Biodiversity Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
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Data Paper (Biosciences)
Edible native plants of the Gulf of Mexico Province
expand article infoEva María Piedra-Malagón, Victoria Sosa§, Diego F. Angulo§, Milton H. Díaz-Toribio
‡ Jardín Botánico Francisco Javier Clavijero, Instituto de Ecología A.C., Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico
§ Red de Biología Evolutiva, Instituto de Ecología A.C., Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico
Open Access

Abstract

Background

Currently, at the global level, human food is mainly based on a few crops extensively cultivated as monocultures. Climate change, changes in land to agriculture and cattle raising, as well as the scarcity of water all affect and reduce the possibility of cultivating alternative crops. One way to face this global problem is to promote the knowledge, production and consumption of native food species on a regional scale.

For this study, two databases were constructed for the Gulf of Mexico Province: 1) edible plant species with their corresponding common name, category of use, plant organ(s) utilised as food and type of management; 2) distribution records of these edible species. These species, in addition to being part of the biological diversity of Mexico are of high nutritional, cultural and gastronomical value and have been present in the diet of the inhabitants and ethnic groups in the region since pre-Hispanic times.

New information

This study presents the native edible plants of the Gulf of Mexico Province, an area inhabited by 15 ethnic groups. The main novelty of this contribution is the edible plant species database, which includes the records of 482 species that belong to 101 families and 268 genera. We also present information rarely reported in an ethnobotanical inventory: 1) category of food use, 2) category of plant organ used, 3) common name, 4) type of management and 5) the georeferenced distribution of species occurrence in the Gulf of Mexico Province.

Keywords

ethnobiology, edible plants, seasoning, packaging, ethnic groups, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz

Introduction

It is estimated that, of the 374,000 plant species recorded in the planet (Christenhusz and Byng 2016), 30,000 are edible (Garn and Leonard 1989, Corlett 2016). Of these edible plants, only 7,000 have been either cultivated or collected in their original habitats (Collins and Hawtin 1999, Chivenge et al. 2015). Surprisingly, over 60% of man's diet is based mainly on 20 species which meet 90% of the world's food requirements (Bacchetta et al. 2016). There is much interesting documentation of under-utilised edible plants in several regions around the world to promote their cultivation and collection and, more importantly, to emphasise their importance in food security and nutrition (Kang et al. 2013, Sánchez-Mata and Tardío 2016, Bhatia et al. 2018, CEPAL 2018, Ozturk et al. 2018, FAO 2019, Dop et al. 2020, Jacob et al. 2020, Ulian et al. 2020).

Over 15% of the plants consumed as food in the world originated in Mexico (Saruhkán et al. 2009), where of the 7,461 vascular plant species recorded as useful, 2,168 are edible (Mapes and Basurto 2016). The vast majority of these edible plants are wild species, which, in addition to being part of the biological diversity, are also a fundamental part of the culture and history of each of the country’s regions. The richness of wild edible plants is reflected in the great and diverse traditional Mexican cuisine, which UNESCO has listed as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity (Silva et al. 2016, Iturriaga 2018).

The biocultural diversity that characterises Mexico is clearly represented across the territory, particularly in the biogeographical province of the Gulf of Mexico where the diverse communities of 15 ethnic groups (Ayapanecos, Chinantecos, Choles, Chontales, Huastecos, Mazatecos, Nahuas, Olutecos, Otomies, Sayultecos, Tepehuas, Tzeltales, Texistepequeños, Totonacas and Zoques) inhabit in an area of 17,350 km2, from the State of Tamaulipas in the north to the States of Veracruz and Tabasco in the south (Atlas de los Pueblos Indigenas de México 2020). This Province is characterised by coastal regions on the Gulf of Mexico, diverse ecosystems and elevations that rise from the coastal plains to tall mountains. The native people of this Province have inherited and maintained the use and knowledge of wild edible plants to this day (Hernández et al. 1991, Del Angel-Pérez and Mendoza 2004, Ruíz-Carrera et al. 2004, Lascurain et al. 2010, Sánchez-Trinidad 2017, Centurión-Hidalgo et al. 2019).

Many studies on the native edible plants of Mexico have focused on the Maya of the Yucatan Peninsula (Fedick et al. 2008, Cáceres and Cruz 2019), the Nahua from Central Mexico (Casas et al. 1996, Gutiérrez-­Santillán et al. 2019) and the ethnic groups of desert regions, such as the Tepehuanos and the Yaquis (Narváez-Elizondo et al. 2020, Ramírez García et al. 2020). The focus of this paper is to record the native edible plants used in food preparation and to wrap food in the Province of the Gulf of Mexico, for which studies are scarce. Two databases were compiled based on fieldwork, data from the main herbaria of the region and from the ethnobotanical literature. A checklist of edible species, their location in this Province, based on a georeferenced database, their common names, the type of use and the plant parts utilised are also included.

General description

Purpose: 

This contribution provides information on the native plants that are used in food preparation in the Gulf of Mexico Province. These species, in addition to representing a biological resource, are of great historical and cultural value in the gastronomy of 15 ethnic groups and the rural and urban inhabitants of the Gulf of Mexico region. The data are expected to increase awareness about the immense potential that wild edible plants offer as a food resource and to promote the conservation of the species that grow in areas under strong anthropogenic pressure.

Project description

Study area description: 

According to biogeographic studies, the Province of the Gulf of Mexico, located in the Neotropical Region, extends as a continuous strip along the coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico, covering the States of Veracruz and Tabasco and the southern part of the State of Tamaulipas that borders the Tropic of Cancer (Morrone 2005, Morrone 2010). Small areas of the States San Luis Potosí, Hidalgo, Puebla, Oaxaca, Chiapas and Campeche, as well as northern Belize and Guatemala, are also part of the Gulf of Mexico Province (Morrone 2005). As most of the territory of this Province lies in Tamaulipas, Veracruz and Tabasco, our study focuses on this area. The climate in the Gulf of Mexico Province is variable and ranges from tropical warm (in the lowlands and coastal areas) and temperate (in the central lands), to cold (in the highlands and mountainous areas), with an average annual temperature of 25ºC and an average annual rainfall of 1,500 mm (Soto et al. 2001, Soto-Esparza and Giddings-Berger 2011). The coastal strip of the Gulf of Mexico Province increases in orographic complexity towards the interior of the continent, with its highest elevations reaching around 2,000 m in the El Cielo Biosphere Reserve in Tamaulipas (Steinberg et al. 2014) and 3,500 m a.s.l. in Veracruz, close to the Cofre de Perote and Pico de Orizaba volcanoes, which have elevations of 4,282 and 5,747 m a.s.l., respectively (Jáuregui and Soto 1975). The elevation gradient of the Gulf of Mexico Province has allowed six types of vegetation to establish: coniferous forest, xerophilic scrub, cloud forest, deciduous tropical forest, evergreen tropical forest and aquatic and underwater vegetation (Challenger and Soberón 2008). The Gulf of Mexico Province is one of the regions with the greatest diversity of vascular plants with 5000 species in Veracruz (Victoria Sosa, com. pers), 4667 species in Tamaulipas (Arturo Mora-Olivo, com. pers) and 3500 in Tabasco (Carlos M. Burelo, com. pers). This region is considered one of the best areas for agricultural activities (Córdoba y Ordóñez 2004). The intensive cultivation of corn, sorghum, cotton, rice, sugar cane, coffee, banana, citrus fruits, pineapples and livestock are the main economic activities of the region (Travieso-Bello et al. 2006). However, the high impact of land use change has drastically altered and reduced ecosystems to mostly degraded environments and secondary forests (Mendoza-González et al. 2012, Steinberg et al. 2014).

Sampling methods

Sampling description: 

Data were obtained from fieldwork carried out for a project on the edible plants of the Francisco Javier Clavijero Botanical Garden, by consulting the specimen database of the XAL Herbarium of the Instituto de Ecología A.C. and the biodiversity database of the National Biodiversity Commission (CONABIO), as well as an exhaustive literature search of ethnobotanical, agronomic, ethnographical and floristic studies. With these data, we compiled a checklist of the food plant species for the three States within the Gulf of Mexico Province: Tabasco, Tamaulipas and Veracruz. In the supplementary files (Suppl. material 3), the 125 bibliographical sources consulted here, published from 1979 to 2020, are included.

For this study, we only recorded species native to the Gulf of Mexico Province; introduced plants were not considered. Based on Roullier et al. (2013) who indicated the evolution of populations of Ipomoea batatas, we decided to include this species. The majority of the plant species utilised for food are native and often collected in the wild, while some other species, such as those of the central region of the Gulf of Mexico, in Veracruz, are locally cultivated on a small scale or in home gardens to facilitate their accessibility to rural families and ethnic groups (Chablé-Pascual et al. 2015, Cruz and López 2018, Rooduijn et al. 2018, López-Santiago et al. 2019, Aguilar Vásquez et al. 2019, Avilez-López et al. 2020).

Category of use and plant organ utilised as food. Several categories have been proposed to identify the use of plants and represent artificial divisions originating from an ethnocentric perspective. Here, the following are used: edible, spicy, medicinal, utilised in religious ceremonies and ornamental (Bye and Linares 1983). In this study, plants used as food are divided into four categories:

  1. species eaten raw or after some preparation process, such as cooking, food colourants, drinks, etc.,
  2. species added to food as seasoning due to their pleasant taste or aromatic qualities or flavouring properties,
  3. species used as packaging to wrap or contain food (solid and/or liquid) for cooking, transportation and/or tasting and
  4. a multipurpose category assigned to species reported in more than one category (edible, seasoning and packaging).

For instance, Piper auritum, which is known as “acuyo” or “hoja santa”, is considered a multipurpose species because the leaves are utilised as flavouring in soups and for wrapping up certain meals. Zea mays, “maíz,” is another example of a multipurpose species; its fruits and seeds are eaten and its leaves are dried and used to transport food and keep it fresh and its dried leaves are also used to wrap the dough for “tamales”.

Nine edible plant organs were identified: 1) roots or bulbs, 2) stem, 3) bark, 4) wood or trunk, 5) leaves, 6) flowers, 7) fruits, 8) seeds, 9) resin/latex and 10) multipurpose, a category assigned to species for which more than one organ is utilised as food. For instance, in Sechium edule, different organs are eaten and prepared in different ways. Its growing tendrils are called “guías de chayote” and cooked in sauces, its rhizome is known as “chayotextle” and mainly eaten fried and the fruits are known as “chayote” or “christophine” and eaten as cooked vegetables. For certain beans (Phaseolus coccineus, P. vulgaris) and squashes or gourds (Cucurbita argyrosperma, Cucurbita pepo), the fruits, seeds and flowers are cooked and eaten.

Type of management. The categories proposed by Bye (1993) and Caballero et al. (1998) were followed:

  1. gathered directly from their ecosystems,
  2. incipient management in which plants are tolerated or even promoted and
  3. cultivated locally in orchards or home gardens.

Geographic coverage

Description: 

The Province of the Gulf of Mexico is located in the Neotropical Region, it extends from sea level to 3,500 m above sea level and is a continuous strip along the coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico from the States of Tabasco and Veracruz in the south to the southern portion of the State of Tamaulipas in the north of Mexico (Fig. 1).

Figure 1.  

Map showing the location of the Gulf of Mexico Province and the distribution of the occurrence records of edible native species of the four most diverse families. The map is based on herbarium and GBIF data. A Leguminosae; B Solanaceae; C Cactaceae; D Asparagaceae.

Coordinates: 

17.143085 and 27.682536 Latitude; -100.142119 and -17.256033 Longitude.

Taxonomic coverage

Description: 

The classification of families and orders follows APG IV (2016). The species names were reviewed, based on the World Flora Online (Borsch et al. 2020) and for those species that are not on this list, the name is cited as given in the corresponding reference or herbarium specimen. All the specimens collected in the field were identified to the species level and their vouchers deposited in the XAL Herbarium, curated by the Instituto de Ecología, A.C. in Xalapa, Mexico. The geographic coordinates of native edible plants of the Gulf of Mexico Province (Suppl. material 2) were obtained from GBIF.org (2021) using the gbif function in the dismo package for R (Hijmans et al. 2017, R Core Team 2020). We acknowledge there is some variation regarding coordinate precision, even though the records downloaded from GBIF were either original or interpreted, we only considered the records taken from herbarium specimens. Many herbarium specimens were collected in the past centuries; therefore, they did not include coordinate systems. However, these historical records that did not include precise georeferences were considered when they were added precisely, because they indicated the precise locality.

Usage licence

Usage licence: 
Creative Commons Public Domain Waiver (CC-Zero)

Data resources

Data package title: 
Data package of Edible native plants of the Gulf of Mexico Province.
Number of data sets: 
2
Data set name: 
Categories of use, plant organ utilised and management of native edible plants of the Gulf of Mexico.
Description: 

Database with information about categories of use, plant organ utilised and categories of management of native edible plants of the Gulf of Mexico Province. Available as Suppl. material 1.

Column label Column description
Family Scientific name of the family in which the taxon is classified.
Species Full scientific name of the taxon.
Category of use (Edibles) use = 1, not used = 0.
Category of use (Seasonings) use = 1, not used = 0.
Category of use (Packaging) use = 1, not used = 0.
Category of use (Multipurpose by category of use) use = 1, not used = 0.
Plant organ utilised (Root or bulb) use = 1, not used = 0.
Plant organ utilised (Stem) use = 1, not used = 0.
Plant organ utilised (Bark) use = 1, not used = 0.
Plant organ utilised (Wood or trunk) use = 1, not used = 0.
Plant organ utilised (Leaf) use = 1, not used = 0.
Plant organ utilised (Flower) use = 1, not used = 0.
Plant organ utilised (Fruits) use = 1, not used = 0.
Plant organ utilised (Seed) use = 1, not used = 0.
Plant organ utilised (Resin or latex) use = 1, not used = 0.
Plant organ utilised (Multipurpose by plant organ used) use = 1, not used = 0.
No data of plant organ used Out data = 1, with data = 0.
Management category or categories of management.
Data set name: 
Geographical coordinates of edible native plants of the Gulf of Mexico Province
Description: 

Geographical coordinates of edible native plants distributed in the Gulf of Mexico Province. Available as Suppl. material 2.

Column label Column description
Family The full scientific name of the family in which the taxon is classified.
Genus The full scientific name of the genus in which the taxon is classified.
Species The scientific name of the specie.
Decimal Lat Geographical coordinates in decimal (latitude).
Decimal Lon Geographical coordinates in decimal (longitude).
gbifID Reference number of gbif database.

Additional information

Results

Edible species by group. We recorded a total of 482 of plants species used as food in the Gulf of Mexico Province and belonging to 101 families and 268 genera (Table 1). The families with the highest number of native edible species were Leguminosae (48 species), Solanaceae (28 species), Cactaceae (25 species), Asparagaceae (23 species), Arecaceae (16 species), Araceae (14 species), Malvaceae (13 species), Euphorbiaceae (12 species) and Annonaceae, Myrtaceae, Rosaceae and Sapotaceae (10 species) (Fig. 2a). These 12 families comprise 219 species, representing 45% of the native edible plants recorded for the Gulf of Mexico Province. The other 55% are distributed unevenly amongst the remaining 88 families. The most important genera were Agave (13 species), Physalis (12 species), Inga (10 species), Annona (8 species), Chamaedorea and Solanum (7 species), Acaciella, Diospyros, Peperomia, Rubus and Smilax (6 species) (Fig. 2b). These 11 genera include 87 species, representing 18% of the native edible plants recorded for the Gulf of Mexico. The other 82% are distributed unevenly amongst the remaining 257 genera.

Table 1.

Table 1. Alphabetic arrangement by family and species and common names of native edible plants of the Gulf of Mexico Province. The families correspond to those proposed by APG IV (2016).

Famillia Scientific name Common name
Acanthaceae Justicia spicigera Schltdl. añil de piedra, flor de azulillo, hierba púrpura, hierba tinta, muicle, sangre de cristo
Actinidaceae Saurauia cana B.T.Keller & Breedlove ixtlahuatl, moco blanco, moquillo, pipicho
Adoxaceae Sambucus canadensis L. sauco, saúco, sauco colorado, sauco extranjero, sauco rojo, xómetl
Amaranthaceae Amaranthus cruentus L. quelite blanco, tsaw juki (Totonaco)
Amaranthaceae Amaranthus hybridus L. quelite, quelite morado, quintonil
Amaranthaceae Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. quelite quintonil, tsaw (Totonaco)
Amaranthaceae Amaranthus palmeri S.Watson quelite blanco, quintonil
Amaranthaceae Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt quelite blanco, quintonil
Amaranthaceae Chenopodium incisum Poir. epazote morado
Amaranthaceae Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. huazontle
Amaranthaceae Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants epazote, Ihkgna (Totonaco)
Amarylidaceae Allium glandulosum Link & Otto. cebolla de monte, cebolleja
Amarylidaceae Allium longifolium (Kunth) Spreng. cebollín, cebollina blanca, chunacate
Anacardiaceae Pistacia mexicana Kunth lentisco
Anacardiaceae Rhus aromatica Aiton agrito
Anacardiaceae Rhus microphylla Engelm. agrito, correosa
Anacardiaceae Rhus pachyrrhachis Hemsl. agrito
Anacardiaceae Rhus virens Lindh. ex A.Gray lantrisco
Anacardiaceae Spondias mombin L. ciruela, jamsinpichcuy (Núntaha’yi), jobo, xípa (Totonaco)
Anacardiaceae Spondias purpurea L. ciruela criolla, ciruela roja, ciruelo, skgatán, tuxpana
Anacardiaceae Tapirira mexicana Marchand bienvenido, cacao, caobilla, jobo, nompi
Annonaceae Annona glabra L. anona, anona blanca, anona de corcho
Annonaceae Annona globiflora Schltdl. anona del monte, chirimolla, chirimoyito, anonasilvestre, ashiwitmusni (Totonaco), guanabanilla
Annonaceae Annona muricata L. guanábana, guanábano
Annonaceae Annona purpurea Moc. & Sessé ex Dunal cabeza de negro, ilama, ilana, chincua, chincuya, soncuaya, zapote ilama
Annonaceae Annona reticulata L. akxitkiwi (Totonaco), anona, anona colorada, anona morada, anona roja, anonillo, anono, chirimoya, corazón de buey, ilama, morada, yati (Núntaha’yi)
Annonaceae Annona rensoniana Standl. ND
Annonaceae Annona scleroderma Saff. chirimuya
Annonaceae Annona squamosa L. anona blanca, surumuya
Annonaceae Mosannona depressa (Baill.) Chatrou nazareno prieto
Annonaceae Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.) Baill. chirimoya, akxitkiwi (Totonaco), chirimoyo, anona, anona montaña
Apiaceae Daucus montanus Humb. & Bonpl. ex Spreng. culantrillo
Apiaceae Eryngium foetidum L. cilantro cimarrón, cilantro de espina, cilantroespinudo, extranjero, huitzcolanto, perejil, perejil criollo, strankgeyu (Totonaco)
Apocynaceae Gonolobus barbatus Kunth tlayote
Apocynaceae Gonolobus niger (Cav.) R.Br. ex Schult. cahuayote, chompipe, chupipe, chupipi, papullo, talayote, uyk
Apocynaceae Marsdenia coulteri Hemsl. talayote
Apocynaceae Marsdenia macrophylla (Humb. & Bonpl.) Fourn. talayote
Apocynaceae Plumeria rubra L. cacalosúchil, cacalote, cacaloxochitl, floramarilla, flor de corpus, flor de cuervo, flor de mayo, flor de la Santa Cruz, flor de templo, gagaloxuchit, jacalos chil, kakaloxochitl, pu’uchmooya, súchel, súchil, xanath spiritu
Apocynaceae Tabernaemontana alba Mill. cojón de gato
Apocynaceae Tabernaemontana litoralis Kunth ND
Apocynaceae Vallesia glabra (Cav.) Link mahuira
Araceae Anthurium schlechtendalii Kunth panizbatl, tisbatl
Araceae Anthurium scandens (Aubl.) Engl. ND
Araceae Monstera deliciosa Liebm. piñanona
Araceae Monstera tuberculata var. tuberculata Lundell ND
Araceae Philodendron radiatum var. radiatum Schott ND
Araceae Philodendron sagittifolium Liebm. ND
Araceae Philodendron tripartitum (Jacq.) Schott ND
Araceae Pistia stratiotes L. ND
Araceae Spathiphyllum friedrichsthalii Schott flor chile de gato, flor de gato, flor de San Lorenzo, oloxochitl, súchil, tolancaxochitl
Araceae Spathiphyllum phryniifolium Schott flor de chile, flor de chilillo, cuchijec
Araceae Syngonium angustatum Schott, Oesterr. ND
Araceae Syngonium neglectum Schott ND
Araceae Syngonium podophyllum Schott ND
Araceae Xanthosoma robustum Schott lokg, malvarón, oreja de elefante, rejalgar
Araliaceae Dendropanax arboreus (L.) Decne & Planch. palo de agua, palo santo
Araliaceae Hydrocotyle umbellata L. pesetilla
Araliaceae Oreopanax capitatus (Jacq.) Decne & Planch. caballero, cabellera de palo, coamatl, choco, tablilla
Araliaceae Oreopanax echinops (Schldtl. & Cham.) Decne. & Planch. caballero, cinco hojas, macuilillo, pata de gallo, siete hojas
Araliaceae Oreopanax flaccidus Marchal choco, hoja de queso
Arecaceae Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. ex Mart. cocoyol, coyol, coyol redondo, guacoyul
Arecaceae Astrocaryum mexicanum Liebm. ex Mart. chapay, chapaya, chichón, chipi, chocho, chocón, flor de chocho
Arecaceae Attalea rostrata Oerst. corozo, coyol real, coyolito real, palma real
Arecaceae Bactris major Jacq. coyolillo, guiscoyol, jahuacté, jahuactillo
Arecaceae Bactris mexicana Mart. chiquiyul, jahuacté
Arecaceae Brahea dulcis (Kunth) Mart. palma de abanico, palma de sombrero, palmilla, palmito
Arecaceae Chamaedorea alternans H.Wendl. guaya de cerro, pampi, tepejilote
Arecaceae Chamaedorea cataractarum Mart. guaya de río, guayita de río
Arecaceae Chamaedorea elegans Mart. jilote de cerro, tepejilote, tepexilotl
Arecaceae Chamaedorea oblongata Mart. litámpa (Totonaco), tepejilote
Arecaceae Chamaedorea pinnatifrons (Jacq.) Oerst. guaya de cerro, pacaya
Arecaceae Chamaedorea seifrizii Burret palmita bambu
Arecaceae Chamaedorea tepejilote Liebm. chive, jilote de cerro, joma, guaya, tepejilote, tepexilotl
Arecaceae Cryosophila stauracantha (Heynh.) R.Evans guano coba
Arecaceae Reinhardtia gracilis var. gracilior (Burret) H.E.Moore coquillo
Arecaceae Sabal mexicana Mart. aptas, guano, palma, palma apachite, palmareal, palma redonda, palmito
Asparagaceae Agave americana L. maguey, maguey cenizo
Asparagaceae Agave fourcroydes Lem. ND
Asparagaceae Agave gentryi B.Ullrich agave, bayusa, cacaya, flor dejiote, flor de gigante, flor de henequén, flor de maguey, flor de mezcal, flor de pitol, flor de sotol, golumbos, gualumbos, hualumbos, huexote, kakaya, machete, maguey, quiote
Asparagaceae Agave lechuguilla Torr. maguey verde
Asparagaceae Agave atrovirens Karw. ex Salm-Dyck lechuguilla
Asparagaceae Agave mapisaga Trel. maguey manso
Asparagaceae Agave mitis Mart. ND
Asparagaceae Agave montana Villarreal maguey chino
Asparagaceae Agave montium-sancticaroli García-Mend. jarcia
Asparagaceae Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck maguey manso
Asparagaceae Agave striata Zucc. espadín
Asparagaceae Agave weberi Cels ex Poisson maguey verde
Asparagaceae Beschorneria septentrionalis García-Mend. ND
Asparagaceae Beschorneria yuccoides subsp. dekosteriana (K.Koch) García-Mend. gasparito
Asparagaceae Dasylirion longissimum Lem. aracuete, padillo, vara
Asparagaceae Dasylirion texanum Scheele sotol, sotol chino
Asparagaceae Manfreda scabra (Ortega) McVaugh maguey, maguey cenizo
Asparagaceae Milla biflora Cav. azúcar de campo, azucena del campo, azucena, silvestre, estrella, flor de mayo, flor de San Juan, flor de San Nicolas, jacinto de monte
Asparagaceae Yucca carnerosana (Trel.) McKelvey palma barreta, palma loca, palma samandoca
Asparagaceae Yucca filifera Chabaud palma, palma barreta, palma china, palma samandoca, pita, pita amarilla
Asparagaceae Yucca gigantea Lem. akgalukut, cardum, chochas, chocho, flor de palma, flor de palmo, iksoxochitl, izote, izotl, izxote, kardum, palma, palmito, palmito guaya, yuca
Asparagaceae Yucca periculosa Baker izote, palmito
Asparagaceae Yucca treculeana Carriere palma, palma de d tiles, palma pita, pita verde
Asteraceae Dahlia imperialis Roezl ex Ortgies dalia
Asteraceae Helianthus annuus L. girasol, maíz de texas
Asteraceae Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. papaloquelite, tepehua, venadilla
Asteraceae Senecio roseus Sch.Bip. lechuguilla
Asteraceae Tagetes erecta L. cempasúchil, cempaxúchil, cempoal, cempoalxóchitl, flor de muerto
Asteraceae Tagetes lucida Cav. hierbanis
Asteraceae Tagetes micrantha Cav. anisillo
Asteraceae Tamaulipa azurea (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob. limpia tuna
Asteraceae Thymophylla pentachaeta (DC.) Small limoncillo, parraleña
Bassellaceae Anredera vesicaria (Lam.) C.F.Gaertn. sacasil
Bataceae Batis maritima L. saladilla
Begoniaceae Begonia gracilis Kunth ND
Begoniaceae Begonia heracleifolia Schltdl. & Cham. xocoyole, xkutn (Totonaco)
Begoniaceae Begonia multistaminea Burt-Utley chucuyul, chucuyule
Begoniaceae Begonia nelumbonifolia Schltdl. & Cham. begonia, quelite agrio, xocoyole
Berberidaceae Berberis trifoliolata Moric. palo amarillo
Bignoniaceae Amphitecna tuxtlensis A.H.Gentry ND
Bignoniaceae Crescentia alata Kunth guaje, jícaro
Bignoniaceae Crescentia cujete L. guaje, tecomate
Bignoniaceae Parmentiera aculeata (Kunth) Seem. cuajilote, chote, chayote, guachilote, guajilote, pepino silvestre
Bignoniaceae Tecoma stans Kunth San pedro
Bixaceae Bixa orellana L. achiote, axiote
Boraginaceae Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken aguardientillo, bajón, baria, hormiguillo,hormiguero, huitl, sochicahua, sochíchi, solecillo, solerillo, suchil, tepesuchi, xulaxuchilt
Boraginaceae Cordia boissieri A.DC. nacahua
Boraginaceae Cordia dentata Poir. baboso, gravel, gulaber, moquillo, olavere, zazamil
Boraginaceae Cordia dodecandra A.DC. cópite, trompillo
Boraginaceae Ehretia anacua (Teran & Berl) I.M.Johns anácua, manzanilla
Boraginaceae Ehretia tinifolia L. beec, capulín cimarrón, frutillo, manzana, manzanilla, manzano, nandimbo, palo verde, roble, sauco, pingüico
Boraginaceae Tournefortia hirsutissima L. nigua, tlachichinole
Brassicaceae Lepidium costaricense Thell. lentejilla
Brassicaceae Lesquerella fendleri (A.Gray) S.Watson lesquerella
Bromeliaceae Aechmea magdalenae (André) André ex Baker pita
Bromeliaceae Bromelia karatas L. chichipo, chiyol, guapilla, piñuela
Bromeliaceae Bromelia pinguin L. borregos, borreguitos, cardo, cardón, guapilla
Bromeliaceae Catopsis nutans (Sw.) Griseb. gallitos
Bromeliaceae Greigia van-hyningii L.B.Sm. piña cimarrona, piña de monte
Bromeliaceae Hechtia glomerata Zucc. guapilla china
Burseraceae Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. chaca
Burseraceae Protium copal (Schltdl. & Cham.) Engl. copalillo, shewin'shan (Totonaco)
Cactaceae Acanthocereus tetragonus (L.) Hummelinck cruceta, jacube, jacubo
Cactaceae Cylindropuntia imbricata (Haw.) F.M.Knuth cardón
Cactaceae Echinocactus platyacanthus Link & Otto. biznaga burra
Cactaceae Echinocereus cinerascens var. tulensis (Bravo) N.P.Taylor alicoche San Juanero, pitaya San Juanera
Cactaceae Echinocereus enneacanthus Engelm. alicoche, biznaga
Cactaceae Echinocereus pentalophus (DC.) Ruempler alicoche
Cactaceae Echinocereus stramineus (Engelm.) F.Seitz alicoche, alicoche verde, pitahaia deagosto, pitahaya, pitahaya de agosto, pitaya, sanjuanera
Cactaceae Ferocactus hamatacanthus (Weber) Britton & Rose biznaga de tuna
Cactaceae Ferocactus pilosus (Salm-Dyck) Werderman biznaga, biznaga roja
Cactaceae Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britton & Rose pitahaya, pitajaya, pitaya, pitaya orejona
Cactaceae Mammillaria hemisphaerica Engelm. pichilingos
Cactaceae Mammillaria heyderi Muehlenpf. biznaga de chilitos
Cactaceae Marginatocereus marginatus (DC.) Backeb. órgano
Cactaceae Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Mart. ex Pfeiff.) Console garambullo
Cactaceae Neomammillaria candida (Scheidw.) Britton & Rose. biznagita blanca
Cactaceae Nopalea dejecta Salm-Dyck nopal, nopal chamacuero
Cactaceae Opuntia cantabrigiensis Lynch arrastradillo
Cactaceae Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck ex Engelm. nopal cuijo
Cactaceae Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. tuna, nopal blanco
Cactaceae Opuntia leucotricha DC. nopal duraznillo, duraznillo
Cactaceae Opuntia stenopetala Engelm arrastradilla
Cactaceae Pereskiopsis aquosa (Weber) Britton & Rose nopal de la punzada
Cactaceae Rhipsalis baccifera (Miller) Stearn ND
Cactaceae Selenicereus testudo (Karw. ex Zucc.) Buxb. cruzeta
Cactaceae Stenocereus griseus (Haw.) Buxb. pitayo
Calophyllaceae Mammea americana L. akgchixitjak (Totonaco), mamey amarillo, mamey santo domingo, zapote cabello, zapote domingo
Campanulaceae Lobelia xalapensis Kunth berro silvestre, hierba loca
Cannabaceae Aphananthe monoica (Hemsl.) J.-F.Leroy chilesmin, cuachichile, cuerillo, pipín, quebrache, tomatillo, varilla
Cannabaceae Celtis caudata Planch. carboncillo
Cannabaceae Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg. cuerétaro, granjeno, tontu, uña de gato
Cannabaceae Celtis laevigata Willd. palo blanco
Cannabaceae Celtis pallida Torr. granjeno
Cannabaceae Trema micrantha (L.) Blume togalapoli
Cannaceae Canna indica L. plantanilla
Capparidaceae Morisonia americana L. bandera, chachalaca, chilalaga, chimalaga, papatla, platanillo, papata
Caricaceae Carica papaya L. papaya
Caricaceae Jacaratia dolichaula (Donn.Sm.) Woodson palo de agua, palo de pan, papaya cimarrona
Caricaceae Jacaratia mexicana A.DC. bonete, coalsuayote, cuaguayote, papaya demontaña, papaya orejona
Caricaceae Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A.DC. melocotón, papayita, papaya cimarrona, papaya de monte, papaya oreja de mico
Caryophyllaceae Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex Schult. berro cimarrón, lengua de pájaro
Cecropiaceae Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol. hormiguillo
Celastraceae Hippocratea volubilis L. tecolote
Celastraceae Myginda latifolia Sw. ND
Celastraceae Salacia cordata (Miers) Mennega gogo, tegualala
Celastraceae Salacia impressifolia (Miers) A.C.Sm bejuco zapote, tenguale
Celastraceae Wimmeria concolor Cham. & Schltdl. cuyuxquihui
Chrysobalanaceae Chrysobalanus icaco L. caimito, caco, ciruela de paloma, icaco, icaco de playa, jicaco, uva de mar
Chrysobalanaceae Couepia polyandra (Kunth) Rose gurupillo, olo sapo, olozapote, uspi, zapote niño
Chrysobalanaceae Hirtella racemosa var. hexandra (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Prance bejuco limón, escobilla, tallepo
Chrysobalanaceae Licania platypus (Hemsl.) Fritsch cabeza de mono, caca de niño, huicume, menso zapote, zapote amarillo, zapote cabello, zapote de mono
Cleomaceae Cleome magnifica Briq. chichiquelite
Clusiaceae Clusia guatemalensis Hemsl. higo
Clusiaceae Garcinia intermedia (Pittier) Hammel guo-guo, limoncillo, naranjillo, wuowo
Combretaceae Terminalia amazonia (J.F.Gmel.) Exell canshán
Commelinaceae Tinantia erecta (Jacq.) Fenzl hierba del pollo
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. camote, camote blanco, camote morado, coshlapa, mánta, quiebraplato
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea bracteata Cav. azalea de la barranca, bejuco blanco, camoteblanco, catispa, chile pato, papada de gallo
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea dumosa (Benth.) L.O.Williams campanilla, chonequi, corazón de la virgen, quiebraplato, xonequi
Cucurbitaceae Cucurbita argyrosperma Huber calabaza, calabaza pipián, chigua, nipx (Totonaco)
Cucurbitaceae Cucurbita foetidissima Kunth calabacilla loca
Cucurbitaceae Cucurbita moschata Duchesne calabaza [fruit], calabaza criolla, pipián [seed]
Cucurbitaceae Cucurbita pepo L. ayoxochitl, ayoxochquilitl, calabacita, calabaza, puntas de calabaza [leaves], flor de calabaza [flowers], flor de pipiana, pipiana
Cucurbitaceae Cyclanthera langaei Congn. cincoquelites
Cucurbitaceae Melothria pendula L. pepinillo silvestre, sandía, sandía de ratón, sandía silvestre
Cucurbitaceae Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. chayote, chayotli, erizo, güisquil, huisquil, jerizo, jurita, mayakg (Totonaco), usquil
Cyperaceae Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (C.C.Gmel.) Palla popoque, tule
Ebenaceae Diospyros acapulcensis subsp. verae-crucis (Standl.) Provance, I.García & A.C.Sanders techona, zapotillo
Ebenaceae Diospyros campechiana Lundell zapotito
Ebenaceae Diospyros conzattii Standl. chapote, zapotillo
Ebenaceae Diospyros nigra (J.F.Gmel.) Perrier zapote negro, zapote prieto, sawalh (Totonaco)
Ebenaceae Diospyros palmeri Eastw. chapote
Ebenaceae Diospyros texana Scheele chapote, chapote prieto
Ericaceae Arbutus xalapensis Kunth madroño, madrón
Ericaceae Comarostaphylis glaucescens (Kunth) Zucc. ex Klotzsch macuate
Ericaceae Comarostaphylis polifolia (Kunth) Zucc. ex Klotzsch macuate
Ericaceae Vaccinium leucanthum Schltdl. cahuiche, huicapol, huicapola, xoxocotzi
Euphorbiaceae Adelia barbinervis Cham. & Schltdl. espinaca blanca
Euphorbiaceae Bernardia dodecandra (Sessé ex Cav.) Govaerts lisutkiwi
Euphorbiaceae Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Mill.) I.M.Johnst. chaya
Euphorbiaceae Cnidoscolus multilobus (Pax) I.M.Johnst. chaya, chaya amarilla, chaya brava, chaya mansa, chaya verde, mala mujer, pipian
Euphorbiaceae Cnidoscolus tubulosus (Miell.Sarg.) Johnst. chaya, chaya amarilla, chaya brava, chaya mansa, chaya pica, chaya verde
Euphorbiaceae Croton incanus Kunth salvia
Euphorbiaceae Croton lindheimerianus Scheele salvia
Euphorbiaceae Croton niveus Jacq. vara blanca
Euphorbiaceae Jatropha curcas L. ashté, axté, chote, chút, pichoco, pipián, piñón, piñoncillo
Euphorbiaceae Jatropha dioica Sessé piñón
Euphorbiaceae Manihot pringlei S.Wats. yuca
Euphorbiaceae Manihot subspicata Rogers & Appan papagallo
Fagaceae Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana (Martínez) A.E.Murray haya
Fagaceae Quercus candicans Née almaizeoque, encino blanco, hoja china
Fagaceae Quercus emoryi Torr. encino prieto
Fagaceae Quercus polymorpha Schltdl. & Cham. encino blanco
Fouquieriaceae Fouquieria splendens Engelm. cardo santo
Gunneraceae Gunnera mexicana Brandegee capa de pobre
Heliconiaceae Heliconia latispatha Benth. plantanillo
Heliconiaceae Heliconia schiedeana Klotzsch costilla de ratón, papatla, papatlilla, plantanillo
Heliconiaceae Heliconia uxpanapensis C.Gut.Báez. plantanillo
Icacinaceae Oecopetalum mexicanum Greenm. & C.H.Thomps. cacaté, cachichín
Iridaceae Tigridia pavonia (L.f.) DC. carcomeca
Juglandaceae Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K.Koch nogal, nogal criollo, nuez de cáscara de papel, nuez fina [fruits]
Juglandaceae Carya ovata (Mill.) K.Koch nogal, nogal americano
Juglandaceae Juglans mollis Engelm. nogal, nogal cimarrón
Juglandaceae Juglans olanchana Standl. & L.O.Williams cedro blanco, cedro nogal
Juglandaceae Juglans pyriformis Liebm. cedro nogal, nogal, nogal cimarrón
Lamiaceae Volkameria ligustrina Jacq. orégano
Lamiaceae Poliomintha longiflora A.Gray crespa
Lamiaceae Salvia ballotiflora Benth. moste, musté
Lauraceae Beilschmiedia anay (S.F.Blake) Kosterm. aguacate de puerco, anay, anáy, anayo, escalán
Lauraceae Cinnamomum grisebachii Lorea-Hern. canela
Lauraceae Litsea glaucescens Kunth laurel
Lauraceae Persea americana Mill. aguacate, aguacatillo, kunalhit, kuka'ta
Lauraceae Persea liebmannii Mez. agacate silvestre, sasafrás
Lauraceae Persea longipes (Schltdl.) Meisn. pahua
Lauraceae Persea schiedeana Nees aguacatillo, chinin, chinín, chinine, lhpaw, pagua, pahua
Leguminosae Acaciella acatlensis Benth. árbol de borrego, borreguitos, chindata, chivos, chondata, cornizuelo, cuernosuelo, guayalote, guayote, tlahuitole, yepaquilitl
Leguminosae Acaciella angustissima (Miller) Kuntze framboyancillo
Leguminosae Acaciella cornigera (L.) Willd. cuerno de toro
Leguminosae Acaciella greggii Gray gatuño
Leguminosae Acaciella sphaerocephala Schlecht. cornezuelo
Leguminosae Acaciella wrightii Benth uña de gato negra
Leguminosae Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Schwartz tabachín
Leguminosae Canavalia glabra (M.Martens & Galeotti) J.D.Saue flor de sacramento, pillo, sacalamente, sacramento, xokichay
Leguminosae Canavalia villosa Benth. gallo
Leguminosae Cercis canadensis L. duraznillo, palo de judas, pata de vaca
Leguminosae Crotalaria longirostrata Hook. & Arn. chipil, chipilan, chipile, chipilín, chipilino
Leguminosae Crotalaria maypurensis HBK chipilín
Leguminosae Dialium guianense (Aubl.) Sandwith guach, guapaque, guapiqui, palo lacandón palo de lacandón, paque, paquí, tamarindo silvestre, uach
Leguminosae Diphysa americana (Mill.) M.Sousa amarillo, camaroncillo, chipilcoi, chipilcoite, chipilín, coachepil, guachipilín, matansiyat, quebrancha, quebranche, quebrancho, quibrancha, rambai, tenquiques
Leguminosae Ebenopsis ebano (Bernand) Barneby & Grimes ébano
Leguminosae Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb guanacastle, nacaste, nacastle, nacaxtle, parota
Leguminosae Erythrina americana Mill. alcaparra, chontal, colorín, equimexóchitl, equimite, gasparito, lhalhni, madre, madre del cacao, mote, pichoco, pito
Leguminosae Erythrina folkersii Krukoff & Moldenke alcaparra, chiil, chocolín, chumpancle, colorín, equimite, espadita, flor de pita, flor de pitillo, flor de pito, gallitos, gasparita, gasparito, gásparo, lalhni, machetito, madre, patol, pemuche, pemuchi, permuche, pichocho, pichoco, pichojo, pispirique, poró, quemique, tlalhne, tsentse tsentse, tzonpantli, xompantli, zacapemucho
Leguminosae Erythrina lanata Rose colorín
Leguminosae Erythrina herbacea L. alcaparra, chiil, chocolín, chumpancle, colorín, equimite, espadita, flor de pita, flor de pitillo, flor de pito, gallitos, gasparita, gasparito, gásparo, lalhni, machetito, madre, patol, pemuche, pemuchi, permuche, pichocho, pichoco, pichojo, pispirique, poró, quemique, tlalhne, tsentse tsentse, tzonpantli, xompantli, zacapemucho
Leguminosae Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp. cacahuananche, chuchunuc, cocohuite, cocomuite, cocuite, cocuitle, flor de San José, flor de sol, gallitos, mataratón, muiti, palo de sol, xab-yaab
Leguminosae Hymenaea courbaril L. cuapinol, guapinol, guapinole
Leguminosae Inga acrocephala Steud. vaina
Leguminosae Inga brevipedicellata Harms ND
Leguminosae Inga jinicuil Schltdl. algodoncillo, chalahuite, chalahuitillo, cuajinicuil, jinicuil, kalam (Totonaco), xinicuil, vaina
Leguminosae Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd. chelele
Leguminosae Inga paterno Harms. aguatope, chalahuite, cuil machetón, jinicuil, jinicuil de vaina ancha, paterna, paterno, pepeto, vainillo
Leguminosae Inga punctata Willd. chelele, taastk (Núntaha’yi), vaina
Leguminosae Inga sapindoides Willd. guatope
Leguminosae Inga semialata (Vell.) Mart. ND
Leguminosae Inga vera Willd. vaina peluda
Leguminosae Inga sinacae M.Sousa & Ibarra-Maríquez chalahuite, cuajinicuil, guatope, jacanicuil, jinicuile
Leguminosae Leucaena glauca L. lileac (Totonaco), liliaqui
Leguminosae Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit cola de zorro, guaje, guaje blanco, guajeverde, huaje, huashe, liliaque, slalak (Totonaco)
Leguminosae Leucaena pulverulenta (Schltdl.) Benth. guajillo, tepehuaje
Leguminosae Macroptilium gibbosifolium (Ortega) A.Delgado frijol chichimeque
Leguminosae Pachyrhizus erosus L.Urb jícama
Leguminosae Phaseolus coccineus L. ayacote, chichimeque, frijol boti, frijol burro, frijol de monte, frijol gordo, chachan, chachana, flor de bótil, flor de frijol, flor de quelite, hachana, mahtlaketl, xaxan, xaxana, xochikilitl, xochimaríah
Leguminosae Phaseolus vulgaris L. ashlañ bu’ul, ejote, frijol negro, sic (Núntaha’yi), stapu (Totonaco)
Leguminosae Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth cuamuchil, guamoche, guamuche, guamúchil, guaymochile, huamuchil, humo, nempa, pinzán, tucuy, umon
Leguminosae Pithecellobium lanceolatum (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Benth guamúchil ahogador, peleple
Leguminosae Pithecellobium pachypus Pittier guamúchil
Leguminosae Prosopis glandulosa Torr. mezquite
Leguminosae Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. mezquite
Leguminosae Prosopis laevigata (Willd.) M.C.Johnston mezquite de árbol
Leguminosae Prosopis tamaulipana Burkart. mezquite
Leguminosae Senna fruticosa (Mill.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby quelite
Leguminosae Senna papillosa (Britton & Rose) H.S.Irwin & Barneby quelite
Loasaceae Eucnide bartonioides Zucc. lechuguilla
Magnoliaceae Magnolia mexicana DC. aguacote, árbol de corazón, flor de atole, flor de corazón, flor de rosa, kuwi xa’nat, magnolia, moniakuy, moñaykuy-imayak, moynacoy, sochilmoynacoy, súchil, xolochochitl, yolo, yololxochitl, yoloshanat, yolos chil, yolosúchil, yoloxochitl
Magnoliaceae Magnolia zoquepopolucae A.Vázquez súchil (Náhuatl), moiñacoi-imayak, moñacoi-imaya, moñacoy, monaikoi-imayak, moniacuy, moñiacuy, mooyniak-cuy, mou-ña-coy, moyñacoi, moynacoy, all meaning “tree with flower coming from an eggshell” (Zoque-popoluca)
Malpighiaceae Bunchosia lindeniana A.Juss. árbol manchado, zapotillo
Malpighiaceae Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth nananche, nance, nanche, na chi (Núntaha’yi), nanche, nanche agrio, nance, peraleja
Malpighiaceae Galphimia glauca (Cav.) Kuntze cola de zorro
Malpighiaceae Malpighia glabra L. camaroncito, cereza, ciruela cimarrona, grosella roja, lumbre, nance, manzanita, panecito, palo de tomatillo
Malpighiaceae Mascagnia macroptera (Moc. & Sessé ex DC.) Nied gallinita
Malvaceae Anoda cristata (L.) Schldl. malvavisco
Malvaceae Ceiba aesculifolia (Kunth) Britton & Baker f. ceiba, pochota, pochote
Malvaceae Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. ceiba
Malvaceae Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. acashti, ajillá, aquiche, guácima, guácimo, guazima, guázumo
Malvaceae Hibiscus martianus Zucc. manzanita
Malvaceae Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. bejuquillo, catapachat (Totonaco), chanita, chocho, chinina, civil monacillo, farolito, fekom, flor de santos, gagapache, ixwaquelt, ixwaquen, majaguilla, manzanilla, manzanillo, manzanita, mazapan, monacillo rojo, monacillo, obelisco de la sierra, panelita, paniqueso, plumagillo, teresita, totopotzin, totopatzín, totopoxin, tulipán, tulipancito del monte, sibil, xtut-quene
Malvaceae Malvaviscus oaxacanus Standl. chocho, tulipancillo
Malvaceae Pachira aquatica Aubl. acamoyote, apompo, axilochóchitl, chanacol blanco, clavellina blanca, zapote de agua, zapote bobo, zapote reventador, zapotón
Malvaceae Pseudobombax ellipticum (Kunth) Dugand flor de mota, juanjilón
Malvaceae Quararibea funebris (La Llave) Vischer árbol canelo, árbol de funeral, árbol de molinillo, cacahuaxochitl, cacaoxochitl, canela, canelita, flor de cacao, huacanelo, kiwi pobostatli, madre de cacao, maricacao, molinillo, palo de canela, palo de chocolate, palo volador, rosa de cacao, rosita de cacao
Malvaceae Quararibea yunckeri subsp. sessiliflora Standl. ND
Malvaceae Sterculia apetala (Jacq.) H.Karst. castañas, castaño, pepetaca
Malvaceae Sterculia mexicana R.Br bellota
Marantaceae Calathea lutea (Aubl.) E.Mey. ex Schult. berijo, berijado, berijao, hoja de berijado, hojablanca, hoja de té, hoja de verijado, tho
Marantaceae Calathea macrosepala K.Schum. (Aubl.) Lindl. chochogo, chogo, chogogo, sauco, shuco, suco, xuco
Marantaceae Calathea marantifolia Standl. chochogo, chonegue, choschogo, lechuga, shuco, suco, xoxogo, xuco
Marantaceae Goeppertia misantlensis (Lascurain) Borchs. & S.Suárez hoja redonda, papelillo
Marantaceae Goeppertia ovandensis (Matuda) Borchs. & S.Suárez plantanillo
Marantaceae Maranta arundinacea L. apichillo, azafrán, chancla, hierba martina, hua-ja (Popoluca), papatilla, platanillo, t'aau' (Huasteco), sagú, yuquilla
Marantaceae Stromanthe macrochlamys (Woodson & Standl.) H.A.Kenn. & Nicolson hoja de piedra, malintzi, tompimil, tonpimil
Martyniaceae Martynia annua L. ND
Melastomataceae Conostegia icosandra (Sw. ex Wikstr.) Urb. ojo de venado
Melastomataceae Conostegia xalapensis (Bonpl.) D.Don ex DC. capulín, capulín de cotorro, chicab, cinco negritos, hojalatillo blanco, sedita, serita, tecapulín, teshuate, tezhualillo
Melastomataceae Heterocentron subtriplinervium (Link & Otto) A.Braun & C.D.Bouché caña de león
Menispermaceae Cocculus carolinus (L.) DC. hierba de ojo
Moraceae Brosimum alicastrum Sw. apomo, nazareno, ocoxiltli, ojite, ojoche, osh, ramón, samaritano
Moraceae Ficus aurea Nutt. higo
Moraceae Ficus cotinifolia Kunth higuerón
Moraceae Ficus pertusa L.f. amate
Moraceae Maclura tinctoria (L.) D.Don ex Steud. chichiti, mora, moradilla, moral, moral amarillo, palo amarillo
Moraceae Poulsenia armata (Miq.) Standl. abasbabi, ababábite, agabasgabi, aguatoso, carnepescado, carne de pescado, carnero, carnero blanco, chagane, chirimoya, huichilama, masamorro
Moraceae Pseudolmedia glabrata (Liebm.) C.C.Berg ojoche colorado, ramón colorado, ramón de mico, tepetomate, tomatillo
Moraceae Pseudolmedia oxyphyllaria Donn.Sm. manash, tepetomate, tomatillo, wáxax (Totonaco)
Moraceae Trophis racemosa (L.) Urb. campanilla, ramón, ramón colorado, ramoncillo, papelillo
Muntingiaceae Muntingia calabura L. capulín, capulín real, capulincillo, cerezo, nigua, nigüito, poan, puam, puan, puan capulín, puyam (Totonaco)
Myrtaceae Calyptranthes schiedeana O.Berg. guayabillo
Myrtaceae Eugenia acapulcensis Steud. capulín
Myrtaceae Eugenia capuli (Schltdl. & Cham) Hook. & Arn. capulín, capulín agarroso, capulín de zorrillo, frutilla, escobilla, escobillo, guayabillo cimarrón, palo de temazate, pimientilla
Myrtaceae Eugenia oerstediana O.Berg capulín guinda, escobilla, rainjan
Myrtaceae Eugenia xalapensis Kunth gallito
Myrtaceae Myrciaria floribunda (H.West ex Willd.) O.Berg arrayán
Myrtaceae Mosiera ehrenbergii (O.Berg) Landrum chepucuy, escobilla
Myrtaceae Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. pimienta, pimenta gorda, u'cun (Totonaco), uc-suc (Popoluca), xocoxo'chitl (Nahuatl)
Myrtaceae Psidium friedrichsthalianum (O.Berg) Niedenzu guayaba cimarrona, guayaba agria, guayabo agrio, guayabo de monte
Myrtaceae Psidium sartorianum (O.Berg) Nied. arrayán, 'cales'ni (Misanteco), capulín, guayaba de tejón, guayabillo
Nelumbonaceae Nelumbo lutea (Willd.) Pers. ayacastle, flor de agua amarilla, malacate, pulul
Olacaceae Ximenia americana L. ciruelillo
Oleaceae Forestiera angustifolia Torrey panalero
Orchidaceae Vanilla planifolia Jacks. ex Andrews vainilla
Orchidaceae Vanilla pompona Schiede vainilla pompona
Orobanchaceae Escobedia laevis Schltdl. & Cham. azafran de raíz, azafrancillo
Oxalidaceae Oxalis latifolia Kunth. agrito
Passifloraceae Passiflora ambigua Hemsl. gagapache, jujo
Passifloraceae Passiflora cookii Killip ND
Passifloraceae Passiflora mexicana Juss. ND
Passifloraceae Passiflora serratifolia L. granada del monte, pasión
Passifloraceae Turnera diffusa Wilid. damiana, hierba del venado, venadita
Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca americana L. jabonera
Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca icosandra L. cóngora, jabonera, jabonero, jorja, tonga
Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca rivinoides Kunth & Bouché guanchaparrón, jaboncillo, jorga, quelite rojo, joklhkgk (Totonaco)
Picramniaceae Picramnia teapensis Tul. muste, mutza
Pinaceae Pinus cembroides Zucc. pino piñonero [plant], piñón [seed]
Pinaceae Pinus nelsonii Shaw pino piñonero [plant], piñón duro [seed]
Pinaceae Pinus pinceana Gordon pino piñonero
Piperaceae Peperomia asarifolia Schltdl. ND
Piperaceae Peperomia berlandieri Miq. ND
Piperaceae Peperomia hobbitoides T.Wendt ND
Piperaceae Peperomia maculosa (L.) Hook. cilantro de monte, cilantro macho, najashuio macho
Piperaceae Peperomia peltilimba C.DC. ex Trel. cilantro cimarrón, cilantro de monte, nacazgüillo, limonascagüillo, oreja de burro, tequelite
Piperaceae Peperomia rotundifolia (L.) Kunth caminante
Piperaceae Piper amalago L. cordoncillo
Piperaceae Piper auritum Kunth acoyo, acuyo, aguiyu, alahan, cordón blanco, cordoncillo, hierba de santa maría, hierba santa, hoja santa, homequelite mecaxóchitl, momo, mumu, omequelite, pimienta sagrada, tlanepa quelite, tlanepa, tlanepaquilitl, totzoay
Poaceae Zea mays L. cabellos de elote, elote, jilote, maíz, milpa, totomoxtle [dry leaves], hojas de maíz [freshleaves], moc (Núntaha’yi), Kúxi (Totonaco)
Podocarpaceae Podocarpus matudae Lundell palmilla
Polygonaceae Coccoloba barbadensis Jacq. tepelcahuite, uvero
Polygonaceae Coccoloba uvifera L. carnero, uva de playa, uvero de mar
Primulaceae Ardisia compressa Kunth capulín de mayo, capulín de tejón, capulín silvestre, capulincillo, chagalapoli, chico correoso
Primulaceae Ardisia escallonioides Schltdl. & Cham. capulín, matan'kiwi (Totonaco)
Primulaceae Ardisia nigropunctata Oerst. capulín
Primulaceae Parathesis psychotrioides Lundell capulín, chagalapoli, silling, akgtalawat (Totonaco)
Primulaceae Parathesis serrulata (Sw.) Mez capulín arribeño, capulín de sabana
Rhamnaceae Ceanothus coeruleus Lagasca & Gen palo colorado
Rhamnaceae Ceanothus greggii A.Gray palo dezorrillo
Rhamnaceae Colubrina elliptica (Sw.) Brizicky & Stern guayacán, manzanita
Rhamnaceae Colubrina greggii S.Watson manzanilla
Rhamnaceae Condalia hookeri M.C.Johnst. brasil
Rhamnaceae Condalia lycioides (A.Gray) Weberb crucillo
Rhamnaceae Karwinskia mollis Schltdl. tullidor
Rhamnaceae Rhamnus humboldtiana Willd. ex Schult. coyotillo, tullidor
Rhamnaceae Ziziphus amole (Sessé & Moc.) M.C.Johnst. naranjillo
Rosaceae Crataegus mexicana Moc. & Sessé ex DC. cainúm, chisté, tejocote, manzanilla, manzanillo
Rosaceae Crataegus rosei Eggl. tejocote, tejocote cimarrón
Rosaceae Fragaria vesca L. fresa, fresa cimarrón
Rosaceae Prunus serotina Ehrh. capulín
Rosaceae Rubus adenotrichus Schltdl. mora, morash, zarza, zarzamora
Rosaceae Rubus apogaeus L.H.Bailey zarzamora
Rosaceae Rubus coriifolius Liebm zarzamora silvestre
Rosaceae Rubus humistratus Steudel zarzamora
Rosaceae Rubus sapidus Schltdl. zarzamora, zarzamora silvestre
Rosaceae Rubus trivialis Michx. zarzamora
Rubiaceae Alibertia edulis (L. Rich.) A.Rich. ex DC. castarrica blanca
Rubiaceae Chiococca alba (L.) Hitch perlilla
Rubiaceae Genipa americana L. jagua, jagua blanca, jagüe, jahue, maluco, yual, yoale, xagua
Rubiaceae Hamelia patens Jacq. hierba de la mula
Rubiaceae Mitchella repens L. mora de codorniz
Rutaceae Casimiroa edulis La Llave & Lex. pera mexicana, zapotillo, zapote blanco
Rutaceae Casimiroa greggii (S.Watson) F.Chiang chapote amarillo
Rutaceae Casimiroa pringlei (S.Watson) Engl. limoncillo
Rutaceae Ptelea trifoliata L. pinacatillo
Rutaceae Zanthoxylum fagara (L.) Sarg. colima
Salicaceae Xylosma flexuosa (Kunth) Hemsl. capulín corona, coronilla, palo de brujo
Sapindaceae Paullinia tomentosa Jacq. arete de novia
Sapotaceae Chrysophyllum mexicanum Brandegee ex Standl. caimito, caimito cimarrón, caimito del monte, caimito silvestre, caimitillo, pistillo
Sapotaceae Chrysophyllum venezuelanense (Pierre) T.D.Penn. chicozapote del monte
Sapotaceae Manilkara chicle (Pittier) Hammel chicozapote, zapote chicle, zapote chico, sapotilla, shenc, sculu-jaca (Totonaco)
Sapotaceae Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni caca de niño, cucumú, kanistú, kukun (Totonaco), mante, nochi, tapa, zapote agrio, zapote amarillo, zapote mante, zapote niño
Sapotaceae Pouteria glomerata (Miq.) Radlk. chocho
Sapotaceae Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H.E.Moore & Stearn atzapotlcuahuitl (Náhuatl), cuyg’ auac (Popoluca), lankájaka (Totonaco), mamey, mamey colorado, zapote, zapote mamey
Sapotaceae Sideroxylon celastrinum (Kunth) T.D.Penn. coma cimarrona, coma resinera
Sapotaceae Sideroxylon palmeri (Rose) T.D.Penn. coma real
Sapotaceae Sideroxylon persimile (Hemsl.) T.D.Penn. ND
Sapotaceae Sideroxylon salicifolium (L.) Lam. sapotillo
Scrophulariaceae Buddleja marrubiifolia Benth. azafrán
Simaroubaceae Simarouba glauca DC. aceituno negrito, gusano, pasaque, rabo de lagarto blanco, zapatero
Smilacaceae Smilax aristolochiifolia Mill. zarzaparilla
Smilacaceae Smilax bona-nox L. zarza, zarzaparilla
Smilacaceae Smilax domingensis Willd. asquiote, axquiote, azquiote, bejuco de canasta, bejuco de membrillo, bejuco de zarzaparrilla, chiquihuite, cocolmeca, cocolmecate, colcomeca, corcomeca, uut’ ts’aah, zarzaparrilla, bigote de acamayo, kgansalis
Smilacaceae Smilax mollis Willd. zarzaparilla
Smilacaceae Smilax moranensis M.Martens & Galeotti zarzaparilla
Smilacaceae Smilax spinosa Mill. zarzaparilla
Solanaceae Capsicum annuum L. amashito, chile de árbol, chiles de color, chile pico paloma, chile piquín, dulce, jalapeño, pimiento morrón, poblano, serrano, tsílampin (Totonaco)
Solanaceae Cestrum racemosum Ruiz & Pav. amargoso
Solanaceae Jaltomata procumbens (Cav.) J.L.Gentry acahualera, chaltotongo, cojudo, equelite, jaltomata, quelite tomaquelite, tomatillo, tompis
Solanaceae Lycium berlandieri Dunal cilindrillo
Solanaceae Lycium carolinianum Walt saladilla
Solanaceae Margaranthus solanaceus Schltdl. ND
Solanaceae Physalis angulata L. tomatillo
Solanaceae Physalis arborescens L. tomatillo de monte
Solanaceae Physalis cinerascens (Dunal) Hitch. tomatillo
Solanaceae Physalis gracilis Miers champ lulh (Totonaco), costomate, tomate, tomatillo
Solanaceae Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Hornem. tomate de cáscara, túmat (Totonaco)
Solanaceae Physalis lobata Torrey tomatillo
Solanaceae Physalis melanocystis (B.L.Rob.) Bitter tomate verde
Solanaceae Physalis orizabae Dunal juatomate amarillo, tomate de bota
Solanaceae Physalis philadelphica Lam. tomate, tomate verde, tomate de cascara, tomatillo, tomatillo de labor
Solanaceae Physalis pringlei Greenman tomatillo
Solanaceae Physalis pubescens L. miltomate, tomate, tomatillo
Solanaceae Physalis viscosa Gray ND
Solanaceae Solandra guttata D.Don ND
Solanaceae Solandra maxima (Sessé & Moc.) P.S.Green copa de oro, pera tetona, tetona
Solanaceae Solanum americanum Mill. hierbamora, hierba mora, mustulut (Totonaco)
Solanaceae Solanum appendiculatum Dunal tinguarache
Solanaceae Solanum lycopersicum L. jitomate, tomate citlali, tomate coyote, tomate riñon, tomate silvestre
Solanaceae Solanum nigrescens M.Martens & Galeotti jitomate, tomate rojo
Solanaceae Solanum candidum Lindley hierba mora, quelite morado, yerbamora
Solanaceae Solanum oxycarpum Schiede papa cimarrona
Solanaceae Solanum verrucosum Schldl. ND
Solanaceae Witheringia meiantha (Donn.Sm.) Hunz. cuña
Talinaceae Talinum fruticosum (L.) Juss. verdolaga
Typhaceae Typha domingensis Persoon tule
Ulmaceae Ampelocera hottlei (Standl.) Standl. guaya de monte, wayam
Ulmaceae Phyllostylon rhamnoides (J.Poiss.) Taub. cerón
Verbenaceae Citharexylum berlandieri Robb. negrito, orejuela, revientacabra
Verbenaceae Citharexylum brachyanthum A.Gray agrito
Verbenaceae Lippia alba (Miller) N.E.Br. orégano
Verbenaceae Lippia graveolens Kunth hierba dulce, orégano, orégano hoja chica, oreganillo, salve real
Vitaceae Vitis cinerea (Engelm) Millardet uva de monte
Vitaceae Vitis mustangensis Buckley uva de monte
Vitaceae Vitis tiliifolia Humb. & Bonpl. ex Schult. bejuco de agua, bejuco de parra, parra broncadora, parra silvestre, tecamate, tripas de vaca, sánalo todo, uva, uva de monte, uvilla cimarrona
Zamiaceae Dioon edule Lindley chamal, palma de teresita, quiotamal, tiotamal
Zamiaceae Dioon spinulosum Dyer ex Eichl. chicalito [seeds], palma de chicalite [plant]
Zingiberaceae Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.) Maas guá
Zingiberaceae Renealmia mexicana Klotzsch ex Petersen bex, tapicón, hoja de bexo
Zygophyllaceae Neoschroetera tridentata (Sessé & Moc. ex DC.) Briq gobernadora
Figure 2.  

Diversity of the native food species of the Gulf of Mexico Province, classified by family (a) and genus (b).

Categories of native plant use. Edible species were the majority with 448 species (93%), which includes the 86 species (18%) used in the production of drinks, 51 species as seasonings (10%) and 26 species (5%) as packaging. The remaining 39 species (8%) are utilised in more than one category (Fig. 3a, Suppl. material 1).

Figure 3.  

Categories of use (a) and plant part used (b) for the native edible plants of the Gulf of Mexico Province.

Edible plant organs. Fruits were the organs most commonly used as food with 292 species (55.7%), followed by leaves with 111 species (21%), flowers with 97 species (18.5%), seeds with 65 species (12.4%), stems with 49 species (9.4%) and roots and bulbs with 30 species (5.7%). Resin or latex, bark and wood had five, five and one species, respectively. For 127 species (24%), more than two organs were utilised as food, seasoning or packaging (Fig. 3b, Suppl. material 1).

Management categories. Most of the species are gathered in the wild (304 species, 59%), with fewer species in the categories of incipient management (12 species, 2.3%) and cultivated (7 species, 1.3%). Interestingly, we found that a notable number of species (159, 33%) are under a combination of two or three different management strategies in the study area (Fig. 4, Suppl. material 1).

Figure 4.  

Management categories for the native edible plants of the Gulf of Mexico Province.

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful for the support of Carlos Aldair Zárate during the fieldwork, Guadalupe Amancio and Claudia Navarro in compiling the databases. This study is part of the activities carried out by E.M.P-M. during her postdoctoral research and was funded by CONACYT as part of project #305103: Un Jardín Etnobiológico: Ampliando los Horizontes del Jardín Botánico Francisco Javier Clavijero en Xalapa, Veracruz. We thank Bianca Delfosse for revising our English.

Author contributions

E.M.P-M, V.S. and M.H.D-T. conceived the study; E.M.P-M. collected and identified specimens, E.M.P-M. designed and built the database, D.A. contributed with the geographical coordinates database and maps. E.M.P-M. and V.S wrote the paper. All the authors commented and approved the manuscript.

References

Supplementary materials

Suppl. material 1: Categories of use, plant organ utilised and management of native edible plants of the Gulf of Mexico  
Authors:  Eva María Piedra-Malagón, Victoria Sosa, Diego F. Angulo, Milton Díaz-Toribio
Data type:  binary data
Brief description: 

Categories of use (edibles, seasonings, packaging and multipurpose by category of use), plant organ utilised (root or bulb, stem, bark, wood or trunk, leaf, flowers, fruits, seed, resin or latex and multipurpose by plant organ utilised) and categories of management of native edible plants of the Gulf of Mexico Province. The information are encoded as presence = 1 and absence = 0.

Suppl. material 2: Geographical coordinates 
Authors:  Eva María Piedra-Malagón, Victoria Sosa, Diego F. Angulo, Milton Díaz-Toribio
Data type:  occurrences
Brief description: 

Geographical coordinates of edible native plants in the Gulf of Mexico Province.

Suppl. material 3: Bibliographical sources 
Authors:  Eva María Piedra-Malagón, Victoria Sosa, Diego F. Angulo, Milton Díaz-Toribio
Data type:  References
Brief description: 

List of bibliographical references used to build the database of native edible plants of Gulf of Mexico Province.