Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic paper
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Taxonomic paper
Taxonomic revision of Stigmatomma Roger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Malagasy region
expand article infoFlavia A. Esteves, Brian L. Fisher
‡ California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, United States of America
Open Access
Abstract

In this study we present the first taxonomic revision of the ant genus Stigmatomma in the Malagasy biogeographic region, re­describe the previously known S. besucheti Baroni-Urbani, and describe seven new species to science (S. bolabola sp. n., S. irayhady sp. n., S. janovitsika sp. n., S. liebe sp. n., S. roahady sp. n., S. sakalava sp. n., and S. tsyhady sp. n.). The revision is based on the worker caste, but we provide brief descriptions of gynes and males for some species. Species descriptions, diagnosis, character discussion, identification key, and glossary are illustrated with 360 high-quality montage and SEM images. The distribution of Stigmatomma species in Madagascar are mapped and discussed within the context of the island’s biomes and ecoregions. We also discuss how some morphometric variables describe the differences among the species in the bioregion. Open science is supported by providing access to R scripts, raw measurement data, and all specimen data used. All specimens used in this study were given unique identifies, and holotypes were imaged. Specimens and images are made accessible on AntWeb.org.

Keywords

Malagasy bioregion; taxonomy; ants; Amblyoponinae; Madagascar; Seychelles

Introduction

Stigmatomma Roger (1859), the largest genus of the ant subfamily Amblyoponinae, currently contains more than 40 species among extant and fossil taxa (AntCat 2016). Its systematics has recently received attention. The genus was revived as a valid after many years as a synonym of Amblyopone (Yoshimura and Fisher 2012b), and is considered to be closely related to the Amblyoponinae genera Adetomyrma, Myopopone, Mystrium, and Xymmer (a group also known as XMMAS clade; Ward and Fisher 2016, Yoshimura and Fisher 2012b, Brady et al. 2006, Ouellette et al. 2006, Saux et al. 2004). The most recent phylogenetic hypothesis on Amblyoponinae divided the genus into two groups (Ward and Fisher 2016). Fulakora, resurrected from its synonymy under Stigmatomma and elevated to generic status, is a predominantly Neotropical lineage that contains some Australasian species. The remainder species continue to be assigned to Stigmatomma. However, the phylogeny was inconclusive regarding the monophyly of the newly delimited Stigmatomma, and its relationship with the other XMMAS lineages remains debatable. We believe that a more uniform and exhaustive taxon sampling in future phylogenetic studies may help to clarify these uncertainties.

Stigmatomma is distributed globally, but very little is known about the genus in the Malagasy region, apart from the description of S. besucheti (Baroni Urbani 1978) from the Seychelles.

Madagascar and its surrounding islands are extremely biodiverse, have a high rate of animal and plant endemism, and possess exceptional rates of habitat loss due to human activity (Goodman and Benstead 2004, Myers et al. 2000). Ninety percent of the original forest cover is estimated to have disappeared from the island since the arrival of humans around 2000 years ago (Du Puy and Moat 1996, Myers et al. 2000, Goodman and Benstead 2004). The region is likely home to 1,300 ant species, of which about 60% are undescribed (Fisher 2005, Fisher 2004); furthermore, 95% of described ant species in the region are found nowhere else in the world (Fisher 2004).

Ants play a large role in a terrestrial ecosystem (Alonso 2000, Andersen 1990, Hoffmann et al. 2000), and basic knowledge of their taxonomy and distribution may provide a baseline for all subsequent research and conservation efforts including them. Brian Fisher and members of the Malagasy Arthropod Team, based at the Madagascar Biodiversity Center in Madagascar, have conducted arthropod inventories in the Malagasy region for the last twenty years in an attempt to unravel the diversity of ants in that area. They have contributed to twenty-seven taxonomic revisions, which have added more than 300 new ant species to the Malagasy ant fauna list to date. From the material they have collected, more than 900 Stigmatomma specimens have been databased, and more than 150 images of these ants are available online on AntWeb.

This study presents the first taxonomic revision for the genus Stigmatomma in the Malagasy region and recognizes eight species, of which seven are newly described. It focuses on the worker caste, but images and a brief description of gynes and males are provided when possible.

Biology

Our understanding of the biology of the species assigned to Stigmatomma is far from comprehensive as it is based on generalizations from limited observations of a few species. One of the major culprits for our lack of observations is the cryptobiotic lifestyle of these ants, which hampers access to their colonies and studies on their behavior (Ward and Fisher 2016).

Predominantly, Stigmatomma species nests in the soil or in rotten logs of humid forest habitats (Brown 1960). Workers are usually solitary hunters (Masuko 1993, Traniello 1978), but S. reclinatum (Mayr 1879), from Indomalaya region, has been found to recruit aid to recover prey (Billen et al. 2005, Ito 1993a). Stigmatomma prey upon other arthropods, especially geophilomorph centipedes (Gotwald and Lévieux 1972, Brown 1960)—observations indicate that up to 80% of the diet of S. silvestrii Wheeler 1928 (Palearctic region) is composed of such centipedes (Masuko 1993).

Larvae feed directly on prey when positioned on this food source (Brown 1960). We are not aware of any report of trophallaxis between larvae and adults of Stigmatomma. Instead, studies indicate that female adults perform nondestructive cannibalism on their own larvae. This practice, also known as Larval Hemolymph Feeding (LHF), consists of ingestion of hemolymph dripping from punctures made by adults in the larval integument. It was described for the Nearctic S. pallipes (Haldeman 1844) and for S. silvestrii (Haskins 1928, Masuko 1986, respectively). In the latter species, queens of mature colonies seem to feed exclusively on larval hemolymph. LHF was also reported for species of other Amblyoponinae genera (e.g., Amblyopone, Myopopone, Mystrium, and Prionopelta; Ito 2010, Ito and Billen 1998, Wheeler and Wheeler 1988).

The majority of the species produces winged gynes. However, some members of the Stigmatomma reclinatum species-group does not present a morphologicaclly distinct queen, and reproduction is performed by gamergates (Ito 1993b, Ito 1991). Within these colonies, dominance is established through chemical and aggressive interactions (Ito 1993b).

Materials and methods

​Species delimitation

The biological species concept guides species delimitation in this study, implying that species represent reproductively isolated entities, enclosing one or many populations connected by gene flow (Coyne and Orr 2004). We thus used morphological discontinuities as evidence for species separation preferentially maintained in sympatry among closely related forms.

Species names

In this study, new species names formed from a personal name are nouns in apposition and thus invariant. All other new species names presented are not latinized words, and thus also indeclinable (ICZN article 31.2.3, ICZN 1999).

Specimen records

Every specimen we examined bears a specimen code label (e.g., CASENT0797614, ANTWEB1008502). Each code is a registered unique identifier, which aggregates several information regarding a given specimen on AntWeb (e.g., collection record, images, identification). Specimen data can be accessed on AntWeb through the persistent URL of its specimen code: www.antweb.org/specimen/“specimen code" (e.g., www.antweb.org/specimen/CASENT0797614).

Terminology

Morphological terminology used follows Keller (2011), unless otherwise stated:

  • Aedeagal apodemes (Snodgrass 1935): pair of anterior apodemes of the aedeagus that are connected to the majority of the aedeagal muscles (Fig. 1b, d).
  • Aedeagus (Snodgrass 1935): the intromittent organ of the male genitalia. It projects from between the anterior portion of the parameres, and contains the aedeagal apodemes and the penisvalvae (Fig. 1a, d).
  • Anepisternum (as in Bolton 1994): dorsal subdivision of the mesepisternum, separated from the katepisternum by the mesepisternal sulcus (Fig. 2a).
  • Arolium: adhesive pretarsal organ (Fig. 3d).
  • Basal ring (Snodgrass 1957): anterior annular sclerite of the male genitalia. It is connected anteriorly to the muscles from the abdominal segment IX, and posteriorly to the muscles of the aedeagus, volsellae, and parameres (Fig. 1a, b).
  • Basimere (Snodgrass 1957): anterior portion of each paramere (Fig. 1b, c).
  • Basivolsella (Peck 1937): anteroventral plate of the volsella; supports the cuspis and the digitus (Fig. 1b, c).
  • Calcar of strigil: protibial spur, which together with the comb of strigil forms the antennal cleaning organ, which is also known as strigil (Fig. 3a).
  • Comb of strigil: comb-­like structure on probasitarsus, which together with the calcar forms an antennal cleaning organ (Fig. 3a).
  • Cuspis (Snodgrass 1941): lobe of the volsella continuous to the basivolsella; located between the paramere and the digitus (Fig. 1a, b, c).
  • Digitus (Snodgrass 1941): movable lobe of the volsella; located between the cuspis and the aedeagus (Fig. 1a, b, c).
  • Epistomal sulcus: sulcus that divides the clypeus posteriorly and laterally from the remainder of the head (Richards 1977; Fig. 4a).
  • Frontal lobes: in this study, we use this term to name the trait formed by: (1) the median arch projection of the torulus (torular lobe in Keller 2011); or (2) the many degrees of fusion between the anterior dorso­lateral expansion of the frontal carina (posttorular flange in Keller 2011) and the median arch projection of the torulus (Fig. 4a).
  • Fronto­clypeal sulcus: medial section of the epistomal sulcus running between the anterior tentorial pits (Fig. 4a).
  • Gaster (as in Bolton 1990): formed by the third, fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh abdominal segments in Stigmatomma females. When mentioned separately, the Roman numeral of the corresponding homologous true segment labels abdominal segments (i.e., III– VII; Fig. 4b).
  • Genal tooth (Brown 1960): lateral cuticular projection on the anterior genal angle (Fig. 4a).
  • Hypopygium: sternite of abdominal segment VII in adult females (Fig. 4b).
  • Katepisternum (as in Bolton 1994): ventral subdivision of the mesepisternum, separated from the anepisternum by the mesepisternal sulcus (Fig. 3d).
  • Lower and upper metapleuron (Snodgrass 1910): secondary division of the metapleuron in a dorsal wing bearing part and a ventral leg-bearing part (Fig. 5b​).
  • Median area of the clypeus: clypeal area between and below the frontal carinae (Fig. 4a).
  • Mesepimeral lobe (as epimeral lobe in Yoshimura and Fisher 2012b): posterodorsal lobe of the mesepimeron, which covers the metathoracic spiracle (Fig. 5b).
  • Mesepimeron (as in Gibson et al. 1998): posterodorsal portion of the mesopleuron, which is differentiated from the mesepisternum by the mesopleural suture (Fig. 5b).
  • Mesepisternum (as in Huber and Sharkey 1993): anterior subdivision of the mesopleuron, usually comprising most of the mesopleuron (Figs 2b, 5b).
  • Mesobasitarsal sulcus: longitudinal impression situated on the antero­dorsal face of the mesobasitarsus (Fig. 3b).
  • Mesopleural suture (Snodgrass 1910): vertical or oblique suture dividing the mesopleuron into an anterior/ventral mesepisternum and a posterior/dorsal mesepimeron. It extends from the base of the wing process to the coxal process.
  • Mesopleuron (as in Huber and Sharkey 1993): lateral and ventral part of the mesothorax, which is the second and largest of the three primary subdivisions of the thorax, bearing the middle pair of legs and, when present, the forewings.
  • Mesoscutellar-axillar complex (as in Gibson et al. 1998): region of the mesonotum posterior the transscutal articulation; often simply referred to as the scutellum, but composed of the scutellum and axillae (Fig. 5a).
  • Mesoscutum (as in Gibson et al. 1998): region of the mesonotum anterior to the transscutal articulation and scutellar-axillar complex (Fig. 5a).
  • Mesosoma (as in Bolton 1990): formed by three thoracic segments plus the propodeum (abdominal segment I; Fig. 4b).
  • Metabasitarsal sulcus: longitudinal impression situated on the anterior face of the metabasitarsus (Fig. 3c).
  • Metapleuron (as in Gibson et al. 1998): pleuron of the metathorax (Fig. 5b).
  • Microtrichia: setae­-like cuticular projections.
  • Notaulus (pl. notauli; as in Gibson et al. 1998): paired lines or grooves on the mesoscutum that subdivide the sclerite into a median midlobe and lateral lobes (Fig. 5a).
  • Parameres (Snodgrass 1957): elongated pair of lateral lobes of the male genitalia; subdivided into the anterior basimere and the posterior telomere (Fig. 1a, b, c).
  • Penisvalvae (Snodgrass 1941): pair of well-developed, dorsoventrally and anteroposteriorly elongated, sclerotized lateral plates of the aedeagus (Fig. 1b, d).
  • Petiolar laterotergite: paired long, narrow, strip-­like area of cuticle parallel to the ventral margin of the petiolar tergite (Fig. 6a).
  • Petiolar proprioceptor zone: a depression sharply delineated anteriorly and bearing numerous sensilla on the anterior-most part of the petiolar sternite (Fig. 6a).
  • Petiole: abdominal segment II (Fig. 4b).
  • Poststernite: posterior remaining portion of sternite not concealed by an articulation (Fig. 6b).
  • Pygostyles (as in Yoshimura and Fisher 2007; referred as cerci in Gibson et al. 1998): paired sensory finger-like projections that articulate with the tenth abdominal tergite of male ants.
  • Scuto-scutellar suture (as in Gibson et al. 1998): groove or line that separates the axillae from the scutellum (Fig. 5a).
  • Subpetiolar process (as in Ward 1994): anteroventral projection of the petiolar poststernite.
  • Supraclypeal area (frontal triangle in Bolton 1994): well ­delineated and unpaired area lying immediately posterior to the median part of the clypeus, between the frontal carinae (Fig. 4a).
  • Suture and sulcus: the fusion of two sclerites forms a suture, while a depression formed by an invagination of the cuticle corresponds to a sulcus.
  • Telomere (Snodgrass 1957): hollow posterior portion of each paramere (Fig. 1b, c).
  • Transscutal articulation (as in Gibson et al. 1998): transverse line across the mesonotum at the level of the forewings that differentiates an anterior mesoscutum and posterior scutellar-axillar complex, and that permits flexion of the mesonotum for flight.
  • Volsellae (Snodgrass 1957): pincer-like organ located between each paramere and aedeagus. Formed by the cuspis, digitus, and basivolsella (Fig. 1a, b, c).
Figure 1.

llustrated glossary of terminology; plate I: male genitalia morphology.

aGenital capsule, ventral view. Illustration by F. A. Esteves.
bGenital capsule (CASENT0148201); longitudinal section, inner face. The aedeagal sclerite is darkened to enhance visibility. Image by F. A. Esteves.
cGenital capsule of Stigmatomma janovitsika sp. n. (CASENT0318446); longitudinal section, inner face. The basal ring and the aedeagus were removed from the capsule. Image by F. A. Esteves.
dRight sclerite of the aedeagus of Stigmatomma liebe sp. n. (CASENT0724171); lateral view. Image by F. A. Esteves.
Figure 2.

llustrated glossary of terminology; plate II: mesosoma of Stigmatomma worker, lateral view.

aStigmatomma liebe sp. n., worker (CASENT0009102). The mesepisternum is divided in anepisternum and katepisternum by the median mesepisternal sulcus. Image by F. A. Esteves.
bStigmatomma janovitsika sp. n., worker (CASENT0145426). The mesepisternum is not divided into anepisternum and katepisternum by the median mesepisternal sulcus. Image by F. A. Esteves.
Figure 3.

Illustrated glossary of terminology; plate III: legs morphology.

aForeleg of Stigmatomma bolabola sp. n. (CASENT0034744); posterior face. Calcar highlighted in red. Image and illustration by F. A. Esteves.
bMidleg of Stigmatomma sakalava sp. n. (CASENT0438262); anterior face. Image by F. A. Esteves.
cHindleg of Stigmatomma roahadysp. n. (CASENT0056916); anterior face. Image by F. A. Esteves.
dMidleg of Stigmatomma roahady sp. n. (CASENT0002078); dorsal view: fifth tarsomere and pretarsal claw. Arolium highlighted in green. Image and illustration by F. A. Esteves.
Figure 4.

IIllustrated glossary of terminology; plate IV: worker morphology.

aHead of Stigmatomma liebe sp. n. worker (CASENT0009102); fullface view. Clypeus highlighted in yellow. Abbreviations: at, anterior tentorial pit; FL, frontal lobe; FrC, frontal carina; frclps, frontoclypeal sulcus; SClp, supraclypeal area. Image and illustration by F. A. Esteves.
bStigmatomma liebe sp. n. worker (CASENT0318414); lateral view. Gaster highlighted in green and blue; hypopygium in blue. Abdominal segments are labeled by corresponding roman numeral. Image and illustration by F. A. Esteves.
Figure 5.

Illustrated glossary of terminology; plate V: mesosoma morphology of alates.

aMesosoma of Stigmatomma tsyhady sp. n. (CASENT0723249); male; dorsal face. Mesoscutum highlighted in red, mesoscutellar-axillar complex in green, scuto-scutellar suture in purple, and metanotum in yellow. Wings were removed for better illustration. Abbreviations: Pnt, pronotum; Ppd, propodeum. Image and illustration by F. A. Esteves.
bMesosoma of Stigmatomma roahady sp. n. (CASENT0107483); male; lateral face. Mesepisternum highlighted in red, mesepimeron in purple, lower metapleuron in yellow, and upper metapleuron in green. Image and illustration by F. A. Esteves.
Figure 6.

Illustrated glossary of terminology; plate VI: worker morphology

aPetiole of Stigmatomma sakalava n. sp., ventral view (CASENT0022146). Petiolar laterotergite is highlighted in red. Image and illustration by F. A. Esteves.
bGaster of Stigmatomma besucheti, lateral view (CASENT0101970). Abdominal segments are labeled by corresponding roman numeral. Image by F. A. Esteves.

Sculpture terminology follows Harris (1979) as below. In order to describe additive sculpture, we employ a dash between terms (e.g., foveate-costate means numerous pits among longitudinal costae).

  • Alveolate: honeycombed, with regular, deep, angular cavities separated by thin partitions; furnished with cells or alveoli.
  • Areolate: divided into a number of small, irregular, nonparallel spaces.
  • Carinate: keeled, with one, or several, but usually few longitudinal narrow raised ridges.
  • Catenate: with longitudinal, connected elevations like links in a chain.
  • Confused: indefinite outlines.
  • Costate: with longitudinal raised ridges (costae); coarser than carinate.
  • Costulate: less prominent than costate.
  • Dispersed: scattered markings or small sculptures.
  • Foveate: pitted, with numerous, regular depressions or pits (foveae).
  • Foveolate: with small, deep pits; finely pitted.
  • Imbricate: partly overlapping, like shingles on a roof or scales on a fish.
  • Nodulate: with small knots or swellings.
  • Plicate: folded; with folds.
  • Puncticulate: dispersed points or punctures, with very fine, widely spaced punctures.
  • Smooth: devoid of any sculpturing.
  • Strigate: with narrow, transverse raised ridges or impressed lines.
  • Rugose: wrinkled.
  • Rugulose: minutely wrinkled.
  • Taeniate: with broad, longitudinal ribbon-­like markings; shaped like a tapeworm.
  • Tuberculate: furnished with rounded, projecting lobes.

We describe setae and cuticular projections with the following terminology:

  • Acuminate: tapering to a point (Fig. 7a).
  • Antler-like: branched, shaped like an antler (Fig. 7b).
  • Blunt: not sharp, a worn-down apex (Fig. 7c).
  • Conic: shaped like a cone (Fig. 7d).
  • Dentiform: shaped like a tooth (Fig. 7c, d).
  • Digitiform: shaped like a finger (Fig. 7e).
  • Filiform: shaped like a thread; filamentous. Here used to describe setae having a regular, hair-like shape (Fig. 8a).
  • Flattened­-apex: flattened apically, not round (Fig. 7a).
  • Glabrous: devoid of hair or cuticular projections.
  • Lanceolate: shaped like the head of a lance (Fig. 7e).
  • Mucronate: ending abruptly in a sharp point (Fig. 7c).
  • Paddle-like: shaped like a paddle (Fig. 7f).
  • Scrobiculate: uniformly covered with short, oblong or trench-like hollows.
  • Spatular: shaped like a spatula (Fig. 7a, c).
  • Spiniform: shaped like a spine (Fig. 8a).
  • Squamiform: shaped like a scale (Fig. 7e).
  • Stout: heavily built (Fig. 8a).
  • Strap­-like: shaped like a long and narrow strip (Fig. 7f).
  • Tongue-like: shaped like a tongue (Fig. 8b).
  • Truncated: having the apex cut off transversally; lacking the apex (Fig. 7b).
  • Tubiform: shaped like a tube (Fig. 8c).
Figure 7.

Illustrated glossary of terminology; plate VII: setae and cuticular projections.

aHead of Stigmatomma janovitsika sp. n. worker (CASENT0318418): ventral view of mandibles and mouth parts. Acuminate flattened-apex setae are highlighted in red. Statular setae are highlighted in green. Image and illustration by F. A. Esteves.
bHindleg of Stigmatomma janovitsika sp. n. worker (CASENT0145426): posterior face of posterior metatibial spur. Antler-like microtrichia are highlighted in red. Truncated-apex filiform setae are highlighted in green. Image and illustration by F. A. Esteves.
cHead of Stigmatomma janovitsika sp. n. worker (CASENT0145426): dorsal face of mandibles and clypeal area. Blunt dentiform setae are highlighted in green. Asymmetrical mucronate dentiform setae are highlighted in red. Spatular setae are seen in yellow. Image and illustration by F. A. Esteves.
dHead of Stigmatomma liebe sp. n. worker (CASENT0318414): dorsal face of mandibles and anterior part of the head. Conic setae are highlighted in red. Image and illustration by F. A. Esteves.
eForeleg of Stigmatomma besucheti worker (CASENT0101970): anterior face of calcar of strigil. Digitiform cuticular projections are highlighted in yellow. Squamiform microtrichia are highlighted in red. Lanceolate microtrichia are seen in green. Image and illustration by F. A. Esteves.
fForeleg of Stigmatomma roahady sp. n. worker (CASENT0002078): anterior face of calcar of strigil. Paddle-like setae are highlighted in red, and strap-like setae in green. Image and illustration by F. A. Esteves.
Figure 8.

Illustrated glossary of terminology; plate VIII: setae and cuticular projections.

aSeventh abdominal segment of Stigmatomma janovitsika sp. n. worker (CASENT0145426): lateral view of hypopygium. Stout spiniform setae are highlighted in red, while filiform setae appear in gray. Image and illustration by F. A. Esteves.
bHead of Stigmatomma besucheti worker (CASENT0101970): ventral view of mandibles and mouth parts. Tongue-like setae are highlighted in red. Image and illustration by F. A. Esteves.
cForeleg of Stigmatomma sakalava sp. n. worker (CASENT0017556): anterior face of calcar of strigil and mesobasitarsus. Tubiform setae are highlighted in red. Image and illustration by F. A. Esteves.

The terminology used to describe pilosity inclination, in regards to cuticle surface, follows Wilson (1955).

Wing venation (Fig. 9) follows Archibald et al. (2006).

Figure 9.

Diagram of the Stigmatomma generalized wing venation: A, forewing; B, hindwing. Abbreviations: C, costa; Sc, subcosta; R, radius; Rs, radial sector; M, media; C, cubitus; A, anal. The position of vein's free abscissas are indicated by the letter f followed by a cardinal number. Images by Masashi Yoshimura, available at AntWeb.org (specimen CASENT0083104). llustration by F. A. Esteves.

Measurements and indices

We used indices and measurements to quantify size, and as means of comparison among Stigmatomma species. Measurements were taken on a Leica MZ APO stereomicroscope, rounded to the nearest 0.01 mm. They are expressed in mm, and presented as minimum and maximum values with holotype measurements within parentheses. Indices are rounded to the nearest integer value, and expressed as minimum and maximum values with holotype index within parentheses. The raw data are presented in Suppl. material 1.

  • Head length (HL): in fullface view, straight line from the anterior clypeal margin to the midpoint of a straight imaginary line connecting posterior corners of the head (Fig. 10A).
  • Head width (HW): maximum width of the head, including eyes when present (Fig. 10A).
  • Head width 2 (HW2): width of the head immediately posterior to the posterolateral margin of the clypeus (as in Taylor 1978; Fig. 10A).
  • Scape length (SL): length of the scape (first antennal segment), excluding its basal constriction or neck and condyle (Fig. 10A).
  • Mandibular length (ML): outer length of the mandible (as in Taylor 1978; Fig. 10A).
  • Weber’s length of mesosoma (WL): diagonal length of the mesosoma in profile, from base of anterior slope of pronotum to metapleural lobe (Fig. 10B).
  • Propodeal posterior width (PPW): width of posterior margin of propodeal dorsal face, in dorsal view (Fig. 10C).
  • Petiolar length (PtL): maximum length of petiole in dorsal view (Fig. 10C).
  • Petiolar width (PtW): maximum width of petiole in dorsal view (Fig. 10C).
  • Cephalic index (CI): HW/HL ×100.
  • Scape index (SI): SL/HL ×100.
  • Mandibular index (MI): ML/HL ×100.
  • Petiolar index (PtI): PtL/PtW ×100.
Figure 10.

Measurements taken from Stigmatomma worker caste. A: fullface view; B: lateral view of head and mesosoma; C: dorsal view of mesosoma and anterior abdominal tergites. Abbreviations: HL, head length; HW, head width; HW2, head width 2; ML, mandibular length; PPW, propodeal posterior width; PtL, petiolar length; PtW, petiolar width; SL, scape length; WL, Weber's length of mesosoma. Illustrations by F. A. Esteves.

We employed a UPGMA hierarchical cluster analysis to visualize how specimens are grouped based on the differences in their linear morphometry. We also compared the clustering result with our species hypothesis to see how well they reflect each other.

In the UPGMA analysis, specimens clustered together are morphometrically more similar than specimens grouped into different clusters (Legendre and Legendre 1998). All of the following steps were performed on the R platform (R Core Team 2015; see complete script in the Suppl. material 2).

Cluster analysis uses a dissimilarity matrix as input. As a measure of dissimilarity, we used Euclidean distances, defined as the squared differences of measurement values between each pair of specimens (function dist, method “euclidean”; stats package, R Core Team 2015):

\(d_{x,y} = { \sqrt{ \displaystyle\sum_{j=1}^{J}(x_{j}-y_{j})^2}}\)

where d is the distance between specimens x and y, J is the total number of measurements taken from each specimen, and j is a given measurement.

Data normalization is imperative for unbiased Euclidean distances. It balances the contribution of each measurement to the distance matrix, neutralizing the weight of the absolute differences of larger variables (see more about data normalization in Gelman and Hill 2007). The impact of data normalization on Euclidean distances can be seen in this example of a simple model of two specimens, A and B, and three measurements (WL, PtL, and PtW):

\(d_{A,B} = { \sqrt{ (A_{WL}-B_{WL})^2+(A_{PtL}-B_{PtL})^2+(A_{PtW}-B_{PtW})^2}}\)

\(d_{A,B} = { \sqrt{ (1.508-1.396)^2+(0.692-0.674)^2+(0.758-0.704)^2}}\)

\(d_{A,B} = { \sqrt{ 0.0125+0.0003+0.0029}}\)

\(d_{A,B} =0.125\)

If the same measurement values were normalized to the log scale, the Euclidean distance between specimens A and B would be only 0.0022. Thus, before data normalization, the absolute difference between Weber’s length values dominates the equation’s result. To counteract this effect, we normalize original measurement values to the natural-log scale using function log (base package, R Core Team 2015) before calculating the dissimilarity distances between specimens.

UPGMA starts by combining the couple of most similar specimens into a group, then, it adds other specimens, or combines groups to groups, until all specimens are united by a common root. We used the method "average" as clustering strategy. It combines similar clusters together using the distance among cluster centroids as a dissimilarity measurement. For clustering, we used function hclust (stats package).

We use the cophenetic correlation coefficient to measure how well the cluster represents the distances between specimens. This provides a linear correlation coefficient between the cophenetic distances obtained from the cluster, and the original dissimilarity matrix that was used to build the cluster. The output value must be close to 1 for a high-informative cluster (Oksanen 2014, Oksanen 2015). To calculate the cophenetic correlation coefficient, we use the functions cophenetic and cor (stats package), and to plot the cluster, the function plot (graphics package, R Core Team 2015).

Cluster analysis captures the multivariate structure of a dataset, but it does not unveil the patterns of variation behind the clusters it builds. We used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to visualize and interpret patterns of morphometric variation among specimens. As seen below, PCA offers solutions for two elements that hamper the detection of patterns underlying morphometric variation among specimens: variable correlation and multidimensionality.

Morphological measurements are biologically linked to each other as they describe traits of an organism, and therefore, they are generally correlated (Zelditch et al. 2012). PCA creates new variables, or components, to eliminate such correlations. PCA components combine linearly the original measurements, are independent from each other, and will act as new dimensions/axes in the ordination space (Zelditch et al. 2012, Marhold 2011).

In the morphometric space (i.e., space defined by the measurements), PCA draws its first component along the line that comprises the highest proportion of variation among specimens. Consecutively, it derives the remaining components to encompass the highest variation after derivation of the previous components. This process continues until the number of components equals the number of original measurements (Zelditch et al. 2012, Marhold 2011).

The newly computed components are uncorrelated (i.e., orthogonal in the space), and ideally, the first components will capture most of the variation among specimens (Zelditch et al. 2012, Marhold 2011). Hence, the first components may be used to produce a graphical representation of the dataset in a lower dimensional space. The analysis provides: (1) A matrix with eigenvectors values, which are the location of original measurements on each component axis. It indicates the contribution of each original variable to the component: the larger the absolute value, the more important the variable. (2) The proportion of the total variance encompassed by each component.

Eventually, PCA projects the position of each specimen onto the components (Zelditch et al. 2012, Marhold 2011). In other words, it fits the specimens into the ordination space. The coordinate, or location, of each specimen on a given component is the PCA score (Marhold 2011).

We executed all the steps of the Principal Component Analysis on the R platform (R Core Team 2015), as follows (see complete script in the Suppl. material 3).

First, we checked the original measurements for the presence of correlations (function cor, stats package; R Core Team 2015). PCA components are based on variable correlations, which means that high correlations between variables increase the success of the analysis (Zelditch et al. 2012, Marhold 2011).

Function prcomp (scale set to TRUE; stats package) executed PCA analysis on the original measurement matrix. It also standardized our dataset to zero mean and unit variance, which prevents dominance of variables with higher variance in the analysis (Manly 2004). Function ggscreeplot (ggbiplot package; Vu 2011) produced a screeplot of the proportional variation explained by each PCA component. Function ggbiplot (ggbiplot package) mapped species scores along the components that encompassed the majority of the variation exhibited by the dataset.

The data and R scripts underpinning the analysis presented above are deposited in the Dryad Data Repository at https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m7340.

Images

Extended focus montage images were created with a Leica DFC 425 camera and LEICA APPLICATION SUITE software (version 3.8; Leica Microsystems, Switzerland), and are available online at AntWeb. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for observations of smaller characters. We prepared specimens for SEM adapting the procedure used by Keller (2011):

Workers kept in ethanol were washed in water and gently brushed to remove dirt particles, before being placed in 90% ethanol for 20 minutes. Specimens were then: (1) point mounted in a copper conductive triangle (TED PELLA, INC.) below the median and hind right coxae, and fixed in an SEM aluminum Zeiss stub (TED PELLA, INC.) via a double-­sided adhesive conducting PELCO tab (TED PELLA, INC.); and (2) left to air dry for at least 12 hours before scanning.

Point­-mounted dry specimens were submerged in warm water to dissolve the mounting glue before being placed in 90% ethanol, after which the same treatment described above was applied.

Specimens mounted on stubs were coated with gold­-palladium—this procedure was not applied to rare taxa (i.e., poorly represented in collections). Images were taken using a LEO/Zeiss 1450 VP SEM field emission scanning electron microscope at CASC, using the high voltage mode (HV) at a voltage of 10 kV. Images of uncoated ants were taken using the SEM at a variable pressure secondary electron mode (VPSE) with the following configuration: VP target pressure around 20Pa, spot size around between 500 and 600, VPSE collector bias at 390V, and voltage at 20kV. At least three specimens of each species were imaged when permitted by the available number of specimens.

Maps

For Madagascar, species distributions were mapped over a shaded relief of the island, overlaid by an elevation layer and the outlines of five simplified ecoregion zones of the country (Burgess et al. 2004): humid forests, subhumid forests, dry deciduous forests, succulent woodlands, and spiny thickets. Mangroves were merged with the adjacent ecoregion since they are not biologically informative for Stigmatomma. The ecoregion classification used here only reflects the original primary vegetation of Madagascar. Nowadays, more than 82% of the island's original vegetation has been modified by human activities (Du Puy and Moat 1998).

For Seychelles, species distributions were mapped over a shaded-relief of the islands, overlaid by an elevation layer.

All of the following steps, unless otherwise noted, were performed on the R platform (R Core Team 2015; see Suppl. material 4 for script, which is also deposited in the Dryad Data Repository at https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m7340).

  1. Obtaining elevation raster layer for Madagascar: Function getData (raster package, Hijmans 2015) acquired elevation data for Madagascar, aggregating SRTM 90 m resolution data.
  2. Obtaining elevation raster layer for Seychelles: Although function getData worked perfectly for Madagascar, it did not return any data for Seychelles. Thus, we downloaded elevation data directly from the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT; Jarvis et al. 2008, available at srtm.csi.cgiar.org), and used function readGDAL (rgdal package, Bivand et al. 2015) to enter the data into R. Function raster (raster package) rasterized the elevation layer for Seychelles.
  3. Obtaining and modifying ecoregions vector layers for Madagascar: In this study, ecoregion outlines of Madagascar are based on the vector data disclosed by the Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World (Olson et al. 2001, available at the WWF website). However, the original outlines were slightly mismatching the relief of Madagascar. To solve this, we combined the original ecoregion data with data from the Remaining Primary Vegetation of Madagascar (Du Puy and Moat 1996, available at the Kew Royal Botanic Gardens website), which has more natural outlines. QUANTUM GIS 1.8.0 (QGIS Development Team 2013) provided the tools to geoprocess these layers (i.e., Clip, Union, and Difference). Function readOGR (rgdal package) read the processed ecoregions files into R.

  4. Reading distribution points for each Stigmatomma species: Function read.csv (utils package, R Core Team 2015) loaded into R a file containing the geographic coordinates of collection points for each specimen examined in this study.
  5. Standardizing projections of raster and vector layers: Function proj4string (raster package) retrieved the vector data projection, and used it to set the projection of the elevation data. Function CRS (rgdal package) assigned that value to an R object, which was used as a liaison between retrieving and setting projections.
  6. Obtaining the shaded relief of Madagascar: Function terrain (raster package) computed slope and terrain from the elevation data, which were used by function hillShade (raster package) to compute the shaded-relief layer.
  7. Plottting maps: Function plot (raster package) drew the shaded relief of Madagascar and Seychelles, and overlaid them with the raw elevation layer. For Madagascar, function plot also overlaid the resuting image with the modified ecoregion layers. Function grey (grDevices package, R Core Team 2015) provided the different levels of gray for shaded-relief and elevation layers; function alpha (scales package, Wickham 2015) modified color transparency. Function points (graphics package, R Core Team 2015) drew species distributions over the map at their specified geographic coordinates.

Note that extensive myrmecological exploration of Madagascar is ongoing; we encourage readers to consult detailed and regularly updated distribution data available on AntWeb.org, where existing and future distributions can be mapped interactively and at higher resolution then the maps presented here.

Depository acronyms

ANIC: Australian National Insect Collection, Canberra, Australia.

BMNH: The Natural History Museum, London, U.K.

CASC: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.

MCZC: Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, U.S.A.

NHMB: Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel, Switzerland.

NHMW: Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria.

MHNG: Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland.

MZSP: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

USNM: National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

Taxon treatments

Stigmatomma  Roger 1859

Nomenclature

Stigmatomma as junior synonym of Amblyopone: Emery and Forel 1879: 455; Mayr 1887: 546. Revived from synonymy: Dalla Torre 1893: 14. Subgenus of Amblyopone: Forel 1900: 55; Clark 1934: 27; Brown 1949: 87. Revived status as genus: Bingham 1903: 36; Emery 1911: 23; Creighton 1950: 31. Junior synonym of Amblyopone: Brown 1960: 155. Revived status as genus: Yoshimura and Fisher 2012b: 17. Senior synonym of Arotropus: Yoshimura and Fisher 2012b: 17.

= Arotropus Provancher 1881: 205. Type-species: Arotropus binodosus (junior synonym of Typhlopone pallipes), by monotypy.

Type species

Stigmatomma denticulatum Roger 1859 - Bingham 1903 [36]: by subsequent designation.
Material    Download as CSV 

Diagnosis

Workers of Stigmatomma in the Malagasy bioregion – characters of the Amblyoponinae as described by Brown (1960) and the following characters:

  1. Mandible elongate and linear, not as long as the head, pointed at the apex (Fig. 11). Masticatory and basal margins running parallel to each other along baso­apical axis, resulting in two rows of teeth (Fig. 12). Teeth of the same pair generally basally fused.
  2. Median portion of clypeal anterior margin anteriorly projected (generally convex; Fig. 11). Anterior clypeal margin armed with single row of dentiform setae, arising from tubercle-­like cuticular projections or from the flat cuticle (Fig. 12​). Pair of long setae on clypeus, generally arising from its anterior margin.
  3. Genal teeth present or absent.
  4. Number of antennomeres: 10–12.
  5. Under the stereomicroscope, pilosity similar present on all antennomeres (Fig. 11).
  6. Palpal formula: 4:3; 4:2; or 2:2 (two maxillary and two labial).
  7. Metanotal suture well developed to absent.
  8. Mesepisternum generally divided into anepisternum and katepisternum (Fig. 2).
  9. Number of mesotibial spurs: 0–2.
  10. Anterodorsal face of mesobasitarsus generally with a longitudinal sulcus (Fig. 3b).
  11. Number of metatibial spurs: 1–2.
  12. Anterior face of metabasitarsus generally without a longitudinal sulcus.
  13. Pretarsal claw simple; arolium present on pro-, meso-, and metapretarsi (Fig. 3d).
  14. Petiole (abdominal segment II) sessile (Fig. 13). Subpetiolar process present; fenestra present or absent on its lateral face.
  15. Constriction, generally scrobiculate, present between pretergite and postergite of abdominal segment III.
  16. Prora present.
  17. Scrobiculate constriction present between presclerites and postsclerites of abdominal segment IV.
  18. Stout spiniform setae on apex of hypopygium present or absent (Fig. 14).
Figure 11.

Holotype worker of Stigmatomma liebe sp. n. (CASENT0318428); dorsal face of the head. Image by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org

Figure 12.

Mandibular teeth arrangement in two different species of Stigmatomma in the Malagasy bioregion.

aMandibles of Stigmatomma roahady sp. n. worker; dorsal view (CASENT0004339). Teeth distribution layout indicated in the figure. Note the enlarged most basal tooth. Image by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org
bMandibles of Stigmatomma besucheti Baroni-Urbani worker; dorsal view (CASENT0906833). The arrow highlights the most basal tooth, which is similar in size with the more apical teeth. Image by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org
Figure 13.

Stigmatomma tsyhady sp. n. worker; lateral view (CASENT0121332). Image by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org

Figure 14.

Abdominal segment VII of Stigmatomma sakalava worker sp. n. (CASENT0022146), lateral view, featuring stout spiniform setae on the apex of its hypopygium. Image by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org

Comments on worker characters: 

The list of characters above forms an inclusive diagnosis of the genus, but no character can currently be pointed as unique for Stigmatomma.

1. In Stigmatomma, the total dental count (including teeth arranged in pairs) recorded for Malagasy species is 11–15, distributed from base to apex as follows: 1–3 single teeth, followed by 3–6 teeth pairs (generally fused at the base), a pre­apical (generally single) tooth, and an apical pointy tooth (Fig. 12). Tooth number and arrangement may be constant within some species, but not for all species we evaluated: it varies within nest series and even between left and right mandibles of the same specimen. Given that, we did not use these characters alone to isolate individual species.

The most basal tooth is enlarged in the majority of species we studied, but not in all (Fig. 12​​). This contradicts the opinion of Yoshimura and Fisher (2012b), which is that all Malagasy Stigmatomma species possess an enlarged basal tooth in their mandibles.

Teeth coupling generally occurs between teeth with similar dimensions (Fig. 12a). However, in two species (Stigmatomma bolabola sp. n. and S. sakalava sp. n.), dorsal teeth increase in size towards the mandible’s apex (Fig. 15​). In that case, the dorsal tooth is smaller than the ventral paired tooth, but at the mandible's apex. This also contradicts Yoshimura and Fisher (2014) and Yoshimura and Fisher (2012b), who were of the opinion that dorsal teeth are smaller than ventral teeth in the XMMAS clade genera. In their view, the genus Amblyopone would generally present mandibles with no teeth pairs, but if teeth were present, the dorsal tooth would be larger than the respective ventral pair. A species noteworthy in this discussion is Stigmatomma pluto (Gotwald and Lévieux 1972) (ANTWEB1008502; Afrotropical region), whose mandible has no basal teeth paired with mandibular teeth, thus resembling the mandible of Amblyopone (Fig. 16).

Figure 15.

Mandibles of Stigmatomma sakalava sp. n. worker; dorsal view (CASENT0022146). Arrows point to dorsal tooth couples, which increase in size towards the mandible's apex. Image by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org

Figure 16.

Mandibular dentition arrangement of Stigmatomma pluto worker (ANTWEB1008502).

aDorsal view of the mandibles illustrates the absence of pairs of teeth. Image by Roberto Keller; available at AntWeb.org
bLateral view of the head, which confirms that mandibles have no basal teeth paired with mandibular teeth. Image by Roberto Keller; available at AntWeb.org

Among the other Amblyoponinae genera distributed in the Malagasy bioregion: Prionopelta has short and subtriangular mandibles, which are usually armed with three teeth on the apical half, so that basal and mastigatory margins are distinct (Fig. 17c). The mandibles of Mystrium are similar to those of Stigmatomma in their indistinct basal and mastigatory margins, but are longer than its head, and have blunt apex (Bolton 1994; Fig. 17b). Also in Mystrium, the ventral row of teeth is set far apart from the dorsal row (Yoshimura and Fisher 2014). Adetomyrma and Xymmer, like Stigmatomma, present mandibles that shorter than the head, with indistinct basal and masticatory margins and a pointy apex (Fig. 17a, d). While teeth are not disposed in pairs along the mandibles of Adetomyrma (Yoshimura and Fisher 2012b), the mandibles of Xymmer do have pairs of teeth.

Figure 17.

Similarities and differences of the head among Adetomyrma, Mystrium, Prionopelta, and Xymmer in the Malagasy bioregion.

aFullface view of Adetomyrma bressleri worker (CASENT0205995). Image by Ryan Perry; available at AntWeb.org
bFullface view of Mystrium eques worker (CASENT0317390). Image by Estella Ortega; available at AntWeb.org
cFullface view of Prionopelta descarpentriesi worker (CASENT0034837). Image by Rick Overson; available at AntWeb.org
dFullface view of Xymmer mg04 worker (CASENT0151732). Image by Erin Prado; available at AntWeb.org

In addition to the similarities and differences among the shape and configuration of the mandibles, an enlarged mandibular basal tooth is absent in all other Malagasy Amblyoponinae genera (Yoshimura and Fisher 2012a, Yoshimura and Fisher 2012b; Fig. 17).

2. Number and configuration of clypeal cuticular processes and associated dentiform setae vary among the evaluated species of Stigmatomma. All species present three to ten cuticular processes on the anterior margin of the clypeus. Each medial process bears one dentiform seta.

In half of the species (tsyhady species-complex members and Stigmatomma janovitsika sp. n.), the seta on the lateral-most process is laterodistally followed by a row of dentiform setae. These lateral rows extend laterad on the anterior clypeal margin, where it arises from flat cuticle (Fig. 12a). In few species (S. bolabola sp. n. and S. sakalava sp. n.), the lateral-most cuticular process is smaller, and does not bear any dentiform setae (Fig. 15). S. besucheti presents three medial cuticular processes that are followed laterodistally by a notch on the anterior clypeal margin. This notch is succeeded by a row of dentiform setae arising from flat cuticle (or from reduced cuticular processes; Fig. 12b).

However, the number of medial cuticular processes may vary within some species and sometimes within nest series. Thus, we did not use such variations to isolate individual species.

Among the other Amblyoponinae genera present in the Malagasy region, Mystrium, like Stigmatomma, also presents a single row of cuticular projections bearing dentiform setae on the anterior clypeal margin (Fig. 17b; or see ANTWEB1008554 for high-magnification images). On the other hand, Xymmer has neither specialized setae nor cuticular tubercle-­like projections (Fig. 17d; or see ANTWEB1008499 for more images); in Adetomyrma, all dentiform clypeal setae arise from flat cuticle (Fig. 17a; or see ANTWEB1008494 for SEM images); and Prionopelta seems to have cuticular projections welded onto an anterior clypeal apron (Fig. 17c).

A pair of long setae is present on the anterior margin of the clypeus of all genera in the XMMAS clade in the Malagasy region, however, they are reduced and stouter in Mystrium (CASENT0002095).

3. The presence or absence of genal teeth is uniform within Stigmatomma species, and this character has relative importance to group species with similar morphology. In the Malagasy bioregion, this trait is present in all Mystrium species (Fig. 17b) and absent in Adetomyrma (Fig. 17a), Prionopelta (Fig. 17c), and Xymmer (Fig. 17d).

4. Despite the variation among species, the number of antennomeres is constant within the Stigmatomma species we studied. Adetomyrma, Mystrium, and Xymmer species present no variation for this character, with all having twelve­ antennomeres.

5. Under the stereomicroscope, the whole antenna is equally covered by setae in Adetomyrma, Prionopelta, Stigmatomma, and Xymmer (Figs 11, 17a, c, d). In Mystrium, the four apical-most antennomeres are covered with denser pilosity (​Fig. 17b). SEM images show that the apical antennomeres in Mystrium are actually covered by a different type of setae (ANTWEB1008554).

6. Without dissection, the maxillary and labial palpomeres are often extremely difficult to count in the species we studied.

Regarding the number of maxillary and labial palpomeres in other Amblyoponinae members in the Malagasy region, the palpal formula is constant within Mystrium (4:3) and Prionopelta (2:2) (Yoshimura and Fisher 2014), but not in Adetomyrma and Xymmer.

The palpal formula published for the Adetomyrma worker caste is 3:3, but some species are only known by the male caste, which, depending on the species, may present palpomere counts of 2:2 and 2:3 (Yoshimura and Fisher 2012a). The palpal formula for Xymmer males is 4:3/3:3/3:2 (Yoshimura and Fisher 2012b). Since published records indicate that the number of palpomeres is generally constant across castes of Amblyponinae species (Brown 1960), we expect the females of Xymmer and Adetomyrma to reflect a similarly diverse combination.

Finally, Yoshimura and Fisher (2012b) presented 4:3/4:2/3:3 as palpal formula for Stigmatomma males in the Malagasy region, differing from the numbers we counted for workers. However, mouthpart dissections on several male specimens of the same morphotypes used by Yoshimura & Fisher revealed that, for Stigmatomma, the number of palpomeres is the same in males and females (4:3/4:2; not evaluated for S. besucheti, as males are unknown).

7. The presence or absence of the metanotal suture, and the degree of its impression, may vary within species, as well as within nest series of Stigmatomma in the Malagasy region. Given this, we did not use those variations to isolate individual species.

9. The number of mesotibial spur(s) is difficult to determine under stereomicroscopes when the anterior spur is reduced in size, and also because the posterior spur may be “replaced” by an enlarged, stout spiniform seta. SEM images allowed comparisons between the texture of enlarged spinifom processes and surrounding cuticle, thus enabling us to differentiate spur and seta (Fig. 18​).

Figure 18.

Difference between a spur and an enlarged seta on the inner face of the mesotibial apex of Stigmatomma workers.

aMesotibia of Stigmatomma bolabola sp. n. worker (CASENT0034744). Inner face of the apical portion featuring a single spur. Image by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org
bMesotibia of Stigmatomma janovitsika sp. n. worker (CASENT0145426). Posterior face of the apical portion featuring an enlarged seta. Image by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org

In the Stigmatomma we studied, the number of mesotibial spurs ranged from zero to two, and were generally constant within species. In one species, S. liebe sp. n., the number of mesotibial spurs visible under the stereomicroscope ranges from one to two. The anterior spur may be visible and developed, but it is vestigial in the majority of the specimens we evaluated. This variation was observed in specimens from the same nest series.

Regarding other members of the XMMAS clade, Stigmatomma pallipes (ANTWEB1008501; Nearctic region), S. pluto (ANTWEB1008502), Adetomyrma caputleae Yoshimura and Fisher 2012a (ANTWEB1008494; Malagasy region), Fulakora mystriops (Brown 1960) (ANTWEB1008500; Neotropical region), Myopopone castanea (Smith 1860) (ANTWEB1008551; Indomalaya and Australasia regions), and Xymmer muticus Santschi 1914 (ANTWEB1008499; Afrotropical region) have two mesotibial spurs. A. venatrix Ward 1994 (Malagasy region) possesses one spur (Ward 1994), as well as F. chilensis (Mayr 1887) (ANTWEB1008496; Neotropical region) and Mystrium voeltzkowi Forel 1897 (ANTWEB1008554; Malagasy region). All Xymmer morphospecies from Madagascar evaluated under a stereomicroscope presented one spur/stout seta on the apex of the mesotibia. One species clearly seems to have a spur, while the others apparently present an enlarged stout seta.

Among the Amblyoponinae genera outside the XMMAS clade, ​Amblyopone australis Erichson 1842 (ANTWEB1008497; Australasia region), A. mercovichi Brown 1960 (ANTWEB1008498; Australasia region), and Apomyrma stygia Brown et al. 1971 (ANTWEB1008505) possess two mesotibial spurs. Onychomyrmex doddi Wheeler 1916 (ANTWEB1008560; Australasia region) possesses two vestigial spurs at the apex of the mesotibia. Each spur is a small, stout, conic seta totally or partially concealed by a fovea. Prionopelta aethiopica Arnold 1949 (ANTWEB1008580; Afrotropical region) and P. antillana Forel 1909 (ANTWEB1008581; Neotropical region) have one vestigial spur, while P. concenta (Brown 1974) (ANTWEB1008513; Afrotropical region) presents no spurs on the mesotibia.

10. We confirm the presence of a longitudinal sulcus on the antero­dorsal face of the mesobasitarsus in all species of Stigmatomma in the Malagasy region save S. tsyhady sp. n.

Within the XMMAS clade, this sulcus is present on the mesobasitarsus of Stigmatomma pallipes (ANTWEB1008501), S. pluto (ANTWEB1008502), Adetomyrma caputleae (ANTWEB1008494), Fulakora chilensis (ANTWEB1008496), F. mystriops (ANTWEB1008500), Myopopone castanea (ANTWEB1008551), and Xymmer muticus (ANTWEB1008499). We confirm present of this sulcus in only one Xymmer species in the Malagasy region. However, this character is difficult to visualize under a stereomicroscope when specimens are too small, as it occurs with Xymmer species, and its presence or absence may be better evaluated with an SEM microscope. This sulcus is absent in all Mystrium species we evaluated in the Malagasy region (CASENT0429914; CASENT0482698; CASENT0003281; CASENT0429897; CASENT0129838; CASENT0418314; CASENT0318933; CASENT0494274; CASENT0248701; CASENT0001158; ANTWEB1008554).

The sulcus on the anterior face of the mesobasitarsus is absent in Amblyopone australis (ANTWEB1008497), A. mercovichi (ANTWEB1008498), Apomyrma stygia (ANTWEB1008505), Onychomyrmex doddi (ANTWEB1008560), Prionopelta aethiopica (ANTWEB1008580), P. antillana (ANTWEB1008581), and P. concenta (ANTWEB1008513).

11. All Stigmatomma species present in the Malagasy bioregion present two well-developed metatibial spurs save S. liebe sp. n. In this species, the number of metatibial spurs visible under the stereomicroscope ranges from one to two. The anterior spur is visibly smaller than the posterior spur, and may be vestigial in some specimens. This variation was observed in specimens from the same nest series. A similar condition is found in Onychomyrmex hedleyi Emery 1895 (Australasia region). In this species, metatibial spurs are vestigial and may be present or absent in specimens from the same colony (Brown 1960).

In the XMMAS clade, Stigmatomma pallipes (ANTWEB1008501), S. pluto (ANTWEB1008502), Adetomyrma caputleae (ANTWEB1008494), A. venatrix, Fulakora chilensis (ANTWEB1008496), F. mystriops (ANTWEB1008500), Myopopone castanea (ANTWEB1008551), Mystrium voeltzkowi (ANTWEB1008554), and Xymmer muticus (ANTWEB1008499) possess two spurs on the metatibia.

Amblyopone australis (ANTWEB1008497), A. mercovichi (ANTWEB1008498), and Apomyrma stygia (ANTWEB1008505) possess two metatibial spurs. Onychomyrmex doddi (ANTWEB1008560) possesses two vestigial spurs at the apex of the metatibia. These spurs are small, stout, conic seta totally or partially concealed by a fovea. Prionopelta aethiopica (ANTWEB1008580) and P. antillana (ANTWEB1008581) have one spur, while P. concenta (ANTWEB1008513) presents no spurs.

12. Only one Stigmatomma species evaluated in this study (S. roahady sp. n.) presents a longitudinal sulcus on the anterior face of the metabasitarsus. The metabasitarsus of S. besucheti, while not presenting a sulcus on its anterior face, possesses two raised, parallel, not-­well­-developed longitudinal carinae with convergent apexes on its dorsal face.

This sulcus is present on the metabasitarsus of Myopopone castanea (ANTWEB1008551), and absent in Stigmatomma pallipes (ANTWEB1008501), S. pluto (ANTWEB1008502), Adetomyrma caputleae (ANTWEB1008494), A. venatrix, Fulakora chilensis (ANTWEB1008496), F. mystriops (ANTWEB1008500), and Xymmer muticus (ANTWEB1008499). It seems to be absent on the metabasitarsus of Xymmer in the Malagasy region. However, we cautiously affirm that, since this character is difficult to visualize under a stereomicroscope when specimens are too small, like those of Xymmer, it would be better evaluated under higher magnification. This sulcus is absent in all Mystrium species we evaluated in the Malagasy bioregion (CASENT0429914; CASENT0482698; CASENT0003281; CASENT0429897; CASENT0129838; CASENT0418314; CASENT0318933; CASENT0494274; CASENT0248701; CASENT0001158; ANTWEB1008554).

Among the Amblyoponinae genera that are not part of the XMMAS clade, the sulcus on the metabasitarsus is absent on Amblyopone australis (ANTWEB1008497), A. mercovichi (ANTWEB1008498), Apomyrma stygia (ANTWEB1008505), Onychomyrmex doddi (ANTWEB1008560), Prionopelta aethiopica (ANTWEB1008580), P. antillana (ANTWEB1008581), and P. concenta (ANTWEB1008513).

13. Arolium present on pro-, meso-, and metapretarsi in all species we studied. The same seems to apply to the other Amblyoponinae genera in the Malagasy region.

14. The petiole is sessile to sub­sessile in Adetomyrma and Mystrium; and subsessile to penduculate in Xymmer (Fig. 19). Also, within the XMMAS clade in the Malagasy region, Xymmer is the only genus in which the subpetiolar process is absent.

Figure 19.

Presence or absence of petiolar penduncle in Adetomyrma, Mystrium, and Xymmer.

aAdetomyrma barrybressleri worker, lateral view (CASENT0205995). Image by Ryan Perry; available at AntWeb.org
bMystrium mysticum worker, lateral view (CASENT0429959). Image by Cerise Chen; available at AntWeb.org
cXymmer mg01 worker, lateral view (CASENT0004310). Image by April Nobile; available at AntWeb.org
dXymmer muticus dealated queen, lateral view (Afrotropical bioregion; CASENT0102213). Image by April Nobile; available at AntWeb.org

15. The constriction between pretergite and postergite of the abdominal segment III is scrobiculate in all Stigmatomma species but one. In Adetomyrma such a constriction is not visible; in Xymmer species the constriction is alveolate; and in Mystrium it is scrobiculate.

16. A prora is visible under a stereomicroscope in all Stigmatomma and Mystrium species in the Malagasy region; it seems to be absent in Adetomyrma and Xymmer.

17. Adetomyrma does not possess a constriction between the presclerite and postsclerite of abdominal segment IV. The constriction is scrobiculate in Mystrium and Stigmatomma, and alveolate in Xymmer.

18. Stout spiniform setae may be located on the apex of the hypopygium, surrounding the sting (Fig. 14). The number of setae varies from six to nine, when present in Stigmatomma species in the Malagasy region. This contradicts the opinion of Yoshimura and Fisher (2014), which states that the number of stout setae ranges from three to nine.

In the Malagasy region, all Mystrium species present two or four stout setae on the hypopygium (Yoshimura and Fisher 2014), while Xymmer and Adetomyrma have no such setae. Yoshimura and Fisher (2014) affirmed that two or four stout setae on the apex of the hypopygium are uniquely observed in Mystrium; however, Fulakora mystriops (ANTWEB1008500) also presents four stout setae on the hypopygium.

Stout spiniform setae are also present on the hypopygium of Stigmatomma pluto (twelve setae, ANTWEB1008502), Fulakora chilensis (eight setae, ANTWEB1008496), and in F. cleae (Lacau and Delabie 2002) and F. agostii (Lacau and Delabie 2002), which have ten setae each (both from the Neotropical region). These setae are absent in S. pallipes (ANTWEB1008501), the Neotropical F. heraldoi (Lacau and Delabie 2002), Myopopone castanea (ANTWEB1008551), Xymmer muticus (ANTWEB1008499), Amblyopone australis (ANTWEB1008497), A. mercovichi (ANTWEB1008498), Apomyrma stygia (ANTWEB1008505), Onychomyrmex doddi (ANTWEB1008560), Prionopelta aethiopica (ANTWEB1008580), and P. concenta (ANTWEB1008513).

Malagasy species-group Stigmatomma

We introduce a morphological organization system for the species diversity of Stigmatomma in the Malagasy bioregion which is based upon the definition of informal species-groups, which may contain species-complexes when necessary. Groups and complexes are named after the most abundant species, and the groups we presently define only reflect what is seen in the Malagasy fauna.

Synoptic list of Malagasy species: 

 

besucheti group

besucheti (Baroni Urbani 1978) (Seychelles; Singapore?)

tsyhady group

sakalava complex

bolabola Esteves & Fisher sp. n. (Madagascar)

janovitsika Esteves & Fisher sp. n. (Seychelles)

sakalava Esteves & Fisher sp. n. (Madagascar)

tsyhady complex

irayhady Esteves & Fisher sp. n. (Madagascar)

liebe Esteves & Fisher sp. n. (Madagascar)

roahady Esteves & Fisher sp. n. (Madagascar)

tsyhady Esteves & Fisher sp. n. (Madagascar)

besucheti species-group: 

 

Stigmatomma besucheti (Baroni Urbani 1978)

The morphology of S. besucheti isolates the species from other Stigmatomma in the Malagasy bioregion, and we place it in its own group based on the following worker characters (asterisks flag unique characters within the genus in the Malagasy bioregion):

1. * Ten antennomeres;

2. * Two maxillary palpomeres (palpal formula: 2:2);

3. * Calcar of strigil completely pectinate;

4. * Anterior face of the calcar of strigil with squamiform microtrichia basally;

5. * Posterior face of the calcar of strigil glabrous;

6. * Weakly raised longitudinal parallel carinae present on the dorsal face of metabasitarsus, with convergent apexes;

7. * Petiolar proprioceptor zone reduced to a small concavity.

tsyhady species-group: 

 

Workers with the following combination of characters (asterisks flag unique characters within the genus in the Malagasy bioregion):

1. * Twelve antennomeres;

2. * Four maxillary palpomeres (palpal formula: 4:3 or 4:2);

3. * Calcar of strigil not completely pectinate; baso­ventral lamella generally visible (in one species the lamella is reduced to a basal bud);

4. Anterior face of the calcar of strigil with strap­like or tubiform microtrichia basally;

5. * Posterior face of the calcar of strigil with lanceolate microtrichia;

6. Absence of any longitudinal carina on the dorsal face of metabasitarsus;

7. * Petiolar proprioceptor zone a large, round concavity.

This group can be split into subgroups based on morphological similarities, here called species complexes.

sakalava species-complex: 

 

Stigmatomma bolabola Esteves & Fisher, sp. n.

Stigmatomma janovitsika Esteves & Fisher, sp. n.

Stigmatomma sakalava Esteves & Fisher, sp. n.

Workers with the following combination of characters (character numbers are sequential to the species groups for sake of clarity in the character discussion):

8. Genal teeth present or absent;

9. Two labial palpomeres (palpal formula: 4:2);

10. Antler­-like microtrichia present on posterior face of posterior metatibial spur;

11. Absence of fenestra on the subpetiolar process;

12. Stout spiniform setae present on the apex of hypopygium.

tsyhady species-complex: 

 

Stigmatomma irayhady Esteves & Fisher, sp. n.

Stigmatomma liebe Esteves & Fisher, sp. n.

Stigmatomma roahady Esteves & Fisher, sp. n.

Stigmatomma tsyhady Esteves & Fisher, sp. n.

Workers with the following combination of characters (character numbers are sequential to the species groups for sake of clarity in the character discussion; asterisks flag unique characters within the genus in the Malagasy bioregion):

8. Genal teeth present;

9. * Three labial palpomeres (palpal formula: 4:3);

10. Posterior face of posterior metatibial spur mostly glabrous;

11. * Fenestra present on the subpetiolar process;

12. * Absence of stout spiniform setae on hypopygium.

Comments on species-groups and species-complexes characters: 

 

3. A reduced lamella on the baso­ventral margin of the calcar of strigil is often difficult to visualize under a stereomicroscope, and the calcar may appear completely pectinate while in reality it has a basal bud on the base of its ventral margin. Nonetheless, the proportion of lamellar tissue on the ventral margin of the calcar is constant within species, and was helpful to delimit certain species.

4-5. Presence and shape of microtrichia on anterior and posterior face of the calcar of strigil are not visible under a stereomicroscope. However, those characters are informative to diagnose groups of species.

6. The longitudinal parallel carinae on the dorsal face of the Stigmatomma besucheti metabasitarsus somewhat converge at their apexes; thus, the region between them appears groove-like in dorsal view. No other species of Stigmatomma in the Malagasy region presents such a character. However, one species, S. roahady, possesses a longitudinal sulcus on the anterior face of its metabasitarsus, and since its shape and location are different from the carinae on S. besucheti, we did not consider them homologous.

10. The presence and shape of microtrichia on the posterior face of the metatibial spur are not visible under a steromicroscope; however, it is informative to diagnose groups of species.

Stigmatomma besucheti (Baroni Urbani 1978)

Nomenclature

Amblyopone besucheti Baroni Urbani 1978: 49, figs. 15, 16. Holotype (worker, CASENT0101816): SEYCHELLES: Ile de la Digue, 28.Jan.1975, P. Schauenberg leg. Paratypes: 9 workers; same data as holotype.

Combination in Stigmatomma: Yoshimura and Fisher 2012b: 19.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma besucheti
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Ile de la Digue
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.359097
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.841242
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    01/28/1975
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0101816
    ; recordedBy:
    P. Schauenberg
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    MHNG
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma besucheti
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Ile de la Digue
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.359097
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.841242
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    01/28/1975
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0101900
    ; recordedBy:
    P. Schauenberg
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    MHNG
  2. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma besucheti
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Ile de la Digue
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.359097
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.841242
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    01/28/1975
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0101970
    ; recordedBy:
    P. Schauenberg
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    MHNG
  3. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma besucheti
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Ile de la Digue
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.359097
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.841242
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    01/28/1975
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0280650
    ; recordedBy:
    P. Schauenberg
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    BMNH(E)1017525
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    BMNH
  4. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma besucheti
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Ile de la Digue
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.359097
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.841242
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    01/28/1975
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0906833
    ; recordedBy:
    P. Schauenbert
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    NHMB
  5. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma besucheti
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Ile de la Digue
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.359097
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.841242
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    01/28/1975
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0906834
    ; recordedBy:
    P. Schauenberg
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    NHMB
  6. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma besucheti
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Ile de la Digue
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.359097
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.841242
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    01/28/1975
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0906835
    ; recordedBy:
    P. Schauenberg
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    NHMB
Other materials:
  1. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma cf. besucheti
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Singapore
    ; locality:
    Univ. Campus Singapore; (ANIC32-016286)
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.28333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    103.767
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    10km
    ; eventDate:
    06/01/1964
    ; habitat:
    Imperata grassland
    ; eventRemarks:
    soil
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0172194
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H.Murphy
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    anic32-016286
    ; associatedMedia: ; identifiedBy:
    R.W. Taylor
    ; dateIdentified:
    12/06/1978
    ; institutionCode:
    ANIC
  2. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma cf. besucheti
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Singapore
    ; locality:
    Bukit Timah Nature Reserve
    ; decimalLatitude:
    1.38333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    103.8
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    10km
    ; eventDate:
    10/04/1965
    ; habitat:
    degraded coastal hill forest
    ; eventRemarks:
    on grantite, berlesate No I24
    ; sex:
    1dq
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0195513
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H.Murphy
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    anic32-016287
    ; associatedMedia: ; identifiedBy:
    R.W. Taylor
    ; dateIdentified:
    12/07/1978
    ; institutionCode:
    ANIC

Description

Worker (Fig. 20​): HL: 0.38-0.40; HW: 0.28-0.29; HW2: 0.26-0.27; SL: 0.18-0.19; ML: 0.20-0.22; WL: 0.41-0.43; PPW: 0.15-0.16; PtL: 0.14-0.15; PtW: 0.16-0.16; CI: 71.36-73.54; SI: 46.04-48.68; MI: 52.26-55.45; PtI: 90.00-92.50.

Figure 20.

Holotype of Stigmatomma besucheti (CASENT0101816); worker. Images by April Nobile; available at AntWeb.org

aFullface view.
bLateral view.
cDorsal view.

Head:

Mandibular baso-masticatory margin skirted dorsally by row of filiform setae; medially, by flexuous tongue-like setae; ventrally, by flexuous filiform setae, grading into flexuous tongue-like setae apically (Fig. 21a, b). Mandibular dentition arrangement, from base to apex: two single teeth (same size of teeth arranged in pairs); four pairs of teeth (each pair with same dimensions, fused basally); single preapical tooth; apical tooth (Fig. 21a). Pair of teeth with similar dimensions along mandible's basoapical axis. Anterior clypeal margin with three cuticular processes arranged in a single row, armed anteriorly with asymmetrical mucronate dentiform seta; followed laterally by a notch on the anterior clypeal margin (Fig. 21a). Most lateral portion of anterior clypeal margin armed with row of conical setae arising from flat cuticle (or from reduced tubercle-like cuticular processes), decreasing in size laterad. Clypeal cuticular processes with approximately same length of associated dentiform setae. Long filiform setae pair on clypeal median area, posterior to central-most pair of cuticular processes on clypeal anterior margin. Shorter filiform pair of setae on clypeal median area, between longer pair of setae and frontal lobes. Median area of clypeus extending posteriorly between antennal sockets as narrow longitudinal strip; frontoclypeal sulcus acute (Fig. 21c). Supraclypeal area as small oblong depression (Fig. 21c). Ten antennomeres. Genal teeth absent. Compound eyes absent. Palpal formula: 2:2 (two maxillary, two labial; Fig. 21d​).

Figure 21.

Head of Stigmatomma besucheti worker.

aDorsal view of mandibles and anterior part of the head (CASENT0906833). Image by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org
bVentral view of mandibles and mouth parts (CASENT0101970). Image by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org
cFullface view (CASENT0101970). Image by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org
dAnteroventral view of mouth parts (CASENT0101970). Left maxillary palp is missing. Right maxillary and labial palps are outlined in gray to enhance visibility. Slide and image by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org

Mesosoma:

In dorsal view, mesonotum somewhat expanded laterally (Fig. 22a). Metanotal suture absent. Sulcus dividing mesepisternum into anepisternum and katepisternum; dorsoposterior corner of katepisternum not rounded (Fig. 22b). Metathoracic spiracle slit-like, surrounded by cuticular swell, projected posteriorly, inserted in a concavity. Propodeal spiracle round, surrounded by a cuticular swell. Propodeal declivitous face slightly concave (Fig. 22a).

Figure 22.

Mesosoma of Stigmatomma besucheti worker (CASENT0101970). Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aDorsal view.
bLateral view.

Legs:

Absence of lamella on basoventral margin of calcar of strigil (Fig. 23a). ​Calcar of strigil anterior face with squamiform microtrichia basally (Fig. 23a); posterior face mostly glabrous (Fig. 23b). Multiple paddle-like setae on anteroventral face of protibial apex, next to ​calcar of strigil. Multiple paddle-like setae on anterior face of probasitarsus; row of stout setae along posterior face, next to comb of strigil. Mesotibial spur absent; apex of mesotibial inner face with deep fovea (Fig. 23c). Slit-like longitudinal sulcus on anterodorsal face of mesobasitarsus, with apical end projected laterally (Fig. 23c). Two metatibial spurs; anterior spur simple with lanceolate microtrichia; posterior spur pectinate (Fig. 23d). Anterior face of posterior metatibial spur glabrous (Fig. 23d); posterior face with antler-like microtrichia dorsoapically (Fig. 23e). Dorsal face of metabasitarsus with two parallel carinae with convergent apexes (Fig. 23f). Brush of few stout paddle-like setae on baso-inner face of metabasitarsus (Fig. 23e). Arolium on pro-, meso-, and metapretarsus.

Figure 23.

Legs of Stigmatomma besucheti worker.

aForeleg (CASENT0101970): anterior face of protibia, bearing the calcar of strigil, and probasitarsus.
bForeleg (CASENT0101970): posterior face of protibia, bearing the calcar of strigil, and probasitarsus.
cMidleg (CASENT0101970): anteroventral face of mesotibia and dorsoposterior face of mesobasitarsus, which possesses a longitudinal slit-like sulcus.
dHindleg (CASENT0101970): anterior face of metatibia, bearing two spurs apically, and metabasitarsus.
eHindleg (CASENT0906833): posterior face of metatibia (apical part), associated posterior spur, and metabasitarsus.
fHindleg (CASENT0101970); dorsal face of metatibia: closeup of its two parallel carinae with convergent apexes.

Metasoma:

Petiole sessile (Fig. 24a). Ventroanterior margin of petiolar tergite anterior dorso-latero-ventral carina (Ward 1990) 2x the size of anterior margin of subpetiolar process, in lateral view (Fig. 24a). Subpetiolar process with obtuse angle at midpoint of its ventral margin (fin-like; Fig. 24a). Absence of fenestra on lateral face of subpetiolar process. Petiolar proprioceptor zone reduced to small round concavity bearing few sensilla (Fig. 24b​). Prora present (Fig. 24c). Smooth sulcus between pretergite and postergite of abdominal segment III; weakly scrobiculate sulci between presclerites and postsclerites of abdominal segment IV (Fig. 24c). Five to six stout spiniform setae on apex of hypopygium (Fig. 24d).

Figure 24.

Petiole and gaster of Stigmatomma besucheti worker (CASENT0101970). Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aPetiole; lateral view.
bPetiole, ventral view. Left part of the image: petiolar anterior articular end, bearing reduced proprioceptor zone.
cPosterior part of the petiole, abdominal segment III, and abdominal segment IV; lateral view.
dAbdominal segment VII (including hypopygium and associated stout spiniform setae); lateral view.

Sculpture:

Mandibular dorsal face costate-slightly catenate basally, grading into costate apically except for smooth apical portion (Fig. 21a). Clypeal median area smooth, grading into costate to rugose laterally (Fig. 21a). Supraclypeal area smooth (Fig. 21c). Head, in dorsal view, taeniate-catenate; area posterior to tentorial pit plicate (Fig. 21c). Labrum weakly imbricate (Fig. 25a). Mesosoma in dorsal view and lateral face of pronotum foveolate (Fig. 22). Anepisternum smooth; katepisternum mostly imbricate; metapleuron costate posteriorly; lateral face of propodeum smooth, grading into imbricate posteroventrally (Fig. 22b); declivitous face of propodeum smooth (Fig. 22a). Petiolar tergite imbricate ventroanteriorly, grading into weakly and scarcely foveate dorsally and posteriorly (Figs 24a, 25b). Petiolar laterotergite imbricate; petiolar poststernite mostly areolate, grading into smooth ventrally (Fig. 24b). Most of gaster weakly foveolate (Fig. 25c).

Figure 25.

Body sculpture in Stigmatomma besucheti worker (CASENT0101970). Image by F. A. Esteves, available at AntWeb.org.

aVentral view of mandibles, mouth parts, and anterior part of the head.
bDorsal view of petiole, Abdominal tergite III, and anterior part of abdominal tergite IV.
cDorsal view of petiole and gaster.

Pilosity and color:

Suberect pilosity on head, dorsal face of mesosoma, lateral face of pronotum, petiolar tergite, and abdominal segments III, IV, V, and VI. Legs densely covered by subdecumbent pilosity. Suberect pilosity on anterior half of petiolar poststernite. Longer pilosity on abdominal segment VII. Body color yellow.

Comments on character variation: 

Character variation among specimens was minimal.

Other castes: 

Unknown for the Malagasy region. However, a gyne of a putative Stigmatomma besucheti is known for Singapore, as presented below.

Diagnosis

With characters of the besucheti species-group as described above and the following characters (asterisks flag unique characters within Stigmatomma in the Malagasy bioregion):

  1. Integument yellow; small-sized ant (HL: 0.38-0.40, WL: 0.41-0.43; Fig. 20).
  2. Pairs of teeth of mandible’s baso-masticatory margin the same size along mandible’s basoapical axis (Fig. 21a).
  3. * Tongue-like setae medially inserted on mandible’s baso-mastigatory margin (Fig. 21b).
  4. * Dorsal face of the head densely taeniate-catenate (Fig. 21c).
  5. Genal teeth absent.
  6. * Palpal formula 2:2 (Fig. 21d).
  7. Dorsal face of mesosoma and lateral face of propotum foveolate; declivitous face of propodeum smooth; lateral face of propodeum mostly smooth (Fig. 22).
  8. Mesepisternum divided by a sulcus into anepisternum and katepisternum (Fig. 22b).
  9. * Mesotibial spur absent (Fig. 23c).
  10. * Apex of mesotibial inner face bearing a deep fovea; absence of any enlarged process ressembling a spur (Fig. 23c).
  11. Slit-like sulcus present on the anterior face of mesobasitarsus, with apical end projected laterally (Fig. 23c).
  12. Anterior face of posterior metatibial spur glabrous; posterior face with antler-like microtrichia dorsoapically (Fig. 23d, e).
  13. Brush of few stout, paddle-like setae present on the baso-inner face of metabasitarsus.
  14. Absence of fenestra on lateral face of subpetiolar process (Fig. 24a).
  15. Subpetiolar process fin-like: half of its ventral margin obtusely angled.
  16. Presence of 5-6 stout spiniform setae on apex of hypopygium (Fig. 24d).

In the Malagasy bioregion, Stigmatomma besucheti is unique and easily recognized by: reduced number of antennomeres, palpal formula, head sculpture, absence of any enlarged process ressembling a spur on the apex of the mesotibia, petiolar proprioceptor zone reduced to a small concavity, and small body size. Further, it does not occur in sympatry with any other congener.

Distribution

Stigmatomma besucheti is known by its type series, collected in Seychelles by Schauenberg in 1975 (Fig. 26), and two specimens collected in Singapore.

Figure 26.

Distribution map of Stigmatomma besucheti in the Seychelles.

While no direct information about habitat/microhabitat exists, published records of other organisms collected by Schauenberg on La Digue island on 28.Jan.1975 indicate the type series of S. besucheti was probably extracted from soil samples submitted to Berlese funnels (Mahunka 1978b, Mahunka 1978a).

The two specimens from Singapore (a worker and a queen; CASENT0172194 and CASENT0195513, respectively) share remarkable similarities with the type specimens (e.g., antennomeres, general body shape and size, sculpture on the head, lack of any spiniform process on the mesotibial inner apex). However, those specimens differ in the following characters (corresponding characters of type specimens are presented within parentheses):

  1. Three mandibular pairs of teeth (four pairs of teeth) (Fig. 27a).
  2. The posterior-most pair of long filiform setae on the clypeus of the Singapore specimens is much longer (Fig. 27a).
  3. Supraclypeal area as a longer oblong depression (small oblong depression) (Fig. 27a).
  4. Anterior face of posterior metatibial spur glabrous; posterior face glabrous (anterior face glabrous; posterior face with antler-like microtrichia dorsoapically) (Fig. 27b).
Figure 27.

Dealated gyne of Stigmatomma cf. besucheti from Singapore (CASENT0195513). Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org

aDorsal view of the anterior part of the head.
bClose-up view of the posterior face of the metatibial apex, posterior metatibial spur, and basal region of metabasitarsus.

Despite these differences, we did not examine enough specimens of each form to evaluate character variation, and therefore cannot affirm they are different species. Also, while it seems improbable that a specialized predator would become an exotic species, it is noteworthy that: (1) the putative prey of Stigmatomma besucheti (i.e., geophilomorph centipedes) are widespread around the world and a major component of soil ecosystems (Bonato et al. 2013); and (2) global trade is known to profoundly influence the movement of species around the world (McNeely et al. 2001), and plant seeds and other organisms were inadvertently dispersed in the soil used as ballast in early shipping (McNeely et al. 2001). The Seychelles have historically occupied a strategic position along Indian Ocean trade routes, providing coaling/fuelling stations for ships bringing goods from the East to Europe and North America (Ofcansky 1995).

In addition to the specimens collected in Singapore, there is single specimen collected in Sabah (Borneo; CASENT0235146) that resembles Stigmatomma besucheti in the number of antennomeres, head sculpture, mandible and clypeal configuration, size, and color, but differs in some significant characters of the petiole. Compared to S. besucheti, the anteroventral margin of petiolar tergite anterior dorso-latero-ventral carina is much shorter, and the shape of the subpetiolar process is different. Unfortunately, specimen CASENT0235146 was previously submitted to DNA extraction (Ward and Fisher 2016), and is too fragile for a thorough examination.

Stigmatomma bolabola Esteves & Fisher, sp. n.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma bolabola
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; locality:
    Montagne d'Akirindro 7.6 km 341° NNW Ambinanitelo
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -15.28833
    ; decimalLongitude:
    49.54833
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; eventDate:
    03/17/2003
    ; habitat:
    rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF08250
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0034580
    ; recordedBy:
    Fisher, Griswold et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
Other material:
  1. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma bolabola
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; locality:
    Montagne d'Anjanaharibe, 19.5 km 27° NNE Ambinanitelo
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -15.17833
    ; decimalLongitude:
    49.635
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; eventDate:
    03/12/2003
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF08150
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0034744
    ; recordedBy:
    Fisher, Griswold et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC

Description

Worker (Fig. 28); only the holotype was measured): HL: 0.76; HW: 0.59; HW2: 0.49; SL: 0.45; ML: 0.41; WL: 0.92; PPW: 0.34; PtL: 0.29; PtW: 0.41; CI: 78; SI: 60; MI: 54; PtI: 72.

Figure 28.

Holotype of Stigmatomma bolabola sp. n. (CASENT0034580); worker. Images by April Nobile; available at AntWeb.org.

aFullface view.
bLateral view.
cDorsal view.

Head:

Mandibular baso-masticatory margin skirted dorsally by row of filiform setae; ventrally, by acuminate flattened-apex setae, and row of longer filiform setae (Fig. 29a). Mandibular dentition arrangement, from base to apex: row of three single teeth (same dimensions of teeth arranged in pairs); three pairs of teeth (each teeth pair fused basally); single preapical tooth; apical tooth (Fig. 29a). Dorsal teeth pairs increasing in length towards mandibular apex. Anterior clypeal margin with nine tubercle-like cuticular processes arranged in a single row. All clypeal cuticular processes, except the most lateral, armed anteriorly with truncated dentiform seta; most lateral processes smaller and unarmed (Fig. 29a). Median clypeal cuticular processes around 3x the length of associated dentiform setae. Pair of long filiform setae on clypeal median area, posterior to tubercle-like cuticular processes on clypeal anterior margin. Pair of shorter filiform setae on clypeal median area posterior to longer setae pair, followed posteriorly by longitudinal row of much shorter filiform setae. Clypeal median area extending posteriorly between antennal sockets as narrow longitudinal strip; frontoclypeal sulcus acute. Supraclypeal area as oval shaped concavity (Fig. 29b). Twelve antennomeres. Genal teeth absent (Fig. 29b). Widest diameter of compound eyes: 2-3 ommatidia (Fig. 29c). Palpal formula: 4:2 (four maxillary, two labial; Fig. 29d).

Figure 29.

Head of Stigmatomma bolabola sp. n. worker (CASENT0034744). Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aDorsal view of mandibles and anterior portion of the head.
bFullface view.
cClose up of the eyes.
dVentral view of the mouthparts. Left stipe and left maxillary palp are missing, and the mouthparts are partially coated in gold-palladium. Right maxillary and labial palps are outlined in gray and darkened to enhance visibility. Slide by F. A. Esteves

Mesosoma:

In dorsal view, mesonotum narrower than remaining mesosoma (Fig. 30a). Metanotal suture absent (Fig. 30a). Sulcus divinding mesepisternum into anepisternum and katepisternum; posterodorsal corner of katepisternum rounded (Fig. 30b). Metathoracic spiracle slit-like, reduced in size (Fig. 30b). Propodeal spiracle round, surrounded by cuticular swell, followed by sulcus (Fig. 30b). Propodeal declivitous face not concave.

Figure 30.

Mesosoma of Stigmatomma bolabola sp. n. worker (CASENT0034744). Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aDorsal view. Pronotum is disarticulated and is missing in the image.
bLateral view. Pronotum is disarticulated and is missing in the image.

Legs:

Basoventral fifth of calcar of strigil lamellar (Fig. 31b). Calcar of strigil anterior face with tubiform microtrichia (Fig. 31a); posterior face with lanceolate microtrichia (Fig. 31b). Multiple paddle-like setae on anteroventral face of protibial apex, next to calcar of strigil (Fig. 31a). Multiple paddle-like setae on anterior face of probasitarsus (Fig. 31a); stout setae on apex of posterior face (Fig. 31b). Single mesotibial spur with lanceolate microtrichia (Fig. 31c). Slit-like longitudinal sulcus on anterodorsal face of mesobasitarsus (Fig. 31d). Row of stout setae along inner face of mesobasitarsus (Fig. 31c). Two metatibial spurs; simple anterior spur with lanceolate microtrichia; posterior spur pectinate (Fig. 31e). Anterior face of posterior metatibial spur glabrous (Fig. 31e); posterior face with antler-like microtrichia. Brush of long, truncated filiform setae on posterior face of metatibial apex, next to posterior metatibial spur. Absence of longitudinal sulcus on anterodorsal face of metabasitarsus (Fig. 31e). Brush of tubiform setae on baso-inner face of metabasitarsus. Stout setae on remaining inner face of metabasitarsus. Arolium on pro-, meso-, and metapretarsus.

Figure 31.

Legs of Stigmatomma bolabolasp. n. worker (CASENT0034744). Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aAnterior face of foreleg; close up of apex of protibia, including the calcar of strigil, and basal portion of probasitarsus.
bPosterior face of foreleg; close up of protibia, including the calcar of strigil, and probasitarsus.
cInner face of midleg; close up of apex of mesotibia, including the mesotibial spur, and mesobasitarsus.
dDorsoanterior face of mesobasitarsus, including its longitudinal slit-like sulcus.
eAnterior face of hindleg; close up of apex of metatibia, including metatibial spurs, and metabasitarsus.

Metasoma:

Petiole sessile (Fig. 32a). Ventroanterior margin of petiolar tergite anterior dorso-latero-ventral carina (Ward 1990) much shorter than anterior margin of subpetiolar process, in lateral view. Subpetiolar process with obtuse angle at mid-point of its ventral margin (fin-like; Fig. 32a). Absence of fenestra on lateral face of subpetiolar process (Fig. 32a). Petiolar proprioceptor zone a large, round concavity with few sensilla (Fig. 32b). Prora present (Fig. 32a). Scrobiculate sulcus between pretergite and postergite of abdominal segment III and presclerites and postsclerites of abdominal segment IV (Fig. 32c). Eight stout spiniform setae on apex of hypopygium (Fig. 32d).

Figure 32.

Petiole and gaster of Stigmatomma bolabolasp. n. worker. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aPetiole, lateral view (CASENT0034580).
bPetiole, ventral view (CASENT0034744).
cPetiole and gaster, lateral view (CASENT0034744).
dClose up of the gastral apical region, lateral view (CASENT0034580). Note stout spiniform setae on the apex of hypopygium, surrounding the stinger.

Sculpture:

Mandibular dorsal face rugose-foveate basally, grading into costate-foveolate apically except for smooth apical portion (Fig. 29a). Clypeal median area costate. Supraclypeal area smooth. Head, in dorsal view, mostly foveate-reticulate/densely foveate; area posterior to tentorial pit plicate (Fig. 29b). Labrum rugose (Fig. 33a). Mesosoma foveate dorsally (Fig. 30a). Pronotum rugulose-foveate laterally (Fig. 33b). Anepisternum scarcely costulate; katepisternum costate-rugulose (Fig. 30b). Metapleuron mostly costate (Fig. 30b). Lateral face of propodeum costate-foveolate; declivitous face strigate (Fig. 30). Petiolar tergite, in lateral view, areolate/imbricate ventroanteriorly, grading into strigate dorsoanteriorly, costate laterally, foveate dorsally (Fig. 33c). Petiolar laterotergite imbricate posteriorly (Fig. 32b). Petiolar poststernite mostly alveolate, grading into smooth ventrally (Fig. 32b). Abdominal segment III foveolate; remaining gaster puncticulate (Fig. 32c).

Figure 33.

Body sculpture in Stigmatomma bolabolasp. n. worker (CASENT0034744). Image by F. A. Esteves, available at AntWeb.org.

aVentral view of mandibles and mouthparts.
bLateral view of pronotum, which is disarticulated from head and remainder mesosoma.
cLateral view of petiole.

Pilosity and color:

Suberect pilosity on head, dorsal face of mesosoma, lateral face of propodeum, petiolar tergite, and abdominal segments III and IV. Petiolar poststernite mostly glabrous. Longer pilosity on abdominal segments V, VI and VII. Body color red-brown; apex of gaster and appendages orange-yellow.

Comments on character variation: 

Character variation on the specimens examined was minimal.

Other castes: 

Unknown.

Specimens used in prior studies: 

This taxon was referenced as Stigmatomma MG03 (specimen CASENT0034580) in Ward and Fisher (2016).

Diagnosis

Worker

With characters of the tsyhady species-group and the sakalava species-complex as described above, and the following characters (asterisks flag unique characters within the genus in the Malagasy bioregion):

  1. Integument red-brown; medium-sized ant (HL: 0.76, WL: 0.92; Fig. 28).
  2. Dorsal teeth row of mandible’s pairs of teeth increasing in size towards mandibular apex (Fig. 29a).
  3. Row of acuminate flattened-apex setae setae ventrally skirting mandible’s baso-masticatory margin, parallel to row of flexuous, longer setae (Figs 29a, 33a).
  4. Dorsal face of the head mostly foveate-reticulate/densely foveate (Figs 28a, 29b).
  5. Genal teeth absent (Figs 28a, 29b).
  6. Palpal formula 4:2 (Fig. 29d).
  7. Dorsal face of mesosoma foveate; lateral face of pronotum rugulose-foveate; lateral face of propodeum costate-foveolate (Figs 30, 33b).
  8. * Declivitous face of propodeum strigate (Fig. 30a).
  9. * Mesepisternum divided into anepisternum and katepisternum; posterodorsal corner of katepisternum rounded (Fig. 30b).
  10. * Basoventral one-fifth of calcar of strigil lamellar (Fig. 31b).
  11. Calcar of strigil anterior face with tubiform microtrichia (Fig. 31a).
  12. Single mesotibial spur covered with lanceolate microtrichia (Fig. 31c).
  13. Longitudinal slit-like sulcus present on the anterodorsal face of mesobasitarsus (Fig. 31d).
  14. Anterior face of posterior metatibial spur glabrous; posterior face with antler-like microtrichia (Fig. 31e).
  15. Brush of long truncated-apex filiform setae present on the posterior face of metatibial apex.
  16. Brush of tubiform setae present on the baso-inner face of metabasitarsus.
  17. Absence of sulcus on metabasitarsus (Fig. 31e).
  18. Subpetiolar process fin-like: half of its ventral margin obtusely angled (Fig. 32a).
  19. Eight stout spiniform setae present on the apex of hypopygium (Fig. 32d).

Stigmatomma bolabola may be confounded with S. sakalava by the following characters: absence of genal teeth, palpal formula, single mesotibial spur, head sculpture, shape of subpetiolar process, and presence of stout spiniform setae on the apex of hypopygium. However, it is easily recognized by the sculpture of its mesosoma lateral face and propodeal declivitous face, katepisternum shape, proportion of lamella on the basoventral margin of calcar of strigil, and distribution (since they do not occur in sympatry).

Etymology

Bola-­bola is the name that Malagasy people give to logs of rosewood, a plant of the genus Dalbergia (Schuurman 2009). Stigmatomma bolabola is named for the resemblance between its color and that of rosewood timber, and because it lives in the region of Madagascar most affected by illegal rosewood logging.

Madagascar is home to 48 species of rosewood, of which 47 are endemic (Barrett et al. 2010). Of the 20 endangered species and 15 vulnerable species of rosewood, about 16 species are unsustainably exploited for their timber and known locally as bois de rose (IUCN 2015).

Due to international demand for rosewood, thousands of loggers have flooded into the national parks of Madagascar. In the process of extraction, new roads are built, and logging camps set up, which increases access to forests, fuels extraction of other resources, and accelerates general deforestation, illegal mining, and poaching (Barrett et al. 2010, Patel 2007). That is why, beyond the reduction or extinction of rare trees, rosewood logging is inextricably linked to reduction of native species diversity, invasion of non­-native species, and landscape aridification (Patel 2007). Unfortunately, due to the low density of rosewood trees in the wild, loggers routinely search for new territories, initiating a new cycle of destruction (Barrett et al. 2010).

The highest rosewood species richness in Madagascar is found in the northeastern rainforest, with seven species native to the SAVA Region and the Makira-­Masoala Landscape (Barrett et al. 2010). There, the protected areas are at high risk of logging from a lack of law enforcement, and the higher quality, size, and density per hectare of the rosewood (Barrett et al. 2010, Schuurman 2009).

The Makira component of the Makira-­Masoala Landscape (Makira Forest Protected Area) is the only place in Madagascar where Stigmatomma bolabola has been found, in a collection effort encompassing more than 440 collection sites. Given that the health of the ecosystem is essential to protect S. bolabola habitat, here we plead for more effective protection of Malagasy rosewood.

Distribution

Stigmatomma bolabola was collected in two localities of the Makira Forest Protected Area, in rainforest and montane rainforest habitats in the humid forests ecoregion of Madagascar (at 600 m and 1100 m respectively; following the classification of Burgess et al. 2004; Fig. 34). Specimens were recorded from sifted leaf mold and rotten wood.

Figure 34.

Distribution map of Stigmatomma bolabolasp. n. in the Malagasy bioregion. Collection localities are mapped over the outlines of five simplified ecoregion zones of Madagascar: humid forests (dark green), subhumid forests (light green), dry deciduous forests (brown), succulent woodlands (orange), and spiny thickets (yellow).

Stigmatomma irayhady Esteves & Fisher, sp. n.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma irayhady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Antsiranana
    ; locality:
    Forêt de Binara, 9.4km 235° SW Daraina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1100
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -13.26333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    49.6
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 25 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    12/05/2003
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF09800
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0042899
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma irayhady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Antsiranana
    ; locality:
    Forêt de Binara, 9.4km 235° SW Daraina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1100
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -13.26333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    49.6
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 25 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    12/05/2003
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF09800
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0042843
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  2. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma irayhady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Antsiranana
    ; locality:
    Forêt de Binara, 9.4km 235° SW Daraina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1100
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -13.26333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    49.6
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 25 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    12/05/2003
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF09800
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1dQ
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0042845
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  3. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma irayhady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Antsiranana
    ; locality:
    Forêt de Binara, 9.4km 235° SW Daraina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1100
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -13.26333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    49.6
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 25 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    12/05/2003
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF09800
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1dQ
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0042847
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  4. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma irayhady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Antsiranana
    ; locality:
    Forêt de Binara, 9.4km 235° SW Daraina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1100
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -13.26333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    49.6
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 25 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    12/05/2003
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF09800
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0797614
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    BMNH
  5. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma irayhady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Antsiranana
    ; locality:
    Forêt de Binara, 9.4km 235° SW Daraina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1100
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -13.26333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    49.6
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 25 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    12/05/2003
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF09800
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0042898
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    MHNG
  6. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma irayhady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Antsiranana
    ; locality:
    Forêt de Binara, 9.4km 235° SW Daraina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1100
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -13.26333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    49.6
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 25 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    12/05/2003
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF09800
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0042842
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    NHMB
Other materials:
  1. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma irayhady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Antsiranana
    ; locality:
    Binara Forest
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1065
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -13.26392
    ; decimalLongitude:
    49.59919
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    ±500m
    ; samplingProtocol:
    3 MaxiWinks, mixed samples
    ; eventDate:
    10/18/2013
    ; habitat:
    rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF32140
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0369789
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  2. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma irayhady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Antsiranana
    ; locality:
    Binara Forest
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1065
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -13.26392
    ; decimalLongitude:
    49.59919
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    ±500m
    ; samplingProtocol:
    General collection
    ; eventDate:
    10/18/2013
    ; habitat:
    rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF32151
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex soil
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0370139
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  3. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma irayhady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Antsiranana
    ; locality:
    Binara Forest
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1065
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -13.26392
    ; decimalLongitude:
    49.59919
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    ±500m
    ; samplingProtocol:
    General collection
    ; eventDate:
    10/19/2013
    ; habitat:
    rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF32179
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex soil
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0371016
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  4. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma irayhady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Antananarivo
    ; locality:
    3 km 41° NE Andranomay, 11.5 km 147° SSE Anjozorobe
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1300
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -18.47333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.96
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    12/05/2000
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF02378
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0410412
    ; recordedBy:
    Fisher, Griswold et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  5. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma irayhady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Antananarivo
    ; locality:
    3 km 41° NE Andranomay, 11.5 km 147° SSE Anjozorobe
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1300
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -18.47333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.96
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    12/05/2000
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF02378
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0410413
    ; recordedBy:
    Fisher, Griswold et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  6. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma irayhady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Antananarivo
    ; locality:
    Réserve Spéciale d'Ambohitantely, Forêt d Ambohitantely, Jardin Botanique, 24.1km 59° NE d Ankazobe
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1620
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -18.17139
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.28182
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    04/17/2001
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF03720
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0458588
    ; recordedBy:
    Fisher, Griswold et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  7. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma irayhady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Antananarivo
    ; locality:
    Réserve Spéciale d'Ambohitantely, Forêt d Ambohitantely, Jardin Botanique, 24.1km 59° NE d Ankazobe
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1620
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -18.17139
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.28182
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    04/17/2001
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF03720
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1dQ
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0458589
    ; recordedBy:
    Fisher, Griswold et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  8. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma irayhady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Antananarivo
    ; locality:
    Réserve Spéciale d'Ambohitantely, Forêt d Ambohitantely, Jardin Botanique, 24.1km 59° NE d Ankazobe
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1620
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -18.17139
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.28182
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    04/17/2001
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF03720
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1dQ
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0458590
    ; recordedBy:
    Fisher, Griswold et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  9. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma irayhady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Antananarivo
    ; locality:
    Réserve Spéciale d'Ambohitantely, Forêt d Ambohitantely, Jardin Botanique, 24.1km 59° NE d Ankazobe
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1620
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -18.17139
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.28182
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    04/17/2001
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF03720
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0458591
    ; recordedBy:
    Fisher, Griswold et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC

Description

Worker (Fig. 35; holotype values within parentheses): HL: 1.07-1.14 (1.14); HW: 0.93-0.97 (0.97); HW2: 0.82-0.84 (0.84); SL: 0.58-0.61 (0.61); ML: 0.65-0.72 (0.72); WL: 1.37-1.55 (1.55); PPW: 0.60-0.69 (0.69); PtL: 0.63-0.70 (0.70); PtW: 0.68-0.76 (0.76); CI: 85-88 (85); SI: 51-54 (53); MI: 60-63 (63); PtI: 91-96 (92).

Figure 35.

Holotype of Stigmatomma irayhadysp. n. (CASENT0042899); worker. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aFullface view.
bLateral view.
cDorsal view.

Head:

Mandibular baso-masticatory margin skirted dorsally by row of filiform setae; ventrally, by truncated filiform setae (Fig. 36a). Mandibular dentition arrangement, from base to apex: single larger tooth; five pairs of teeth (each teeth pair fused basally); somewhat bifid preapical tooth; apical tooth (Fig. 36a). Most-basal tooth of dorsal teeth pairs much smaller; absent in some specimens. Anterior clypeal margin with eight to nine tubercle-like cuticular processes, arranged in a single row, armed anteriorly with asymmetrical mucronate dentiform seta (Fig. 36a). Most-lateral clypeal cuticular process with row of smaller, conic setae anterolaterally (Fig. 36a). Row of clypeal conic setae continues laterally along clypeal anterior margin, arising from flat cuticle. Median clypeal cuticular processes with almost the same length of associated dentiform setae. Long filiform setae pair on anterior clypeal margin, bordering the most central cuticular processes. Median clypeal area extending posteriorly between antennal sockets, frontoclypeal sulcus round (Fig. 36b). Supraclypeal area as shallow oval concavity (Fig. 36b). Twelve antennomeres. Genal teeth present (Fig. 36b). Widest diameter of compound eyes: three ommatidia (Fig. 36c). Palpal formula: 4:3 (four maxillary, three labial; Fig. 36d​).

Figure 36.

Head of Stigmatomma irayhady sp. n. worker. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aDorsal view of the mandibles and anterior part of the head (CASENT0458591).
bFullface view (CASENT0458591).
cClose-up of the eyes, dorsolateral view (CASENT0458591).
dMouth parts, ventral view (CASENT0458588). Left maxillary and labial palps are outlined in black and darkened to enhance visibility. Slide by F. A. Esteves.

Mesosoma:

In dorsal view, mesonotum lateral margins continuous with posterior remainder of mesosoma (Fig. 37a). Metanotal suture absent or weakly impressed. Sulcus dividing mesepisternum into anepisternum and katepisternum (Fig. 37b). Metathoracic spiracle slit-like with somewhat swollen dorsoposterior margin; preceded anteroventrally by a cuticular swell; surrounded ventroposteriorly by shallow concentric sulcus (Fig. 37b). Propodeal spiracle round, with somewhat swollen margins (Fig. 37b). Propodeal declivitous face slightly concave (Fig. 37a).

Figure 37.

Mesosoma of Stigmatomma irayhady sp. n., worker (CASENT0458591). Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aDorsal view.
bLateral view

Legs:

Basoventral three-fourths of calcar of strigil lamellar (Fig. 38a, b). Calcar of strigil anterior face with strap-like microtrichia; posterior face with lanceolate microtrichia (Fig. 38a, b). Multiple paddle-like setae on antero-ventral face of protibial apex, next to calcar of strigil (Fig. 38a). Multiple paddle-like setae on anterior face of probasitarsus; row of stout setae along posterior face, parallel to comb of strigil. Two mesotibial spurs; simple anterior spur with lanceolate microtrichia; posterior spur somewhat falcate (with rounded baso-ventral projection), bearing lanceolate microtrichia (Fig. 38c). Ventral margin of posterior mesotibial spur with few digitiform cuticular projections, restricted to the most basal region or distributed along ventral margin (Fig. 38c). Slit-like longitudinal sulcus on anterodorsal face of mesobasitarsus (Fig. 38d). Stout setae along inner face of mesobasitarsus. Two metatibial spurs; simple anterior spur with lanceolate microtrichia; posterior spur pectinate (Fig. 38e). Anterior face of posterior metatibial spur with sparse lanceolate microtrichia; posterior face glabrous (Fig. 38e, f). Absence of longitudinal sulcus on antero-dorsal face of metabasitarsus. Sparse, blunt, stout setae on baso-inner face of metabasitarsus; stout setae along remainder inner face. Arolium on pro-, meso-, and metapretarsus.

Figure 38.

Legs of Stigmatomma irayhadysp. n. worker (CASENT0458591). Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aForeleg, anterior face: close-up of apex of protibia, calcar of strigil, and base of probasitarsus.
bForeleg, posterior face: close-up of apex of protibia, calcar of strigil, and base of probasitarsus.
cMidleg, anterior face: close-up of apex of mesotibia, mesotibial spurs, and base of mesobasitarsus.
dMidleg, anterodorsal face: close-up of mesobasitarsus bearing longitudinal slit-like sulcus, and tarsi.
eHindleg, anterior face: close-up of apex of metatibia, metatibial spurs, and base of metabasitarsus.
fHindleg, posterior face: close-up of apex of metatibia, metatibial spurs, and base of metabasitarsus.

Metasoma:

Petiole sessile (Fig. 39a). Ventroanterior margin of petiolar tergite anterior dorso-latero-ventral carina (Ward 1990) much shorter than anterior margin of subpetiolar process, in lateral view (Fig. 39a). Subpetiolar process with midpoint of ventral margin angled obtusely (fin-like; Fig. 39a). Presence of fenestra on lateral face of subpetiolar process (Fig. 39a). Petiolar proprioceptor zone as large round concavity with numerous sensilla (Fig. 39b). Prora present (Fig. 39a). Scrobiculate sulcus between pretergite and postergite of abdominal segment III and presclerites and postsclerites of abdominal segment IV. Absence of stout setae on hypopygium (Fig. 39c).

Figure 39.

Petiole and gaster of Stigmatomma irayhadysp. n. worker. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aPetiole, lateral view (CASENT0042899).
bPetiole, ventral view: close-up of proprioceptor zone (CASENT0458591).
cGater, lateral view: close-up of abdominal segment VII (CASENT0458591).

Sculpture:

Mandibular dorsal face areolate-rugose basally, grading into costate apically except for smooth apical portion (Fig. 36a). Clypeal median area costulate, grading into costate to rugose laterally (Fig. 36a). Supraclypeal area costulate (Fig. 36b). Anterior three-fourths of the head, in dorsal view, areolate-rugose, grading into foveolate/foveate posteriorly (Fig. 36b). Area posterior to tentorial pit tuberculate concentrically (Fig. 36b). Labrum imbricate (Fig. 40). Pronotum and dorsal face of remainder mesosoma foveolate (Fig. 37). Anepisternun mostly smooth; katepisternum foveolate-slightly rugulose dorsally, foveate-rugose ventrally (Fig. 37b). Metapleuron costulate-rugulose dorsally, costulate ventrally (Fig. 37b). Lateral face of propodeum scarsely foveolate, grading into rugose ventrally (Fig. 37b). Propodeal declivitous face foveolate. Petiolar tergite mostly foveolate/foveate (Fig. 39a). Petiolar laterotergite weakly imbricate anteriorly. Petiolar poststernite mostly alveolate (Fig. 39a). Abdominal segments III and IV foveolate; segments V, VI, and VII imbricate (Fig. 39c).

Figure 40.

Mouthparts of Stigmatomma irayhadysp. n. worker (CASENT0458591), ventral view. Image by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

Pilosity and color:

Erect to subdecumbent pilosity on head. Erect to suberect pilosity on dorsal face of mesosoma, petiolar tergite, and abdominal segments III and IV. Erect pilosity on anterior half of petiolar poststernite. Longer pilosity on abdominal segments V, VI, and VII. Body color dark-brown to blackish; apex of the gaster orange; yellow-brown appendages.

Comments on character variation: 

No geographic pattern is seen in the variation on Stigmatomma irayhady, and characters such as body size, the presence of most basal masticatory tooth, number of dentiform setae on the anterior margin of the clypeus, presence and degree of development of metanotal suture, and presence and amount of digitiform cuticular projections on the ventral margin of the posterior mesotibial spur fluctuate even among specimens collected at the same locality.

Other castes: 

Gyne (Fig. 41); alate when virgin: similar to the worker caste but for the greater body length, larger compound eyes, presence of ocelli, and differences on the mesosoma due to the presence of wings. Parapsidal lines on the mesoscutum; scuto-scutellar suture narrow, without apparent sculpture on its mid-section, but scrobiculate on its apexes (Fig. 42a). Mesepisternum divided into anepisternum and katepisternum; mesepimeral lobe distinct, but not well developed; metapleuron divided into upper and lower sections; upper metapleuron separated from propodeum by a carina followed dorsally by a scrobiculate sulcus; lower metapleuron separated from propodeum by strongly scrobiculate sulcus (Fig. 42b).

Figure 41.

Dealated gyne of Stigmatomma irayhadysp. n. (CASENT0458590); plate I. Images by Erin Prado; available at AntWeb.org.

aFullface view.
bLateral view.
cDorsal view.
Figure 42.

Dealated gyne of Stigmatomma irayhadysp. n. (CASENT0458590); plate II. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aMesosoma, dorsal view.
bMesosoma, lateral view.

Males: Unknown.

Diagnosis

Worker

With characters of the tsyhady species-group and the tsyhady species-complex as described above, and the following characters:

  1. Integument dark-brown; large-sized ant (HL: 1.07-1.14, WL: 1.37-1.55; Fig. 35).
  2. Pairs of teeth along mandible’s baso-masticatory margin have the same length along mandible’s basoapical axis, except for smaller basal teeth of dorsal row (Fig. 36a).
  3. Truncated filiform setae ventrally skirting baso-masticatory margin of mandible (Fig. 36a).
  4. Dorsal face of the head areolate-rugose, grading to foveolate/foveate posteriorly (Figs 35a, 36b).
  5. Palpal formula 4:3 (Fig. 36d).
  6. Pronotum and the dorsal face of remainder of mesosoma foveolate; propodeal lateral face scarcely foveolate; propodeal declivitous face foveolate (Fig. 37).
  7. Mesepisternum divided into anepisternum and katepisternum (Fig. 37b).
  8. Basoventral three-fourths of calcar of strigil lamellar (Fig. 38a, b).
  9. Anterior face of calcar of strigil with strap-like microtrichia (Fig. 38a).
  10. Two well-developed mesotibial spurs (Fig. 38c).
  11. Slit-like longitudinal sulcus present on the anterodorsal face of mesobasitarsus (Fig. 38d).
  12. Two well-developed metatibial spurs (Fig. 38e).
  13. Anterior face of posterior metatibial spur with sparse, small, lanceolate microtrichia; posterior face glabrous (Fig. 38e, f).
  14. Absence of a longitudinal sulcus on metabasitarsus.
  15. Sparse, blunt, stout setae present on the baso-inner face of metabasitarsus; stout setae present along the remainder inner face.
  16. Subpetiolar process fin-like: half of its ventral margin obtusely angled (Fig. 39a).

Size, color, presence of genal teeth, palpal formula, presence of fenestra on the subpetiolar process, two mesotibial spurs, shape of microtrichia on posterior face of posterior metatibial spur, and absence of stout setae on the apex of hypopygium make it difficult to separate Stigmatomma irayhady from S. roahady and S. tsyhady.

However, S. irayhady possesses a sulcus on the anterodorsal face of the mesobasitarsus, and S. tsyhady does not; and it lacks a sulcus on the anterodorsal face of the metabasitarsus, which S. roahady has. Also, the ventral margin of the subpetiolar process decreases continuously posterad in S. roahady and S. tsyhady, while it has an obtuse angle at its midpoint in S. irayhady.

S. irayhady is sympatric with S. roahady in three localities: nearby Andranomay, close to Anjozorobe, and at the Binara Forest. It co-occurs with S. tsyhady at the Binara Forest.

Etymology

The name is a compound of the Malagasy cardinal number iray, meaning one, and the Malagasy noun hady, meaning sulcus, ditch, or trench. It refers to the presence of a longitudinal sulcus on the anterior face of the mesobasitarsus, and the absence of a longitudinal sulcus on the anterior face of the metabasitarsus of that species. This is not unique among Stigmatomma species in the Malagasy bioregion, but distinguishes S. irayhady from the other two species most similar to it, S. tsyhady and S. roahady.

Distribution

Stigmatomma irayhady was collected in montane rainforest habitats, above 1000 m, at the central to northern portions of the subhumid forests ecoregion of Madagascar (following the classification of Burgess et al. 2004; Fig. 43). Specimens were recorded from sifted leaf mold, rotten wood, and in soil.

Figure 43.

Distribution map of Stigmatomma irayhadysp. n. in the Malagasy bioregion. Collection localities are mapped over the outlines of five simplified ecoregion zones of Madagascar: humid forests (dark green), subhumid forests (light green), dry deciduous forests (brown), succulent woodlands (orange), and spiny thickets (yellow).

Stigmatomma janovitsika Esteves & Fisher, sp. n.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma janovitsika
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; locationID:
    Mahé Blanc 660
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Mahé Island, Morne Blanc
    ; verbatimElevation:
    660
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.6574
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.43325
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    9 MaxiWinks, mixed samples
    ; eventDate:
    02/10/2010
    ; habitat:
    mixed forest near glacis
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF24151
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0161533
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma janovitsika
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; locationID:
    Mahé Blanc 660
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Mahé Island, Morne Blanc
    ; verbatimElevation:
    660
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.6574
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.43325
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    9 MaxiWinks, mixed samples
    ; eventDate:
    02/10/2010
    ; habitat:
    mixed forest near glacis
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF24151
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0156023
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  2. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma janovitsika
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; locationID:
    Mahé Blanc 660
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Mahé Island, Morne Blanc
    ; verbatimElevation:
    660
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.6574
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.43325
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    9 MaxiWinks, mixed samples
    ; eventDate:
    02/10/2010
    ; habitat:
    mixed forest near glacis
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF24151
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1dQ
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0161532
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  3. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma janovitsika
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; locationID:
    Mahé Blanc 660
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Mahé Island, Morne Blanc
    ; verbatimElevation:
    660
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.6574
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.43325
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    9 MaxiWinks, mixed samples
    ; eventDate:
    02/10/2010
    ; habitat:
    mixed forest near glacis
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF24151
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0156022
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    MHNG
Other materials:
  1. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma janovitsika
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; locationID:
    Mahé Blanc 660
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Mahé Island, Morne Blanc
    ; verbatimElevation:
    660
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.6574
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.43325
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    9 MaxiWinks, mixed samples
    ; eventDate:
    02/10/2010
    ; habitat:
    mixed forest near glacis
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF24151
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    SEM mount
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0145426
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  2. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma janovitsika
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; locationID:
    Conception 65
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Conception Island
    ; verbatimElevation:
    65
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.66311
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.36821
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    General collecting
    ; eventDate:
    02/12/2010
    ; habitat:
    mixed forest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF24276
    ; eventRemarks:
    under rootmat, litter on rock
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0159676
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  3. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma janovitsika
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; locationID:
    Silhouette 520
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Silhouette Island, above Jardin Marron on crest to Mont Plaisir and Pot à Eau
    ; verbatimElevation:
    520
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.4867
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.2341
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    General collecting
    ; eventDate:
    01/20/2010
    ; habitat:
    forest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF23168
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex rotten log
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0159677
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  4. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma janovitsika
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; locationID:
    Conception 65
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Conception Island
    ; verbatimElevation:
    65
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.66311
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.36821
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    General collecting
    ; eventDate:
    02/12/2010
    ; habitat:
    mixed forest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF24244
    ; eventRemarks:
    under rootmat, litter on rock
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0159679
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  5. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma janovitsika
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; locationID:
    Gratte Fesse 410
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Silhouette Island, Gratte Fesse
    ; verbatimElevation:
    410
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.49169
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.23886
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    General collecting
    ; eventDate:
    01/25/2010
    ; habitat:
    forest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF23396
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex rotten log
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0159680
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  6. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma janovitsika
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; locationID:
    Conception 65
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Conception Island
    ; verbatimElevation:
    65
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.66311
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.36821
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    9 MaxiWinks, mixed samples
    ; eventDate:
    02/12/2010
    ; habitat:
    mixed forest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF24286
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0160355
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  7. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma janovitsika
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; locationID:
    Conception 65
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Conception Island
    ; verbatimElevation:
    65
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.66311
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.36821
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    9 MaxiWinks, mixed samples
    ; eventDate:
    02/12/2010
    ; habitat:
    mixed forest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF24286
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0160379
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  8. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma janovitsika
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; locationID:
    Silhouette 520
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Silhouette Island, above Jardin Marron on crest to Mont Plaisir and Pot à Eau
    ; verbatimElevation:
    520
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.4867
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.2341
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Malaise trap
    ; eventDate:
    01/20/2010
    ; habitat:
    forest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF23134
    ; sex:
    1m
    ; preparations:
    pin, slide
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0160792
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  9. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma janovitsika
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; locationID:
    Gratte Fesse 410
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Silhouette Island, Gratte Fesse
    ; verbatimElevation:
    410
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.49169
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.23886
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    General collecting
    ; eventDate:
    01/25/2010
    ; habitat:
    forest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF23396
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex rotten log
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0318444
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  10. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma janovitsika
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; locationID:
    Conception 65
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Conception Island
    ; verbatimElevation:
    65
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.66311
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.36821
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    General collecting
    ; eventDate:
    02/12/2010
    ; habitat:
    mixed forest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF24276
    ; eventRemarks:
    under rootmat, litter on rock
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    SEM mount
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0318418
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  11. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma janovitsika
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; locationID:
    Silhouette 520
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Silhouette Island, above Jardin Marron on crest to Mont Plaisir and Pot à Eau
    ; verbatimElevation:
    520
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.4867
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.2341
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Malaise trap
    ; eventDate:
    01/20/2010
    ; habitat:
    forest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF23134
    ; sex:
    1m
    ; preparations:
    pin, slide
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0318446
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  12. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma janovitsika
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; locationID:
    Silhouette 520
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Silhouette Island, above Jardin Marron on crest to Mont Plaisir and Pot à Eau
    ; verbatimElevation:
    520
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.4867
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.2341
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Malaise trap
    ; eventDate:
    01/20/2010
    ; habitat:
    forest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF23134
    ; sex:
    1m
    ; preparations:
    pin, slide
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0318447
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  13. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma janovitsika
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; locationID:
    Silhouette 520
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Silhouette Island, above Jardin Marron on crest to Mont Plaisir and Pot à Eau
    ; verbatimElevation:
    520
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.4867
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.2341
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Malaise trap
    ; eventDate:
    01/20/2010
    ; habitat:
    forest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF23134
    ; sex:
    1m
    ; preparations:
    pin, slide
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0318448
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  14. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma janovitsika
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; locationID:
    Silhouette 520
    ; country:
    Seychelles
    ; locality:
    Silhouette Island, above Jardin Marron on crest to Mont Plaisir and Pot à Eau
    ; verbatimElevation:
    520
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.4867
    ; decimalLongitude:
    55.2341
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Malaise trap
    ; eventDate:
    01/20/2010
    ; habitat:
    forest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF23134
    ; sex:
    1m
    ; preparations:
    slide
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0318448
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC

Description

Worker (Fig. 44; holotype values within parentheses): HL: 0.74-0.79 (0.79); HW: 0.63-0.67 (0.67); HW2: 0.58-0.62 (0.61); SL: 0.44-0.46 (0.46); ML: 0.54-0.57 (0.56); WL: 0.87-0.93 (0.93); PPW: 0.34-0.37 (0.37); PtL: 0.36-0.38 (0.38); PtW: 0.39-0.42 (0.42); CI: 84-88 (84); SI: 58-61 (58); MI: 71-75 (71); PtI: 90-93 (91).

Figure 44.

Holotype of Stigmatomma janovitsikasp. n. (CASENT0161533); worker. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aFullface view.
bLateral view.
cDorsal view.

Head:

Mandibular baso-masticatory margin skirted dorsally by row of filiform setae; medially, by spatular setae; ventrally, by longer acuminate flattened-apex setae (Fig. 45a). Dentition arrangement, from base to apex: single larger tooth; single smaller tooth; four pairs of teeth; bicuspid pre-apical tooth; apical tooth (Fig. 45a). Tooth couples with same dimensions; teeth basally fused. Pairs of teeth with similar dimensions along mandible's basoapical axis. Anterior clypeal margin with six tubercle-like cuticular processes arranged in a single row; armed anteriorly with asymmetrical mucronate dentiform setae (Fig. 45a). Most lateral clypeal cuticular process armed anterolaterally with row of numerous smaller, blunt, dentiform setae, continuing laterad on clypeal anterior margin, arising from flat cuticle (Fig. 45a). Clypeal cuticular processes approximately the same length as associated dentiform setae. Pair of long, filiform setae on clypeal median area, posterior to central-most pair of cuticular processes on anterior clypeal margin. Clypeal corners with brush of filiform setae; if absent, numerous punctations instead (Fig. 45a). Median clypeal area extending posteriorly between antennal sockets as a narrow longitudinal strip; frontoclypeal sulcus acute (Fig. 45b). Supraclypeal area as small oblong depression (Fig. 45b​). Twelve antennomeres (Fig. 45b​). Small genal teeth present. Compound eyes absent. Palpal formula: 4:2 (four maxillary, two labial; ​Fig. 45c).

Figure 45.

Head of Stigmatomma janovitsika sp. n. worker. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aDorsal view of the mandibles and anterior part of the head (CASENT0145426).
bFullface view (CASENT0318418).
cMouthparts, ventral view (CASENT0159679). Left maxillary and labial palps are outlined in black and darkened to enhance visibility. Slide by F. A. Esteves.

Mesosoma:

In dorsal view, mesonotum narrower than remaining mesosoma (Fig. 46a). Metanotal suture absent (Fig. 46a​). Mesepisternum not divided into anepisternum and kaptepisternum (Fig. 46b). Sulcus separating mesepisternum from posterior remainder of mesosoma, running from metathoracic spiracle to endoapodemal pit of mesopleural arm (Fig. 46b​). Metathoracic spiracle round, pinched inside its opening, and surrounded by cuticular swell (Fig. 46b​). Propodeal spiracle round, surrounded by cuticular swell (Fig. 46b​). Propodeal declivitous face with raised lateral margins (Fig. 46a​).

Figure 46.

Mesosoma of Stigmatomma janovitsika sp. n., worker. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aDorsal view (CASENT0318418).
bLateral view (CASENT0145426).

Legs:

Basoventral lamella of calcar of strigil reduced to a basal bud. Anterior face of calcar of strigil with tubiform microtrichia (Fig. 47a); posterior face with lanceolate microtrichia. Multiple paddle-like setae on antero-ventral face of protibial apex, next to calcar of strigil (Fig. 47a​). Multiple paddle-like setae on anterior face of probasitarsus (Fig. 47a​); row of stout setae along posterior face of probasitarsus, next to comb of strigil. Mesotibial spur absent. Apex of mesotibial inner face with long, stout, spiniform seta resembling a spur under the optical microscope, followed apically by a deep fovea concealing a small, stout, truncated seta (Fig. 47b, c, d). Slit-like longitudinal sulcus on anterodorsal face of mesobasitarsus, with apical end projected laterally (Fig. 47e). Two metatibial spurs; simple anterior spur with lanceolate microtrichia; posterior spur pectinate (Fig. 48a, b). Anterior face of posterior metatibial spur glabrous; posterior face with numerous antler-like microtrichia. Brush of truncated-apex long filiform setae on posterior face of metatibial apex, next to posterior metatibial spur (Fig. 48b). Absence of longitudinal sulcus on antero-dorsal face of metabasitarsus. Base of the inner face of metabasitarsus swollen anteriorly; swollen posterior face with longitudinal row of truncated, flattened-apex stout setae, followed by brush of filiform setae apically (Fig. 48a, b, c). Somewhat stout setae along inner face of remaining metabasitarsus. Arolium on pro-, meso-, and metapretarsus.

Figure 47.

Legs of Stigmatomma janovitsikasp. n. worker; plate I. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aForeleg, anterior face (CASENT0318418): close-up of the protibial apex, including the calcar of strigil and probasitarsus.
bMidleg, posterior face (CASENT0145426): close-up of apical portion of mesotibia, including an enlarged, stout seta, and mesobasitarsus.
cMidleg, inner face (CASENT0318418): close-up of the mesotibia apex, which includes an enlarged, stout seta, followed by a deep fovea concealing a small, stout, truncated seta.
dMidleg, inner face (CASENT0318418): close-up of the deep fovea concealing a small, stout, truncated seta (present at the mesotibia's apex).
eMidleg, anterior face (CASENT0145426): close up of the mesobasitarsus, including its slit-like longitudinal sulcus.
Figure 48.

Legs of Stigmatomma janovitsikasp. n. worker (CASENT0318418); plate II. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aHindleg: close-up of the inner face of the metatibial apex, which includes the metatibial spurs, and anterior face of metabasitarsus.
bHindleg, posterior face: close up of metatibial apex, which includes the metatibial spurs, and basal portion of metabasitarsus.
cHindleg: inner face of basal portion of metabasitarsus.

Metasoma:

Petiole sessile (Fig. 49a). Ventroanterior margin of petiolar tergite anterior dorso-latero-ventral carina (Ward 1990) much shorter than anterior margin of subpetiolar process, in lateral view (Fig. 49a​). Subpetiolar process fin-like: obtuse angle on mid-length of its ventral margin (Fig. 49a​). Absence of fenestra on lateral face of subpetiolar process (Fig. 49a​). Petiolar proprioceptor zone a large, round concavity with few sensilla (Fig. 49b). Prora present (Fig. 49a​). Scrobiculate sulcus between pretergite and postergite of abdominal segment III and presclerites and postsclerites of abdominal segment IV. Eight stout spiniform setae on apex of hypopygium (Fig. 49c).

Figure 49.

Petiole and gaster of Stigmatomma janovitsikasp. n. worker (CASENT0145426). Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aPetiole, lateral view.
bPetiole, ventral view.
cApex of the gaster and stinger, lateral view. Note the stout spiniform setae on the apex of the hypopygium, surrounding the stinger.

Sculpture:

Mandibular dorsal face rugose-foveolate basally, grading into costate apically, except for smooth apical portion (Fig. 45a). Clypeal median area smooth, grading to costulate laterally (Fig. 45a). Supraclypeal area smooth (Fig. 45b). Head in dorsal view, areolate; area posterior to tentorial pit plicate (Fig. 45b​). Labrum imbricate (Fig. 50). Mesosoma foveolate dorsally (Fig. 46a). Pronotum rugose-foveolate laterally; remainder of lateral face of mesosoma mostly costate (Fig. 46b). Propodeal declivitous face smooth (Fig. 46a). Petiolar tergite alveolate ventroanteriorly, grading to smooth anteriorly, imbricate laterally, and foveolate dorsally (Fig. 49a). Petiolar laterotergite smooth anteriorly, grading to alveolate posteriorly and imbricate lateroposteriorly (Fig. 49b). Petiolar poststernite imbricate anteriorly, grading to alveolate to smooth posteriorly (Fig. 49b​). Abdominal segment III foveolate; segment IV punctate; segments V, VI, and VII imbricate (Fig. 49c).

Figure 50.

Stigmatomma janovitsikasp. n. worker (CASENT0145426): ventral view of the mandibles, mouthparts, and anterior part of the head. Image by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

Pilosity and color:

Erect to subdecumbent pilosity on head, dorsal face of mesosoma, petiolar tergite, and abdominal segments III and IV. Petiolar poststernite mostly glabrous, with row of setae along lateral margins. Longer pilosity on abdominal segments V, VI, and VII. Body color orange-brown; light-orange appendages.

Comments on character variation: 

Under the stereomicroscope, there is no observable character variation on the specimens examined.

Other castes: 

Gyne (Fig. 51); alate when virgin: Very similar to the worker caste but for the greater body length, presence of compound eyes and ocelli, and differences on the mesosoma due to the presence of wings. Parapsidal lines on the mesoscutum; scuto-scutellar suture narrow, without apparent sculpture (Fig. 52a​). Mesepisternum not divided into anepisternum and katepisternum by a sulcus, but the upper mesepisternum is clearly smoother than its lower section; mesepimeral lobe not distinct; metapleuron not divided into upper and lower sections but for a short and narrow longitudinal sulcus located around the mid-length of the suture separating mesopleuron from metapleuron; metapleuron not clearly distinct from the propodeum (Fig. 52b​).

Figure 51.

Dealated gyne of Stigmatomma janovitsikasp. n. (CASENT0161532); paratype; plate I. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aFullface view.
bLateral view.
cDorsal view.
Figure 52.

Dealated gyne of Stigmatomma janovitsikasp. n. (CASENT0161532); paratype; plate II. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aMesosoma, dorsal view.
bMesosoma, lateral view.

Male (Fig. 53); alate: Mandibles falcate, with sharp, single apical tooth (Fig. 53a). Anterior margin of the clypeus with dentiform setae (Fig. 53a). Compound eyes with long setae among ommatidia (Fig. 54a). Palpal formula 4:2 (Fig. 55a). Notauli distinct; parapsidal lines present; scuto-scutellar suture narrow, not sculptured (Fig. 54b). Mesepisternum not divided into anepisternum and katepisternum; posterior oblique sulcus short, not well developed; mesepimeral lobe not distinct (Fig. 54c). Metapleuron divided into upper and lower sections by a sulcus; costate sulcus separating upper metapleuron from propodeum; lower metapleuron not completey distinct from the propodeum (Fig. 54c​). Forewing (Figs 53d, 56a, b, 57a, b): pterostigma well developed; Rs.f2-3 may be indistinct; Rs.f5 present and reaching R.f3; 1r-rs absent; 2r-rs present; M.f2 present, but may be just slightly distinct; Rs+M complete or not well-developed; M.f3-4 present; 2rs-m absent; Cu.f2 present; 1m-cu present or just slightly distinct; A.f2 present; cu-a intercepting M+Cu anteriorly to the separation point between M.f1 and Cu.f1. Hindwing (Figs 56c, d, 57c, d): C slightly distinct; Sc+R, R, Rs.f1, and Rs.f2 absent; M+Cu just slightly distinct; 1rs-m, M.f1, M.f2, Cu, and cu-a absent; A present. Pygostyles present (Fig. 54d). Posterior margin of abdominal sternum IX convex (Fig. 55d). Visible division of the paramere into telomere and basimere. Digitus mushroom-shaped; presence of a short projection at the base of the digitus (Fig. 55c). Anterior half of the ventral margin of penisvalva clearly serrate; ventral portion of the penisvalva extremely reduced if compared with other Stigmatomma species in the Malagasy bioregion; dorsal portion somewhat sclerotized (Fig. 55b).

Figure 53.

Male of Stigmatomma janovitsikasp. n. (CASENT0318447); plate I. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aFullface view.
bLateral view.
cDorsal view.
dLeft fore- and hindwing.
Figure 54.

Male of Stigmatomma janovitsikasp. n. (CASENT0318447); plate II. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aRight compound eye ,dorsal view.
bMesosoma, dorsal view. Left wings were removed for better illustration.
cMesosoma, lateral view. Left wings were removed for better illustration.
dApex of the gaster, lateral view.
Figure 55.

Male of Stigmatomma janovitsikasp. n. (CASENT0318446); plate III. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aMouthparts, ventral view. Right maxillary and labial palps are outlined in black and darkened to enhance visibility. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
bAedeagus, lateral view. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
cLongitudinal section of the genital capsule; inner face, lateral view. The basal ring was removed from the specimen. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
dAbdominal sternun IX. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
Figure 56.

Left wings of Stigmatomma janovitsikasp. n. (CASENT0160792); male. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aForewing. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
bClose up of the venation of the forewing. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
cHindwing. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
dClose-up of the venation of the hindwing. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
Figure 57.

Right wings of Stigmatomma janovitsikasp. n. (CASENT0318446); male. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aForewing. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
bClose-up of the venation of the forewing. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
cHindwing. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
dClose-up of the venation of the hindwing. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
Specimens used in prior studies: 

This taxon was referenced as Stigmatomma SC01 (specimen CASENT0159676-D01) in Ward and Fisher (2016).

Diagnosis

Worker

With characters of the tsyhady species-group and the sakalava species-complex as described above, and the following characters (asterisks flag unique characters within the genus in the Malagasy bioregion):

  1. Integument orange-brown (Fig. 44); medium-sized ant (HL: 0.74-0.79, WL: 0.87-0.93).
  2. Pairs of teeth along baso-masticatory margin of mandible have the same length along the baso-apical axis (Fig. 45a, b).
  3. Bicuspid pre-apical tooth (Fig. 45a, b).
  4. Long acuminate flattened-apex setae ventrally skirting baso-masticatory margin of mandible (Fig. 45b).
  5. * Most lateral area of clypeus bearing a brush of filiform setae (when setae are not present, the region presents numerous punctuations; Figs 44a, 45a).
  6. Dorsal face of the head areolate (Figs 44a, 45b).
  7. Genal teeth present (Fig. 44a).
  8. Palpal formula 4:2 (Fig. 45c).
  9. Dorsal face of mesosoma foveolate; lateral face of propotum rugose-foveolate; remainder lateral face of mesosoma mostly costate; declivitous face of propodeum smooth (Fig. 46).
  10. * Mesepisternum not divided into anepisternum and katepisternum (Fig. 46b).
  11. * Basoventral lamella of calcar of strigil reduced to a basal bud.
  12. Anterior face of calcar of strigil with tubiform microtrichia (Fig. 47a).
  13. Mesotibial spur absent (Fig. 47b, c).
  14. * Apex of mesotibial inner face bearing a long, stout, spiniform seta, resembling a spur under optical microscope (Fig. 47b, c).
  15. Mesotibial apical stout seta apically followed by a deep fovea concealing small, stout, truncated seta (Fig. 47c, d).
  16. Slit-like sulcus present on the anterodorsal face of mesobasitarsus, with apical end projected laterally (Fig. 47e).
  17. Anterior face of posterior metatibial spur glabrous (Fig. 48a).
  18. Brush of truncated filiform setae present on the posterior face of the apex of metatibia (Fig. 48b).
  19. * Base of the inner face of metabasitarsus swollen anteriorly. Posterior face of basal swollen area bearing a row of truncated, flattened-apex stout setae, followed apically by a brush of filiform setae (Fig. 48c).
  20. Absence of a longitudinal sulcus on metabasitarsus.
  21. Subpetiolar process fin-like: half of its ventral margin obtusely angled (Fig. 49a).
  22. Eight stout spiniform setae present on the apex of hypopygium (Fig. 49c).

Stigmatomma janovitsika is somewhat similar to S. bolabola and S. sakalava in palpal formula, shape of microtrichia on the posterior face of posterior metatibial spur, and absence of fenestra on the subpetiolar process.

However, it may be distinguished from them by: brush of filiform setae present on the corners of the clypeus (if the setae are removed, the region will be densely punctuate); presence of genal teeth; the mesepisternum is not divided into anepisternum and katepisternum; head sculpture; proportion of lamella on the baso-ventral margin of the calcar of strigil; long, stout, spiniform seta on the mesotibial inner face apex (resembling a spur under the stereomicroscope), followed apically by a cuticular deep fovea concealing a small, stout, truncated seta; and distribution, since it does not occur in sympatry with any of its congeners.

Etymology

The name janovitsika is a portmanteau of Janovitz and vitsika (Malagasy name for ants), meaning the ant of Janovitz. Dr. Tyler W. Janovitz is a medical scientist interested in myrmecology, and generously supported this study.

Distribution

Stigmatomma janovitsika specimens were collected in forest, mixed forest, and mixed forest near glacis (rocky outcrop) habitats, from 60 to around 700 m above sea level, on three granitic islands of the Seychelles (Conception, Mahé, and Silhouette; Fig. 58). Specimens were recorded: (1) manually under rootmat and litter on rocks, and in rotten logs; (2) from sifted leaf mold and rotten wood; and (3) in a Malaise trap.

Figure 58.

Distribution map of Stigmatomma janovitsika sp. n. in the Seychelles islands.

Stigmatomma liebe Esteves & Fisher, sp. n.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Fianarantsoa
    ; locality:
    8.0 km NE Ivohibe
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1200
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -22.42167
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.89833
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    11/03/1997
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF01753
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0318428
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher (Sylvain)
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Fianarantsoa
    ; locality:
    8.0 km NE Ivohibe
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1200
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -22.42167
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.89833
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    11/03/1997
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF01753
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    3w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0746700
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher (Sylvain)
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  2. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Fianarantsoa
    ; locality:
    8.0 km NE Ivohibe
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1200
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -22.42167
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.89833
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    11/03/1997
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF01753
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1dQ
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0746702
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher (Sylvain)
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  3. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Fianarantsoa
    ; locality:
    8.0 km NE Ivohibe
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1200
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -22.42167
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.89833
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    11/03/1997
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF01753
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0746699
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher (Sylvain)
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    BMNH
  4. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Fianarantsoa
    ; locality:
    8.0 km NE Ivohibe
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1200
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -22.42167
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.89833
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    11/03/1997
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF01753
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0746701
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher (Sylvain)
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    MHNG
Other materials:
  1. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    13 km NW Enakara, Rés. Andohahela
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1250
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.55
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.8
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    11/30/1992
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF00561
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w, wet
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    blf0561(l.o.)-03
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  2. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    13 km NW Enakara, Rés. Andohahela
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1250
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.55
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.8
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    11/30/1992
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF00561
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    2w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0009101
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  3. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    13 km NW Enakara, Rés. Andohahela
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1250
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.55
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.8
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    11/30/1992
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF00561
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    2w
    ; preparations:
    pin, SEM mount
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0009102
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  4. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    13 km NW Enakara, Rés. Andohahela
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1250
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.55
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.8
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    11/30/1992
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF00561
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    SEM mount
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0227587
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  5. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    13 km NW Enakara, Rés. Andohahela
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1250
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.55
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.8
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    11/30/1992
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF00561
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0318413
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  6. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Fianarantsoa
    ; locality:
    R.S. Ivohibe 8.0 km E Ivohibe
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1200
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -22.48333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.96833
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    10/15/1997
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF01747
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    SEM mount
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0318414
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher (Sylvain)
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  7. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Fianarantsoa
    ; locality:
    40 km S Ambalavao, Rés. Andringitra
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1275
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -22.21667
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.96667
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    10/15/1993
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF00793
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0746694
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  8. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    13 km NW Enakara, Rés. Andohahela
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1250
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.55
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.8
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    11/30/1992
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF00561
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0746695
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  9. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    13 km NW Enakara, Rés. Andohahela
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1250
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.55
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.8
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    11/30/1992
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF00561
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0746696
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  10. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Fianarantsoa
    ; locality:
    R.S. Ivohibe 8.0 km E Ivohibe
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1200
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -22.48333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.96833
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    10/15/1997
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF01747
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0746697
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher (Sylvain)
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  11. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Fianarantsoa
    ; locality:
    R.S. Ivohibe 8.0 km E Ivohibe
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1200
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -22.48333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    46.96833
    ; samplingProtocol:
    MW 50 sample transect, 5m
    ; eventDate:
    10/15/1997
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF01747
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0746698
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher (Sylvain)
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  12. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1125
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13894
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.06804
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/26/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36518
    ; eventRemarks:
    under root mat on rock
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0724179
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  13. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1125
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13894
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.06804
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/26/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36518
    ; eventRemarks:
    under root mat on rock
    ; sex:
    1w.1aq.
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0724177
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  14. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1125
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13894
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.06804
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/26/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36518
    ; eventRemarks:
    under root mat on rock
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0724178
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  15. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1315
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13632
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.05485
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/27/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36612
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex root mat
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0723207
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  16. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1315
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13632
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.05485
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/27/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36612
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex root mat
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0723242
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  17. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1315
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13632
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.05485
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/27/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36612
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex root mat
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0723243
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  18. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1315
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13632
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.05485
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/27/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36612
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex root mat
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0723244
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  19. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1315
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13632
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.05485
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/27/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36612
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex root mat
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0723245
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  20. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1315
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13632
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.05485
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/27/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36602
    ; eventRemarks:
    under root mat on rock
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0723297
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  21. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1315
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13632
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.05485
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/27/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36602
    ; eventRemarks:
    under root mat on rock
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0723298
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  22. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1315
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13632
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.05485
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/27/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36602
    ; eventRemarks:
    under root mat on rock
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0723299
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  23. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1315
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13632
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.05485
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/27/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36602
    ; eventRemarks:
    under root mat on rock
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0723300
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  24. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1315
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13632
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.05485
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/27/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36602
    ; eventRemarks:
    under root mat on rock
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0723301
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  25. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1315
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13632
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.05485
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/27/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36602
    ; eventRemarks:
    under root mat on rock
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0723302
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  26. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1125
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13894
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.06804
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/26/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36491
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex root mat
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0723227
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  27. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1125
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13894
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.06804
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/26/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36491
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex root mat
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0723228
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  28. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1125
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13894
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.06804
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/26/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36491
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex root mat
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0723229
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  29. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1125
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13894
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.06804
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/26/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36491
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex root mat
    ; sex:
    1w.1m.
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0723230
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  30. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1125
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13894
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.06804
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/26/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36491
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex root mat
    ; sex:
    1w.1m.
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0723231
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  31. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1125
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13894
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.06804
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/26/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36491
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex root mat
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0723232
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  32. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1125
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13894
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.06804
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/26/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36453
    ; eventRemarks:
    under root mat on rock
    ; sex:
    1w.1m.
    ; preparations:
    pin, slide
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0724171
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  33. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1125
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13894
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.06804
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/26/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36453
    ; eventRemarks:
    under root mat on rock
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    SEM mount
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0724172
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  34. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1125
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13894
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.06804
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/26/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36453
    ; eventRemarks:
    under root mat on rock
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0724173
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  35. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1125
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13894
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.06804
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/26/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36453
    ; eventRemarks:
    under root mat on rock
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0724174
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  36. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1125
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13894
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.06804
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/26/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36453
    ; eventRemarks:
    under root mat on rock
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0724175
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  37. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1125
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13894
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.06804
    ; samplingProtocol:
    general collection
    ; eventDate:
    02/26/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36453
    ; eventRemarks:
    under root mat on rock
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0724176
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  38. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1125
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13401
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.05675
    ; samplingProtocol:
    10 maxi winks
    ; eventDate:
    02/25/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36450
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0721030
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  39. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1125
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13401
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.05675
    ; samplingProtocol:
    10 maxi winks
    ; eventDate:
    02/25/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36450
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0721032
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  40. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma liebe
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toliara
    ; locality:
    Anosy Region, Anosyenne Mts, 31.2 km NW Manantenina
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1125
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -24.13401
    ; decimalLongitude:
    47.05675
    ; samplingProtocol:
    10 maxi winks
    ; eventDate:
    02/25/2015
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF36450
    ; eventRemarks:
    sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood)
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0704855
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher, F.A.Esteves et al.
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC

Description

Worker (Fig. 59; holotype values within parentheses): HL: 0.90-0.96 (0.96); HW: 0.76-0.83 (0.83); HW2: 0.69-0.73 (0.73); SL: 0.47-0.52 (0.52); ML: 0.54-0.60 (0.60); WL: 1.16-1.34 (1.25); PPW: 0.45-0.53 (0.49); PtL: 0.50-0.59 (0.53); PtW: 0.51-0.60 (0.57); CI: 84-87 (86); SI: 52-55 (54); MI: 60-65 (63); PtI: 94-98 (94).

Figure 59.

Holotype of Stigmatomma liebe sp. n. (CASENT0318428); worker. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aFullface view.
bLateral view.
cDorsal view.

Head:

Mandibular baso-masticatory margin skirted dorsally by row of filiform setae; medially, by spatular setae; ventrally, by filiform setae (Fig. 60a). Mandibular dentition arrangement, from base to apex: single larger tooth; much smaller single tooth (same size of teeth arranged in pairs; CASENT0318413 lacks this tooth); four pairs of teeth (each tooth pair with same dimensions, fused basally, or most-basal tooth of dorsal tooth pairs much smaller); single preapical tooth; apical tooth (Fig. 60a​). Pairs of teeth similar in length along mandible's basoapical axis (Fig. 60a​). Anterior clypeal margin with seven to nine tubercle-like cuticular processes, arranged in a single row, anteriorly armed with asymmetrical, mucronate, dentiform setae (Fig. 60a​). Lateral-most cuticular process with row of smaller conical setae anterolaterally, continuing laterally along clypeal anterior margin, arising from flat cuticle (Fig. 60a​). Median clypeal cuticular processes with nearly same length of associated dentiform setae (Fig. 60a​). Pair of long, filiform setae on clypeal anterior margin, bordering the central-most cuticular processes. Median area of clypeus extending posteriorly between antennal sockets; frontoclypeal sulcus round (Fig. 60b). Supraclypeal area as shallow oval concavity (Fig. 60b). Twelve antennomeres. Genal teeth present (Fig. 60b). Compound eyes present or absent; widest diameter of compound eyes if present one to three ommatidia (Fig. 60c). Palpal formula: 4:3 (four maxillary, three labial; ​Fig. 60d).

Figure 60.

Head of Stigmatomma liebe sp. n. worker. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aDorsal view of the mandibles and anterior part of the head (CASENT0724172).
bFullface view (CASENT0009102).
cClose-up of the eyes, dorsolateral view (CASENT0009102).
dMouthparts, ventral view (BLF0561(L.O.)-03). Right maxillary and labial palps are outlined in black and darkened to enhance visibility. Slide by F. A. Esteves.

Mesosoma:

In dorsal view, lateral margins of mesonotum continuous with posterior remainder of mesosoma, or expanded laterally (Fig. 61a). Metanotal suture well developed or absent (Fig. 61a). Sulcus divinding mesepisternum into anepisternum and katepisternum (Fig. 61b). Metathoracic spiracle slit-like, posterior margin swollen, surrounded ventroposteriorly by concentric sulcus (Fig. 61b). Propodeal spiracle round, slightly tilted posteriorly (Fig. 61b). Propodeal declivitous face slightly concave (Fig. 61a).

Figure 61.

Mesosoma of Stigmatomma liebe sp. n., worker (CASENT0009102). Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aDorsal view (CASENT0009102).
bLateral view (CASENT0724172). The head and metasoma were disarticulated from the mesosoma.

Legs:

Basoventral two-thirds to three-fourths of calcar of strigil lamellar (Fig. 62a, b). Anterior face of calcar of strigil with strap-like microtrichia (Fig. 62a); posterior face with lanceolate microtrichia (Fig. 62b). Multiple paddle-like setae on anteroventral face of protibia, next to calcar of strigil (Fig. 62a). Multiple paddle-like setae on anterior face of probasitarsus (Fig. 62a); stout setae on posterior face, parallel to comb of strigil (Fig. 62b). Apex of mesotibial inner face with one or two spurs [anterior spur may be present, but in the majority of specimens is reduced to a short, bud-like cuticular projection concealed by a fovea] (Fig. 62c). Slit-like sulcus on anterior face of mesobasitarsus (Fig. 62d). Stout filiform setae along inner face of mesobasitarsus. Apex of metatibial inner face with one or two visible metatibial spurs; when present, the anterior spur is simple and much smaller than posterior spur (less than 1/3 the length of the posterior spur), glabrous or mostly glabrous; when the anterior spur is not visible, a short bud-like cuticular projection concealed by a fovea is seen under higher magnification; posterior spur pectinate (Fig. 63a). Anterior face of posterior metatibial spur mostly glabrous, with few lanceolate microtrichia (Fig. 63a​); posterior face glabrous (Fig. 63b). Absence of longitudinal sulcus on anterodorsal face of metabasitarsus (Fig. 63c). Few blunt, stout setae on the base of inner face of metabasitarsus (Fig. 63c​). Stout setae along remainder of inner face of metabasitarsus (Fig. 63c​). Arolium on pro-, meso-, and metapretarsus.

Figure 62.

Legs of Stigmatomma liebesp. n. worker; plate I. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aForeleg (CASENT0009102), anterior face: apical portion of tibia, its associated calcar of strigil, and remainder of apical part of the leg.
bForeleg (CASENT0009102), posterior face: apical portion of tibia, its associated calcar of strigil, and basitarsus.
cMidleg (CASENT0318413): antero-inner face of apical portion of the tibia and basitarsus.
dMidleg (CASENT0009102): anterior face of the basitarsus.
Figure 63.

Legs of Stigmatomma liebesp. n. worker (CASENT0009102); plate II. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aHindleg, antero-inner face: apical portion of the tibia, its associated spurs, and basal portion of the basitarsus.
bHindleg, posterior face: apical portion of the tibia, its associated posterior spur, and basal portion of the basitarsus.
cHindleg, anterior face: apical portion of the tibia and associated posterior spur, and basitarsus.

Metasoma:

Petiole sessile (Fig. 64a). Ventroanterior margin of petiolar tergite anterior dorso-latero-ventral carina (Ward 1990) much shorter than anterior margin of subpetiolar process, in lateral view (Fig. 64a​). Ventral margin of subpetiolar process running posteriorly in a continuous line, or angled obtusely at midpoint (Fig. 64a​). Presence of fenestra on lateral face of subpetiolar process (Fig. 64a​). Petiolar proprioceptor zone a large, round concavity with numerous sensilla (Fig. 64b). Prora present (Fig. 64a, c). Scrobiculate sulcus between pretergite and postergite of abdominal segment III and presclerites and postsclerites of abdominal segment IV (Fig. 64c). Absence of stout setae on hypopygium (Fig. 64d).

Figure 64.

Stigmatomma liebesp. n. worker; metasoma. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aPetiole, lateral view (CASENT0318428).
bPetiole, ventral view (CASENT0724172).
cMetasoma, lateral view (CASENT0724172). The mesosoma was disarticulated from the metasoma.
dAbdominal segment VII and stinger, lateral view (CASENT0318414).

Sculpture:

Mandibular dorsal face mostly costate-foveolate, except for smooth apical portion (Fig. 60a). Clypeal median area costate-dispersed foveolate (Fig. 60a). Supraclypeal area rugulose (Fig. 60b). Anterior three-fourths of the head, in dorsal view, costate-slightly catenate-foveolate, grading into foveolate posteriorly and laterally (Fig. 60b). Area posterior to tentorial pit tuberculate concentrically (Fig. 60b). Labrum imbricate (Fig. 65). Dorsal face of mesosoma densely foveolate (Fig. 61). Lateral face of pronotum densely foveolate-rugulose; anepisternum mostly smooth dorsally, grading into costate ventrally; katepisternum mostly confused costate-dispersed foveolate; metapleuron mostly costate (Fig. 61b). Lateral face of propodeum costate anteroventrally, grading into foveolate-rugulose posteriorly and dorsally; declivitous face foveolate-rugulose (Fig. 65). Anterior face of petiolar tergite smooth; lateral face imbricate anteriorly, grading into foveolate-rugulose laterally to foveolate dorsally; laterotergite mostly smooth or slightly imbricate; poststernite imbricate anteriorly, grading into alveolate posteriorly (Fig. 64a). Abdominal segments III foveolate; IV and V, punctate; VI and VII, weakly imbricate.

Figure 65.

Stigmatomma liebesp. n. worker (CASENT0009102): ventral view of the mandibles, mouthparts, and anterior part of the head. Image by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

Pilosity and color:

Erect to subdecumbent pilosity on head, dorsal face of mesosoma, petiolar tergite, and abdominal segments III and IV. Erect to suberect pilosity on anterior half and along lateral margins of petiolar poststernite. Longer pilosity on abdominal segments V, VI, and VII. Body color dark-yellow to orange; yellow appendages.

Comments on character variation: 

The great majority of specimens examined present just one visible meso- and metatibial spur under the stereomicroscope; however, variation in number of meso- and metatibial spurs is seen in specimens of the same nest series. When just one spur is present on the meso- or metatibia, it is always the posterior spur; in such cases, a bud-like cuticular projection is seen concealed by a fovea at the place where the anterior spur would be located. It seems to us that such a projection is a sensillum and not the basal portion of a broken spur, given the developmental plasticity exhibited by the anterior mesotibial spur, when it is present: anterior and posterior spurs may have the same length in some specimens, or anterior spur may be much shorter (in one specimen, it corresponds to one-quarter of the size of the posterior spur). However, we do not discard the possibility that the anterior meso- and metatibial spur may be easily broken, but we could not infer that based on the SEM images we possess.

No geographic pattern is seen in the variation of characters of Stigmatomma liebe, and body size, the presence of the most-basal masticatory tooth, number of dentiform setae on clypeal anterior margin, degree of mesonotum expansion, number of meso- and metatibial spur, and color fluctuates even on specimens collected in the same locality.

Other castes: 

Gyne (Fig. 66a, b, c); alate when virgin: similar to the worker caste but for the greater body length, larger compound eyes, presence of ocelli, and differences on the mesosoma due to the presence of wings. Parapsidal lines on the mesoscutum; scuto-scutellar suture narrow, but scrobiculate (Fig. 67). Mesepisternum divided into anepisternum and katepisternum; mesepimeral lobe distinct; metapleuron divided into upper and lower sections; upper metapleuron separated from propodeum by a wide scrobiculate sulcus; lower metapleuron separated from propodeum by a carina, followed dorsally by a narrow, somewhat smooth sulcus (Fig. 67). Forewing (Fig. 66d): pterostigma well developed; Rs.f2 present as short stubs; Rs.f3 present; Rs.f5 present and reaching the R.f3; 1r-rs present, but incomplete; 2r-rs present; M.f4 present; 2rs-m present, but incomplete; Cu.f2, 1m-cu, and A.f2 present; cu-a intercepting M+Cu anteriorly to the separation point between M.f1 and Cu.f1. Hindwing (Fig. 66e): C indistinct; R slightly distinct; Rs.f2 and 1rs-m present; M.f2 present as a stub; Cu, cu-a, and A.f2 present.

Figure 66.

Gyne of Stigmatomma liebesp. n. (CASENT0724177); plate I. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aFullface view.
bLateral view. Left wings were removed for better illustration.
cDorsal view. Left wings were removed for better illustration.
dLeft forewing. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
eLeft hindwing. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
Figure 67.

Gyne of Stigmatomma liebesp. n. (CASENT0724177); plate II. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aMesosoma, dorsal view. Left wings were removed for better illustration.
bMesosoma, lateral view. Left wings were removed for better illustration.

Male (Fig. 68); alate: Mandibles falcate, with sharp, single apical tooth (Fig. 68a). Anterior clypeal margin armed with dentiform setae (Fig. 68a). Compound eyes with short setae among each ommatidium; sparse, longer setae present (Fig. 69). Palpal formula 4:3 (Fig. 70a). Notauli distinct; parapsidal lines present; scuto-scutellar suture scrobiculate (Fig. 69). Mesepisternum not divided into anepisternum and katepisternum; posterior oblique sulcus short, not well developed; mesepimeral lobe well developed; ventral third of the mesopleural suture scrobiculate; metapleuron divided into upper and lower sections by a sulcus; scrobiculate sulcus separating upper metapleuron from propodeum; lower metapleuron separated from the propodeum by a carina, followed dorsally by a slightly scrobiculate sulcus that decreases in width posteriorly (Fig. 69). Forewing (Fig. 71a​): pterostigma well developed; Rs.f2-3 present; Rs.f5 present and reaching R.f3; 1r-rs absent; 2r-rs, M.f4, 2rs-m, Cu.f2, 1m-cu, and A.f2 present; cu-a intercepting M+Cu at the separation point between M.f1 and Cu.f1. Hindwing (Fig. 71b): C indistinct; R slightly distinct; Rs.f2 as a indistinct stub; 1rs-m present; M.f2 absent; Cu, cu-a, and A.f2 present. Pygostyles present (Fig. 69d). Posterior margin of abdominal segment IX convex (Fig. 70d). Division of the paremere into telomere and basimere not visible. Digitus tongue-plier-shaped: presence of a comparatively enlarged projection at the base of the digitus; cuspis shorter than digitus (Fig. 70c). Entire ventral margin of the penisvalva strongly serrate; dorsal portion of the penisvalva somewhat sclerotized (Fig. 70b).

Figure 68.

Male of Stigmatomma liebesp. n. (CASENT0724171); plate I. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aFullface view.
bLateral view. Wings were removed for better illustration.
cDorsal view. Wings were removed for better illustration.
Figure 69.

Male of Stigmatomma liebesp. n. (CASENT0724171); plate II. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aRight compound eye, dorsal view.
bMesosoma, dorsal view. Wings were removed for better illustration.
cMesosoma, lateral view. Wings were removed for better illustration.
dApex of the gaster, lateral view.
Figure 70.

Male of Stigmatomma liebesp. n. (CASENT0724171); plate III. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aMouthparts, ventral view. Left maxillary and labial palps are outlined in gray and darkened to enhance visibility. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
bAedeagus, lateral view. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
cLongitudinal section of the genital capsule; inner face, lateral view. The basal ring was removed from the specimen. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
dAbdominal sternum IX, ventral view. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
Figure 71.

Male of Stigmatomma liebesp. n. (CASENT0724171); plate IV - wings. Images by F. A. Esteves; available at AntWeb.org.

aRight forewing. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
bRight hindwing. Slide by F. A. Esteves.
Specimens used in prior studies: 

Stigmatomma liebe was referenced as Amblyopone sp.2 (specimen CASENT0500013) in Saux et al. (2004).

Diagnosis

Worker

With characters of the tsyhady species-group and the tsyhady species-complex as described above, and the following characters (asterisks flag unique characters within the genus in the Malagasy bioregion):

  1. Integument yellow to dark-yellow; medium-sized ant (HL: 0.90-0.96, WL: 1.16-1.34; Fig. 59).
  2. Pairs of teeth along baso-masticatory margin of mandible are the same length along basoapical axis (Fig. 60a).
  3. Spatular setae ventrally skirting baso-mastigatory margin of mandible (Fig. 60a).
  4. Dorsal face of the head mostly costate-slightly catenate-foveolate (Fig. 60b).
  5. Palpal formula 4:3 (Fig. 60d).
  6. Dorsal face of mesosoma foveolate; lateral face of pronotum densely foveolate-rugulose; lateral face of propodeum costate anteroventrally, grading into foveolate-rugulose posteriorly and dorsally; propodeal declivitous face foveolate-rugulose (Fig. 61).
  7. Mesepisternum divided into anepisternum and katepisternum (Fig. 61b).
  8. Basoventral two-thirds of calcar of strigil lamellar (Fig. 62a, b).
  9. Anterior face of calcar of strigil with strap-like microtrichia (Fig. 62a).
  10. *Anterior mesotibial spur generally reduced to a bud-like cuticular projection concealed by a fovea. When the anterior mesotibial spur is developed, its length is extremely variable, ranging from the length of the posterior spur to one-quarter of its length.
  11. Slit-like longitudinal sulcus present on the anterior face of mesobasitarsus (Fig. 62d).
  12. *Anterior metatibial spur generally reduced to a bud-like cuticular projection concealed by a fovea. When developed, it is reduced in length (less than one-third of the length of the posterior spur), glabrous or mostly glabrous (Fig. 63a).
  13. Anterior face of posterior metatibial spur mostly glabrous, posterior face glabrous (Fig. 63a).
  14. Few blunt setae present on the baso-inner area of metabasitarsus (Fig. 63a, b, c).
  15. Absence of a longitudinal sulcus on the anterior face of the metabasitarsus (Fig. 63c).
  16. Ventral margin of the subpetiolar process generally runs continuously posteriorly, without forming a fin, but may be slightly obtusely angled at its mid-length (Fig. 64a).

Presence of genal teeth, palpal formula, presence of fenestra on the subpetiolar process, shape of microtrichia on the posterior face of posterior metatibial spur, and absence of stout setae on the apex of the hypopygium make Stigmatomma liebe similar to S. irayhady, S. roahady, and S. tsyhady.

However, the yellow color and smaller size differentiate it from the rest. Also, it possesses a sulcus on the anterodorsal face of the mesobasitarsus, while S. tsyhady does not; it does not have a sulcus on the anterodorsal face of the metabasitarsus, which is present in S. roahady; and the anterior metatibial spur is greatly reduced in size, meaning that in the great majority of specimens it is not visible under the stereomicroscope (when it is visible, its length corresponds to less than one-third of the length of the posterior metatial spur), while in S. irayhady it is always visible and much longer than half the length of the posterior metatibial spur.

Stigmatomma liebe is sympatric with S. roahady and S. tsyhady in four localities: at the Andohahela National Park, the Anosyenne Mountains, Andringitra Reserve, and the Ivohibe Special Reserve. It was not recorded at the localities S. irayhady was collected.

Etymology

The name liebe is homage to Elizabeth (Liebe) R. Patterson, for all the support she and her husband (in memoriam) have given to the myrmecological work being done in Madagascar.

Distribution

Stigmatomma liebe was collected in montane rainforest habitats, above 1100 m, at the southern portion of the humid forests ecoregion of Madagascar (following the classification of Burgess et al. 2004; Fig. 72). Specimens were recorded from sifted leaf mold and rotten wood, and nesting in the root mat on rock and on soil.

Figure 72.

Distribution map of Stigmatomma liebesp. n. in the Malagasy bioregion. Collection localities are mapped over the outlines of five simplified ecoregion zones of Madagascar: humid forests (dark green), subhumid forests (light green), dry deciduous forests (brown), succulent woodlands (orange), and spiny thickets (yellow).

Stigmatomma roahady Esteves & Fisher, sp. n.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma roahady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toamasina
    ; locality:
    Forêt Ambatovy, 14.3 km 57° Moramanga
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1075
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -18.85083
    ; decimalLongitude:
    48.32
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    General collecting
    ; eventDate:
    04/12/2005
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF11961
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex rotten log
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0318421
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma roahady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toamasina
    ; locality:
    Forêt Ambatovy, 14.3 km 57° Moramanga
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1075
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -18.85083
    ; decimalLongitude:
    48.32
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    General collecting
    ; eventDate:
    04/12/2005
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF11961
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex rotten log
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0318422
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    NHMW
  2. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma roahady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toamasina
    ; locality:
    Forêt Ambatovy, 14.3 km 57° Moramanga
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1075
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -18.85083
    ; decimalLongitude:
    48.32
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    General collecting
    ; eventDate:
    04/12/2005
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF11961
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex rotten log
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0318424
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  3. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma roahady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toamasina
    ; locality:
    Forêt Ambatovy, 14.3 km 57° Moramanga
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1075
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -18.85083
    ; decimalLongitude:
    48.32
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    General collecting
    ; eventDate:
    04/12/2005
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF11961
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex rotten log
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0318423
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    MHNG
  4. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma roahady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toamasina
    ; locality:
    Forêt Ambatovy, 14.3 km 57¡ Moramanga
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1075
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -18.85083
    ; decimalLongitude:
    48.32
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    General collecting
    ; eventDate:
    04/12/2005
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF11961
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex rotten log
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0227519
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    NHMB
  5. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma roahady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toamasina
    ; locality:
    Forêt Ambatovy, 14.3 km 57° Moramanga
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1075
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -18.85083
    ; decimalLongitude:
    48.32
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    General collecting
    ; eventDate:
    04/12/2005
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF11961
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex rotten log
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0318918
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  6. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma roahady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toamasina
    ; locality:
    Forêt Ambatovy, 14.3 km 57° Moramanga
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1075
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -18.85083
    ; decimalLongitude:
    48.32
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    General collecting
    ; eventDate:
    04/12/2005
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF11961
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex rotten log
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0318422
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institutionCode:
    CASC
  7. scientificName:
    Stigmatomma roahady
    ; genus:
    Stigmatomma
    ; country:
    Madagascar
    ; stateProvince:
    Toamasina
    ; locality:
    Forêt Ambatovy, 14.3 km 57° Moramanga
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1075
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -18.85083
    ; decimalLongitude:
    48.32
    ; georeferenceRemarks:
    coordinates obtained from GPS
    ; samplingProtocol:
    General collecting
    ; eventDate:
    04/12/2005
    ; habitat:
    montane rainforest
    ; fieldNumber:
    BLF11961
    ; eventRemarks:
    ex rotten log
    ; sex:
    1w
    ; preparations:
    pin
    ; catalogNumber:
    casent0318917
    ; recordedBy:
    B.L.Fisher
    ; associatedMedia: ; institution