Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic Paper
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Taxonomic Paper
An annotated checklist of the Pyralidae of the region of Murcia (Spain) with new records, distribution and biological data (Lepidoptera, Pyraloidea, Pyralidae)
expand article infoManuel J. Garre, John Girdley, Juan J Guerrero, Rosa M. Rubio, Antonio S. Ortiz
‡ Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain
Open Access

Abstract

Background

The Murcia Region (south-eastern Iberian Peninsula) has a great diversity of Lepidopteran fauna, as a zoogeographical crossroads and biodiversity hotspot with more than 850 butterflies and moth species recorded.

New information

In the present paper, based on an examination of museum specimens, published records and new samples, a comprehensive and critical species list of Pyralidae moths (Lepidoptera, Pyraloidea) is synthesised. In total, three subfamilies, 67 genera and 142 species have been recorded and these are listed, along with their collection, literature references and biological data, including chorotype, voltinism and the flight period in the study area. The subfamilies are Galleriinae, Phycitinae and Pyralinae. Seventy-three species are newly recorded, sixty-two species are confirmed from literature and only seven species have not been observed for the Murcia Region.

Keywords

Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, checklist, chorology, distribution, new records, phenology, Iberian Peninsula

Introduction

The Pyralidae, belonging to the superfamily Pyraloidea, are mainly nocturnal micromoths (Microlepidoptera) with an estimated 6,000 named species worldwide, of which the European fauna is represented by ca. 470 species (Leraut 2014). In the Iberian Peninsula, 262 species have been recorded (Vives-Moreno 2014). The two main evolutionary lineages within Pyraloidea, Pyralidae and Crambidae, are monophyletically distinguished by the morphology of tympanal organs (Minet 1982, Minet 1983, Slamka 2006). Pyralidae are characterised by the forewing venation with R5 stalked or fused with R3+4 and without oval sclerotisation costad on the base of vein A; presence of paired tympanal organs situated ventrally in the second abdominal segment with tympanum and conjunctivum in the same plane; tympanal chamber cephalad closed and accessory tympana absent in metathorax; lobulus and praecinctorium are absent; male genitalia with uncus arms; and segment A8 of larvae almost always with sclerotised ring around base of seta SD1 (Goater et al. 2005, Slamka 2006).

The Pyralidae of Europe have been relatively well studied, although there is a need for further investigation on habitus and distribution. The Southern European and, especially, Iberian species are poorly recorded and more precise data are necessary for the production of distribution maps. Historically, the first pyralid moth recorded and described from the Murcia Region was Hypotia miegi (Ragonot 1895) and, later on, Hypotia leucographalis (Hampson 1900) was also described. Caradja (1910) recorded Acrobasis centunculella (Mann), Acrobasis obliqua (Zeller), Amphithrix sublineatella (Staudinger), Epischnia illotella Zeller, Homoeosoma nebulella (Denis & Schiffermüller), Homoeosoma sinuella (Fabricius) and Pterothrixidia rufella (Duponchel) and Zerny (1914) described Aphomia murciella from Sierra Espuña and recorded Alophia combustella (Herrich-Schäffer), Asalebria florella (Mann), Assara conicolella (Constant), Dioryctria sylvestrella (Ratzeburg), Ephestia welseriella (Zeller), Euzophera lunulella (O. Costa), Psorosa mediterranella Amsel, Aglossa brabanti Ragonot, Loryma egregialis (Herrich-Schaffer) and Stemmatophora vulpecalis Ragonot. Subsequently, Caradja (1916) confirmed Aphomia murciella Zerny and recorded Eurhodope cruentella (Duponchel), Stemmatophora gadesialis Ragonot and Synaphe diffidalis (Guenée). Schmidt (1934) described Asalebria pseudoflorella from Sierra Espuña, considered as a subspecies of A. ferruginella (Zerny) at the present time.

Later, Agenjo (1948) described, also from Sierra Espuña, Epischnia peroni, currently synonymised with Epischnia asteris (Staudinger) and E. prodromella (Hübner) and E. illotella (Zeller) were recorded for the first time, while Agenjo (1952) recorded Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière) and Pempelia palumbella (Denis & Schiffermüller) amongst others, although Coenochroa ablutella (Zeller) and Homoeosoma nimbella (Duponchel) (cited as Homoeosoma subalbatella Mann) have not been collected during the present study. Subsequently, Amsel (1955) described, also from Sierra Espuña, Archiephestia murciella considered as a synonym with Archiephestia adpiscinella (Chrétien) and Agenjo (1962) recorded Ancylosis uncinatella (Ragonot) and Hypotia miegi (Ragonot).

Subsequent contributions are those of Roesler (1973), Derra and Hacker (1982), De Prins (1985), Vives-Moreno (1992), Asselbergs (1993), who recorded Merulempista turturella (Zeller) (cited as M. numidella (Ragonot)), Slamka (2006), Knölke (2007), Pérez de-Gregorio and Requena (2008a), Pérez de-Gregorio and Requena (2008b), Pérez de-Gregorio and Requena (2008c), Slamka (2010), Pérez de-Gregorio and Requena (2010), Palacios and Abad (2010), Palm (2012), Leraut (2014), Pérez de-Gregorio and Requena (2014), Vives-Moreno (2014), Slamka et al. (2018), Slamka (2019) and Bidzilya et al. (2020).

Recently, Pseudoinsalebria iberica Slamka et al. 2018 and Gymnancyla hillneriella Gastón and Vives 2018 have been described from Murcia and Ceutolopha isidis (Zeller) has been recorded by Girdley et al. 2018, Gymnancyla hornigii (Lederer) by Girdley et al. 2019 and Psorosa ferrugatella (Turati) and Epischnia ampliatella (Heinemann) by Girdley et al. 2020.

The Region of Murcia has a great diversity of Lepidopteran fauna, as a zoogeographical crossroads and biodiversity hotspot, with more than 850 butterfly and moth species (Ortiz et al. 2016, unpublished data). The summary ecophysiological characterisation of the study area can be consulted in Garre et al. (2021).

Considering various bioclimatic approaches relative to temperature (thermotypes) and rainfall (ombrotypes), four different bioclimatic areas can be recognised according to Alcaraz et al. (2008): thermo-, meso-, supra- and oromediterranean (Fig. 1). Climatic and geological interactions differentiate a great variety of habitats as thermoxerophylic on the sunny slopes of the mountains and, on the other hand, as mesophylic in depressions or very dark exposures, in riparian zones amongst halophytic vegetation and on sandbanks and dunes from the inland to the coastal areas along with agricultural crops and anthropophilic areas. Altogether, they make up ten habitats and 47 special terrestrial conservation areas of community importance (Alcaraz et al. 2008).

Figure 1.  

Map of the known species diversity in the bioclimatic areas in the Murcia Region. Black and blue: Oro- and Supramediteranean; orange and light brown: Cold and mild Mesomediterranean; Yelow and light green: Upper and lower Thermomediterranean.

This present checklist is intended to update the recorded species and to facilitate access to the most recent data on the Pyralidae family from the Murcia Region (south-eastern Iberian Peninsula) for taxonomists providing data about distribution, chorology, phenology and voltinism.

Materials and methods

Adult specimens were examined externally and the genitalia structures were dissected using standard procedures (Leraut 2014) with minor modifications with the use of DMHF (2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone). Roesler (1973), Slamka (2006), Leraut (2014) and Slamka (2019) were consulted mainly for identifications. Alpha diversity Simpson (Simpson 1949) and Chao1 (Chao 1984) indices, applied to abundance data on 136 species collected, were calculated in PAST software v. 4.0.9 (Hammer et al. 2001).

The list contains all species of Pyralidae collected by the authors until the end of 2021, along with the material deposited in the private collections of J.A. de la Calle, F. Lencina, F. Albert and F. Arcas. It also includes all of those records previously referenced in the bibliography.

Black and actinic (6 and 15 W) Heath traps, 125 W Robinson traps, 125 W mercury vapour traps and 4 W LED light traps were used for nocturnal sampling. Catches taken during daytime and in the urban environment (street lighting) are also included. All these sampling points are located within the study area and, especially, in the natural protected areas like the mountainous Parks of Sierra Espuña, Sierra de la Pila, El Valle and Carrascoy etc. and the coastal Parks of Calblanque, Monte de las Cenizas and Peña del Águila, Salinas and Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar, etc.

Notes on the checklist

The subfamilies are systematically ordered and identified, based on the most recent classification of Pyralidae by Nuss et al. (2021), Vives-Moreno (2014) and Slamka (2019) with minor modifications. The genera and species are listed under their subfamilies and are also ordered systematically, together with collection data (sampling localities, altitude, decimal coordinates, date and number of specimens). In addition, for each species, related references and biological data are provided, including general chorotypes and Iberian endemism, voltinism based on literature and the flight period in the study area or nearby areas indicated by months in Roman numerals. All studied specimens are deposited in the entomological collection in the Zoology Department of Murcia University (Spain) and in the collections of Francisco Lencina, Fernando Albert and Francisco Arcas. The occurrence data can be accessed at DOI:https://doi.org/10.15470/a6fcav

Roesler (1973), Slamka (2006), Leraut (2014) and Slamka (2019) were consulted to obtain the information on biology, voltinism and geographical distribution of the species, while Calle (1982) and Varga (2010) were consulted for biogeographic criteria. The voltinism of some species is unknown and data in text have been made, based on our observations in the study area.

Annotated checklist of Pyralidae recorded in the Murcia Region

Family Pyralidae

Subfamily Galleriinae

Achroia grisella (Fabricius, 1794)

Distribution: 
Cosmopolitan
Notes: 
Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: VI, X. First record in Murcia Region.

Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758)

Distribution: 
Cosmopolitan
Notes: 
Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: VII-X. First record in Murcia Region.

Cathayia insularum (Speidel & Schmitz, 1991)

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 
Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: I, VII-IX. First record in Murcia Region.

Aphomia sociella (Linnaeus, 1758)

Distribution: 
Holarctic
Notes: 

References: Pérez de-Gregorio and Requena (2010). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: V-VII.

Aphomia murciella Zerny, 1914

Distribution: 
Endemic
Notes: 

References: Zerny (1914), Caradja (1916), Slamka (2006). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VII-VIII.

Aphomia sabella (Hampson, 1901)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: VII-VIII. First record in Murcia Region.

Aphomia zelleri (Joannis, 1932)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 

References: Palacios and Abad (2010). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: IX-X.

Lamoria anella (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

Distribution: 
Cosmopolitan
Notes: 

Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: IV-XI. First record in Murcia Region.

Subfamily Phycitinae

Coenochroa ablutella (Zeller, 1839)

Distribution: 

Tropical

Notes: 

References: Agenjo (1952). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: IV-X.

Peoria cremoricosta (Ragonot, 1895)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: IX. First record in Murcia Region.

Peoria translucidella (Chrétien, 1911)

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: IX-X. First record in Murcia Region.

Ematheudes punctellus (Treitschke, 1833)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Derra and Hacker (1982). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: V-X.

Polyochodes stipella Chrétien, 1911

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VI. First record in Murcia Region.

Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière, 1867)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Agenjo (1952). Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: VII-VIII.

Pempeliella ardosiella (Ragonot, 1887)

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 

References: Slamka (2019). Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: V-VII.

Huertasiella italogallicella (Millière, 1883)

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: IX. First record in Murcia Region.

Uncinus hispanella (Staudinger, 1859)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Slamka (2019). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: V-VI.

Pseudosyria malacella (Staudinger, 1870)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: II-VIII. First record in Murcia Region.

Pseudoinsalebria iberica Slamka, Ylla & Macià, 2018

Distribution: 

Endemic

Notes: 

References: Slamka et al. (2018), Slamka (2019). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: IV-V.

Asalebria florella (Mann, 1862)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 

References: Zerny (1914). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: V-VIII.

Asalebria ferruginella (Zerny, 1914)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Schmidt (1934), Slamka (2019). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: V.

Psorosa dahliella (Zerny, 1914)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Slamka (2010). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: V.

Psorosa ferrugatella Turati, 1924

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Girdley et al. (2020). Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: IV-VI.

Psorosa mediterranella Amsel, 1953

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Zerny (1914), Slamka (2019). Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: V-VIII, X.

Alophia combustella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: III-X. First record in Murcia Region.

Rhodophaea formosa (Haworth, 1811)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: V. First record in Murcia Region.

Sciota elegiella (Zerny, 1929)

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 
Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: V-IX. First record in Murcia Region.

Faveria dionysia (Zeller, 1846)

Distribution: 
Tropical
Notes: 

References: Slamka (2019). Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: VIII, X.

Melathrix coenulentella (Zeller, 1846)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: II, VI, IX-X. First record in Murcia Region.

Amphithrix sublineatella (Staudinger, 1859)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Caradja (1910), Agenjo (1952). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: IV-X.

Oxybia transversella (Duponchel, 1836)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Derra and Hacker (1982), De Prins (1985). Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: II-III, V-X.

Denticera divisella (Duponchel, 1843)

Distribution: 
Tropical
Notes: 

References: De Prins (1985). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: II, VIII-XI.

Oncocera semirubella (Scopoli, 1763)

Distribution: 
Palaearctic
Notes: 
Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: V, VIII-IX. First record in Murcia Region.

Etiella zinckenella (Treitschke, 1832)

Distribution: 
Cosmopolitan
Notes: 

References: Agenjo (1948), Derra and Hacker (1982). Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: V-IX.

Pima boisduvaliella (Guenée, 1845)

Distribution: 
Holarctic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: II-V. First record in Murcia Region.

Merulempista turturella (Zeller, 1848)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Asselbergs (1993). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: IV-V, VII-IX.

Merulempista azrouella (D. Lucas, 1933)

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: II-IV, VII. First record in Murcia Region.

Tephris ochreella Ragonot, 1893

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Vives-Moreno (1992), Vives-Moreno (2014), Slamka (2019). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: V.

Pempelia palumbella (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 

References: Slamka (2019). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: I-XII.

Pempelia albariella Zeller, 1839

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: V-VII. First record in Murcia Region.

Pempelia genistella (Duponchel, 1836)

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VIII. First record in Murcia Region.

Pempelia brephiella (Staudinger, 1879)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Pérez de-Gregorio and Requena (2014), Slamka (2019). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: II-VI, IX-XII.

Pempelia compositella (Treitschke, 1835)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: III-VIII. First record in Murcia Region.

Phycita roborella (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: IX. First record in Murcia Region.

Phycita diaphana (Staudinger, 1870)

Distribution: 
Tropical
Notes: 
Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: IV, IX-X. First record in Murcia Region.

Ceutholopha isidis (Zeller, 1867)

Distribution: 
Tropical
Notes: 

References: Girdley et al. (2018). Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: V, VIII.

Dioryctria abietella (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: V, IX. First record in Murcia Region.

Dioryctria sylvestrella (Ratzeburg, 1840)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 

References: Zerny (1914). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: IX-X.

Dioryctria mendacella (Staudinger, 1859)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Knölke (2007). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: II-X.

Dioryctria pineae (Staudinger, 1859)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Pérez de-Gregorio and Requena (2014). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: IX-X.

Epischnia prodromella (Hübner, 1799)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Agenjo (1948). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: IV-VII, IX, XII.

Epischnia illotella Zeller, 1839

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Caradja (1910), Agenjo (1948), Agenjo (1952), Pérez de-Gregorio and Requena (2014). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: II-XI.

Epischnia asteris Staudinger, 1871

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 

References: Agenjo (1948), Pérez de-Gregorio and Requena (2014). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: IV-VII, X.

Epischnia ampliatella (Heinemann, 1864)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 

References: Girdley et al. (2020). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: II.

Nephopterix angustella (Hübner, 1796)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: VIII. First record in Murcia Region.

Acrobasis legatea (Haworth, 1811)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Derra and Hacker (1982). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: V-VIII.

Acrobasis bithynella Zeller, 1848

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VII-X. First record in Murcia Region.

Acrobasis obliqua (Zeller, 1847)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Caradja (1910). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: II-V.

Acrobasis romanella (Millière, 1869)

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VIII-X. First record in Murcia Region.

Acrobasis sodalella Zeller, 1848

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VIII. First record in Murcia Region.

Acrobasis fallouella (Ragonot, 1871)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VI-VIII. First record in Murcia Region.

Acrobasis centunculella (Mann, 1859)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Caradja (1910). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: II-X.

Acrobasis obtusella (Hübner, 1796)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VI. First record in Murcia Region.

Apomyelois bistriatella (Hulst, 1887)

Distribution: 
Holarctic
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VIII. First record in Murcia Region.

Apomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller, 1839)

Distribution: 
Cosmopolitan
Notes: 
Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: IV-V, VII-X. First record in Murcia Region.

Eurhodope rosella (Scopoli, 1763)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VI-VII. First record in Murcia Region.

Eurhodope cruentella (Duponchel, 1843)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Caradja (1916), Pérez de-Gregorio and Requena (2008c). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: IV-VI.

Myelois circumvoluta (Geoffroy in Fourcroy, 1785)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: IV. First record in Murcia Region.

Myelois fuscicostella Mann, 1861

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: III-V. First record in Murcia Region.

Valdovecaria hispanicella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855)

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 

References: Pérez de-Gregorio and Requena (2010). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: IV-IX.

Pterothrixidia rufella (Duponchel, 1836)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Caradja (1910). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VI-VIII.

Seeboldia korgosella Ragonot, 1887

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: IV, VIII. First record in Murcia Region.

Epischidia fulvostrigella (Eversmann, 1844)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VIII-IX. First record in Murcia Region.

Gymnancyla ruscinonella (Ragonot, 1888)

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 

References: Gastón and Vives (2018). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: III-VI, VIII-IX.

Gymnancyla hillneriella Gastón & Vives, 2018

Distribution: 
Endemic
Notes: 

References: Gastón and Vives (2018). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: II-IX.

Gymnancyla canella (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Gastón and Vives (2018). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VIII.

Metallostichodes nygrocianella (Constant, 1865)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: IX. First record in Murcia Region.

Assara conicolella (Constant, 1884)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Zerny (1914). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VIII.

Euzophera pinguis (Haworth, 1811)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: V, VII-X. First record in Murcia Region.

Euzophera lunulella (O. Costa, 1836)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Zerny (1914), Derra and Hacker (1982), Pérez de-Gregorio and Requena (2008b), Palacios and Abad (2010). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VI-IX.

Euzophera osseatella (Treitschke, 1832)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: V, X. First record in Murcia Region.

Euzopherodes vapidella (Mann, 1857)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: II-V, X-XI. First record in Murcia Region.

Nyctegretis ruminella (La Harpe, 1860)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Pérez de-Gregorio and Requena (2014). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: V-VI, VIII.

Ancylosis cinnamomella (Duponchel, 1836)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 

References: De Prins (1985). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: I-X.

Ancylosis uncinatella (Ragonot, 1890)

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 

References: Agenjo (1962), Derra and Hacker (1982). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: III, V, VII.

Ancylosis maculifera Staudinger, 1870

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: V. First record in Murcia Region.

Ancylosis samaritanella (Zeller, 1867)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: VII. First record in Murcia Region.

Ancylosis roscidella (Eversmann, 1844)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 

References: Roesler (1973). Biological data: Bivoltine.

Ancylosis gracilella (Ragonot, 1887)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: IV-V, IX. First record in Murcia Region.

Ancylosis harmoniella (Ragonot, 1887)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: IV-V, X. First record in Murcia Region.

Ancylosis rhodochrella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1852)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: V, VIII. First record in Murcia Region.

Ancylosis oblitella (Zeller, 1848)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 

Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: IV, VII-XI. First record in Murcia Region.

Ancylosis calcariella Ragonot, 1901

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: IV-V, VII-X. First record in Murcia Region.

Ancylosis yerburii (Butler, 1884)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Bidzilya et al. (2020). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: III-VII, IX.

Homoeosoma sinuella (Fabricius, 1794)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 

References: Caradja (1910), Derra and Hacker (1982). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: V-VIII.

Homoeosoma nebulella (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 

References: Caradja (1910). Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: VIII.

Homoeosoma nimbella (Duponchel, 1837)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 

References: Agenjo (1952). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: V.

Phycitodes arenicola (Chrétien, 1911)

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: V. First record in Murcia Region.

Phycitodes binaevella (Hübner, 1813)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: III-V. First record in Murcia Region.

Phycitodes saxicola (Vaughan, 1870)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 

References: Roesler (1973). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: II-VI, VIII-XI.

Phycitodes lacteella (Rothschild, 1915)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: II, VI, IX-X. First record in Murcia Region.

Phycitodes bentinckella (Pierce, 1937)

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 

References: Roesler (1973). Biological data: Univoltine.

Phycitodes albatella (Ragonot, 1887)

Distribution: 
Holarctic
Notes: 

References: Roesler (1973). Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: VI.

Phycitodes inquinatella (Ragonot, 1887)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: V, VII-VIII. First record in Murcia Region.

Archiephestia adpiscinella (Chrétien, 1911)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Leraut (2014). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: V-X.

Plodia interpunctella (Hübner, 1813)

Distribution: 
Cosmopolitan
Notes: 
Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: V-IX. First record in Murcia Region.

Ephestia disparella Ragonot, 1901

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Roesler (1973). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VI.

Ephestia parasitella Staudinger, 1859

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 
Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: V-VI, IX. First record in Murcia Region.

Ephestia woodiella Richards & Thomson, 1832

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: IX. First record in Murcia Region.

Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller, 1879)

Distribution: 
Cosmopolitan
Notes: 
Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: VI, XII. First record in Murcia Region.

Ephestia welseriella (Zeller, 1848)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Zerny (1914), Derra and Hacker (1982). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: V-VIII.

Cadra furcatella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1851)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: VI. First record in Murcia Region.

Cadra figulilella (Gregson, 1871)

Distribution: 
Cosmopolitan
Notes: 
Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: V-X. First record in Murcia Region.

Cadra cautella (Walker, 1863)

Distribution: 
Cosmopolitan
Notes: 
Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: VIII. First record in Murcia Region.

Cadra calidella (Guenée, 1845)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: IX. First record in Murcia Region.

Subfamily Pyralinae

Endotricha flammealis (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: VI-IX. First record in Murcia Region.

Hypotia corticalis (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Agenjo (1952). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: V-VIII.

Hypotia infulalis Lederer, 1858

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Vives-Moreno (1992). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: II-X.

Hypotia pectinalis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: IV-V, VII-VIII. First record in Murcia Region.

Hypotia miegi (Ragonot, 1895)

Distribution: 
Endemic
Notes: 

References: Ragonot (1895), Agenjo (1962), Slamka (2006). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: II-III, V-IX.

Hypotia leucographalis (Hampson, 1900)

Distribution: 
Endemic
Notes: 

References: Hampson (1900), Agenjo (1952), Slamka (2006). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: IV-V, VII-X.

Synaphe moldavica (Esper, 1794)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: V-VI. First record in Murcia Region.

Synaphe diffidalis (Guenée, 1854)

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 

References: Caradja (1916). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: II-V.

Synaphe predotalis (Zerny, 1927)

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VI-VIII. First record in Murcia Region.

Synaphe punctalis (Fabricius, 1775)

Distribution: 
Eurasiatic
Notes: 

References: Slamka (2006). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VII-VIII.

Pyralis farinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Distribution: 
Cosmopolitan
Notes: 
Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: III-IV, VI-XI. First record in Murcia Region.

Aglossa pinguinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Distribution: 
Cosmopolitan
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: IV, IX-X. First record in Murcia Region.

Aglossa caprealis (Hübner, 1809)

Distribution: 
Cosmopolitan
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VI. First record in Murcia Region.

Aglossa brabanti Ragonot, 1884

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 

References: Zerny (1914), Slamka (2006), Pérez de-Gregorio and Requena (2008a). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: V-VIII.

Aglosa mayrae Ylla, Šumpich, Gastón, Huertas & Macià, 2017

Distribution: 

Endemic

Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: IV-V. First record in Murcia Region.

Stemmatophora combustalis (Fisher von Röslerstamm, 1842)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Derra and Hacker (1982). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: V-VIII.

Stemmatophora gadesalis Ragonot, 1882

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 

References: Caradja (1916). Biological data: Univoltine.

Stemmatophora vulpecalis Ragonot, 1891

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 

References: Zerny (1914), Slamka (2006). Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VI-VIII.

Stemmatophora syriacalis (Ragonot, 1895)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VI-VIII. First record in Murcia Region.

Stemmatophora rungsi (Leraut, 2000)

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: IX. First record in Murcia Region.

Stemmatophora brunnealis (Treitschke, 1829)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VIII-X. First record in Murcia Region.

Stemmatophora borgialis (Duponchel, 1833)

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: VII-X. First record in Murcia Region.

Maradana fuscolimbalis (Ragonot, 1887)

Distribution: 
Atlanto-Mediterranean
Notes: 
Biological data: Polyvoltine. Flight period: IV-XI. First record in Murcia Region.

Bostra obsoletalis (Mann, 1884)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: De Prins (1985). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: IV-IX.

Loryma egregialis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 

References: Zerny (1914), Agenjo (1952), Slamka (2006). Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: IV-X.

Hypsopygia costalis (Fabricius, 1775)

Distribution: 
Holarctic
Notes: 
Biological data: Bivoltine. Flight period: VI-X. First record in Murcia Region.

Hypsopygia incarnatalis (Zeller, 1847)

Distribution: 
Mediterranean-Asiatic
Notes: 
Biological data: Univoltine. Flight period: IX-X. First record in Murcia Region.

Analysis

The list includes 142 species in 67 genera and three subfamilies: Galleriinae (8 species), Phycitinae (107 species) and Pyralinae (27 species). Seventy-three new records (51%) from the Murcia Region are added to its Lepidopteran fauna.

The most species-rich subfamily, Phycitinae, comprises 77.6% of all genera and 75.3% of all species, while Pyralinae comprise 14.9% and 19.1% and Galleriinae with 7.5% and 5.6%, respectively (Table 1).

Table 1.

Numbers and percentages of known genera and species recorded for each subfamily in Murcia Region.

Subfamilies Genus richness % Genus Species richness % Species
Galleriinae 5 7.5 8 5.6
Phycitinae 52 77.6 107 75.3
Pyralinae 10 14.9 27 19.1
Total 67 100 142 100

The European family of Pyralidae consists of 470 species (Leraut 2014), whilst the Iberian Pyralidae fauna comprise 262 extant species (Vives-Moreno 2014). Thus, to date, the number of species known from the Murcia Region accounts for approximately 30% of the European total and 54.1% of the Iberian species.

Alpha diversity indices applied to abundance data (2683 individuals of 136 species collected) showed a low dominance value of 0.96 (all taxa are equally present) and a Chao1 estimate of total species richness amongst 140 species (lower value) to 165.5 species (upper value) which is close to 142 species studied and foresees the addition of new species in the future.

Known Pyralidae diversity in the Murcia Region seem relatively rich when compared to those in other Iberian Regions and with the whole of the Iberian Peninsula, as for instance, similar Iberian Regions extensively surveyed like Catalonia (172 species; Dantart 2020) and Aragon (163 species; Redondo et al. 2017). This may be because intensive surveys have started only recently or because the biodiversity is greater closer to the temperate areas. However, we are sure that an increase in the sampling effort will allow adding new species to the of Pyralidae checklist from the Murcia Region.

The most species-rich Pyralidae genera in the Murcia Region are Ancylosis (11 species, 7.7%), Acrobasis (8 species, 5.6%), Phycitoides and Stemmatophora (7 species, 4.9% each, respectively), Pempelia, Ephestia and Hypotia (5 species, 3.5% each, respectively) and Aphomia, Cadra, Dioryctria, Epischinia, Aglossa and Synaphe (4 species, 2.8% each, respectively). The majority of genera (12) are species-poor (2-3 species) or known in the Murcia Region from a single species (42 genera).

Species richness varies substantially amongst the different bioclimatic areas of the Murcia Region (Fig. 1). The Thermomediterranean area has the most diverse Pyralidae fauna with 116 species recorded, followed by the Mesomediterranean area with 73 species, while the Supra- and Oromediteranean areas appear to be less diverse with 39 species (Table 2). In each of these areas, 54 species are unique in the Thermo-, 10 in Meso- and four in Supra- and Oromediterranean areas, while 41 species were recorded in two areas and 26 in the three studied areas. Approximately 47.8% of the species can be considered specialists in a given bioclimatic area, while the other 52.2% can be considered as opportunists of different types of vegetation that characterise each of the bioclimatic areas. The detailed data for the bioclimatic areas of Pyralidae in the Murcia Region are summarised in Table 2.

Table 2.

List of unique species in each bioclimatic area or in more than one bioclimatic area.

Oro- and Suprameditarreneam Acrobasis obtusella (Hübner, 1796)
Phycita roborella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)
Eurhodope rosella (Scopoli, 1763)
Cadra furcatella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1851)
Mesomediterraneam Huertasiella italogallicella (Millière, 1883)
Rhodophaea formosa (Haworth, 1811)
Pempelia albariella Zeller, 1839
Pempelia genistella (Duponchel, 1836)
Seeboldia korgosella Ragonot, 1887
Ancylosis rhodochrella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1852)
Homoeosoma nebulella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)
Phycitodes arenicola (Chrétien, 1911)
Synaphe punctalis (Fabricius, 1775)
Stemmatophora rungsi (Leraut, 2000)
Thermomediterraneam Achroia grisella (Fabricius, 1794)
Aphomia murciella Zerny, 1914
Aphomia sabella (Hampson, 1901)
Lamoria zelleri (Joannis, 1932)
Peoria cremoricosta (Ragonot, 1895)
Peoria translucidella (Chrétien, 1911)
Polyochodes stipella Chrétien, 1911
Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière, 1867)
Pseudosyria malacella (Staudinger, 1870)
Psorosa ferrugatella Turati, 1924
Sciota elegiella (Zerny, [1929])
Faveria dionysia (Zeller, 1846)
Melathrix coenulentella (Zeller, 1846)
Denticera divisella (Duponchel, [1843])
Merulempista turturella (Zeller, 1848)
Merulempista azrouella (D. Lucas, 1933)
Tephris ochreella Ragonot, 1893
Phycita diaphana (Staudinger, 1870)
Ceutholopha isidis (Zeller, 1867)
Epischnia ampliatella (Heinemann, 1864)
Nephopterix angustella (Hübner, 1796)
Acrobasis sodalella Zeller, 1848
Apomyelois bistriatella (Hulst, 1887)
Myelois circumvoluta (Geoffroy in Fourcroy, 1785)
Epischidia fulvostrigella (Eversmann, 1844)
Gymnancyla hillneriella Gastón & Vives, 2018
Gymnancyla canella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)
Metallostichodes nygrocianella (Constant, 1865)
Assara conicolella (Constant, 1884)
Euzophera osseatella (Treitschke, 1832)
Euzopherodes vapidella (Mann, 1857)
Nyctegretis ruminella (La Harpe, 1860)
Ancylosis uncinatella (Ragonot, 1890)
Ancylosis maculifera Staudinger, 1870
Ancylosis samaritanella (Zeller, 1867)
Ancylosis calcariella Ragonot, 1901
Ancylosis yerburii (Butler, 1884)
Phycitodes binaevella (Hübner, [1813])
Phycitodes lacteella (Rothschild, 1915)
Phycitodes inquinatella (Ragonot, 1887)
Plodia interpunctella (Hübner, [1813])
Ephestia disparella Ragonot, 1901
Ephestia woodiella Richards & Thomson, 1832
Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller, 1879)
Cadra cautella (Walker, 1863)
Cadra calidella (Guenée, 1845)
Hypotia infulalis Lederer, 1858
Hypotia pectinalis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838)
Hypotia leucographalis (Hampson, 1900)
Pyralis farinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Aglossa pinguinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Aglossa caprealis (Hübner, [1809])
Hypsopygia costalis (Fabricius, 1775)
Hypsopygia incarnatalis (Zeller, 1847)
Oro-, Supra- and Mesomediterranean Aphomia sociella (Linnaeus, 1758)
Uncinus hispanella (Staudinger, 1859)
Acrobasis romanella (Millière, 1869)
Pterothrixidia rufella (Duponchel, 1836)
Synaphe moldavica (Esper, 1794)
Meso- and Thermomediterranean Cathayia insularum (Speidel & Schmitz, 1991)
Pseudoinsalebria iberica Slamka, Ylla & Macià, 2018
Psorosa mediterranella Amsel, 1953
Oncocera semirubella (Scopoli, 1763)
Pima boisduvaliella (Guenée, 1845)
Pempelia brephiella (Staudinger, 1879)
Dioryctria sylvestrella (Ratzeburg, 1840)
Dioryctria pineae (Staudinger, 1859)
Apomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller, 1839)
Eurhodope cruentella (Duponchel, [1843])
Myelois fuscicostella Mann, 1861
Valdovecaria hispanicella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855)
Gymnancyla ruscinonella (Ragonot, 1888)
Euzophera pinguis (Haworth, 1811)
Ancylosis gracilella (Ragonot, 1887)
Ancylosis harmoniella (Ragonot, 1887)
Ancylosis oblitella (Zeller, 1848)
Phycitodes saxicola (Vaughan, 1870)
Archiephestia adpiscinella (Chrétien, 1911)
Ephestia parasitella Staudinger, 1859
Ephestia welseriella (Zeller, 1848)
Cadra figulilella (Gregson, 1871)
Hypotia corticalis ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)
Hypotia miegi (Ragonot, 1895)
Synaphe diffidalis (Guenée, 1854)
Synaphe predotalis (Zerny, 1927)
Aglossa brabanti Ragonot, 1884
Aglosa mayrae Ylla, Šumpich, Gastón, Huertas & Macià, 2017
Stemmatophora syriacalis (Ragonot, 1895)
Stemmatophora borgialis (Duponchel, [1833])
Maradana fuscolimbalis (Ragonot, 1887)
Loryma egregialis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838)
Oro- and Supra- and Thermomediterranean Alophia combustella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855)
Dioryctria abietella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)
Acrobasis legatea (Haworth, 1811)
Phycitodes albatella (Ragonot, 1887)
All areas Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758)
Lamoria anella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)
Ematheudes punctellus (Treitschke, 1833)
Pempeliella ardosiella (Ragonot, 1887)
Asalebria florella (Mann, 1862)
Amphithrix sublineatella (Staudinger, 1859)
Oxybia transversella (Duponchel, 1836)
Etiella zinckenella (Treitschke, 1832)
Pempelia palumbella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)
Pempelia compositella (Treitschke, 1835)
Dioryctria mendacella (Staudinger, 1859)
Epischnia prodromella (Hübner, [1799])
Epischnia illotella Zeller, 1839
Epischnia asteris Staudinger, 1871
Acrobasis bithynella Zeller, 1848
Acrobasis obliqua (Zeller, 1847)
Acrobasis fallouella (Ragonot, 1871)
Acrobasis centunculella (Mann, 1859)
Euzophera lunulella (O. Costa, [1836])
Ancylosis cinnamomella (Duponchel, 1836)
Homoeosoma sinuella (Fabricius, 1794)
Endotricha flammealis ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)
Stemmatophora combustalis (Fisher von Röslerstamm, [1842])
Stemmatophora vulpecalis Ragonot, 1891
Stemmatophora brunnealis (Treitschke, 1829)
Bostra obsoletalis (Mann, 1884)

Chorological analysis for the family Pyralidae in the Region of Murcia showed that the Mediterranean chorotype is the most abundant with 59.2% of the total, which is consistent with the geographical position of the study area. Amongst these, the Asiatic-Mediterranean elements (41.5%) are more frequent than the Atlanto-Mediterranean elements (17.6%). On the other hand, the elements of wide distribution, such as the Eurasiatic, Holarctic and Palaearctic (24.6%), are the most common in the mountainous biotopes of the centre and north of the study area, while the tropical and cosmopolitan species (12.0%) have their origin mainly in Africa. The presence of opportunistic species is due to the agricultural crop fields that dominate part of the Murcian territory. The Iberian endemisms are represented with six species (4.2%).

Regarding the biology of the species, the environmental conditions of the study area, which affect the availability of trophic resources for reproduction, suggest that most of the species are bivoltins (40.8%) and univoltins (38.0%), while the rest are polyvoltins (21.1%). Most of the Phyctinae recorded species feed on plant species belonging to the Asteraceae, Cistaceae, Fabaceae, Pinaceae, Fagaceae, Oleaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Lamiaceae families, amongst others. The most particular cases are those related to the genera Cadra, Ephestia and Plodia which are pests on stored products. Some species, such as Apomyeolis ceratoniae (Zeller), Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière), Etiella zinckeniella (Treitschke) and Euzophera pinguis (Haworth) must be controlled since they are agricultural crop pests. Many of the species of the subfamily Galleriinae live in bee, bumblebee or wasp nests as well as on plant detritus. Others, such as Aphomia sabella (Hampson) and Cathayia insularum (Speidel & Schmitz), are parasites of palm trees (Phoenix spp.). In relation to the subfamily Pyralinae, most of the species feed on plant and animal detritus with Pyralis farinalis (Linnaeus) being also a particular pest on cereal flour. Finally, the food source and diet of 27.4% of species are unknown, so it will be necessary to carry out complementary studies for further biological understanding.

Some taxa cited in the references have been removed from the checklist as Epischnia muscidella Ragonot, cited in Caradja (1916), because it is distributed in Turkey (Leraut 2014); Hypotia syrtalis (Ragonot) also cited in Caradja (1916) was removed in Slamka (2006) and Vives-Moreno (2014); Psorosa nucleolella (Möschler) cited in Zerny (1914) from Sierra Espuña mountains was removed according to Slamka (2019); Tephris cyriella (Erschoff), cited from Sierra Espuña mountains in Vives-Moreno (1992) and later corrected as T. ochreella Ragonot in Vives-Moreno (2014) and Slamka (2019); Laristania albipunctella (Chrétien), cited in Palm (2012), Leraut (2014) and Vives-Moreno (2014), has been cited as a new species Pseudoinsalebria iberica Slamka, Ylla & Macià (Slamka et al. 2018). Finally, Gymnancyla hornigii (Lederer) was cited in Girdley et al. (2019), but misidentified with Epischidia fulvostrigella (Eversmann) according to morphological and barcode data (unpublished data).

Discussion

Prior to our investigation, the number of known Pyralidae moth species in the Murcia Region was 69. Our study increases this number to a total of 142, based on an examination of museum specimens, published records and sampled individuals, accounting for 54.1% of all of the Iberian species known. This study presents an updated checklist of current Pyralidae moth species with their distribution and biological information for the Murcia Region in the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula.

This study serves as both a guide for collection in the poorly sampled south-western European continent and a comprehensive reference list with the Pyralidae taxa and localities where conservation is an important priority for policy-makers, conservation planners and for the management of insect diversity in Spain.

We encourage lepidopterists holding additional data on systematically collected pyralids to produce an updated dataset. Additionally, new intensive surveys in adjacent regions are being conducted and unknown specimens are continuously identified to species level.

Acknowledgements

Thanks are due to José A. de la Calle, Francisco Lencina, Fernando Albert and Francisco Arcas for allowing access to their personal collections while Claire Ward improved the manuscript linguistically. We are very grateful for this collegial and kind support. This study has been supported by the Regional Excellence 19908-GERM-15 project of the Fundación Séneca (Regional Government of Murcia, Spain). Collecting permits were issued by Environmental Authority of Murcia Region.

References