A.

Valeriana turczaninowii

Valeriana altaica (3)

Ivanova M.M., Penkovskaya E.F., Siplivinskiy V.N. in consultation with Kashina L.I.

Campanula dasyantha

Campanula dasyantha (1)

Vodopyanova N.S. in consultation with Galaktionova G.F., Gorovoy P.G., Ivanova M.M., Kashina L.I., Krasnoborov I.M. & Malyshev L.I.

Astrocodon expansus

Astrocodon expansus (4)

Shreter A.I. in consultation with Gorovoy P.G., Taraskina N.N. & Yurtsev B.A.

Erigeron flaccidus

Erigeron flaccidus (1)

Vodopyanova N.S. in consultation with Ivanova M.M., Malyshev L.I., Penkovskaya E.F. & Petrochenko Yu.N.

Pyrethrum pulchellum

Pyrethrum pulchellum (3)

Vodopyanova N.S., Gudoshnikov S.V. in consultation with Ivanova M.M., Kashina L.I. & Krasnoborov I.M.

Artemisia flava

Artemisia flava (2)

Korobkov A.A.

Artemisia furcata

Artemisia furcata (1)

Plieva T.V., Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Galaktionova G.F., Korobkov A.A. & Sandomirskaya S.I.

Artemisia glomerata

Artemisia glomerata (1)

Pimenov M.G.

Artemisia kruhsiana, A. senjavinensis

Artemisia kruhsiana (2), A. senjavinensis (2)

Korobkov A.A.

Artemisia lagopus

Artemisia lagopus (1)

Plieva T.V., Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Galaktionova G.F., Korobkov A.A. & Sandomirskaya S.I.

Nardosmia glacialis, N. gmelinii

Petasites glacialis (2), P. sibiricus (2)

Petrovskiy V.V. & Taraskina N.N.

Nardosmia saxatilis

Petasites rubellus (1)

Krasnoborov I.M. in consultation with Kashina L.I. & Kiseleva A.A.

Senecio jacuticus

Tephroseris jacutica (1)

Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Gorovoy P.G, Kiseleva A.A., Malyshev L.I., Mikhalyova V.M. & Khokhryakov A.P.

Aconitum sichotense, Senecio sichotensis, Lugularia sichotensis, Saussurea ajanensis, S. porcellanea, S. sovietica, Hieracium coreanum

Aconitum sichotense (4), Tephroseris sichotensis (4), Lugularia sichotensis (4), Saussurea ajanensis (4), S. porcellanea (4), S. sovietica (4), Hieracium coreanum (4)

Gurzenkov N.N. & Gorovoy P.G.

Senecio tuczaninovii

Tephroseris turczaninovii (3)

Vodopyanova N.S. in consultation with Ivanova M.M., Krasnoborov I.M. & Malyshev L.I.

Saussurea baicalensis

Saussurea baicalensis (3)

Vodopyanova N.S., Ivanova M.M. & Malyshev L.I.

Saussurea congesta

Saussurea congesta (3)

Vodopyanova N.S. in consultation with Ivanova M.M., Kashina L.I., Krasnoborov I.M. & Malyshev L.I.

Saussurea frolovii, S. sajanensis, Taraxacum altaicum

Saussurea frolovii (3), S. sajanensis (3), Taraxacum altaicum (3)

Gudoshnikov S.V.

Saussurea latifolia

Saussurea latifolia (3)

Gudoshnikov S.V., Vodopyanova N.S., Krasnoborov I.M. in consultation with Goloskokov V.P., Ivanova M.M. & Kashina L.I.

Saussurea schanginiana

Saussurea schanginiana (1)

Vodopyanova N.S. in consultation with Goloskokov V.P., Ivanova M.M., Kashina L.I., Krasnoborov I.M., Malyshev L.I., Mikhalyova V.M. & Yurtsev B.A.

Saussurea uralensis

Saussurea uralensis (1)

Igoshina K.N. in consultation with Storozhevaya M.M.

Taraxacum glabrum

Taraxacum glabrum (3)

Malyshev L.I. in consultation with Vodopyanova N.S., Goloskokov V.P. & Krasnoborov I.M.

Crepis chrysantha

Crepis chrysantha (1)

Krasnoborov I.M. in consultation with Kashina L.I., Kiseleva A.A.

Crepis gmelinii

Crepis gmelinii (1)

Yurtsev B.A. in consultation with Galaktionova T.V.

Figure 1.  

Example of the distribution map scan – Artemisia kruhsiana.

Figure 2.  

Example of the distribution map scan – Bergenia crassifolia.

Project description

Title: 

№ 121030900138-8 «Biota of terrestrial ecosystems of Baikal Region: composition, structure, eco-geographic patterns»

Personnel: 

Elena Brianskaia, Denis Sandanov

Study area description: 

Baikal Region, Russia

Design description: 

The project carries out studies in different disciplines: flora and plant taxonomy, plant biology and population ecology, vegetation of Baikal Region, fauna and ecology of insects, ecology and geography of vertebrates.

Funding: 

Russian Federal Budget

Sampling methods

Study extent: 

Northern Asia is an extensive area, stretching from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east; from the Arctic Ocean in the north to Central and East Asia in the south. According to Malyshev (Malyshev 1979), there are nine areas with alpine flora which includes mountains of Russian Far East, south-eastern Siberia, Ural and Putorana (Fig. 3).

Figure 3.  

The territory of northern Asia and areas with alpine flora (Malyshev 1979): У – Urals; П – Putorana Plateau; З – the western part of Verkhoyano-Kolymskaya mountain range; В – the eastern part of Verkhoyano-Kolymskaya mountain range; К – Kamchatka; Ю – Southern Siberia and Mongolia; С – Stanovoy highlands; О – Priokhotskiy highlands: Stanovoy, Dzhugzhur, Ezop mountain ranges etc.; Д – the southern part of Russian Far East: Primor’e and Sakhalin.

Figure 4.  

Geographic coverage of distribution records.

Sampling description: 

In total, 231 maps were scanned from the atlas Endemic Alpine Plants of Northern Asia (Vodopyanova et al. 1974). All maps were adjusted to the same size and horizontal position in order to obtain standardised images of the maps. Digitalisation was performed in QGIS 3.10 software by means of a georeferencing tool. Source raster distribution maps were georeferenced by snapping control points to the destination vector shapefile, which, in our case, was the border of Russia. This transformed all the maps to the WGS84 spatial projection. Subsequently, species distribution locations were digitised from each map. Coordinates of each location were calculated by QGIS and displayed in the attribute table.

Quality control: 

Final examination of the digitised species distribution maps was performed in QGIS 3.10. This step took most of the time and efforts in the entire digitising process. Each digitised map was compared to the original print map and the habitat of each digitised record compared with the habitat characteristics and geographic range of the species concerned reported in literature. Major sources for this part of the review were the Flora of Siberia (Krasnoborov et al. 1997, Lomonosova et al. 1992, Malyshev et al. 1990, Peshkova et al. 1994, Peshkova et al. 1990, Pimenov et al. 1996, Polozhiy et al. 1994, Polozhiy et al. 1996, Timokhina et al. 1993, Vlasova et al. 1987, Vydrina et al. 1998, Doronkin et al. 1997, Kashina et al. 1988) and Vascular Plants of Soviet Far East (Kharkevich 1985, Kharkevich 1987, Kharkevich 1988, Kharkevich 1989, Kharkevich 1991, Kharkevich 1992, Kharkevich 1995, Kharkevich 1996). Almost all (97%) of the digitised maps were consistent with the printed maps. Those that were not included records from near the ocean and in the Far East. They were manually adjusted to match the printed maps. For example, such records were adjusted for Betula middendorffii for which distribution goes along the sea of Okhotsk (Figs 5, 6, 7, 8). оклонения от речной сети размер точек

Figure 5.  

Betula middendorffii distribution map scan.

Figure 6.  

Georeferencing of Betula middendorfii distribution map in QGIS 3.10.

Figure 7.  

The example of Betula middendorffii distribution records being digitised out of the shapefile in QGIS 3.10.

Figure 8.  

The result of Betula middendorffii distribution records adjusted by reference to their original location in QGIS 3.10.

Coordinate uncertainty in metres was calculated, based on three types of uncertainties (Chapman and Wieczorek 2020). The first type is the coordinate uncertainty of the species occurrence from the herbarium locality description. As mentioned earlier, the maps in the atlas were drawn, based on the herbaria specimen. In order to test this type of coordinate uncertainty, the occurrence dataset from the Moscow University Herbarium (MW) was used as the reference (Seregin 2021). A total of 1500 random occurrences from the Asian part of Russia were taken from MW herabrium and analysed. Generally, the coordinate uncertainty for all analysed occurrences ranges from 0.1 to 60 km. All the data were divided in three random groups by 500 occurrences. The mean coordinate uncertainty for each group equals to 3.86, 5.66 and 2.96 km. Thus, the mean value amongst these three groups was close to 4 km. Based on this result, we established approximately 5 km as the coordinate uncertainty.

The second type is the coordinate uncertainty of the drawn maps. The endemic plants of the northern Asia atlas includes four types of maps: a) for the entire northern Asia; b) for northern Asia from 1200 to 1700 E; c) for south Siberia from 750 to 1200 E; d) for Far East including Kamchatka Peninsula, Sakhalin Island and Kuril Islands. The coordinate uncertainty of distribution records on each type of the map varies due to its scale. The calculation of coordinate uncertainty of the drawn maps was performed by measuring the distance between species distribution records and the closest river drainage in QGIS 3.10. River drainage was crucial in Soviet botanical mapping as it was used as the reliable feature for species occurrence location. In order to calculate the average coordinate uncertainty, each distance was summarised and divided by the number of measurements. Thus, a) 30 km is the uncertainty for distribution records of the entire northern Asia maps; b) 25 km for the northern Asia maps from 1200 to 1700 E; c) 20 km for the south Siberia maps from 750 to 1200 E; d) 15 km for the Far East maps including Kamchatka Peninsula, Sakhalin Island and Kuril Islands.

The third type is the coordinate uncertainty of the map digitalisation in QGIS 3.10. To test the coordinate uncertainty of the map digitalisation, three experts independently performed it on their computers for each of four types of the maps. As a result, the coordinate uncertainty was less than 5 km in all cases in all types of the maps by three experts.

The final coordinate uncertainty was calculated by summariing all three above-mentioned uncertainties for four types of maps.

Geographic coverage

Description: 

The majority of the records were located within Russia (12762 records – 93.1%; Fig. 4), but a few came from other countries: Mongolia (440 records – 3.2%), Kazakhstan (414 records – 3%), China (58 records – 0.4%), Japan (16 records – 0.1%), USA, Alaska (12 records – 0.1%) and Kyrgyzstan (7 records – 0.05%).

Coordinates: 

38.723405 and 77.563972 Latitude; 179.986717 and -179.985022 Longitude.

Taxonomic coverage

Description: 

In total, the dataset includes 231 species with 13709 distribution records from 31 families and 106 genera. The top 10 families hold 64% (8783 records) of the total number of endemic alpine species distribution records (Table 2). Additionally, a number of species distribution records were compiled for each species (Table 3). There are 44 species with distribution records > 10; 31 species > 20; 29 species >30; 32 species > 50; 46 species > 100; 49 species < 100.

Table 2.

Taxonomic distribution of endemic alpine species of northern Asia in the dataset. Families are listed in descending order of the number of species.

Family

Num. of species

Num. of records

1

Asteraceae Bercht. & J. Presl

37

2054

2

Fabaceae Lindl.

17

484

3

Poaceae Barnhart

16

579

4

Saxifragaceae Juss.

16

860

5

Brassicaceae Burnett

14

396

6

Salicaceae Mirb.

14

978

7

Ranunculaceae Juss.

13

725

8

Rosaceae Juss.

12

854

9

Apiaceae Lindl.

11

958

10

Caryophyllaceae Juss.

11

895

11

Scrophulariaceae Juss.

9

721

12

Ericaceae Juss.

8

735

13

Cyperaceae Juss.

6

424

14 Papaveraceae 6 387

15

Campanulaceae Juss.

5

200

16

Gentianaceae Juss.

5

298

17

Portulacaceae Juss.

5

317

18

Primulaceae Batsch ex Borkh.

4

137

19

Grossulariaceae D.C.

3

249

20

Lamiaceae Martinov

3

39

21

Betulaceae Gray

2

595

22

Boraginaceae Juss.

2

49

23

Crassulaceae J.St.-Hil.

2

131

24

Cupressaceae Gray

2

206

25

Lentibulariaceae Rich.

2

47

26

Pteridaceae E.D. M. Kirchn.

1

28

27

Diapensiaceae Lindl.

1

213

28

Juncaceae Juss.

1

59

29

Linaceae DC. ex Perleb

1

22

30

Polemoniaceae Juss.

1

27

31

Valerianaceae Batsch

1

42

Table 3.

Species and its number of distribution records in the dataset. Species records are listed in descending order.

Betula middendorffii

415

Artemisia glomerata

103

Paracolpodium altaicum

57

Rhododendron aureum

401

Rhodiola quadrifida

103

Salix sajanensis

56

Schulzia crinita

306

Ribes altissimum

103

Tephroseri s jacutica

56

Anemonastrum sibiricum

290

Salix tschuktschorum

103

Salix torulosa

55

Silene chamarensis

276

Dryas grandis

102

Taraxacum glabrum

55

Crepis chrysantha

239

Corydalis arctica

101

Saxifraga terektensis

54

Pedicularis amoena

220

Oxytropis nigrescens

96

Poa pseudoabbreviata

53

Diapensia obovata

213

Hedysarum inundatum

93

Crepis polytricha

52

Carex ledebouriana

209

Silene chamarensis ssp. paucifolia

91

Callianthemum isopyroides

51

Bergenia crassifolia

204

Corydalis pauciflora

90

Oxytropis altaica

50

Salix sphenophylla

191

Dicentra peregrina

90

Saxifraga androsacea

50

Betula rotundifolia

180

Leymus interior

90

Trifolium eximium

49

Juniperus pseudosabina

179

Claytonia joanneana

88

Saxifraga algizii

49

Acomastylis glacialis

171

Petasites glacialis

86

Primula cuneifolia

47

Pedicularis compacta

164

Poa altaica

86

Salix fimbriata

47

Potentilla elegans

161

Oxygraphis glacialis

85

Draba ochroleuca

46

Tilingia ajanensis

160

Papaver canescens

85

Salix nasarovii

46

Petasites sibiricus

139

Stellaria fischeriana

85

Ermania parryoides

45

Artemisia furcata

136

Saussurea congesta

83

Gorodkovia jacutica

44

Ciminalis grandiflora

135

Gypsophila uralensis

81

Hyalopoa lanatiflora

43

Claytonia acutifolia

135

Artemisia kruhsiana

77

Pedicularis anthemifolia

43

Fornicium carthamoides

135

Gastrolychnis tristis

76

Pedicularis fissa

43

Macropodium nivale

132

Saxifraga merkii

75

Valeriana altaica

42

Bupleurum triradiatum

130

Hansenia mongolica

74

Sieversia pentapetala

41

Rhododendron adamsii

129

Tephroseris turczaninovii

74

Sieversia pusilla

41

Salix rectijulis

125

Eremogone tschuktschorum

73

Pedicularis brachystachys

40

Salix turczaninowii

125

Saxifraga punctata

73

Lithosciadium multicaule

39

Phlojodicarpus villosus

124

Rhododendron redowskianum

72

Taraxacum altaicum

39

Campanula dasyantha

121

Sajanella monstrosa

72

Aquilegia borodinii

37

Eriophorum humile

117

Pyrethr um pulchellum

70

Helictotrichon mongolicum

37

Sanguisorba alpina

116

Angelica saxatilis

69

Oxytropis kusnetzovii

37

Saussurea schanginiana

115

Callianthemum sajanense

65

Ribes graveolens

36

Salix divaricata

114

Potentilla biflora

65

Salix brayi

36

Saussurea latifolia

114

Saxifraga redofskyi

65

Saussurea frolowii

36

Pedicularis tristis

113

Androsace ochotensis

64

Trollius apertus

36

Silene stenophylla

112

Artemisia lagopus

63

Draba turczaninowii

35

Anemonastrum biarmiensis

111

Scirpus maximowiczii

61

Aconitum pascoi

33

Calanthiana uniflora

110

Claytonia arctica

60

Saussurea baicalensis

33

Dryas oxyodonta

110

Salix berberifolia

60

Saussurea poljakowii

32

Ribes fragrans

110

Gypsophila sambukii

59

Saxifraga davurica

32

Saxifraga melaleuca

110

Luzula arcuata

59

Pinguicula spathulata

31

Petasites rubellus

105

Cassiope lycopodioides

58

Bryanthus gmelinii

30

Erigeron flaccidus

104

Pedicularis alopecuroides

58

Claytonia eschscholitzii

30

Dracocephalum fragile

30

Chrysosplenium peltatum

17

Oxytropis heterotricha

7

Mertensia stylo sa

30

Draba pygmaea

17

Aconitum desoulavyi

6

Ptilagrostis junatovii

30

Kitagawia eryngiifolia

17

Magadania victoris

6

Oxytropis ochotensis

29

Saxifraga kruhsiana

17

Swertia baicalensis

6

Saxifraga brachypetala

29

Festuca chionobia

16

Taraxacum soczavae

6

Campanula chamissonis

28

Kreczetoviczia uniflora

16

Cardamine pedata

5

Cryptogramma raddeana

28

Pinguicula algida

16

Dracocephalum popovii

5

Eranthis sibirica

28

Poa ircutica

16

Salix khokhrjakovii

5

Rhodiola pinnatifida

28

Chrysosplenium alberti

15

Poa ivanoviae

4

Crepis gmelinii

27

Koeleria geniculata

15

Phlomis koraiensis

4

Microbiota decussata

27

Pedicularis eriophora

15

Cardamine conferta

4

Polemonium pulchellum

27

Potentilla altaica

15

Claytonia vassilievii

4

Saxifraga multiflora

27

Phyllodoce aleutica

14

Crepis burejensis

4

Bupleurum matrjanovii

26

Salix kamtschatica

13

Miyakea integrifolia

4

Comastoma falcatum

26

Borodinia baicalensis

12

Oxytropis ajanensis ssp. semiglobosa

4

Astragalus saralensis

25

Arcterica nana

12

Oxytropis kodarensis

4

Astrocodon expansus

25

Arenaria redowskii

12

Oxytropis oxyphylloides

4

Veronica sajanensis

25

Cardamine victoris

12

Oxytropis sumneviczii

3

Androsace gorodkovii

24

Oxytropis sajanensis

12

Aconitum sichotense

3

Chrysosplenium baicalense

23

Saussurea uralensis

12

Artemisia flava

3

Gypsophila violacea

23

Arabis turczaninowii

11

Delphinium sajanense

3

Helictotrichon krylovii

23

Corydalis gorodkovii

11

Ligularia sichotensis

3

Oxytropis mertensiana

23

Oxytropis jurtzevii

11

Saussurea porcellanea

3

Pachyneurum grandiflorum

23

Saussurea squarrosa

11

Tephroseris sichotensis

3

Linum boreale

22

Artemisia senjavinensis

10

Rosa sichotealinensis

2

Swertia komarovii

21

Papaver nivale

10

Androsace semiperennis

2

Dryas crenulata

21

Dryas tschonoskii

9

Hieracium coreanum

2

Bergenia pacifica

20

Aconitum sajanense

9

Salix jurtzevii

2

Carex alticola

20

Bupleurum euphorbioides

9

Saussurea sovietica

2

Pyrethrum lanuginosum

20

Koeleria atroviolacea

9

Smelowskia inopinata

2

Cassiope redowskii

19

Elymus sajanensis

8

Carex caucasica

1

Mertensia rivularis

19

Eutrema edwardsii

8

Oxytropis ajanensis

1

Popoviocodonia stenocarpa

19

Stellaria sibirica

7

Saussurea ajanensis

1

Festuca sichotensis

18

Campanula uyemurae

7

Saussurea sajanensis

1

Total number of records: 13709

Temporal coverage

Notes: 

Dates of records range from 1913 to 1972 and were published in 1974.

Usage licence

Usage licence: 
Creative Commons Public Domain Waiver (CC-Zero)
IP rights notes: 

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 Licence.

Data resources

Data package title: 
Endemic Alpine Plants of Northern Asia
Alternative identifiers: 
Number of data sets: 
1
Data set name: 
Endemic Alpine Plants of Northern Asia
Data format: 
Darwin Core
Data format version: 
1.0
Description: 

We describe a dataset providing information on the geographic distribution of northern Asian endemic alpine plants. It was obtained by digitising maps from the atlas “Endemic alpine species of Northern Asia” (1974). The dataset includes 13709 species distribution records, representing 211 species from 31 families and 106 genera. Each record provides data regarding the distribution of an individual species.

Column label Column description
eventDate The date-time or interval during which an Event occurred. For occurrences, this is the date-time when the event was recorded. Not suitable for a time in a geological context. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/eventDate
eventRemarks Comments or notes about the Event. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/eventRemarks
type The nature or genre of the resource. http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/type
continent The name of the continent in which the Location occurs. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/continent
acceptedNameUsage The full name, with authorship and date information if known, of the currently valid (zoological) or accepted (botanical) taxon in the online version. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/acceptedNameUsage
scientificName The full scientific name as in the "Endemic alpine plants of Northern Asia" 1974. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/scientificName
occurrenceID An identifier for the Occurrence (as opposed to a particular digital record of the occurrence). In the absence of a persistent global unique identifier, construct one from a combination of identifiers in the record that will most closely make the occurrenceID globally unique. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/occurrenceID
kingdom The full scientific name of the kingdom in which the taxon is classified. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/kingdom
phylum The full scientific name of the phylum or division in which the taxon is classified. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/phylum
class The full scientific name of the class in which the taxon is classified. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/class
order The full scientific name of the order in which the taxon is classified. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/order
family The full scientific name of the family in which the taxon is classified. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/family
genus The full scientific name of the genus in which the taxon is classified as in the "Endemic alpine plants of Northern Asia" 1974. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/genus
specificEpithet The name of the first or species epithet of the scientificName as in the "Endemic alpine plants of Northern Asia" 1974. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/specificEpithet
taxonRank The taxonomic rank of the most specific name in the scientificName. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/taxonRank
decimalLatitude The geographic latitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic centre of a Location. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLatitude
decimalLongitude The geographic longitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic centre of a Location. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLongitude
geodeticDatum The ellipsoid, geodetic datum or spatial reference system (SRS) upon which the geographic coordinates given in decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude are based. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/geodeticDatum
coordinateUncertaintyInMetres The horizontal distance (in metres) from the given decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude describing the smallest circle containing the whole of the Location.http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/coordinateUncertaintyInMeters
verbatimCoordinateSystem The coordinate format for the verbatimLatitude and verbatimLongitude or the verbatimCoordinates of the Location. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/verbatimCoordinateSystem
georeferencedBy A list (concatenated and separated) of names of people, groups or organisations who determined the georeference (spatial representation) for the Location. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/georeferencedBy
higherGeography A list (concatenated and separated) of geographic names less specific than the information captured in the locality term. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/higherGeography
country The name of the country or major administrative unit in which the Location occurs. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/country
countryCode The standard code for the country in which the Location occurs. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/countryCode
language A language of the resource. http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/language
licence A legal document giving official permission to do something with the resource. http://purl.org/dc/terms/license
associatedReferences A list (concatenated and separated) of identifiers (publication, bibliographic reference, global unique identifier, URI) of literature associated with the Occurrence. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/associatedReferences
basisOfREcords The specific nature of the data record. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/basisOfRecord
infraspecificEpithet The name of the lowest or terminal infraspecific epithet of the scientificName as in the "Endemic alpine plants of Northern Asia" 1974. http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/infraspecificEpithet

Acknowledgements

The research was funded by the Russian Federal Budget (project number 121030900138-8) and partially by RFBR (project numbers 19-54-53014 and 20-45-380009).

References