Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic paper
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Taxonomic paper
A taxonomic monograph of the assassin bug genus Zelus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): 71 species based on 10,000 specimens
expand article infoGuanyang Zhang,§, Elwood R Hart|, Christiane Weirauch
‡ Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, United States of America
§ School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, United States of America
| Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, United States of America
¶ Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, United States of America
Open Access
Abstract

The New World assassin bug genus Zelus Fabricius, 1803 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae: Harpactorini) is revised based on more than 10,000 specimens. Seventy-one species are recognized and twenty-four described as new: Zelus aithaleos sp. n., Zelus amblycephalus sp. n., Zelus antiguensis sp. n., Zelus auralanus sp. n., Zelus bahiaensis sp. n., Zelus banksi sp. n., Zelus casii sp. n., Zelus championi sp. n., Zelus cordazulus sp. n., Zelus fuliginatus sp. n., Zelus gilboventris sp. n., Zelus gracilipes sp. n., Zelus grandoculus sp. n., Zelus kartaboides sp. n., Zelus lewisi sp. n., Zelus panamensis sp. n., Zelus paracephalus sp. n., Zelus rosulentus sp. n., Zelus russulumus sp. n., Zelus spatulosus sp. n., Zelus truxali sp. n., Zelus umbraculoides sp. n., Zelus umbraculus sp. n., and Zelus xouthos sp. n. Five species, Zelus araneiformis Haviland, 1931, Zelus gradarius Bergroth, 1905, Zelus modestus (Stål, 1862), Zelus subfasciatus Stål, 1860 and Zelus vittaticeps Stål, 1866, are removed from Zelus and placed incertae sedis within Harpactorini. Nine new synonyms are recognized (senior synonym in parentheses): Zelus atripes Champion, 1898 syn. nov. (=Zelus conjungens [Stål, 1860]), Zelus dispar Fabricius, 1803 syn. nov. (=Zelus pedestris Fabricius, 1803), Zelus formosus Haviland, 1931 syn. nov. (=Zelus laticornis Herrich-Schaeffer, 1853), Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål, 1860) syn. nov. (=Zelus pedestris), Zelus pallidinervus Haviland, 1931 syn. nov. (=Zelus kartabensis Haviland, 1931), Zelus personatus Berg, 1879 syn. nov. (=Zelus versicolor Herrich-Schaeffer, 1848), Zelus trimaculatus Champion, 1898 syn. nov. (=Zelus means Fabricius, 1803), Zelus trimaculicollis (Stål, 1855) syn. nov. (=Zelus means), and Zelus tristis Haviland, 1931 syn. nov. (=Zelus laticornis). Zelus conjungens (Stål, 1860) stat. rev. Is resurrected from junior synonymy with zealous armillatus (Lepeletier & Seville, 1825). Zelus ambulans Stål, 1862 stat. rev. and Zelus cognatus (Costa, 1862) stat. rev. are resurrected from synonymy with Zelus exsanguis Stål, 1862. Iquitozelus Bérenger syn. nov. is synonymized with Zelus and its only species transferred to Zelus, hence resulting in a new combination, Zelus couturieri (Bérenger, 2003) comb. nov. Lectotypes, paralectotypes or neotypes are designated for a number of species. Habitus images, illustrations of male genitalia, distribution maps and measurements are provided for nearly all species. The three previously recognized subgenera of Zelus are found to be based upon superficial characters and these divisions do not reflect natural groupings. Using sets of characters, especially those of the male genitalia, eleven species groups are proposed. It is also hypothesized that Zelus is closely related to three other New World genera: Atopozelus Elkins, Ischnoclopius Stål and an undescribed genus "Hartzelus" [manuscript name]. Zelus is endemic to the New World, occurring naturally in the Caribbean and all but one of the continental countries, with introductions to Pacific islands, Europe and Chile.

Keywords

Harpactorinae, Heteroptera, natural enemy, Nearctic, Neotropical, new species, Reduviidae, synonymy, systematics, taxonomic revision, Zelus

Introduction

Zelus Fabricius, 1803 is one of the largest reduviid genera (Maldonado 1990) and the largest New World genus in the tribe Harpactorini (Reduviidae: Harpactorinae). Zelus is endemic to and widely distributed throughout the New World, ranging from southern Canada through central Argentina. One species, Zelus renardii Kolenati, 1856, has been introduced to Hawaii (Kirkaldy 1902, Zimmerman 1948), and was recently found in Chile (Curkovik et al. 2004, Elgueta and Carpintero 2004), Greece (Davranoglou 2011, van der Heyden 2015 and Spain (Vivas 2012) (reviewed in Weirauch et al. 2012). Species of Zelus, among several other genera (e.g., Arilus Hahn, Sinea Amyot & Serville, and Montina Amyot & Serville), have been explored and studied as natural enemies in the Americas (Cohen and Tang 1997, Cogni et al. 2002). Species of Zelus prey on a wide range of insects in cotton, corn, soybean, alfalfa crops and fruit trees in California and elsewhere (Ali and Watson 1978, McPherson et al. 1982, Cisneros and Rosenheim 1998, Virla et al. 2015), may reach population densities of up to 50,000 to 75,000/ha, and prevent outbreaks of lepidopteran larvae (Ables 1978). Hart (1972) conducted a taxonomic revision of Zelus with descriptions of twenty-five new species and twenty-six new synonyms, most of which remained unpublished (see Hart 1986, Hart 1987 for treatments of twenty Canadian, US, northern Mexican and Caribbean species). The current state of taxonomy of Zelus remains unsatisfactory and impedes further research on the evolution and ecology of this group. Species identification is difficult in many instances, and misidentifications may arise. For example, Z. renardii was misidentified as Zelus cervicalis Stål, 1872 when it was reported as having been introduced to Chile (Curkovik et al. 2004). This project was thus undertaken to provide a taxonomic monograph of the genus Zelus.

In the current study seventy-one species are treated and twenty-four described as new. Five species are removed from Zelus and placed incertae sedis within Harpactorini. Nine new synonyms are recognized. Three species are resurrected. Iquitozelus Bérenger is synonymized with Zelus. Habitus images, illustrations of male genitalia, distribution maps, and identification keys are provided. This work evaluates and maintains most of the manuscript new species names proposed in Hart (1972)'s systematic revision of Zelus. Four additional new species are discovered and described herein, some based on specimens more recently collected, but some arising from different views of species boundaries. The vast areas of the Amazon and many mountainous regions of Central America and South America remain poorly sampled and should represent an immediate frontier for new species discoveries in this genus.

Review of taxonomic history

The taxonomic history of Zelus is complex and the generic limit of Zelus has undergone constant fluctuations. The first species of Zelus, Z. longipes (Linnaeus), was described by Linnaeus in the 12th edition of Systema Naturae (Linnaeus 1767) under Cimex, a genus in which he also included various other Heteroptera that are now classified within a number of families. Fabricius (1775) transferred Z. longipes from Cimex to Reduvius, a genus that was established to accommodate most of the Reduviidae known at the time. It was again Fabricius who later in the first comprehensive treatment of Hemiptera (Fabricius 1803) erected the genus Zelus. In this work for each genus Fabricius selected one species for which he repeated the short generic description, expanded the species description and italicized the terms referring to the morphological structures described. Zelus longipes was treated by Fabricius this way for the genus Zelus. Therefore, many workers assumed that Fabricius had indicated Z. longipes as the type species of the genus (Kirkaldy 1900a).

Lepeletier and Serville (1825) expanded the limit of Reduvius to include nearly all then described Reduviidae and described many new species; several of them would now be considered members of Zelus. An erroneous designation of Zelus festinans as the type species of Zelus was made by Laporte (1832). He erected new genera and removed some species from Zelus, somewhat changing the generic limit of this genus. Perty (1834) treated Reduvius similarly to Lepeletier and Serville and described several new species of Zelus, placing them in Reduvius.

Burmeister (1835) modified the classification of Reduviidae and divided members of Zelus into two genera: Euagoras Burmeister, 1835 and Arilus Hahn, 1831. The limits of Zelus were expanded by Brullé (1836) to include part of Reduvius as defined by Fabricius, Harpactor and Prionotus as defined by Laporte and Myocoris, Evagoras (for Euagoras), Notocyrtus and Arilus as used by Burmeister. Blanchard (1840) again changed the limit of Zelus. It was to include some species of Cimex of Linnaeus and Stoll (1788), Reduvius of Fabricius and Wolff and Prionotus of Laporte. Amyot and Serville (1843) erected a new genus Diplodus to accommodate both described and new species of some Zelus. Herrich-Schaeffer (1848), Herrich-Schaeffer (1853) described several new species of what would be considered as members of Zelus by subsequent workers. Signoret (1862) described a new species of Diplodus which would eventually be transferred to Zelus.

A series of works by Stål greatly changed the generic limits of Zelus (Stål 1855, Stål 1859, Stål 1860, Stål 1861, Stål 1862, Stål 1866). Among those, Stål (1862) redefined Zelus as containing three subgenera: (1) Zelus of Fabricius, which also contained Euagoras Burmeister, characterized by the posterior pronotal lobe unarmed and the humeral angles rounded. One previously described species was listed, four species being therein synonymized as part of a total of nine varieties listed for that species. (2) Diplodus of Amyot and Serville, characterized by the disc of posterior pronotal lobe unarmed and the humeral angles armed with a tooth or spine. Ten new species were described therein, one of these with three varieties, one with two varieties and another with four varieties. (3) Pindus Stål, recognized by the posterior pronotal lobe armed with two spines on the disc and a spine on each humeral angle. One new species was described.

However, the subgeneric groups were raised to the generic rank by Stål (1866) in a key to the genera of the New World reduviids. Later Stål (1872) again recognized Zelus, Diplodus and Pindus as subgenera of the genus Zelus, with fifteen, thirty and two species respectively. A Fabrician species was not assigned to a subgenus. He also provided a key to the genera, subgenera and species and a list of synonymy. The geographical distribution of Zelus, according to this study, is restricted to the New World.

Uhler listed a species of Diplodus from one of the U. S. Geological Survey expeditions (Uhler 1872a), described a new species of Pindus (Uhler 1872b) and compiled a checklist of North American Hemiptera (Uhler 1886). This checklist recognized six species of Zelus, sixteen species of Diplodus and one species, which in reality should have been assigned to Zelus, had been incorrectly described as a Darbanus by Provancher (1872). Based on the framework established by Stål (1872), Berg (1879) described two new species of Zelus in his faunal study of the Hemiptera of Argentina.

Lethierry and Severin (1896), in their catalogue of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera of the world, adopted Stål (1872)'s definition of Zelus. Fifty-two species, nine synonymized names and eleven varieties were recognized. Champion (1898) recorded eighteen species within Mexico and Central America, eight of which were described as new species. A short discussion of the genus, a key to the eighteen species, drawings, descriptions, redescriptions and species discussions were included.

Kirkaldy (1900a), Kirkaldy (1900b), Kirkaldy (1901), Kirkaldy (1903) reviewed the nomenclatural validity and the history of the types, genera and subgenera of the new species, discussed the possible synonymy of some others and synonymized several species. As Diplodus Amyot and Serville was proven to be preoccupied, Kirkaldy (1900b) proposed Diplacodus as a new name for this subgenus. However, this name was also preoccupied and most following taxonomists used the name Diplocodus.

The generic and subgeneric definitions of Stål were also used by Fracker (1913). In North America, including Mexico, twenty species were included in a key. In a list of the geographic distribution, three additional species for which no specimens were available were discussed. One of these is noted as being a probable synonymy and another as probably belonging to Castolus Stål.

Van Duzee (1916)'s checklist of Hemiptera of the United States included Zelus as a genus of the tribe Zelini, subfamily Harpactorinae. Stål’s three subgenera were recognized. Kirkaldy's Diplacodus was accepted for Diplodus, but was here and after spelled as Diplocodus, no explanation being given for the change. There were nine species recognized in the genus and five names were listed in synonymy. The known references for the genus, subgenera and these nine species were compiled in Van Duzee (1917)'s catalogue of North American Heteroptera.

In his study of the Heteroptera of eastern North America, Blatchley (1926) used the subfamily name Zelinae to include Zelus and related genera. Zelus was redescribed and a short discussion of the distribution and habits of assassin bugs in the genus was included. Each of the six species of this area was keyed, redescribed, and short notes on its biology and distribution made. Readio (1927) made studies of the biology of the ten species which he recognized in North America north of Mexico. These species were keyed and the descriptions and distributions of each were included. A major addition to the number of species of Zelus was made in by Haviland (1931). A total of nine species, including six new species, were reported from British Guiana. Wygodzinsky (1949) published a checklist of the Reduviidae of the Americas. He included sixty-six species, most of which are Neotropical in distribution, as valid members of the genus. Zayas (1960) described a new species from Cuba. Elkins (1954) removed two species.

In his Ph.D. dissertation Hart (1972) provided a systematic revision of Zelus, in which he described new species, proposed new synonyms, created a species group classification, illustrated male genitalia of nearly all species, and provided an identification key. Most of this work remains unpublished, except for two regional treatments of species occurring in Canada, US, northern Mexico and the Caribbean (Hart 1986, Hart 1987), in which he dealt with twenty species, described four new species, proposed fifteen new synonyms and provided identification keys. Maldonado (1990) in the "Systematic Catalogue of the Reduviidae of the World" listed sixty valid species names and did not use subgeneric divisions within the genus Zelus.

Recent taxonomic activities on Zelus spp. are scant. Jadin et al. (2002) described a new species, Zelus josephpaulusi Jadin et al., which was later found to be a synonym of Zelus araneiformis Haviland, 1931 by Baena (2010), a species we do not consider as belonging to Zelus. Bérenger (2003) described a new genus, Iquitozelus, based on a single species, Iquitozelus couturieri Bérenger, 2003. This genus is synonymized with Zelus in the current study. Gil-Santana (2008) synonymized Zelus nigrispinus (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1848) with Zelus versicolor (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1848). Gil-Santana and Forero (2015) placed Zelus iopterus (Perty, 1832) in synonymy with Aristathlus imperatorius Bergroth 1913 and thus created a new combination Aristathlus iopterus (Perty, 1832), removing that species from Zelus.

Materials and methods

Specimens, databasing and georeferencing

During the course of this study, 10,626 specimens were examined and databased. Among those, 4,833 are males, 5,626 are females and the remainders are immatures or with sex undetermined (usually because of missing abdomen). Specimen loans were kindly provided by museums or collections listed in Table 1. Each specimen was affixed with a Unique Specimen Identifier (USI) label (see Schuh 2012). This label has a catalogue number that has a prefix indicating the institution that performed the databasing and almost all specimens examined in this study have the prefix "UCR_ENT" on their USI labels, which means that they were databased at the University of California, Riverside (UCR) or by people associated with that institution. The prefix "UCR_ENT" is followed by an eight digit number. The acronym of the owner or specimen-depositing museum or collection is also indicated on the USI label, e.g., USNM. Label information, including locality and collecting event, was entered into the PBI (Plant Bug Planetary Biodiversity Inventory) instance of the Arthropod Easy Capture database (Schuh 2012) (https://research.amnh.org/pbi/databases/locality_database.html) hosted at the American Museum of Natural History. Specimen records are publicly accessible at the 'Heteroptera Species Page'. When coordinates were not provided on specimen labels, which is the situation for the great majority of the specimens, the locality was geo-referenced using gazetteers. These included the USGS Geographic Names Information System (mainly for US localities), Google Earth, Global Gazetteer and Fuzzy Gazetteer. For localities outside the USA, higher level administration divisions included only country and state (province or department), and the county-level administrative division was not used. Localities consisting of only a US county, but not more detailed information, were given the coordinates of the county seat. Specimen information was then exported from the PBI database as Excel files. Data description terms used in PBI were manually changed to equivalent Darwin Core Terms as specified in the "Darwin Core Terms: A quick reference guide" maintained by the Biodiversity Information Standards - TDWG (2013). Specimen records representing holotype, allotype, lectotype, neotype, paratype and paralectotype of both valid species and synonyms are provided in the main text, and all specimen records including both type and non-type specimens in Suppl. material 1.

List of museums/collections

Acronym Museum/Collection Manager/Curator
AMNH American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA Ruth Salas/Randall T. Schuh
BMNH Natural History Museum, London, UK Mick Webb
BPBM Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Honolulu, USA
CAS California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA Norman D. Penny
CUIC Cornell University Insect Collection, Ithaca, USA Rick Hoebeke/James Liebherr
FMNH Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, USA James Boone
FSCA Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, USA Susan Halbert
ICN Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia Carlos Sarmiento
IEXA Instituto de Ecologia, Xalapa, México Luis Cervantes
INBIO Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, San José, Costa Rica James Lewis
KU Snow Entomological Museum, University of Kansas, Lawrence, USA Zachary H. Falin
LACM Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, California, USA Weiping Xie/Brian Brown
MEFLG Museo Entomológico Francisco Luis Gallego, Medellín, Colombia John Albeiro Quiroz
NHMW Natural History Museum of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Herbert Zettel
NHRS Sweden Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden Gunvi Lindberg
RMNH Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum (formerly Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie), Leiden, Netherlands Yvonne van Nierop
TAMU Texas A&M University Insect Collection, College Station, USA Edward G. Riley
UCB Essig Museum of Entomology, University of California, Berkeley, USA Cheryl Barr
UCD Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, Davis, USA Steve Heydon
UCR Entomology Research Museum, University of California, Riverside, USA Douglas Yanega
UMSP University of Minnesota Insect Collection, St. Paul, USA Philip J. Clausen
UNAB Museo Entomológico, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia Francisco Serna
UNAM Universidad Autonoma de México, Instituto de Biología, México Harry Brailovsky
USNM United States National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC, USA Michele Touchet/Thomas Henry
ZMAN Zoological Museum Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands Willem Hogenes
ZMUC Copenhagen University Zoological Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark Henrick Enghoff

Type specimens

Information of type specimens of described, valid species, when available, were reported in the 'Materials' section of each species, as holotype, lectotype or neotype. Hart (1972) examined nearly all primary type specimens of valid names and synonyms. Some of these were also examined in the present work and associated with USI labels, but some were not examined nor attached with USI labels. Holotypes of newly described species were designated and reported. Holotypes and lectotypes of junior synonyms, either previously established or newly designated in the current study, were also reported, but included in the 'Other materials' part of the 'Materials' section under the Darwin Core term 'occurrenceRemarks'. This is because no Darwin Core term specifically denotes the type status of a junior synonym. The primary type specimen stays as a type of a species name even if the name becomes a junior synonym and should be indicated as such. However, it would be confusing and incorrect to include the type specimen of a junior synonym as part of the primary type material of the valid name. It was thus decided to report the type specimens of junior synonyms with the aforementioned method. Dikow and Leon (2014) has used a similar method. Lectotypes, paralectotypes and sometimes allolectotypes of some described species (valid or synonym) were newly designated in this study and indicated with the term 'New Designation' in the materials section for the respective species.

Hart (1972) designated numerous type specimens including holotypes, allotypes and paratypes of his manuscript new species names and lectotypes, allolectotypes, and paralectotypes of some previous names. Most of these type designations were adopted in the present study, but the status "allotype" was not used, and the specimens were instead designated as paratypes. These pertained exclusively to new species. Hart's type designation labels remain attached to specimens, and new designation labels are also affixed to indicate the type status of the specimen designated in the current study.

Distribution and mapping

Distributions were based on specimen records captured in the current study. We have gathered the largest samples ever known of all species, which represent the best available knowledge of the distributions of the species of Zelus. Maps were created using the Simple Mapper tool through the PBI website (http://research.amnh.org/pbi/maps) based on the geo-referenced locality data. Because accuracy and error of geo-referencing are highly variable, distribution records shown on the maps are at best indicative. Besides, ambiguous localities and other localities provided only at the country or state level were not geo-referenced and thus not reflected on the distribution maps. It is, therefore, advisable to look up actual specimen data for locality information (Suppl. material 1). Interactive specimen mapping is available using the Global Mapper module of "DiscoverLife" (http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20m?act=make_map).

Morphological methods – dissection, observation, imaging and measurement

Dissection. Male genitalia, including the eighth abdominal segment and pygophore with phallus enclosed, were removed, cleared in heated 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution for 5–10 minutes, washed in distilled water, and stored in glycerol. To remove the genitalia, a specimen was softened by soaking the abdomen in water. This was achieved by stationing a pinned specimen on play clay with its abdomen pointing down and immersed in water, while the rest of the specimen was not submerged. This method avoided soaking the whole specimen or removing the entire abdomen. A 'genitalia hook' was made by melting the tip of a glass Pasteur pipette with a minuten insect pin inserted and fixed into it. The pygophore was carefully removed by holding the softened abdomen with forceps on one hand, and inserting the genitalia hook into the membranous connection between the seventh and eighth segments, breaking that membrane and pulling off the pygophore, a series of actions performed by the other hand.

Observation. Observations were made using a Nikon stereo dissecting microscope SMZ1500, illuminated by a Nikon NI-150 High Intensity Illuminator. Initial observations of morphological characters were made based on typically a small number of specimens (one to five) and intraspecific variations were subsequently examined based on a larger selection of geographical representation. Genitalia were observed in glycerol. Structures in this medium may look different from their dry state, especially for soft cuticles. For example, the apices of the parameres of Z. cervicalis, Zelus luridus Stål, 1862 and many other species usually appear shriveled in dry specimens, but are fully expanded in glycerol or 70% ethanol. The orientation of the dissected structures shown in illustrations does not necessarily reflect their natural condition.

Imaging and illustration. Dorsal and lateral habitus images of specimens were taken with a Microptics-USA system (now Visionary Digital, http://www.duninc.com/index.html) with a K2 lens and CF-2 or CF-4 objectives connected to a Canon EOS 1D digital SRL. Images were edited in Photoshop (CS3/CS4) to adjust levels and sharpness. Image background was removed and replaced using CorelDRAW or Photoshop. For most species illustrations of male genitalia were adapted from Hart (1972) except for several new species not included in that work.

Measurement. Measurements were made on a dissecting scope equipped with a two-axes movable stage (Mitutoyo Corp.), with the aid of two digital micrometers (Boeckeler®), which were connected to a Microcode II RS-232 digital readout (Boeckeler®). Most measurements were done in dorsal view, but various orientations were necessary for measuring appendages. Typically, five to ten specimens were measured for each species, but the number may be fewer for species without enough properly preserved specimens. All measurement values reported here are in mm, unless otherwise stated. In Suppl. material 2 measurement values are divided into length values and width values. Suppl. material 2 reports not only average values for each species but also values of all individual specimens. A total of twenty-nine measurements were captured as listed in the following.

Length measurements

  1. Total length: length of body from clypeus to apex of hemelytron
  2. Clyp-Abd: Clypeus-abdomen (length from clypeus to apex of abdomen)
  3. Head (length of head from clypeus to collar of anterior pronotal lobe)
  4. AntOc: Anteocular (length of anteocular region of head, from clypeus to anterior margins of eyes)
  5. PostOc: Postocular (length of postocular region of head, from posterior margins of eyes to collar of anterior pronotal lobe)
  6. AntPron: Anterior pronotal lobe (length from collar to transverse sulcus of pronotum)
  7. PostPron: Posterior pronotal lobe (length from transverse sulcus of pronotum to posterior margin of posterior pronotal lobe)
  8. Scut: Scutellum (only exposed part measured, from posterior margin of pronotum to apex of scutellum)
  9. Scap: Scape
  10. Ped: Pedicel
  11. Antn3: Antennal segment 3/Basiflagellomere (the basiflagellomere tends to be curled and in that case two or several consecutive measurements were taken and their sum was used)
  12. Antn4: Antennal segment 4/Distiflagellomere
  13. Profem: Profemur
  14. Protib: Protibia
  15. Mesofem: Mesofemur
  16. Mesotib: Mesotibia
  17. Metafem: Metafemur
  18. Metatib: Metatibia
  19. Lb1: 1st visible labial segment (this is actually homologous to the second labial segment in other heteropteran insects, and Lb2 and Lb3 are homologous to the third and fourth segments. See Weirauch 2008b)
  20. Lb2: 2nd visible labial segment
  21. Lb3: 3rd visible labial segment

Width measurements

  1. Head (width from outer margin of one eye to that of the other)
  2. InterOcDi: Interocular distance (width from inner margin of one eye to that of the other)
  3. AntPron: Anterior pronotal lobe (width across the widest part)
  4. PosPron: Posterior pronotal lobe (width between humeral angles, not including processes)
  5. Abd: Abdomen (measured at the widest part of the abdomen)
  6. Profem: Profemur (measured at median point)
  7. Mesofem: Mesofemur (measured at median point)
  8. Metafem: Metafemur (measured at median point)

Descriptive taxonomy

Description. Observations were recorded with the software DEscriptive Language for TAxonomy (DELTA) (Dallwitz 1980, Dallwitz et al. 1999). Natural descriptive language was exported and edited. Observations and descriptions were done primarily based on male specimens, descriptions of females were restricted to non-genitalic characters different from males. Four major character systems were described: coloration, vestiture, structure (non-genitalic), and male genitalia. Description of abdominal vestiture was restricted to the ventral surface. Description of a body part usually started with the overall appearance of that body part such as length, width, and general shape. Structural components of that body part were then described in the order from anterior to posterior, medial to lateral, dorsal to ventral, and proximal to distal. Ratios were determined by comparing mean values across specimens measured. Ratio between the segments of labium or antenna was in reference to the respective first segment. Unless otherwise stated, all measurement values reported in the text are mean values. For closely related or very similar species, a full description was provided for one representative and only variable characters were described for other species. The singular form was usually used for paired structures except when referring to spatial relationships between these structures, e.g., "struts (of phallus) separate, sub-parallel", or when referring to the different pairs of legs at the same time, e.g., "femora and tibiae with alternating yellow and dark brown bands". Descriptions of coloration were mainly based on observations of dried specimens, but notes were made if images or observations of live specimens were available. We note that many dried specimens show browning or fading of colors. This was particularly evident in lightly or brightly colored species. We observed in a number of species that the ventral outline of abdomen is curved, a condition apparently resulting from the folding of segments three to six (sometimes two as well). It was not clear if this was a preservation artifact or a natural condition, but it has been consistently seen in several species. Thus, this character was described as observed.

Description of intraspecific variations. Intraspecific variations were described and indicated by terms or phrases as the following: sometimes, occasionally and in some specimens. When variations in coloration can be roughly delimited to several patterns, they were described and the frequency of the patterns sometimes mentioned as well. Intraspecific variations in male genitalic structures were usually not described or documented unless they are important for species diagnosis and identification, which is usually the case only for closely related species.

Association of males and females. For the majority of species, males and females show limited sexual dimorphism in size and coloration, and could be readily associated based on external morphology, corroborated by collecting data. However, sexual dimorphism is pronounced in a number of species. Males and females differ drastically in size, body configuration and coloration. Association of sexes for these species was based mainly on locality data and series of specimens of both sexes. Observations of mating reported in the literature were also consulted and used as corroborative evidence whenever available.

Terminology and abbreviation. External morphology and genitalic terminology followed Forero and Weirauch (2012), Davis (1966), Weirauch (2008a), Weirauch (2008b). The term ‘posterior margin of foramen’ was used to refer to the posterior margin of the foramen of the dorsal phallothecal sclerite. The foramen is located at the anterior part of the dorsal phallothecal sclerite and is an area that lacks sclerotization and surrounds the struts. The following abbreviations are used: BL = body length; C.A. = Central America; cat. = catalogue; comb. nov. = combinatio nova; Cu = Cubitus; descr. = description; desig. = designation; f = female; fig. = figure; L = length; m = male; M = median (vein), orig. = original; Pcu = Postcubitus; preocc. = preoccupied; R = radius, S.A. = South America; SD = standard deviation; sp. n. = species nova; syn. = synonym; syn. nov. = synonymum novum; stat. rev. = status revisus; W = width. Terms used to describe male genitalia are illustrated in Fig. 1.

Figure 1.

Male genitalic structure terms (Zelus errans Fabricius, 1803 is shown in the illustrations)

Nomenclature (Annotated synonymic list). The synonymic list comprises abbreviated synonymies and included those names that previously appeared in the taxonomic literature or have affected the taxonomy of the species. Citation to ecological, agricultural or other non-taxonomic literature was presented when appropriate, but not meant to be exhaustive. Historical taxonomic publications were briefly annotated to indicate kind of taxonomic information or nomenclatural acts such as .orig descr., checklist, cat., note, fig. and key. When a species name is followed by the original author and year, there is no colon (:) separating the name and the author. A species name followed by a colon indicates that the author of the work is not the author of the name.

Electronic publication

This publication is registered in ZooBank. In accordance with the 2012 Amendment to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature regarding electronically published works (Krell and Pape 2015), all new species names have been registered in ZooBank and their lsid values provided.

Taxon treatments

Zelus  Fabricius, 1803

Nomenclature

Zelus Fabricius, 1803, p. 281, orig. descr.; Latreille, 1804, p. 260, list; Latreille, 1807, p. 129, list; Latreille, 1810, p. 433, type desig.; Lepeletier and Serville, 1825, p.815, list and descr.; Laporte, 1832, p. 9, type desig.; Burmeister, 1835, p. 225, descr.; Brulle, 1836, p. 316-317, descr.; Blanchard, 1840, p. 100, descr. and note; Blanchard, 1845, p. 433, 438, list and note; Herrich-Schaeffer, 1848, p. 88, descr. and note; Kolenati, 1857, p. 458-459, descr.; Stål, 1861, p. 148, descr.; Stål, 1862, p. 449-454, key and subgeneric descr. (with subgenus Zelus); Carpenter and Westwood, 1863, p. 565, note; Mayr, 1866, p. 138, list; Stål, 1866, p. 296, list; Stål, 1868, p. 107, restriction of definition; Stål, 1872, p. 69, 88, key and cat. (with subgenus Zelus); Walker, 1873, VII., p. 49, key, VIII., p. 131-136, cat.; Berg, 1879, p. 150, list (with subgenus Zelus); Uhler, 1886, p. 24, checklist; Provancher,1887, p. 179, note; Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 151, cat.; Champion, 1898, p. 251, cat. and note; Kirkaldy, 1900a, p. 263, type verification; Kirkaldy, 1900b, p. 242, syn.; Kirkaldy, 1902, p. 149, note; Fracker, 1913, p. 223, 238-240, key and note (with subgenus Zelus); Van Duzee, 1916, p. 30, checklist (with subgenus Zelus); Van Duzee, 1917, p. 258-259, cat. (with subgenus Zelus); Blatchley, 1926, p. 567-568, key, descr. and note (with subgenus Zelus); Readio, 1927, p. 167, 168-169, key, descr. and note; Zimmerman, 1948, p. 137, note; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 48, checklist; Fracker and Usinger, 1949, p. 277, key to nymphs; Alayo, 1967, p. 5, 35, list, key and note; Hart, 1986, key to North American species; Hart, 1987, key to Caribbean species; Maldonado, 1990, p. 325-332, cat.

Reduvius Fabricius, 1775 (type by subsequent desig., Cimex personatus Linnaeus, 1758), Lepeletier and Serville, 1825 (in part), p. 272, descr.; Perty, 1834 (in part), p. 173, list of species.

Arilus Hahn, 1831 (type by subsequent designation, Cimex carinatus Forster, 1771); Burmeister, 1835 (in part), p. 227-228, descr.; Herrich-Schaeffer, 1848 (in part), p. 33-35, descr.

Euagoras Burmeister, 1835 (type by subsequent designation, E. stollii Burmeister, 1835) (in part), p. 226, descr.; Amyot and Serville, 1843 (in part), p. 368, descr. (as Evagoras); Herrich-Schaeffer, 1848 (in part), p. 43-44, descr.; Stål, 1855 (in part), p. 189, list (as Eccagoras); Stål, 1861, p. 148, (in part) junior syn. of Zelus Fabr.; Mayr, 1866, p. 139, list; Walker, 1873, p. 49, 117, key and cat.; Provancher, 1887, p. 182, descr. (as Evagoras); Kirkaldy, 1900b, p. 242, junior syn. of Zelus Fabr.; Kirkaldy, 1903, p. 215-216, note.

Diplodus Amyot and Serville, 1843, p. 370, descr.; Burmeister, 1853, p. 91, list (included in Euagoras Burm.); Stål, 1860, p. 74, list; Stål, 1862, p. 450, descr. (as subgenus of Zelus); Stål, 1866, p. 296, key; Stål, 1872, p. 90, list (as subgenus of Zelus); Walker, 1873, VII., p. 49, VIII., p. 123, key and cat. (as Diploda); Berg, 1879, p. 151, list (as subgenus of Zelus); Uhler, 1886, p. 24, checklist; Provancher, 1887, p. 179, key and descr.; Kirkaldy, 1903, p. 232, note; Fracker, 1913, p. 239, 240, key and list (as subgenus of Zelus).

Darbanus Amyot and Serville, 1843 (type by monotypy, D. nigrolineatus); Provancher, 1872, p. 106, species descr.; Uhler, 1886, p. 24, checklist; Provancher, 1887, p. 179, 181, key and note; Van Duzee, 1912, p. 324; Fracker, 1913, p. 241, note.

Pindus Stål, 1862, p. 454, orig. descr. (as subgenus of Zelus); Stål, 1866, p. 296, key (as genus); Stål, 1872, p. 92, list and cat., as subgenus of Zelus); Walker, 1873, VII., p. 66, list and cat. (as genus); Berg, 1879, p. 150, list (as subgenus of Zelus) ; Thierry and Severin, 1896, p. 151, cat.; Fracker, 1913, p. 223, 240, key and list; Van Duzee, 1916, p. 30, checklist; Van Duzee, 1917, p. 261, cat.; Blatchley, 1926, p. 569, key.

Diplacodus Kirkaldy, 1900b, p. 242, new name for Diplodus A. and S. (preocc.).

Diplocodus Van Duzee, 1916, p. 30, checklist (new name for Diplacodus Kirkaldy, preocc.); Van Duzee, 1917, p. 260, cat.; Blatchley, 1926, p. 569, key.

Iquitozelus Bérenger, 2003, p. 23, orig. descr., syn. nov. (current study).

Type species

Cimex longipes Linnaeus, 1767
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Description

Male: Small to large, total length 8-25 mm (Suppl. material 2), with most of moderate sizes (11-18 mm); usually slender (length/width = 4.0-5.0), some species relatively robust (<3.5) to rather slender (>6.0). COLORATION: Colors and patterns of preserved specimens variably yellowish-brown, reddish-brown, orange-brown, and brownish-black to black, with most species uniformly colored. VESTITURE: Most species with moderately dense or dense, fine, short, recumbent and short, long, erect setae; some species with short, spine-like setae on head and pronotum; few species nearly glabrous. Setation on legs sparse in most species; profemur and tibia with dense sundew setae in some species. STRUCTURE: Head: Length much greater than width across eye. Postocular lobe usually longer than anteocular, tube-like posteriorly in most species. Ocellus raised, directed somewhat laterally. Eye variably sized, not protruding above or below dorsal or ventral surfaces of head, with one exception (Zelus grandoculus sp. n.). Antenna: Scape and basiflagellomere long and subequal in length, usually longer than head and pronotum combined; pedicel and distiflagellomere short and about 1/3 length of scape. Scape thickest; basiflagellomere usually thicker than pedicel, subequal in some species. Labium: Segment II longest, 1.3-2.2x length of segment I; segment III shortest, usually 0.5x length of segment I; variably curved between segments I and II. Thorax: Anterior pronotal lobe about 1/2 to 3/4 length of posterior lobe; anterolateral angles of pronotal collar rounded, with or without tuberculate protrusion; medial dorsal longitudinal sulcus usually shallow at collar, deepening through posterior 1/2; sometimes with subtuberculate elevation near posterior margin laterad to medial sulcus. Posterior pronotal lobe rugulose (not conspicuous in species with dense setation); slightly or greatly wider than anterior lobe; disc of most species elevated above humeral angle and posterior margin of lobe; humeral angle with tuberculate to long spinous lateral process, rounded and unarmed in small number of species. Scutellum in most species with angulate apex, slightly produced and projected upward in some species. Legs: long, slender in most species; femoral diameters generally subequal; pro- and metafemoral lengths subequal, greater than mesofemoral length. Hemelytron: Attaining or surpassing apex of abdomen, by large proportion in some species. Quadrate cell small to large; median vein conspicuous in some species and not visible in many. Cu and M of cubital cell subparallel in most species, converging in some. Abdomen: Lateral margins subparallel; ventral outline usually straight, in some species somewhat concave and abdomen appearing arched (see "Material and methods" for discussion of this character). Genitalia: Segment eight usually short, less than 1/2 length of pygophore; posterior margin generally slightly concave, straight in some species, never convex. Pygophore: ovoid to elongated; slightly to greatly expanded laterally close to base of paramere; dorsal bridge short to long. Medial process single, not bifurcating, of variable length and shape; triangular or cylindrical as most common configuration; apex blunt or with hooklike process. Paramere generally cylindrical, often swollen and bending apically, length variable. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite generally semi-cylindrical, broad and shield-like in many species, elongated in some; dorsal surface lacking armature in most species, with projection, process or elevation in some species; lateral margins usually straight or convex, constricted or recurved in some species; apical part keeled in middle and/or curved dorsad; apex usually rounded or truncate, with or without medial emargination. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite in majority of species; apical part recurved dorsad and often semi-circular; bridge connecting two sides in many species. Basal plate arm slender to heavy, separate or fused; basal plate bridge present, variable in width and degree of sclerotization; basal plate extension short, often extended onto basal plate arm.

Female: Larger than male. Coloration usually similar to that of male and more variable in some species, but may differ between sexes dramatically in certain species. Eye and ocellus smaller than in male in some species. Basiflagellomere not swollen and about equal diameter as or smaller than pedicel. Lateral process on humeral angle, if present, usually more produced and longer than in male. Mesofemur slightly swollen in many species. Lateral margins of abdomen expanded in some species.

Diagnosis

This genus is distinguished from other genera of the New World Harpactorini by the cylindrical head, the length of the head being at least 1.9X its width; the unarmed antenniferous tubercles; the second labial segment being at least 1.3x the length of the first segment; the long scape and basiflagellomere that are subequal in length and the short pedicel and distiflagellomere; the generally unarmed (i.e. no tubercles or spines) disc of the posterior pronotal lobe (except in Zelus tetracanthus Stål, 1862, Zelus lewisi sp. n. and Zelus minutus Hart, 1987); the humeral angle with or without process, and if present, usually not prominently projected; the legs with sundew setae and sticky glands (Zhang and Weirauch 2013); the profemur subequal in length and diameter to the metafemur; and the medial process of pygophore single, not bifurcating. Zelus is apparently closely related to three other genera, Atopozelus Elkins, Ischnoclopius Stål and "Hartzelus" [manuscript name], that share many of the aforementioned characters. It is separated from Atopozelus by the presence of paramere (lacking in Atopozelus). Ischnoclopius is distinguished from Zelus by its rather slender body form (length:width ratio greater than seven), the very long profemur, at least 0.6x of body length, and the very short paramere. An undescribed genus, "Hartzelus" (Gil-Santana and Berenger, pers. comm.), which would be in part based on species removed by us from Zelus, differs from Zelus in having a bifurcating medial process of the pygophore (single in Zelus) and generally more slender legs. No Old World species of Harpactorini are similar or appear to be closely related to Zelus. Confusion may potentially arise with members of genera that show a similar slender body form and slender legs (e.g., Euagoras and Vestula Stål), but these are distinguished from Zelus based on the characters listed above.

Distribution

Native to (except for Chile) and throughout the New World, including the Caribbean, with highest diversity in the Neotropics. One species (Z. renardii) has been introduced to Hawaii, the Polynesian islands, Jamaica, Philippines, Spain, Greece and Chile.

Biology

We provide a non-exhaustive account of the biology of various species of this genus. As with other harpactorines, species of Zelus generally do not show associations with or preferences of host plants, probably due to their generalist habits. However, two recent studies have found two species of Zelus that have both nymphs and adults occurring in the same plant species in relatively large quantities. In Gil-Santana and Alves (2011), based on a multi-year study the authors observed forty-seven females, twenty-seven males and fifteen nymphs of Z. versicolor from Bidens rubifolia Kunth (Asterales, Asteraceae) in a single site in the city of Nova Friburgo, Brazil. Interestingly, they did not see individuals of the same species in other plants in the same site, which can be seen as evidence for host plant preference. In French Guiana Revel et al. (2010) counted as many as 405 individuals of Zelus annulosus (Stål, 1866) and its egg masses from several pubescent plant species, including (but not limited to) Hirtella physophora Mart. & Zucc. (Chrysobalanaceae), Cordia nodosa Lam. (Boraginaceae) and Tococa guianensis Aubl. (Melastomataceae); all three are myrmecophytes. They hypothesized an intriguing tri-party mutualistic relationship between the assassin bug, an ant (Allomerus decemarticulatus Mayr) and the plants.

Several species of Zelus are possibly mimics of various other insects. Zelus errans Fabricius, 1803, Zelus vespiformis Hart, 1987 and to some extent Zelus vagans Fabricius, 1803 and Zelus gracilipes sp. n. have wing and body color patterns similar to many braconid wasps, an intriguing form of mimicry seen also in a number of other Neotropical harpactorine genera. Zelus vagans shows areas of black and orange colors, however, the posterior pronotal lobe is medially dark and laterally orange. Zelus gracilipes also shows a uniformly orange posterior pronotal lobe, but the hemelytron is uniformly dark and lacks the banding pattern typical to a wasp mimic. Zelus nigromaculatus Champion, 1899 has an appearance similar to that of a typical vespid, the only species in this genus with that kind of color pattern. Zelus laticornis (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1853), Zelus grassans Stål, 1862 and Zelus ruficeps Stål, 1862 have red and dark markings on abdomens and orange or reddish dorsal surfaces, a pattern found in many species of pyrrhocorids (e.g., Dysdercus spp.) and coreids (e.g. Hypselonotus spp.). Interestingly, in Z. laticornis, it is only the females showing this coloration. Certain color forms of Z. longipes are possibly mimics of the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas).

Weirauch et al. (2012) studied predatory and mating behaviors of Z. renardii and Z. tetracanthus and discussed a possible link between biological attributes and invasion potential. Law and Sediqi (2010) experimentally demonstrated that sticky substance derived from egg mass coating improves predation success and substrate adhesion ability of Z. renardii first instar.

Taxon discussion

The generic limit of Zelus is now relatively well defined and the genus can be separated from all other but one genera of New World Harpactorini based on characters discussed in the diagnosis. Based on a molecular phylogeny, Zhang and Weirauch (2014) recovered the monophyly of Zelus, Atopozelus and "Hartzelus" (which includes Z. araneiformis, a species we remove from Zelus). In that analysis, Ischnoclopius was represented by a single species and placed as sister to Atopozelus. The genera Atopozelus, "Hartzelus", Ischnoclopius and Zelus together constitute a monophyletic group in the same study, and we here refer to this group the "Zelus clade". Without a cladistic analysis, questions remain if the characters used to diagnose Zelus are synapomorphies of that genus. It is almost certain that the unbifurcating medial process represents a symplesiomorphic state as that character can be seen in Atopozelus, Ischnoclopius and many other Neotropical harpactorines. The unarmed antenniferous tubercles are also plesiomorphic to Zelus, since all other genera of the Zelus clade exhibit that condition, but may be synapomorphic to the Zelus clade. We agree with Forero (2012) that Zelus is defined mainly by the absence of apomorphies seen in other genera. Future research should illuminate this issue by studying the distribution and the polarity of characters with a formal cladistic framework.

The genus that we are uncertain about its relationship with Zelus is Pronozelus Forero, erected by Forero (2012) to accommodate a new species, Pronozelus schuhi Forero, 2012. This species appears to possess all the characters diagnostic of Zelus, but also shows some peculiar characters. The principal characters separating Pronozelus from Zelus include the laterally expanded posterior pronotal lobe, the prominent, greatly expanded posterolateral rim of pygophore lateral to paramere socket, and the posterior pronotal lobe greater than 2.2x length of the anterior lobe. The conspicuous lateral expansion of the posterior pronotal lobe is not observed in any species of Zelus, but this character appears to be autapomorphic in the Zelus clade and does not support P. schuhi being phylogenetically separated from Zelus. We have not done an extensive survey of the condition of the posterolateral rim of the pygophore and cannot determine the distribution or polarity of the lateral prominence as exhibited in P. schuhi. In Zelus rosulentus sp. n., the posterolateral part of the pygophore also appears to be expanded, although not as prominent as that seen in P. schuhi. Finally, according to measurements done in this study, in Zelus spp. the posterior pronotal lobe frequently exceeds 2.2x length of the anterior lobe, thereby negating the use of that character as a basis for placing P. schuhi outside Zelus. Despite the foregoing discussion, we have opted to not transfer P. schuhi to Zelus or synonymize Pronozelus with Zelus. The polarity of the characters diagnostic to either genus has not been clearly defined. There remains a possibility, although we think a small one, that P. schuhi represents a lineage sister to Zelus.

Bérenger (2003)'s new species, Iquitozelus couturieri, exhibits all the characters diagnostic of Zelus, except for those of the male genitalia as the known specimens are all females. The main character that Bérenger used as the basis for erecting a new genus, i.e., the "foliaceous expansion of the VI connexivum segment", appears to be autapomorphic within the Zelus clade. Synonymy of Iquitozelus with Zelus is warranted and established here. We further postulate that I. couturieri is most closely related to Zelus amblycephalus sp. n., Zelus umbraculus sp. n. or Zelus umbraculoides sp. n. Further discussions regarding the status of Iquitozelus and the specific membership of Zelus couturieri syn. nov. (Bérenger, 2003) are presented in the treatment of that species.

Maldonado (1990) considered two unpublished, manuscript names invalid, and they are "Diplodus armiger" and "Diplodus melanophthalmus". They appeared in Dohrn (1860). We follow this treatment.

Except for several pairs or complexes of closely related species, identification of males can be almost always unambiguously performed based on exposed genitalic structures such as paramere and medial process, further corroborated with phallic structures, external morphology and coloration. Identification of females of many species, where females appear to be as distinct as males, is straightforward based on coloration and external morphology. However, identification can be difficult for closely related species, where females are indistinguishable based on external morphology. In these cases, association of males and females and identification of females were primarily based on collecting event information. Sexual dimorphism presents another special challenge. While most species show limited sexual dimorphism that does not go beyond minor size and coloration differences, some species exhibit pronounced differences between the sexes (see Material and Methods for discussion of association of male and female specimens). Based on the observation that species in closely related genera do not exhibit strong sexual dimorphism, we here hypothesize that pronounced sexual dimorphism is a derived condition within Zelus.

Species groups

We find here that previous subgeneric groups are based on superficial resemblance and these are not adopted. Instead, we recognize eleven species groups in the current study, based primarily on characters of the male genitalia, but also on non-genitalic external morphology if those characters can be applied to both sexes. Several species for which only females are known are therefore not assigned to a species group. Although the groupings proposed here are not based on a cladistic analysis, they show a degree of congruence with the relationships recovered in the phylogenetic analysis based on molecular data in Zhang and Weirauch (2014) and many of the characters are putative synapomorphies of the groups. A brief discussion of the species groups is presented below.

1. Zelus tetracanthus species group.

Zelus minutus Hart, 1987, Zelus prolixus Stål, 1860, Zelus rosulentus sp. n. and Zelus tetracanthus Stål, 1862.

Members of this group have a rather broad, indistinct medial process, the base of which is nearly continuous with or inseparable from the ventral rim of the pygophore. We speculate that this character represents a plesiomorphic condition as it is seen in several other genera of the New World Harpactorini and thus the condition of the medial process does not necessarily support the monophyly of this group. Zelus tetracanthus and Z. minutus also both have tubercles on the disc of the posterior pronotal lobe, which are more pronounced in the former. Comparative views of male genitalia are shown in Fig. 2.

Figure 2.

Zelus tetracanthus species group, male gentitalic structures

2. Zelus luridus species group.

Zelus ambulans Stål, 1862, Zelus antiguensis sp. n., Zelus exsanguis Stål, 1862, Zelus grandoculus sp. n., Zelus luridus Stål, 1862 and Zelus spatulosus sp. n.

This is a group of species with primarily a North American distribution, with some species extending to northern Central America. The males show an apically expanded paramere and a triangular medial process that has a protrusion at the base but lacks any apical modifications. Notably, Z. spatulosus has a slender medial process, deviating greatly from the remainders of the group. It is placed in this group mainly because of the apically expanded paramere and the uniform coloration. Zelus ambulans and Z. exsanguis have the humeral angle elevated to about same level of and nearly continuous with the disc of the posterior pronotal lobe, a condition rarely seen in the genus. The coloration is quite homogenous among members of this genus, most of which have a uniform greenish (in live specimens) or dull brownish (in preserved specimens) habitus, with only Z. ambulans showing variable patterns or banding on the pronotum or legs. Comparative views of male genitalia are shown in Fig. 3.

Figure 3.

Zelus luridus species group, male genitalic characters

3. Zelus mimus species group

Zelus inconstans Champion, 1898 and Zelus mimus Stål 1862.

Members of this group, consisting of only two species, exhibit a highly unique paramere and a medial process of the pygophore. The paramere is slender and apically curved dorsad at an angle of nearly ninety degrees. The medial process, as is especially evident in Z. inconstans, possesses a simple posterior liplike fold at the apex; its lateral margins are subparallel and not broadened significantly at the base. Both have a semi-cylindrical dorsal phallothecal sclerite which is modified by a fold running obliquely toward the base from the middle of the lateral margins. Both species, being quite small, exhibit the usual reduction of setal tracts common to nearly all small species. Comparative views of male genitalia are shown in Fig. 4.

Figure 4.

Zelus mimus species group, male genitalic structures

4. Zelus nugax species group.

Zelus grassans Stål, 1862, Zelus illotus Berg, 1879, Zelus impar Kuhlgatz, 1902, Zelus nugax Stål, 1862 and Zelus pedestris Fabricius, 1803.

This is a group of smallish species with quite variable distributional ranges. The defining characters include a slender, laterally compressed medial process that is curved or recurved, and an acute apex of the dorsal phallothecal sclerite (except in Z. grassans). Zelus nugax has one of the widest distribution ranges in this genus, ranging from much of Mexico to northern South America. Zelus grassans is found primarily in Central America and the remaining two species mainly in northern South America. Comparative views of male genitalia are shown in Fig. 5.

Figure 5.

Zelus nugax species group, male genitalic structures

5. Zelus puertoricensis species group.

Zelus bruneri De Zayas, 1960, Zelus puertoricensis Hart, 1987, Zelus subimpressus Stål, 1872 and Zelus zayasi Bruner and Barber, 1937.

Members of this group are restricted to the Caribbean. They can be easily recognized by the rather slender body form. The posteriorly directed, robust medial process with a somewhat blunt apical protrusion is also distinctive of this group. The basal plate arms are widely separate and diverging and these features are rare in other species in the genus. They show resemblance to species of the Zelus renardii species group, especially to Z. cervicalis. Zelus bruneri was not physically examined, but the rather slender body form as seen in the original illustration places it within this group. Comparative views of male genitalia are shown in Fig. 6.

Figure 6.

Zelus puertoricensis species group, male genitalic structures

6. Zelus renardii species group.

Zelus cervicalis Stål, 1872 and Zelus renardii Kolenati, 1856.

The two members of this group are very likely sister species since they share a number of unique characters: the apex of the medial process is greatly bent ventrad and hooklike, the lateral margin of the dorsal phallothecal sclerite is recurved dorsad and the basal part of the strut is absent. Both species are mainly distributed in North and Central America, but Z. cervicalis extends to northern South America. Comparative views of male genitalia are shown in Fig. 7 .

Figure 7.

Zelus renardii species group, male genitalic structures

7. Zelus armillatus species group.

Zelus amblycephalus sp. n., Zelus annulosus (Stål, 1866), Zelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825), Zelus conjungens (Stål, 1860), Zelus janus Stål, 1862, Zelus leucogrammus (Perty, 1833), Zelus lewisi sp. n., Zelus litigiosus Stål, 1862, Zelus ruficeps Stål, 1862, Zelus sulcicollis Champion, 1899, Zelus umbraculoides sp. n. and Zelus umbraculus sp. n.

This is one of the two largest groups in the genus (the other being the Zelus panamensis species group). Species in this group are generally robust and large-sized (15-25 mm), and some are among the largest in the genus. The most distinctive character is that of the medial process, which has the apex slightly projected into two minute small lateral prongs or processes. This condition is different from that in several species groups listed below, where the apex of the medial process is hook-like and more strongly projected. The lateral spine of the humeral angle tends to be pronounced and somewhat broadened into a dentate effect. The pygophore is large, rounded, and somewhat shortened relative to the total length of the individual. The dorsal phallothecal sclerite having dorsolateral expansions or projections close to the basal arm is also unique to some species of this group. This condition, however, is not seen in Z. amblycephalus, Z. umbraculus, or Z. umbraculoides, which appear to be divergent from the remainders of the group, but the features of the medial process unambiguously place them in this species group. Comparative views of male genitalia are shown in Figs 8, 9.

Figure 8.

Zelus armillatus species group, male genitalic structures - pygophore

Figure 9.

Zelus armillatus species group, male genitalic structures - phallus

8. Zelus longipes species group.

Zelus bahiaensis sp. n., Zelus errans Fabricius, 1803, Zelus longipes (Linnaeus, 1767), 1803 and Zelus vespiformis Hart, 1987.

This and the next species group (Zelus vagans species group) possess dense, spine-like setae on the head and pronotum, and a rounded, unarmed humeral angle, both characters rather unique in Zelus and probably synapomorphies uniting the two groups. The former character is possibly homoplastic as it is also seen in two species in the Zelus armillatus species group. The medial process is slender and cylindrical and this condition is among the most extreme in the genus. It is semi-erect and posteriorly directed. The paramere exceeds the apex of the medial process. The dorsal phallothecal sclerite has subparallel margins and lacks obvious modifications or ornamentations (except for small lateral folds in Z. longipes). Some individuals of Z. errans and Z. vespiformis appear to be wasp mimics. Comparative views of male genitalia are shown in Fig. 10.

Figure 10.

Zelus longipes species group, male genitalic structures

9. Zelus vagans species group.

Zelus aithaleos, Zelus championi sp. n., Zelus fuliginatus sp. n., Zelus gracilipes sp. n. and Zelus vagans Fabricius, 1803.

Species of the Zelus vagans group share two characters also present in the preceding group (Zelus longipes species group): spinelike setae and rounded humeral angle. However, they differ in the structure of the male genitalia in significant ways. The medial process shapes like a somewhat laterally flattened cone. It is relatively broad at base, narrowing toward the apex, and is laterally compressed. The medial process is posteriorly directly, nearly horizontal. The paramere is removed from or barely reaching apex of the medial process. Furthermore, the phallus is elongated and slightly constricted toward the apex (not conspicuous in Z. gracilipes). Zelus vagans and Z. gracilipes also resemble wasps to some extent, but both not as perfectly as seen in Z. errans and Z. vespiformis. Comparative views of male genitalia are shown in Fig. 11.

Figure 11.

Zelus vagans species group, male genitalic structures

10. Zelus panamensis species group.

Zelus banksi sp. n., Zelus cordazulus sp. n., Zelus filicauda Bergroth, 1893, Zelus gilboventris sp. n., Zelus korystos Hart, 1986, Zelus nigromaculatus Champion, 1899, Zelus panamensis sp. n., Zelus truxali sp. n., Zelus varius (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1853) and Zelus xouthos sp. n.

This is another large group with ten species. Interestingly, most (seven) are new species. It is characterized by having an acute apical modification usually in the shape of a hook on the medial process and the conspicuous medial carination of the apical part of the dorsal phallothecal sclerite. The condition of the apical modification of the medial process differs from that in the Zelus armillatus species group in that it is much more prominent, usually acute and sometimes extending further ventrally. Rugulosity of the posterior pronotal lobe is highly pronounced relative to the other groups. Sexual dimorphism is pronounced in some species in this group (e.g., Z. gilboventris and Z. truxali). Most species in this group are concentrated in southern Central America and northern South America. Comparative views of male genitalia and habitus images are in Figs 12, 13.

Figure 12.

Zelus panamensis species group, male genitalic structures - pygophore

Figure 13.

Zelus panamensis species group, male genitalic structures - phallus

11. Zelus erythrocephalus species group.

Zelus auralanus sp. n., Zelus casii sp. n., Zelus chamaeleon Stål, 1872, ​Zelus erythrocephalus Fabricius, 1803, Zelus kartabenoides sp. n., Zelus kartabensis Haviland, 1931, Zelus laticornis (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1853), Zelus mattogrossensis Wygodzinsky, 1947, Zelus paracephalus sp. n., Zelus russulumus sp. n. and Zelus versicolor (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1848).

Two diagnostic characters identify members of this group. The medial process possesses a broad ridge-like projection or carina that initiates from the apex and extends ventrally or is removed from apex. The second feature is the apically oriented lateral sharp processes or projections on the dorsal phallothecal sclerite. These are not to be confused with the lateral expansion seen in the Zelus armillatus species group, where the direction of the expansion is laterad. In Z. auralanus and Z. versicolor, this process is short and somewhat dorsally directed, rather than apically directed. Three species, Z. kartabenoides, Z. kartabensis and Z. chamaeleon lack this structure. Their placement in this group is primarily based on the configuration of the medial process and the absence of characters of other groups. Also, the longitudinal ridge-like elevation or hook on the medial process is similar to the condition in another species, Z. laticornis, although the latter has a short modification. In this species group the parameres are usually somewhat bulbous and curved medially with moderate to long erect setae on the apical 1/2. The medial process is broadened at base, and usually anteroposteriorly compressed. Furthermore, the basal plate of the phallus is strongly curved in some members of this species group. Pronounced sexual dimorphism is seen in some species of this group. Notably, three species, Z. erythrocephalus, Z. paracephalus and Z. russulumus have purple, blue or greenish iridescence on the membrane of the hemelytron. Species of this group show a predominant southern South American distribution, with a few found only from the Amazons. Comparative views of male genitalia and habitus images are in Figs 14, 15.

Figure 14.

Zelus erythrocephalus species group, male genitalic structures - pygophore

Figure 15.

Zelus erythrocephalus species group, male genitalic structures - phallus

Because of the heavy emphasis on male genitalic characters for grouping species, four species described only from females are not placed in any of the species groups defined in the above. These are: Zelus fasciatus Champion, 1899, Zelus plagiatus (Signoret, 1852), Zelus sphegeus Fabricius, 1803 and Zelus means Fabricius, 1803. Zelus fasciatus is similar to the females of some of the species in the Zelus panamensis species group and also occurs in an overlapping geographical region (southern Central America). Zelus plagiatus and Z. sphegeus show resemblance to the females of Z. versicolor, which is in the Zelus erythrocephalus species group. Zelus means, by possessing a rounded humeral angle and spinelike setae, aligns most closely with the Zelus vagans species group and the Zelus longipes species group. A future cladistic analysis, including morphological and molecular data, is needed to test the monophyly of these species groups and may also have the potential to place these female-based species.

Species removed from Zelus

Five species are removed from Zelus: Z. araneiformis, Zelus gradarius Bergroth, 1905, Z. modestus (Stål, 1862), Zelus subfasciatus Stål, 1860 and Zelus vittaticeps Stål, 1866. These species represent an undescribed genus "Hartzelus" and will be treated in a separate study. They will be listed as Harpactorini incertae sedis until their generic placement is formally clarified.

Zelus aithaleos Zhang & Hart, 2016, sp. n.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus aithaleos
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    PERU
    ; stateProvince:
    Huanuco
    ; locality:
    Aerro Puerto, Tingo Maria
    ; verbatimElevation:
    671 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -9.3
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -76.01666
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1946-10-22
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00047314
    ; recordedBy:
    J. C. Pallister
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    AMNH
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus aithaleos
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BOLIVIA
    ; stateProvince:
    La Paz
    ; locality:
    Guanay
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -15.4833
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -67.8833
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1993-10-01 to 1993-11-01
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00009327
    ; recordedBy:
    L. Pena
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  2. scientificName:
    Zelus aithaleos
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BOLIVIA
    ; stateProvince:
    La Paz
    ; locality:
    Guanay
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -15.4833
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -67.8833
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1993-10-01 to 1993-11-01
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00009328
    ; recordedBy:
    L. Pena
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  3. scientificName:
    Zelus aithaleos
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Goias
    ; locality:
    Annapolis
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -16.3333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -48.9667
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1936-02-07
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00071251
    ; recordedBy:
    Unknown
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    TAMU
  4. scientificName:
    Zelus aithaleos
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    PARAGUAY
    ; stateProvince:
    Guaira
    ; locality:
    Paso-Yobai
    ; verbatimElevation:
    280 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -25.72344
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -55.9969
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1951-09-28
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00071252
    ; recordedBy:
    Foerster
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    TAMU

Description

Figs 16, 17, 18

Figure 16.

Zelus aithaleos Zhang & Hart, sp. n., habitus

aZelus aithaleos Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, dorsal view (UCR_ENT 00047314, Huanuco, Peru)
bZelus aithaleos Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, lateral view (UCR_ENT 00047314, Huanuco, Peru)
Figure 17.

Zelus aithaleos Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male genitalic structures

aZelus aithaleos Zhang & Hart, sp. n., pygophore, lateral and posterior views
bZelus aithaleos Zhang & Hart, sp. n., phallus, dorsal view
Figure 18.

Zelus aithaleos Zhang & Hart, sp. n., specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 16) Medium-sized, total length 13.47 mm (n=1, Suppl. material 2); slender. COLORATION: Entirely dark, nearly black; inconspicuous, light-colored, thin, medial longitudinal stripe on postocular lobe. Membrane of hemelytron semi-translucent. VESTITURE: Densely setose. Dorsum of anteocular lobe with moderately dense, short, recumbent and sparse, short , erect, spine-like setae. Dorsum of postocular lobe nearly glabrous; spine-like setae anteriorly between eyes; stripe of longitudinal whitish recumbent setae laterally. Ventral surface of head with moderately dense, recumbent setae, intermixed with erect setae. Scape nearly glabrous. Pronotum with dense, short, erect, stout, spine-like setae, also on lateral surfaces and pleura; scutellum with dense, apically curved, stout setae. Legs with sparse setation. Sundew setae on profemur sparse. Abdomen with moderately dense, short, semi-erect, fine setae. Ventral surface of pypophore with sparse, long, erect setae; posteroventral rim with long, erect setae; Paramere apically with dense, short to long, erect setae. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 2.30. Postocular lobe short; in dorsal view anteriorly gradually narrowing, posterior portion constant, slightly narrower. Eye moderately sized; dorsal margin attaining postocular transverse groove, ventral margin removed from ventral surface of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 1.7: 0.5 . Basiflagellomere diameter slightly larger than that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterolateral angle rounded, without projection; medial longitudinal sulcus evident throughout, deepening posteriorly. Posterior pronotal lobe with rugulose surface; disc distinctly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle rounded, without projection. Scutellum long; apex angulate, slightly projected upward. Legs: Very slender. Hemelytron: Greatly surpassing apex of abdomen by about 3x length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell large and broad; Cu and M of cubital cell subparallel. GENITALIA: (Fig. 17) Pygophore: Elongate ovoid; mid-lateral fold adjacent to paramere insertion; slightly expanded laterally near base of paramere in dorsal view. Medial process somewhat laterally compressed, cone-shaped; anterior and posterior surfaces angulate medially; long, nearly as long as paramere; posteriorly directed, nearly horizontal; basally slightly curved; apex in posterior view blunt, without modification. Paramere: Cylindrical; moderately long, not reaching apex of medial process; directed posteriad, slightly curved towards medial process; nearly straight; apical part slightly enlarged, depression along inner side. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite elongated; slightly constricted near middle; apical 1/3 of phallothecal sclerite tapering to apex, dorsal surface strongly convex; apex medially notched; posterior margin of foramen deeply concave. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, connected by bridge; basally separate. Basal plate arm extremely slender; separate; subparallel; bridge short; extension of basal plate well developed, only slightly expanded laterally.

Female: Similar to male, except for the following. Larger than male, total length 13.87–17.61 mm (mean 16.27 mm, Suppl. material 2). Abdomen expanded beyond margins of wings. Metafemoral diameter smallest, mesofemoral diameter significantly larger than that of profemur. Occasional specimens with orange posterior pronotal lobe and mesopleuron. Setae on some specimens golden.

Diagnosis

The nearly colorless cells of the membrane of the hemelytron contrast markedly with the dark veins, making Z. aithaleos an easily recognizable species in this genus. Also recognized by the following combination of characters: the postocular lobe short, 1.7x of the length of anteocular lobe in males and 1.2x in females; the anterior pronotal lobe short, abbreviated; the pronotum strongly convex; the humeral angle of pronotum rounded, unarmed; the cranium, the pronotum, the pleura and the scutellum with spinelike, short, stout setae (the last two characters also seen in the Zelus longipes species group and the Zelus vagans species group).

Males can also be recognized by the medial process laterally compressed, posteriorly directly and almost horizontal (also seen in the Zelus vagans species group). Within the Zelus vagans species group (Fig. 11), the medial process of Z. aithaleos is comparatively long, exceeding 1/2 length of the main body of the pygophore, whereas all other species in this group have the medial process less than 1/2 length of the pygophore. The basal plate arm is remarkably more slender than those in the same species group.

A unicolourous near-black dorsum, including the head, the pronotum and the corium, separates Z. aithaleos from both sexes of Z. gracilipes, Z. vagans, and Z. means (known from females only), all of which have some orange, yellow or reddish colors. The dark dorsal profile is shared with Z. championi (only the male is known) and Z. fuliginatus. A longitudinal lateral patch of whitish recumbent setae on the postocular lobe serves to separate this species from Z. fuliginatus. It is distinguished by a dark abdomen from Z. championi, which has a brightly red abdomen.

Etymology

From Greek aithales.

Distribution

South America (Fig. 18). Countries with specimen records: Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Peru.

Zelus amblycephalus Zhang & Hart, 2016, sp. n.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus amblycephalus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    COSTA RICA
    ; stateProvince:
    Puntarenas
    ; locality:
    Golfito
    ; decimalLatitude:
    8.6407
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -83.1686
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1957-07-13
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00022669
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Holotype of Zelus amblycephalus Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; recordedBy:
    A. S. Menke
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    LACM ENT 160232
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    LACM
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus amblycephalus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Amazonas
    ; locality:
    Rio Janauaca, 40 km SW Manaus
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -3.33333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -60.28333
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Label
    ; eventDate:
    1979-03-10
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00009315
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paratype of Zelus amblycephalus Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; recordedBy:
    Unknown
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  2. scientificName:
    Zelus amblycephalus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Amazonas
    ; locality:
    Teffe
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -3.3667
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -64.7
    ; eventDate:
    1918-12-06
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00009316
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paratype of Zelus amblycephalus Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; recordedBy:
    Unknown
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  3. scientificName:
    Zelus amblycephalus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Mato Grosso
    ; locality:
    Barra do Tapirape
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -10.46666
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -50.51667
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1962-12-30
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00006070
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paratype of Zelus amblycephalus Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; recordedBy:
    B. Malkin
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    CAS
  4. scientificName:
    Zelus amblycephalus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Rondonia
    ; locality:
    62 km SW of Ariquemes, near Fzda. Rancho Grande
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -10.32921
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -63.46881
    ; eventDate:
    1996-12-03 to 1996-12-15
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00029368
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paratype of Zelus amblycephalus Zhang and Hart, 2016. Drake Collection
    ; recordedBy:
    J. E. Eger
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  5. scientificName:
    Zelus amblycephalus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    COLOMBIA
    ; stateProvince:
    Cundinamarca
    ; locality:
    Villeta
    ; verbatimElevation:
    799 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    5.01444
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -74.47305
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Label
    ; eventDate:
    2003-05-10
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00025328
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paratype of Zelus amblycephalus Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; recordedBy:
    C. Ardila, A. Montano, A. Pachon
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    UNAB
  6. scientificName:
    Zelus amblycephalus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    COSTA RICA
    ; stateProvince:
    Puntarenas
    ; locality:
    Golfito
    ; decimalLatitude:
    8.6407
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -83.1686
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1957-07-13
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00022670
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paratype of Zelus amblycephalus Zhang and Hart, 2016. Previously designated as 'allotype' of his manuscript name Zelus amblycephalus by Hart, a type status not used in the formal publication of this name (Zhang, Hart & Weirauch, 2016).
    ; recordedBy:
    A. S. Menke
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    LACM ENT 160233
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    LACM
  7. scientificName:
    Zelus amblycephalus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    ECUADOR
    ; stateProvince:
    Orellana
    ; locality:
    Reserva Etnica Waorani, 1 km S. Onkone Gare Camp, Transect Ent.
    ; verbatimElevation:
    216 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -0.65714
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -76.453
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Fogging
    ; eventDate:
    1994-10-09
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00009473
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paratype of Zelus amblycephalus Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; recordedBy:
    T. L. Erwin et al.
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  8. scientificName:
    Zelus amblycephalus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    MEXICO
    ; stateProvince:
    Chiapas
    ; locality:
    10 m N of Mexico 190 Tuztla Gutierrez
    ; decimalLatitude:
    16.90574
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -93.16486
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1956-08-24 to 1956-08-28
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00010840
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paratype of Zelus amblycephalus Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; recordedBy:
    A. Lewis
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    LACM
  9. scientificName:
    Zelus amblycephalus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    MEXICO
    ; stateProvince:
    Chiapas
    ; locality:
    Reserva El Ocote
    ; decimalLatitude:
    16.99502
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -93.64056
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1993-12-02 to 1993-12-10
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00034277
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paratype of Zelus amblycephalus Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; recordedBy:
    G. Ortega, E. Barrera, A. Casasola
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    IBUNAM
  10. scientificName:
    Zelus amblycephalus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    MEXICO
    ; stateProvince:
    Oaxaca
    ; locality:
    Temascal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    18.23882
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -96.40034
    ; eventDate:
    1963-10-31
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00009493
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paratype of Zelus amblycephalus Zhang and Hart, 2016. Drake Collection
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Jansen
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  11. scientificName:
    Zelus amblycephalus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    MEXICO
    ; stateProvince:
    Oaxaca
    ; locality:
    Temascal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    18.23882
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -96.40034
    ; eventDate:
    1963-10-31
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00009494
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paratype of Zelus amblycephalus Zhang and Hart, 2016. Drake Collection
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Jansen
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  12. scientificName:
    Zelus amblycephalus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    MEXICO
    ; stateProvince:
    Oaxaca
    ; locality:
    Temascal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    18.23882
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -96.40034
    ; eventDate:
    1963-10-31
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00009495
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paratype of Zelus amblycephalus Zhang and Hart, 2016. Drake Collection
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Jansen
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  13. scientificName:
    Zelus amblycephalus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    MEXICO
    ; stateProvince:
    Oaxaca
    ; locality:
    Temascal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    18.23882
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -96.40034
    ; eventDate:
    1963-10-31
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00009496
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paratype of Zelus amblycephalus Zhang and Hart, 2016. Drake Collection
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Jansen
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  14. scientificName:
    Zelus amblycephalus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    MEXICO
    ; stateProvince:
    Oaxaca
    ; locality:
    Temascal
    ; decimalLatitude:
    18.23882
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -96.40034
    ; eventDate:
    1963-10-31
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00009497
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paratype of Zelus amblycephalus Zhang and Hart, 2016. Drake Collection
    ; recordedBy:
    D.H. Jansen
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  15. scientificName:
    Zelus amblycephalus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    PANAMA
    ; stateProvince:
    Canal Zone
    ; locality:
    Barro Colorado
    ; decimalLatitude:
    9.16666
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -79.83333
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1941-04-01
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00009270
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paratype of Zelus amblycephalus Zhang and Hart, 2016. Additional label: Collected at Night.
    ; recordedBy:
    J. Zetek
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    41-7231
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  16. scientificName:
    Zelus amblycephalus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    SURINAME
    ; stateProvince:
    Unknown
    ; locality:
    unknown
    ; decimalLatitude:
    5.804157
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -55.149886
    ; eventDate:
    1965-12-12
    ; sex:
    Adult sex unknown
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00023698
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paratype of Zelus amblycephalus Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; recordedBy:
    Geyskes
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    RMNH
  17. scientificName:
    Zelus amblycephalus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    MEXICO
    ; stateProvince:
    Chiapas
    ; locality:
    Tuxtla Gutierrez
    ; verbatimElevation:
    549 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    16.75469
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -93.11485
    ; eventDate:
    1955-07-06 to 1955-07-10
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00017182
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paratype of Zelus amblycephalus Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; recordedBy:
    P. & C. Vaurie
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    AMNH

Description

Figs 19, 20, 21

Figure 19.

Zelus amblycephalus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., habitus

aZelus amblycephalus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00009270, Canal Zone, Panama)
bZelus amblycephalus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, lateral (UCR_ENT 00009270, Canal Zone, Panama)
cZelus amblycephalus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., female, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00017182, Chiapas, Mexico)
dZelus amblycephalus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., female, lateral (UCR_ENT 00017182, Chiapas, Mexico)
Figure 20.

Zelus amblycephalus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male genitalic structures

aZelus amblycephalus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., pygophore, lateral and posterior views
bZelus amblycephalus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., phallus, dorsal view
Figure 21.

Zelus amblycephalus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 19a, b) Large, total length 15.0–17.5 mm (mean 15.7 mm, Suppl. material 2); slender, body length/width = 4.5. COLORATION: Yellowish or greenish-brown. Head yellowish-brown to brown. Antennae and femoral apices reddish. Anterior pronotal lobe uniformly yellowish-brown or brown. Posterior pronotal lobe yellowish-brown or brown with lateral processes and surrounding area darker, brown to dark brown. Clavus and corium brown, veins yellowish-brown, membrane brown. Abdomen pale brown. Pygophore yellowish-brown. VESTITURE: Sparsely setose; sparse, short, erect setae over most of integument. Short spinelike setae on dorsal surface of head, with some short recumbent setae dorsally on posterior lobe, sparse short recument and erect setae on lateral and ventral surfaces. Anterior pronotal lobe with short, spine-like setae dorsally and short, erect and recumbent setae laterally; posterior lobe with short, recumbent and erect setae. Scutellum with short erect and recumbent setae. Corium and clavus with short, recumbent setae. Microtrichia throughout posterior margin of membrane of hemelytron. Abdominal venter with short, erect setae, interspersed with long setae. Sparse, moderately long setae on apical 1/2 of paramere. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical. In dorsal view anteriorly gradually narrowing, posterior portion constant, slightly narrower; dorsal outline in lateral view gradually sloping. Eye prominent; dorsal and ventral margins removed from outlines of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 1.4: 0.3. Segment I surpassing anterior margin of eye. Antenna: Basiflagellomere diameter larger than that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterior pronotal lobe with indistinct collar, anterolateral angle rounded, without projection; medial longitudinal sulcus evident throughout, deepening posteriorly; slightly raised inconspicuous protuberance laterad to longitudinal medial sulcus anterior to transverse pronotal sulcus, more apparent in lateral view. Posterior pronotal lobe with smooth surface; disc distinctly elevated above humeral angle, slightly convex; humeral angle slightly expanded and wider than abdomen, armed with spinous process; margin indistinct, convex. Scutellar apex angulate, not projected. Legs: Moderately robust. Hemelytron: Surpassing apex of abdomen by about length of abdominal segment seven; costal margin somewhat concave; Sc surpassing level of apex of cubital cell; quadrate cell small and slender; 1A and Pcu intersecting; Cu and M of cubital cell subparallel. Abdomen: Segments of sub-equal sizes; segment seven much shorter than preceding segments, posterior margin in lateral view slightly concave. GENITALIA: (Fig. 20) Segment eight with nearly straight posterior margin, slightly concave in middle. Pygophore: Ovoid; posterolateral rim in lateral view straight above paramere, concave below paramere. Slender. Medial process cylindrical, slender; long; posteriorly directed, in less than forty-five degree with body axis; nearly straight; apex rounded. Paramere: Cylindrical; long, surpassing medial process; directed posteriad; not distinctly curved; apical part very slightly enlarged. Phallus: Surface flat; laterally indistinctly angulate; apex truncate; posterior margin of foramen broadly concave; basal arm short. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; basally separate. Basal plate arm robust; separate; basally converging; in lateral view nearly straight, very slightly curved; bridge moderately long, slender; extension expanded and extended onto arm.

Female: (Fig. 19c, d) Similar to male, except for the following. Pleura and abdominal segments with patches of whitish exudation. Basiflagellomere diameter smaller or subequal to that of pedicel. Hemelytron barely surpassing apex of abdomen.

Diagnosis

Can be recognized by the uniform pale coloration, the unpatterned legs (Fig. 19), and the relatively large size (>15mm, Suppl. material 2). Males can also be recognized by the apex of medial process with two minute prongs; the long, somewhat recurved paramere, which, viewed laterally, is at least 1.5x length of the medial process; and the dorsal phallothecal sclerite without lateral expansion close to the basal arm.

Among species of the Zelus armillatus group (Fig. 8), only Z. annulosus also possesses a paramere much longer than the medial process, but the two can be easily separated by the general aspects of coloration. Both in general appearance and in the appearance of certain characters of the male genitalia, this species appears to be most closely related to Z. umbraculus and Z. umbraculoides, which have short parameres and are known only from male specimens.

Distribution

Southern Mexico to northern South America and part of Brazil (Fig. 21). Countries with records: Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama and Suriname.

Zelus ambulans Stål, 1862

Nomenclature

Zelus ambulans Stål, 1862, p. 451, orig. descr.; Stål, 1872, p. 91, cat. (subgenus Diplodus); Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 151, cat.; Champion, 1898, p. 259–260, Tab. XV. fig. 23, 23a, junior syn. of Z. exsanguis; Maldonado, 1990, p. 327. cat. and junior syn. of Z. exsanguis. stat. rev. (current study).

Diplodus ambulans: Uhler, 1886, p. 24, checklist; Walker, 1873, cat.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Lectotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus ambulans
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Stål, 1862
    ; country:
    MEXICO
    ; stateProvince:
    unknown
    ; eventDate:
    No date provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00040998
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Lectotype of Zelus ambulans Stål, 1862 (New Designation by Zhang, Hart & Weirauch, 2016). Verbatim label info: Mexico / Salle / ambulans Stal. / Lectotype Zelus ambulans Stal / designated by E. R. Hart / Typus / NHRS-GULI 000000318
    ; recordedBy:
    Salle
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    NHRS-GULI 000000318
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2012
    ; institutionCode:
    NHRS
Paralectotypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus ambulans
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Stål, 1862
    ; country:
    MEXICO
    ; stateProvince:
    unknown
    ; eventDate:
    No date provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paralectotype of Zelus ambulans Stål, 1862 (New Designation by Zhang, Hart & Weirauch, 2016). Verbatim label info: Mexico / Salle / Allotypus / Zelus ambulans Stal
    ; recordedBy:
    Salle
    ; institutionCode:
    NHRS
  2. scientificName:
    Zelus ambulans
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Stål, 1862
    ; country:
    MEXICO
    ; stateProvince:
    unknown
    ; eventDate:
    No date provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paralectotype of Zelus ambulans Stål, 1862. (New Designation by Zhang, Hart & Weirauch, 2016). Verbatim label info: Mexico Coll. Signoret / det. Stal
    ; recordedBy:
    Signoret
    ; institutionCode:
    NHMW

Description

Figs 22, 23, 24

Figure 22.

Zelus ambulans Stål, 1862, habitus

aZelus ambulans Stål, 1862, male, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00009285, Veracruz, Mexico)
bZelus ambulans Stål, 1862, male, lateral (UCR_ENT 00009285, Veracruz, Mexico)
cZelus ambulans Stål, 1862, female, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00017884, Chiriqui, Panama)
Figure 23.

Zelus ambulans Stål, 1862, male genitalic structures

aZelus ambulans Stål, 1862, pygophore, lateral and posterior views
bZelus ambulans Stål, 1862, phallus, dorsal view
Figure 24.

Zelus ambulans Stål, 1862, specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 22a, b) Medium-sized, total length 12.89–15.19 mm (mean 14.27 mm, Suppl. material 2); slender. COLORATION: Dorsal surface generally brown. Anteocular lobe yellowish-brown to light reddish with darker brown areas on lateral surfaces between compound eyes and antennal insertions, some specimens with dark brown areas on posterodorsal surface. Dorsal surface of postocular lobe dark brown with wide yellowish-brown mid-dorsal and circumocellar areas, remainder of surface yellowish-brown. Rostrum yellowish-brown to reddish-brown, some specimens with segment I and apex of segment II darker reddish-brown. Antennal segments I and II with varying dark brown areas at base and apex, remainder of I and II yellowish-brown to dark reddish-brown, III and IV dark reddish-brown. Anterior lobe yellowish-brown with varying dark brown areas on dorsolateral margins, anterolateral angles of collar, medial sulcus, and small patches at posterodorsal margin. Posterior lobe yellowish-brown with posterior 1/2, except for posterior margin, darkening brown in some specimens. Scutellum yellowish-brown to dark brown. Legs yellowish-brown, apical 1/5 of femora with brown to brownish-black band and apex of tibiae darkening to dark reddish-brown. Hemelytron brown with yellowish-brown costal margins and veins of clavus and corium yellowish-brown except for veins bounding discal cells. Abdominal venter yellowish-brown. VESTITURE: Moderately setose. Short recumbent setae predominating dorsally; short to moderate erect setae over entire body. Recumbent and erect setae over entire sure of head, recumbent setae predominating dorsally. Postocular lobe with recumbent and scattered erect setae over entire surface, recumbent setae more dense dorsally, erect setae more dense lateroventrally. Anterior pronotal lobe with erect and recumbent setae confined to setal tracts dorsally, erect setae laterally. Posterior lobe vestiture consisting of recumbent and scattered erect setae over entire surface. Scutellum with moderate to long, silky setae. Clavus and corium with short recumbent setae, longer near base of clavus. Abdomen with short, stiff, erect setae dorsally, remainder of surface with recumbent and scattered erect setae. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 2.30. Postocular lobe moderately long, posterior 1/2 width constant, lateral margins subparallel. Eey moderately prominent; dorsal margin attaining postocular transverse groove, ventral margin removed from ventral surface of head. Ocellus only slightly elevated. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 1.8: 0.4. Thorax: Anterolateral angle with inconspicuous subtuberculate projection; medial longitudinal sulcus evident only on posterior 1/2, deepening to transverse sulcus of pronotum. Posterior pronotal lobe with finely rugulose surface; disc about same level of, and continuous with, humeral angle; humeral angle armed, with spinous process. Scutellum short; apex blunt to subtuberculate. Legs: Slender. Femoral diameters subequal. Hemelytron: Surpassing apex of abdomen by about length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell small; Cu and M of cubital cell subparallel. GENITALIA: (Fig. 23) Pygophore: Elongate ovoid; not expanded laterally in dorsal view. Medial process triangular, relatively broad, moderately long, semi-erect, nearly straight, curved slightly posteriad apically; apex in posterior view blunt, without modification. Paramere: Cylindrical; moderately long, nearly reaching apex of medial process; slightly curved ventrad; apical part enlarged. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite elongated, somewhat flattened; medially slightly constricted; apical portion of phallothecal sclerite not distinctly tapered, slightly convex; apex truncate, medially emarginate; posterior margin of foramen broadly concave. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, connected by bridge; basally separate. Basal plate arm moderately robust, separate, converging, in lateral view nearly straight, very slightly curved; bridge short; extension of basal plate small and confined to apex of basal plate arm.

Female: (Fig. 22c) Similar to male, except for the following. Larger than male, total length 15.43–18.59 mm (mean 16.55 mm, Suppl. material 2). Generall coloration slightly lighter; legs more or less uniformly colored, apices somewhat reddish, without dark bands.

Diagnosis

Among the species of Zelus luridus group, Z. ambulans has the humeral angle elevated to level of, and continuous with, disc of the posterior pronotal lobe, a condition that is also present in Z. exsanguis, but it can be separated from that species by the yellowish veins on corium, contrasting to the brown corium, whereas the entire corium is more or less uniformly colored in Z. exsanguis.

Among species of the Zelus luridus species group (Fig. 3) males of Z. ambulans can be recognized by the relatively slender medial process (Fig. 23a) and the paramere barely reaching the medial process. The apical enlargement of the paramere is smaller than that in Z. spatulosus and Z. exsanguis, but larger than that in Z. grandoculus, Z. luridus and Z. antiguensis.

Distribution

North and Central America (Fig. 24). Countries with records: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama.

Taxon discussion

Champion (1898) synonymized Z. ambulans, Z. luridus and Z. cognatus under Z. exsanguis. Hart (1986) recognized all three as valid species, but did not formally reinstate Z. ambulans, probably because it is outside the geographic focus of that particular study. Zelus ambulans remained a synonym of Z. exsanguis in Maldonado (1990)'s catalogue or Reduviidae. We here resurrect Z. ambulans from synonymy. Champion (1898)'s figures of Z. exsanguis actually depict Z. ambulans.

Although this species shows very little morphological variations, color patterns within an area do vary considerably. The dark area at the posterior margin of the longitudinal medial sulcus of the anterior lobe, which serves to easily distinguish Z. ambulans from Z. exsanguis, is relatively constant. Other colors, specifically that of the posterior pronotal lobe and the femoral apices vary from quite light to very dark brown in any given locality. There is also an occasional specimen with somewhat darker hemelytron, but this does not show the wide range of variations of the aforementioned characters.

Most specimens examined have been collected from moderate to high altitudes.

Zelus annulosus (Stål, 1866)

Nomenclature

Diplodus annulosus Stål, 1866, p. 299, orig. descr.; Walker, 1873, p. 126, cat.

Zelus annulosus: Stål, 1872, p. 92, cat. (subgenus Diplodus); Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 151, cat.; Fracker and Bruner, 1924, p. 170, note; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 48, checklist; Maldonado, 1990, p. 326, cat.

Material    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus annulosus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Stål, 1866)
    ; country:
    unknown
    ; stateProvince:
    unknown
    ; locality:
    Amazon
    ; eventDate:
    No date provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00040999
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Verbatim label info: Amazon / Stevens. / annulosus Stal. / Typus / NHRS-GULI 000000319
    ; recordedBy:
    Stevens
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    NHRS-GULI 000000319
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2012
    ; institutionCode:
    NHRS

Description

Figs 25, 26, 27

Figure 25.

Zelus annulosus (Stål, 1866), habitus

aZelus annulosus (Stål, 1866), male, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00046743, French Guiana)
bZelus annulosus (Stål, 1866), male, lateral (UCR_ENT 00046743, French Guiana)
Figure 26.

Zelus annulosus (Stål, 1866), male genitalic structures

aZelus annulosus (Stål, 1866), pygophore, lateral and posterior view
bZelus annulosus (Stål, 1866), phallus, dorsal view
Figure 27.

Zelus annulosus (Stål, 1866), specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 25) Large, total length 14.57 mm (n=1, Suppl. material 2); very slender. COLORATION: Yellowish with dark brown patches; green on posterior pronotal lobe and corium. Most surface of head yellowish, dark stripe between eye and antennal insertion, on postocular lobe behind ocellus, and on lateral surface. Scape dark brown with three yellowish bands. Labium yellowish, dark band on first and second segments. Anterior pronotal lobe yellowish, anterior medial brown patch, anterolateral angle dark brown, connected to dark brown patch on lateral surface. Posterior pronotal lobe, anterior part of corium green; rest of hemelytron brown to dark brown. Pleura yellowish with dark brown patch. Femora and tibiae with alternating yellow and dark brown bands, six of each on femora, four of each on tibiae, yellow band smaller, more so on tibiae. VESTITURE: Moderately setose. Entire dorsal surface, including corium and clavus, with dark, dense, short to moderately long, erect, spine-like setae. Ventral surface of head, pleura with short, semi-erect to recumbent setae. Abdomen with moderately dense, short, semi-erect to recumbent setae, intermixed with long, erect setae. Sundew setae on profemur sparse. STRUCTURE: Head: Elongated, L/W = 2.13. Postocular lobe very long; in dorsal view distinctly narrowing through anterior 1/2, posterior 1/2 constant, tube-like. Eye prominent; lateral margin much wider than postocular lobe; dorsal margin attaining postocular transverse groove, ventral margin removed from ventral surface of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 1.5: 0.4. Basiflagellomere diameter subequal to that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterolateral angle bearing small protuberance; medial longitudinal sulcus shallow near collar, deepening posteriorly. Posterior pronotal lobe with finely rugulose surface; disc distinctly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle armed, with short tuberculate processes. Scutellum moderately long; apex angulate. Legs: Slender. Hemelytron: Slightly surpassing apex of abdomen, not more than length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell small and slender; Cu and M of cubital cell subparallel. GENITALIA: (Fig. 26) Pygophore: Ovoid; not expanded laterally in dorsal view; broad lightly sclerotized expansion between paramere and medial process. Medial process expanded laterally; short; semi-erect; basally slightly protruding; apex in posterior view truncate, with small sharp lateral projections. Paramere: Cylindrical; long, nearly reaching apex of medial process; directed toward medial process; apically recurved. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite shield-shaped; sharp, dorsad projection arising close to base; apical portion of phallothecal sclerite not distinctly tapered, flat, laterally distinctly angulate, ridge-like; apex truncate, not emarginate; posterior margin of foramen broadly inversely v-shaped. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, not connected by bridge; basally fused. Basal plate arm moderately robust; separate; converging; in lateral view slightly curved; bridge moderately long; extension of basal plate expanded onto arm.

Female: Similar to male, except for the following. Larger than male, total length 21.19–22.72 mm (mean 21.91 mm, Suppl. material 2). Some dry-preserved specimens have posterior pronotal lobe and corium not green but brown, probably a result of preservation artifact.

Diagnosis

Recognized by the following combination of characters: the posterior pronotal and corium dark green; the legs with four to five alternative yellow and black bands; the head, pronotum, scutellum and corium with moderately dense, black, erect, spine-like setae; the rather long and slender legs, the profemur 1/2 of body length; the rather long postocular lobe, enlarged at posterior 3/4; and the quadrate cell on corium rather slender, length more than 2x width.

Males can also be recognized by the long paramere, reaching apex of medial process; the apex of paramere recurved; the medial process apically with two lateral sharp projections; the membranous sclerite between paramere and medial process, not distinctly protruding posteriorly; and the dorsal phallothecal sclerite with lateral expansion close to basal arm, sharp, dorsad.

Distribution

South America (Fig. 27). The Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Frech Guiana. Countries with records: Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana.

Zelus antiguensis Zhang & Hart, sp. n.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus antiguensis
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    GUATEMALA
    ; stateProvince:
    Sacatepequez
    ; locality:
    Antigua
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1583 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    14.5611
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.7344
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    no date provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00007995
    ; recordedBy:
    B. Lott
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus antiguensis
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    GUATEMALA
    ; stateProvince:
    Sacatepequez
    ; locality:
    Antigua
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1583 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    14.5611
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.7344
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    no date provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00007955
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Genitallia dissected
    ; recordedBy:
    B. Lott
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  2. scientificName:
    Zelus antiguensis
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    GUATEMALA
    ; stateProvince:
    Sacatepequez
    ; locality:
    Antigua
    ; decimalLatitude:
    14.56667
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.73333
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1965-10-01
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00009305
    ; recordedBy:
    N. L. H. Krauss
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  3. scientificName:
    Zelus antiguensis
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    GUATEMALA
    ; stateProvince:
    Sacatepequez
    ; locality:
    Antigua
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1583 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    14.5611
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.7344
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1930-07-01
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00015069
    ; recordedBy:
    D. M. Bates
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    AMNH
  4. scientificName:
    Zelus antiguensis
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    GUATEMALA
    ; stateProvince:
    Sacatepequez
    ; locality:
    Antigua
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1583 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    14.5611
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -90.7344
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1951-09-12
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00029478
    ; recordedBy:
    R. H. Painter
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  5. scientificName:
    Zelus antiguensis
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    MEXICO
    ; stateProvince:
    Chiapas
    ; locality:
    Tuxtla Gutierrez
    ; verbatimElevation:
    549 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    16.75469
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -93.11485
    ; eventDate:
    1955-07-06 to 1955-07-10
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00017184
    ; recordedBy:
    P. & C. Vaurie
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    AMNH
  6. scientificName:
    Zelus antiguensis
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    MEXICO
    ; stateProvince:
    Jalisco
    ; locality:
    Pine Forst 87 miles S of Manzamitla
    ; decimalLatitude:
    19.17323
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -103.66112
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1948-12-01
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00006071
    ; recordedBy:
    H. B. Leech
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    CAS
  7. scientificName:
    Zelus antiguensis
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    MEXICO
    ; stateProvince:
    Jalisco
    ; locality:
    Pine Forst 87 miles S of Manzamitla
    ; decimalLatitude:
    19.17323
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -103.66112
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1948-12-01
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00019699
    ; recordedBy:
    E. S. Ross
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    CAS
  8. scientificName:
    Zelus antiguensis
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    MEXICO
    ; stateProvince:
    Jalisco
    ; locality:
    6 mi W of Chapala
    ; decimalLatitude:
    20.29709
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -103.28149
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1963-06-30
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00038423
    ; recordedBy:
    J. Doyen
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    UCB
  9. scientificName:
    Zelus antiguensis
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    MEXICO
    ; stateProvince:
    Veracruz
    ; locality:
    Jalapa
    ; decimalLatitude:
    19.54381
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -96.90993
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    no date provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00023699
    ; recordedBy:
    Unknown
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    RMNH

Description

Figs 28, 29, 30

Figure 28.

Zelus antiguensis Zhang & Hart, sp. n., habitus

aZelus antiguensis Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00007995, Sacatepequez, Guatemala)
bZelus antiguensis Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, lateral (UCR_ENT 00007995, Sacatepequez, Guatemala)
cZelus antiguensis Zhang & Hart, sp. n., female, lateral (UCR_ENT 00029478, Sacatepequez, Guatemala)
dZelus antiguensis Zhang & Hart, sp. n., female, lateral (UCR_ENT 00029478, Sacatepequez, Guatemala)
Figure 29.

Zelus antiguensis Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male genitalic structures

aZelus antiguensis Zhang & Hart, sp. n., pygophore, lateral and posterior views
bZelus antiguensis Zhang & Hart, sp. n., phallus, dorsal view
Figure 30.

Zelus antiguensis Zhang & Hart, sp. n., specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 28a, b) Medium-sized, total length 13.69–16.28 mm (mean 14.98 mm, Suppl. material 1); slender. COLORATION: Dorsal surface of anteocular lobe reddish-brown, yellowish-brown ventrally. Dorsum of postocular lobe dark brown with yellowish-brown mid-dorsal line and circumocellar areas, ventral surface yellowish-brown. Rostrum light reddish-brown. Scape and pedicel light reddish-brown with dark brown areas near base and apex. Anterior pronotal lobe reddish-brown with yellowish-brown anteroventral area. Dorsal surface of posterior lobe reddish-brown with yellowish-brown lateral and posterior margins, humeral angle dark brown and lateral surfaces yellowish-brown. Scutellum yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. Legs yellowish-brown to reddish-brown, femoral and tibial apices darker reddish-brown. Hemelytron brown, veins of clavus and corium slightly lighter in color than surrounding areas. Abdomen with dorsal surface reddish-brown, ventral surface yellowish-brown. VESTITURE: Moderately setose. Anteocular lobe with recumbent setae over dorsal surface, some erect setae ventrally. Postocular lobe with recumbent setae predominating dorsally, long silky erect setae posterodorsally and over lateral surface. Anterior pronotal lobe with recumbent and short erect setae on faint setal tracts dorsally and scattered on lateral surfaces, long silky erect setae on anterior margins. Posterior pronotal lobe with short recumbent and erect setae over entire surface, some long erect setae mid-dorsally on anterior half. Scutellum with moderate to long setae. Corium and clavus of hemelytron with recumbent setae. Abdomen with sparse, short, erect setae over entire surface, some short recumbent and longer erect setae on lateral and ventral surfaces, moderate to long erect setae posteroventrally on segment seven. Pygophore with short to moderate setae over exposed surface. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 2.29. Postocular lobe relatively short; in dorsal view anteriorly gradually narrowing, posterior portion constant, slightly narrower. Eye moderately sized; dorsal margin attaining postocular transverse groove, ventral margin removed from ventral surface of head. Ocellus greatly elevated. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 1.8: 0.6. Basiflagellomere diameter larger than that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterolateral angle rounded, without projection; medial longitudinal sulcus shallow near collar, deepening slightly in posterior half. Posterior pronotal lobe with finely rugulose surface; disc slightly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle armed, with short tuberculate processes. Scutellum moderately long; lateral depressions deep; apex slightly produced. Legs: Slender. Pro- and mesofemoral diameters subequal, metafemoral diameter slightly smaller. Hemelytron: Surpassing apex of abdomen by about length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell small, elongate; Cu and M of cubital cell subparallel. GENITALIA: (Fig. 29) Pygophore: Elongate ovoid; lateral margin above paramere insertion slightly expanded laterally in dorsal view. Medial process triangular, broad, short, erect; nearly straight; apex in posterior view blunt, without modification. Paramere: Cylindrical over basal half, slightly compressed and enlarged dorsoventrally over apical half; moderately long, nearly reaching medial process; not distinctly curved; apical part very slightly enlarged. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite somewhat squarish; apex blunt, medially very slightly emarginate, not distinctly tapered; surface flat; posterior margin of foramen broadly concave. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, connected by bridge; basally mostly separate, moderately fused. Basal plate arm slender; separate; converging; in lateral view nearly straight, very slightly curved; bridge moderately long; extension of basal plate small and confined to apex of basal plate arm.

Female: (Fig. 28c, d) Similar to male, except for the following. Larger than male, total length 15.77–18.15 mm (mean 16.91 mm, Suppl. material 2). Coloration very similar to that in male, slightly lighter overall. Anteocular lobe varying from reddish-brown to brown dorsally, legs of some specimens unicolorous. Ocellar elevation not pronounced; middle of mesothoracic femora slightly swollen.

Diagnosis

As with several members of the Zelus luridus species group, the coloration is greenish-brown, rather uniform. The medial process is triangular, its base distinct from the rest of pygophore ventral rim and apex without modification. Can be distinguished from males of other species of the Zelus luridus species group (Fig. 3) by the base of the medial process extended, the apex of the paramere not greatly enlarged, and the phallothecal sclerite rather short.

Zelus antiguensis is similar in appearance to Z. luridus and might easily be confused with that species. The comparatively broader medial process and posterior protrusion of the base of the medial process are readily evident in Z. antiguensis (Fig. 3). This species also shows an internal folding of the dorsolateral apical areas of the dorsal phallothecal sclerite, such folding being absent in Z. luridus. Generally, in both sexes the head is more pubescent and the pronotum more flattened dorsally than is normally found in Z. luridus. These two species do not overlap in distribution.

Etymology

Named after the type locality, Antigua, in Guatemala.

Distribution

Southern Mexico and Guatemala (Fig. 30).

Zelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825)

Nomenclature

Reduvius armillatus Lepeletier and Serville, 1825, p. 278, orig. descr.

Diplodus armillatus: Amyot and Serville, 1843, p. 370, descr.; Stål, 1860, p. 75, list; Walker, 1873, p. 123, cat.

Euagoras armillatus: Herrich-Schaeffer, 1853, p. 91, list.

Zelus armillatus: Stål, 1872, p. 90, cat. (subgenus Diplodus); Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 151, cat.; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 49, checklist; Mayr, 1866, p. 138-139, senior syn. of Z. brasiliensis, Z. aurantiacus, Z. guttifer and Z. conjungens; Berg, 1879, p. 151-152, list and nymphs (subgenus Diplodus); Costa Lima, 1940, 218, list (subgenus Diplocodus); Wygodzinsky, 1957, p. 268, note; Wygodzinsky, 1960; p. 307, list; Maldonado, 1990, p. 326, cat.; Van der Heyden, p. 85-90, new record (misidentification, should be Zelus atripes).

Reduvius brasiliensis Lepeletier and Serville, 1825, p. 278, orig. descr.

Diplodus brasiliensis: Amyot and Serville, 1843, p. 370, descr.; Stål, 1860, p. 75, note; Mayr, 1866, p. 138- 139, junior syn. of Z. armillatus; Walker, 1873, p. 123, cat.

Euagoras brasiliensis: Herrich-Schaeffer, 1853, p. 91, list.

Zelus brasiliensis: Stål, 1872, p. 90, cat. (subgenus Diplodus); Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 151, junior syn. of Z. armillatus.

Arilus aurantiacus Herrich-Schaeffer, 1848, p. 35-36 Tab. CCLXI. fig. 809, orig. descr. and fig.; Mayr, 1866, p. 138-139, junior syn. of Z. armillatus; Stål, 1872, p. 90, junior syn. of Z. armillatus.

Euagoras aurantiacus: Herrich-Schaeffer, 1853, p. 91, list (aurantius (sic)).

Ploeogaster aurantiacus: Herrich-Schaeffer, 1853, p. 168, list.

Arilus guttifer Herrich-Schaeffer, 1848, p. 36, Tab. CCLXI, fig. 810, orig. descr. and fig.; Mayr, 1866, p. 138-139, junior syn. of Z. armillatus; Stål, 1872, p. 90, junior syn. of Z. brasiliensis.

Euagoras guttifer: Herrich-Schaeffer, 1853, p. 92, list.

Ploeogaster guttifer: Herrich-Schaeffer, 1853, p. 168, list.

Diplodus guttifer: Stål , 1860, p. 74, descr.; Walker, 1873, p. 126, cat.

Zelus guttifer: Stål 1862, p. 453, note.

Arilus guttifer , Mayr, 1866, p. 138-139, junior syn. of Z. armillatus .

Material    Download as CSV 

Description

Figs 31, 32, 33, 34, 35

Figure 31.

Zelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825), habitus, males

aZelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825) male, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00008021, Santa Catarina, Brazil)
bZelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825) male, lateral (UCR_ENT 00008021, Santa Catarina, Brazil)
cZelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825) male, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00030246, Santa Catarina, Brazil)
dZelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825) male, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00019103, Santa Catarina, Brazil)
Figure 32.

Zelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825), habitus, females

aZelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825), female, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00019117, Huanuco, Peru)
bZelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825), female, lateral (UCR_ENT 00019117, Huanuco, Peru)
cZelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825), female, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00019118, Huanuco, Peru)
dZelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825), female, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00030183, Junin, Peru)
eZelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825), female, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00019112, Huanuco, Peru)
fZelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825), female, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00019119, Huanuco, Peru)
Figure 33.

Zelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825), habitus, females

aZelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825), female, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00019114, Huanuco, Peru)
bZelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825), female, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00029536, Junin, Peru)
cZelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825), female, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00017777, Huanuco, Peru)
dZelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825). Female specimens collected from Oct-Nov 1993 from Guanay, La Paz, Bolivia, showing a large range of color variations
Figure 34.

Zelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825), male genitalic structures

aZelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825), pygophore, lateral and posterior views
bZelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825), phallus, dorsal
Figure 35.

Zelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville, 1825), specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 31) Large, total length 17.15–19.02 mm (mean 17.87 mm, Suppl. material 2); robust. COLORATION: Highly variable, with varying combinations and amounts of yellow, yellowish-brown and brownish-black; margins of posterior pronotal lobe and corium yellowish, rest brownish-black as most common pattern, amount of black varies, sometimes almost entirely black; legs uniformly black or apically reddish, yellow-black banded in some specimens. Abdominal dorsal surface dark brown, segments with yellowish-brown posterior and lateral margins; lateral and ventral surfaces dark brown to brownish-black with lighter mid-ventral line or yellowish-brown with variable darker areas. Pygophore yellowish-brown to brownish-black, pattern variable. VESTITURE: Densely setose. Short recumbent and short to long erect setae over entire surface of head. Anterior pronotal lobe with short recumbent and short to long erect setae on lateral surface, short to long erect setae confined to tracts dorsally; posterior lobe with recumbent to erect setae on lateral surface, erect setae on dorsal surface; scutellum with dense moderate to long semi-erect to erect setae, denser on apex. Corium and clavus with short, recumbent or erect setae. Scattered short erect setae on abdominal dorsum, lateral and ventral surfaces with short recumbent setae interspersed with erect setae of varying lengths. Recumbent and erect setae on exposed surface of pygophore; apical 1/3 of parameres with erect setae on dorsal surface. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 2.40. Postocular lobe relatively short; in dorsal view anteriorly gradually narrowing, posterior portion constant, slightly narrower. Eye moderately sized; dorsal and ventral margins removed from outlines of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 1.5: 0.4. Basiflagellomere diameter subequal to that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterolateral angle rounded, without projection; medial longitudinal sulcus evident throughout, deepening posteriorly. Posterior pronotal lobe with finely rugulose surface; disc slightly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle armed, with spinous processes. Scutellum short; apex rounded, not projected. Legs: Robust. Hemelytron: Surpassing apex of abdomen by about length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell large and broad; Cu and M of cubital cell converging towards R. GENITALIA: (Fig. 34) Pygophore: Ovoid; posteriorly expanded sac-like sclerite between parameres and medial process. Medial process cylindrical; slender; moderately long, almost as long as exposed part of parameres; posteriorly directed, in less than forty-five degree with body axis; nearly straight; basally without protrusion; apex in posterior view rounded, with minute projection. Paramere: Cylindrical; long, not reaching apex of medial process; directed posteriad; not distinctly curved; apical part not enlarged to very slightly enlarged. Phallus: Sharp laterally oriented process close to posterior margin of foramen and basal arms; apical portion of phallothecal sclerite not distinctly tapered, flat, laterally angulate; apex truncate; posterior margin of foramen broadly concave. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, not connected by bridge; basally mostly separate, moderately fused. Basal plate arm robust; separate; converging; in lateral view nearly straight, very slightly curved; bridge short; extension of basal plate expanded onto arm.

Female: (Figs 32, 33) Similar to male, except for the following. Larger than male, total length 19.0–24.7 mm (mean 21.94 mm, Suppl. material 2). Coloration variations more extensive than in male.

Diagnosis

The large and robust body, the dorsal coloration usually bright, yellow or red with black, the medial process short and relatively slender are characteristic to Z. armillatus. Male genitalic structures of Z. armillatus and Z. janus are nearly identical, but these two species do not overlap in range and are sufficiently different in non-genitalic morphological characters, which allow them to be easily separated.

The only species with which Z. armillatus is sympatric which may cause some identification problems is Z. conjungens. It may be distinguished from that species by the characters discussed under Z. conjungens.

Distribution

South America (Fig. 35). Countries with specimen records: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, and Paraguay.

Taxon discussion

Zelus armillatus is a very common, widespread, variable species in South America. It is known to occur in nearly all areas of the continent from central Argentina and northward, at altitudes from sea level to several thousand feet, and dry temperate to moist tropical areas. The coloration and markings of Z. armillatus are highly variable throughout the range and appear to be as variable in any given area (e.g., Fig. 33d) as they are between areas. This fact is responsible for the several descriptions based upon color forms of this species. The drawings of Herrich-Schaeffer (1848) illustrate two of the common variations encountered, although the dorsal coloration, as well as that of the legs, may vary from almost entirely yellowish-brown through various combinations of that color and brownish-black to almost entirely brownish-black.

Zelus auralanus Zhang & Hart, sp. n.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus auralanus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Amazonas
    ; locality:
    Vista Alegre [in formerly-named 'Rio Branco' territory]
    ; decimalLatitude:
    0.4578
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -66.2489
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1924-09-06
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00069892
    ; recordedBy:
    J. R. de la Torre-Bueno
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    KU
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus auralanus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BOLIVIA
    ; stateProvince:
    Cochabamba
    ; locality:
    Sajta, Chapare
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -17.00861
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -64.78663
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1992-03-01
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00009502
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Drake Collection
    ; recordedBy:
    L. E. Peńa
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  2. scientificName:
    Zelus auralanus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Amazonas
    ; locality:
    Vista Alegre [in formerly-named 'Rio Branco' territory]
    ; decimalLatitude:
    0.4578
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -66.2489
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1924-09-06
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00069893
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Previously designated as 'allotype' of his manuscript name Zelus auralanus by Hart. This type status is not used in the formal publication of this name (Zhang et al.) and this specimen is instead designated as a paratype.
    ; recordedBy:
    J. R. de la Torre-Bueno
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    KU
  3. scientificName:
    Zelus auralanus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Amazonas
    ; locality:
    Vista Alegre [in formerly-named 'Rio Branco' territory]
    ; decimalLatitude:
    0.4578
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -66.2489
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1924-09-06
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00069894
    ; recordedBy:
    J. R. de la Torre-Bueno
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    KU
  4. scientificName:
    Zelus auralanus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Mato Grosso
    ; locality:
    Barra do Tapirape
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -10.46666
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -50.51667
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1962-12-26
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00006073
    ; recordedBy:
    B. Malkin
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    CAS
  5. scientificName:
    Zelus auralanus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Mato Grosso
    ; locality:
    Barra do Tapirape
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -10.46666
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -50.51667
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1962-12-26
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00019695
    ; recordedBy:
    B. Malkin
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    CAS
  6. scientificName:
    Zelus auralanus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Mato Grosso
    ; locality:
    Barra do Tapirape
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -10.46666
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -50.51667
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1962-12-26
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00019696
    ; recordedBy:
    B. Malkin
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    CAS
  7. scientificName:
    Zelus auralanus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Mato Grosso
    ; locality:
    Barra do Tapirape
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -10.46666
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -50.51667
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1962-12-26
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00019697
    ; recordedBy:
    B. Malkin
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    CAS
  8. scientificName:
    Zelus auralanus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Mato Grosso
    ; locality:
    Barra do Tapirape
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -10.46666
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -50.51667
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1962-12-26
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00019698
    ; recordedBy:
    B. Malkin
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    CAS
  9. scientificName:
    Zelus auralanus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Mato Grosso
    ; locality:
    Mato Gr.
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -10.41666
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -59.46667
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Label
    ; eventDate:
    1977-03-17 to 1977-03-22
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00046999
    ; recordedBy:
    D. Engleman
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    AMNH
  10. scientificName:
    Zelus auralanus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Para
    ; locality:
    Tucurui
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -3.7
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -49.7
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1979-01-01
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00047080
    ; recordedBy:
    M. Alvarenga
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    AMNH
  11. scientificName:
    Zelus auralanus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Rondonia
    ; locality:
    62 km S Ariquemes, Fazenda Rancho Grande
    ; verbatimElevation:
    300 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -10.3
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -62.86666
    ; eventDate:
    1991-11-11 to 1991-11-22
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00009459
    ; recordedBy:
    B. C. Ratcliffe
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  12. scientificName:
    Zelus auralanus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    ECUADOR
    ; stateProvince:
    Napo
    ; locality:
    30 km E of Pto Napo
    ; verbatimElevation:
    410 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -1.04256
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -77.60111
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Label
    ; eventDate:
    2005-03-04
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00072667
    ; recordedBy:
    Unknown
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    UCR
  13. scientificName:
    Zelus auralanus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    ECUADOR
    ; stateProvince:
    Napo
    ; locality:
    30 km E of Pto Napo
    ; verbatimElevation:
    410 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -1.04256
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -77.60111
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Label
    ; eventDate:
    2005-03-06
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00072668
    ; recordedBy:
    Unknown
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    UCR
  14. scientificName:
    Zelus auralanus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    ECUADOR
    ; stateProvince:
    Orellana
    ; locality:
    Reserva Etnica Waorani, 1 km S. Onkone Gare Camp, Transect Ent.
    ; verbatimElevation:
    216 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -0.65714
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -76.453
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Label
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Fogging
    ; eventDate:
    1995-02-10
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00009474
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Lot#992 - Collection code moved to this field to prevent duplication; Drake Collection
    ; recordedBy:
    T. L. Erwin et al.
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  15. scientificName:
    Zelus auralanus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    PERU
    ; stateProvince:
    Huanuco
    ; locality:
    Monzon valley, Tingo Maria
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -9.27816
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -76.05562
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1954-12-11
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00006072
    ; recordedBy:
    E. I. Schlinger & E. S. Ross
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    CAS
  16. scientificName:
    Zelus auralanus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang and Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    ECUADOR
    ; stateProvince:
    Pastaza
    ; locality:
    Cuisimi, on Rio Cuisimi, 150km SE of Puyo
    ; verbatimElevation:
    350 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -2.43129
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -77.03292
    ; eventDate:
    1971-06-01 to 1971-06-05
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00047094
    ; recordedBy:
    B. Malkin
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    AMNH

Description

Figs 36, 37, 38

Figure 36.

Zelus auralanus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., habitus

aZelus auralanus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00009474, Orellana, Ecuador)
bZelus auralanus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, lateral (UCR_ENT 00009474, Orellana, Ecuador)
cZelus auralanus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00019695, Mato Grosso, Brazil)
dZelus auralanus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, lateral (UCR_ENT 00019695, Mato Grosso, Brazil)
eZelus auralanus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., female, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00047094, Pastaza, Ecuador)
fZelus auralanus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., female, lateral (UCR_ENT 00047094, Pastaza, Ecuador)
Figure 37.

Zelus auralanus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male genitalic structures

aZelus auralanus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., pygophore, lateral and posterior views
bZelus auralanus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., pygophore, posterior view
Figure 38.

Zelus auralanus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 36a, b, c, d) Medium-sized, total length 12.64–14.37 mm (mean 13.61 mm, Suppl. material 2); slender. COLORATION: Nearly entire surface medium dark brown; apices of femora dark colored; abdomen light brown to yellowish-brown. VESTITURE: Densely setose. Body surface covered with short, adpressed to recumbent setae, dorsal setae on head and pronotum golden, shining; ventral surface of head and abdomen with longer, erect setae; sometimes setae covered with white waxy exudation. Dense, long, erect setae on paramere; bush of short, erect, spine-like setae on posterior surface of medial process. Corium and clavus with short, recumbent setae. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 2.63. Postocular lobe long; in dorsal view anteriorly gradually narrowing, posterior portion constant, slightly narrower. Eye prominent; much wider than postocular lobe; dorsal and ventral margins removed from surfaces of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 2.0: 0.4. Basiflagellomere diameter slightly larger than that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterolateral angle bearing small projection; medial longitudinal sulcus shallow near collar, deepening posteriorly. Posterior pronotal lobe with rugulose surface; disc about same level as humeral angle; humeral angle armed, with dentate or spinous process. Scutellum long; apex blunt, not projected. Legs: Slender. Hemelytron: Slightly surpassing apex of abdomen, not more than length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell small, relatively broad; Cu and M of cubital cell converging towards R. GENITALIA: (Fig. 37) Pygophore: Ovoid; slightly expanded laterally near base of paramere in dorsal view. Medial process triangular; slender; long; anteroposteriorly compressed; semi-erect; curved at middle; apex in posterior view acute, with small hooklike projection. Paramere: Cylindrical; moderately long, slightly exceeding medial process; directed posteriad, slightly curved towards medial process; basally narrower; curved ventrad; apical part very slightly enlarged. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite somewhat pandurate, medially strongly constricted; laterally with dorsally directed small sharp projection at mid-portion; apical portion of phallothecal sclerite gradually tapering, lateral margin narrowly angulate, angulation ending anteriorly in sharp, dorsad projection; apex rounded, medially emarginate; posterior margin of foramen inversely V-shaped. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, connected by bridge; basally almost completely fused. Basal plate arm moderately robust; separate; converging; in lateral view severely curved, nearly semi-circular; bridge short; extension of basal plate expanded onto arm.

Female: (Fig. 36e, f) Similar to male, except for the following. Larger than male, total length 17.21–18.32 mm (mean 17.85 mm, Suppl. material 2). Eye moderate size, smaller than in male.

Diagnosis

Can be readily recognized by the uniformly brown dorsal coloration; the darkened tibial apex; the humeral angle elevated to level of disc; the dorsal setae on head and pronotum appearing somewhat golden, shining when viewed under magnification. Males can also be recognized by the gradually enlarged paramere; the triangular medial process, curved slightly posteriad in the middle, apex with a hooklike projection; and the dorsal phallothecal sclerite with short, dorsad projections sub-laterally.

Etymology

The species epithet indicates the somewhat reddish tone of the coloration.

Distribution

South America (Fig. 38). Countries with specimen records: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru.

Zelus bahiaensis Zhang & Hart, sp. n.

Material    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus bahiaensis
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Bahia
    ; locality:
    Agua Preta
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -14.58333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -39.26666
    ; samplingProtocol:
    Unknown
    ; eventDate:
    No date provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00071255
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Name from type locality 'Bahia'. Wrongly spelled in Hart 1972, and changed to bahiaensis.
    ; recordedBy:
    P. Silva
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    TAMU

Description

Figs 39, 40, 41

Figure 39.

Zelus bahiaensis Zhang & Hart, sp. n., habitus

aZelus bahiaensis Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00071255, Bahia, Brazil)
bZelus bahiaensis Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, lateral (UCR_ENT 00071255, Bahia, Brazil)
Figure 40.

Zelus bahiaensis Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male genitalic structures

aZelus bahiaensis Zhang & Hart, sp. n., pygophore, lateral and posterior views
bZelus bahiaensis Zhang & Hart, sp. n., phallus, dorsal view
Figure 41.

Zelus bahiaensis Zhang & Hart, sp. n., specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 39) Medium-sized, total length 12.35 mm (n=1); slender. COLORATION: Much of body surface including head, anterior pronotal lobe, membrane, legs dark brown; very slender lighter colored medial longitudinal stripe on postocular lobe. Posterior pronotal lobe and corium orange. Pleura, abdomen reddish-brown. VESTITURE: Moderately setose. Dorsum of anteocular and anterior part of postocular with moderately dense, short, erect, spine-like setae, posterior part of postocular nearly glabrous; ventral surface of head with sparse, short, erect or recumbent setae. Pronotum with dense, short, erect, spine-like setae on dorsum and lateral surfaces, anterior lobe also intermixed with sparse, long, fine setae. Pleura with spine-like setae, sparse on metapleuron; intermixed with short to long, erect, fine and short, recumbent setae; scutellum with spine-like setae and erect, fine setae. Legs with very sparse setation. Corium and clavus with short, recumbent setae. Abdomen with moderately dense, short, semi-erect, fine setae, intermixed with sparse, long setae. Bush of moderately long, erect setae flanking medial process on posteroventral rim of pygophore; paramere apically with sparse, short, erect setae. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 2.27. Postocular lobe long; in dorsal view distinctly narrowing through anterior 2/3, posterior 1/3 constant, tube-like. Eye moderately sized; lateral margin much wider than postocular lobe; dorsal margin removed from postocular transverse groove, ventral margin attaining ventral surface of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 1.8: 0.6. Basiflagellomere diameter slightly larger than that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterolateral angle rounded, without projection; medial longitudinal sulcus evident throughout, deepening posteriorly. Posterior pronotal lobe with rugulose surface; disc distinctly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle rounded, without projection. Scutellum moderately long; apex slightly pointed, not projected. Legs: Very slender. Hemelytron: Greatly surpassing apex of abdomen by about 3x length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell large and broad; Cu and M of cubital cell subparallel. GENITALIA: (Fig. 40) Pygophore: Ovoid; mid-lateral fold adjacent to paramere insertion; slightly expanded laterally near base of paramere in dorsal view. Medial process cylindrical; very slender; moderately long, nearly half length of paramere; posteriorly directed; basal 2/3 straight, apically curved; apex in posterior view blunt, folded posteriad, marginally narrower. Paramere: Cylindrical; long, surpassing medial process; directed posteriad; slightly curved ventrad; apical part very slightly enlarged. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite elongated; apical portion of phallothecal sclerite not distinctly tapered, convex, laterally angulate; apex truncate, medially emarginate; posterior margin of foramen deeply concave. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, connected by bridge; basally mostly separate, moderately fused. Basal plate arm slender; separate; converging; in lateral view apically curved; bridge short; extension of basal plate expanded onto arm.

Female: Unknown.

Diagnosis

Recognized by the following combination of characters: the anterior pronotal lobe dark brown and the posterior pronotal lobe orange; the 1A an Pcu not intersecting, short crossvein between them; the long and slender, cylindrical medial process; the medial process apically folded posteriad; and the rather long paramere.

Etymology

Named after the Brazilian state Bahia, where the holotype was collected.

Distribution

South America (Fig. 41). Known from the type locality in Brazil.

Zelus banksi Zhang & Hart, sp. n.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus banksi
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    PANAMA
    ; stateProvince:
    Canal Zone
    ; county:
    none
    ; locality:
    Barro Colorado
    ; decimalLatitude:
    9.16666
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -79.83333
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1924-06-25
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00057804
    ; recordedBy:
    N. Banks
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    AMNH
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus banksi
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    COLOMBIA
    ; stateProvince:
    Meta
    ; county:
    none
    ; locality:
    Rio Guayuriba
    ; verbatimElevation:
    400 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    4.01978
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -73.60807
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1947-09-06
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00071253
    ; recordedBy:
    Richter
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    TAMU
  2. scientificName:
    Zelus banksi
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    COLOMBIA
    ; stateProvince:
    Valle del Cauca
    ; county:
    none
    ; locality:
    Palmira
    ; decimalLatitude:
    3.5364
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -76.3036
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1939-08-25
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00009559
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Drake Collection
    ; recordedBy:
    F. J. Otoya
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  3. scientificName:
    Zelus banksi
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    COSTA RICA
    ; stateProvince:
    Alajuela
    ; county:
    none
    ; locality:
    Higuito, San Mateo
    ; verbatimElevation:
    254 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    9.95
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -84.55
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    no date provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00029366
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Genitalia dissected.
    ; recordedBy:
    Pablo Schild
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  4. scientificName:
    Zelus banksi
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    COSTA RICA
    ; stateProvince:
    Puntarenas
    ; county:
    none
    ; locality:
    Rancho Quemado, Peninsula de Osa
    ; verbatimElevation:
    200 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    8.67776
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -83.56478
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Label
    ; eventDate:
    1991-11-01
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00014431
    ; recordedBy:
    F. Quesada
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    INBIO
  5. scientificName:
    Zelus banksi
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    PANAMA
    ; stateProvince:
    Canal Zone
    ; county:
    none
    ; locality:
    Barro Colorado Island
    ; decimalLatitude:
    9.15562
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -79.84895
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1924-06-26
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00015110
    ; recordedBy:
    N. Banks
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    AMNH

Description

Figs 42, 43, 44

Figure 42.

Zelus banksi Zhang & Hart, sp. n., habitus

aZelus banksi Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00014431, Puntarenas, Costa Rica)
bZelus banksi Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, lateral (UCR_ENT 00014431, Puntarenas, Costa Rica)
Figure 43.

Zelus banksi Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male genitalic structures

aZelus banksi Zhang & Hart, sp. n., pygophore, lateral and posterior views
bZelus banksi Zhang & Hart, sp. n., phallus, dorsal view
Figure 44.

Zelus banksi Zhang & Hart, sp. n., specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 42) Medium-sized, total length 10.81–12.62 mm (mean 12.00 mm, Suppl. material 2); slender. COLORATION: Head uniformly brown; postocular lobe with very faint longitudinal medial stripe. Anterior pronotal lobe and hemelytron brown; posterior lobe yellowish-brown. Remainder of body surface mostly yellowish-brown, parts of pleura darker. Femora with two or three yellowish bands; tibiae with single band. VESTITURE: Sparsely setose. Short, recumbent setae on entire surface; very short, erect, spine-like setae on dorsum, denser on anterior lobe; few moderately long, erect, fine setae on ventral surface. Pronotum with sparse, recumbent setae and short, erect setae over dorsal surface; denser, long recumbent setae on lateral surface and pleura, intermixed with semierect or erect setae; scutellum with sparse, semi-erect and recumbent setae. Legs with sparse setation on femora and moderately dense setation on tibiae. Corium and clavus with mix of sparse, short, recumbent and erect setae. Abdomen with moderately dense, short recumbent setae, intermixed with sparse, short to long, erect setae. Apical half of dorsal surface of paramere with moderately dense, medium-length, semi-erect setae. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 2.25. Postocular lobe long; in dorsal view distinctly narrowing through anterior 2/3, posterior 1/3 constant, tube-like. Eye prominent; lateral margin much wider than postocular lobe; dorsal margin attaining postocular transverse groove, ventral margin removed from ventral surface of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 2.1: 0.5. Basiflagellomere diameter larger than that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterolateral angle bearing small projection; medial longitudinal sulcus evident throughout, deepening posteriorly. Posterior pronotal lobe with rugulose surface; disc distinctly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle armed, with dentate or spinous process. Scutellum short; apex angulate, slightly projected upward in some specimens. Legs: Slender. Hemelytron: Slightly surpassing apex of abdomen, not more than length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell small; Cu and M of cubital cell subparallel. GENITALIA: (Fig. 43) Pygophore: Elongate ovoid; not expanded laterally in dorsal view. Medial process cylindrical; slender; moderately long, nearly as long as paramere; laterally compressed towards apex; anterior surface towards apex ridged; minute spicules on posterior surface; semi-erect; very slightly curved at middle; apex in posterior view acute, with small hooklike projection. Paramere: Cylindrical; long, achieving apex of medial process; directed posteriad, slightly curved towards medial process; basally slightly narrower; nearly straight; apical part slightly enlarged, obliquely truncate. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite somewhat ovoid; sclerotization reduced (yet not absent) on dorsal surface close to posterior margin of foramen; apical portion of phallothecal sclerite gradually tapering, distinctly keeled medially, laterally indistinctly angulate; apex acute; posterior margin of foramen broadly concave. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, connected by bridge; basally separate throughout. Basal plate arm robust; basally fused; in lateral view mid-portion curved; bridge extremely short; extension of basal plate expanded laterally onto arm, covering more than 1/2 of arm, curved.

Female: Unknown.

Diagnosis

Recognized by the following combination of characters: the posterior pronotal lobe usually orangish-brown; the rather long paramere, apex obliquely truncate; and the medial process nearly straight, curvature small. Among the males of the Zelus panamensis species group (Fig. 12), Z. banksi has the longest paramere, which is longer than the medial process.

Etymology

Named after N. Banks, the collector of the type specimen.

Distribution

Southern Central America and northern South America (Fig. 44). Countries with specimen records: Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama

Zelus bruneri De Zayas, 1960

Nomenclature

Zelus bruneri De Zayas, 1960, p. 125–127, orig. descr. and fig; Alayo, 1967, p. 5, 36, 37, list, key and note; Hart, 1987, p. 296-297, note and key; Maldonado, 1990, p. 326, cat.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus bruneri
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    de Zayas, 1960
    ; country:
    Cuba
    ; locality:
    Piloto, Moa, Oriente
    ; decimalLatitude:
    20.55
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -75.783333
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1954-06
    ; sex:
    Adult male
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Deposited m the collection of Prof. F. de Zayas in Havana, Cuba. Not available for examination in current study.
Paratype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus bruneri
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    de Zayas, 1960
    ; country:
    Cuba
    ; locality:
    Piloto, Moa, Oriente
    ; decimalLatitude:
    20.55
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -75.783333
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1954-06
    ; sex:
    Adult male
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Deposited m the collection of Prof. F. de Zayas in Havana, Cuba. Not available for examination in current study.

Distribution

Known only from Cuba.

Taxon discussion

Two male specimens are known from Cuba, which were not physically examined, but the original description and illustration provide a strong basis for placing this species in the Zelus puertoricensis species group. This is confirmed by the narrow, elongated body form; the flat and rectangular pronotum; the general genitalic shape indicated in the figure. The much smaller size and flat postocular lobe negates it being a male of Z. subimpressus. It is more likely to be the male of Z. zayasi.

Zelus casii Zhang & Hart, sp. n.

Material    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus casii
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Amapa
    ; locality:
    Villa Amazonas
    ; decimalLatitude:
    0.03333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -51.05
    ; eventDate:
    1964-05-29
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00048228
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    CAS Type No. 12716
    ; recordedBy:
    C. E. & E. S. Ross
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    CAS Type No. 12716
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    CAS

Description

Figs 45, 46, 47

Figure 45.

Zelus casii Zhang & Hart, sp. n., habitus

aZelus casii Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, dorsal
bZelus casii Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, lateral
Figure 46.

Zelus casii Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male genitalic structures

aZelus casii Zhang & Hart, sp. n., pygophore, lateral and posterior views
bZelus casii Zhang & Hart, sp. n., phallus, dorsal view
Figure 47.

Zelus casii Zhang & Hart, sp. n., specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 45) Medium-sized; slender. COLORATION: Entirely brown, somewhat reddish; apices of femora slightly darkened; ventral surface of head, parts of pleura, and abdomen pale brown. VESTITURE: Sparsely setose. Dorsal surface of head with dark, short, erect, spine-like setae, denser on anterior lobe, and moderately dense, short, recumbent setae; ventral surface with sparse, short, recumbent setae and few long, erect setae. Anterior pronotal lobe nearly glabrous, few short, spine-like setae; posterior lobe with short, erect, spine-like setae, some apically curved; pleura with short to moderately long, recumbent and semi-erect setae, some covered with white waxy exudation; scutellum with recumbent setae. Legs with sparse setation. Corium and clavus with short, recumbent setae. Abdomen with sparse, short, recumbent setae, intermixed with few longer setae. Dorsal, outer surface of enlarged part of paramere with dense, long, erect setae. STRUCTURE: Head: Elongated. Postocular lobe very long; in dorsal view anteriorly gradually narrowing, posterior portion constant, slightly narrower. Eye prominent; lateral margin much wider than postocular lobe; dorsal margin attaining postocular transverse groove, ventral margin removed from ventral surface of head. Thorax: Anterolateral angle with inconspicuous subtuberculate projection; medial longitudinal sulcus evident throughout, deepening posteriorly. Posterior pronotal lobe with rugulose surface; disc distinctly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle armed, with dentate projection. Scutellum moderately long; apex angulate, slightly projected upward. Legs: Slender. Hemelytron: Slightly surpassing apex of abdomen, not more than length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell moderately sized; Cu and M of cubital cell subparallel. GENITALIA: (Fig. 46) Pygophore: Ovoid; expanded laterally near base of paramere in dorsal view. Medial process expanded laterally; rather broad; moderately long; anteroposteriorly compressed; erect; curved at middle; apex emarginate, with pair of subapical, lateral, hooklike processes; lateral elevations running from below base of medial process through middle. Paramere: Short, not reaching apex of medial process; base slightly constricted; strongly curved ventrad. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite somewhat squarish; lateral longitudinal blade-like heavy sclerotization pressed against phallothecal sclerite; apical portion of phallothecal sclerite gradually tapering, slightly convex, laterally angulate, angulation ending anteriorly in sharp, dorsad projection; apex rounded, medially emarginate; posterior margin of foramen concave. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, connected by bridge; basally separate. Basal plate arm moderately robust; basally fused; in lateral view strongly curved at midpoint; bridge extremely short; extension of basal plate expanded onto arm.

Female: Unknown.

Diagnosis

Recognized by the uniform dark brown coloration; the extremely long postocular lobe; and the rather broad medial process, apex emarginate in the middle and bearing a pair of ventrally directed projections.

Etymology

Named after Casi.

Distribution

South America (Fig. 47). A single specimen is known from the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

Taxon discussion

Several characters of Z. casii are highly unique among all species of Zelus. It has an extraordinarily long postocular lobe. The medial process is very broad, has lateral ridge-like elevations, and the apex is emarginate.

Zelus cervicalis Stål, 1872

Nomenclature

Zelus cervicalis Stål, 1872, p. 90, orig. descr. (subgenus Zelus); Uhler, 1876, p. 61, list (reprint); Uhler, 1886, p. 24, checklist; Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 151, cat.; Champion, 1898, p. 255, cat.; Banks, 1910, p. 16, cat.; Torre-Bueno and Engelhardt, 1910, p. 150, note; Van Duzee, 1912, p. 324, senior syn. of Z. marginata (Provancher); Fracker, 1913, p. 239, 240, key and list (subgenus Zelus); Torre-Bueno, 1913, p. 60, list; Barber, 1914, p. 506, list; Van Duzee, 1916, p. 30, checklist (subgenus Zelus) ; Van Duzee, 1917, p. 260, cat. (subgenus Zelus); Dozier, 192,0 p. 357, list; Blatchley, 1926, p. 569, key and note (subgenus Zelus); Readio, 1927, p. 169, 170, key and descr.; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 48, checklist; Elkins, 1951, p. 410, list; Sibley, 1951, p. 92, list; Kelton, 1968, p. 1071, note; Snow, 1906, p. 180, list; Van Duzee, 1909, p. 177, list; Osborne and Drake, 1915, p. 531, note; Brimley, 1938, p. 73, list; Elliott, 1938, p. 39, list; Tenhet and Howe, 1939, p. 24, note; Drew and Schaeffer, 1962, p. 106, list; Oliver, 1964, p. 316, note; Whitcomb and Bell , 1964, p. 22, List and note; Hart, 1986, p. 542-543, lectotype desig., redescription, note, fig. and key; Maldonado, 1990, p. 326, cat.

Evagoras marginata Provancher, 1887, p. 182–183, orig. descr.; Van Duzee, 1912, p. 324, junior syn. of Z. cervicalis; Kelton, 1968, p. 1071, note.

Zelus marginatus: Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 152, cat.; Banks, 1910, p. 16, cat.

Zelus pictipes Champion, 1898, p. 255, Tab. XV, fig. 14, orig. descr, and fig.; Fracker, 1913, p. 239, 240, key and list; Van Duzee, 1916, p. 30, checklist (subgenus Zelus) ; Van Duzee, 1917, p. 259, cat. (subgenus Zelus); Readio, 1927, p. 169, 170, key and descr.; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 50, checklist; Snow, 1906, p. 180, list; Elkins, 1951, p. 410, list; Sibley, 1951, p. 92, list; Drew and Schaeffer, 1962, p. 106, list; Hart, 1986, p. 542, lectotype desig. and junior syn. of Z. cervicalis.

Material    Download as CSV 

Description

Figs 48, 49, 50

Figure 48.

Zelus cervicalis Stål, 1872, habitus

aZelus cervicalis Stål, 1872, male, dorsal, (UCR_ENT 00015730, Florida, USA)
bZelus cervicalis Stål, 1872, male, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00034075, Puebla, Mexico)
cZelus cervicalis Stål, 1872, male, lateral (UCR_ENT 00034075, Puebla, Mexico)
dZelus cervicalis Stål, 1872, female, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00034044, Guerrero, Mexico)
eZelus cervicalis Stål, 1872, female, lateral (UCR_ENT 00034044, Guerrero, Mexico)
fZelus cervicalis Stål, 1872, female, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00032055, Georgia, USA)
Figure 49.

Zelus cervicalis Stål, 1872, male genitalic structures

aZelus cervicalis Stål, 1872, Mexico-Central America population, pygophore, lateral and posterior views
bZelus cervicalis Stål, 1872, Gulf Coast-US population, pygophore, lateral and posterior views
cZelus cervicalis Stål, 1872, Mexico-Central America population, phallus, dorsal view
dZelus cervicalis Stål, 1872, Gulf Coast-US population, phallus, dorsal view
Figure 50.

Zelus cervicalis Stål, 1872, specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 48a, b, c) Medium-sized, total length 9.81–13.08 mm (mean 11.78 mm, Suppl. material 2), very slender, body length/width=6.2. COLORATION: Yellowish-brown to dark brown, some specimens with dark spots or bands on legs. Anteocular lobe yellowish-brown to reddish-brown, dark brown between eye and antennal insertion, some specimens with dark brown mid-dorsal areas. Dorsum of postocular lobe dark brown, variably shaped medial longitudinal line and area between ocelli and eye yellowish-brown, ventral surface yellowish-brown. Labial segments I & II yellowish-brown; segment III reddish to dark brown. Antennal segments brown, sometimes scape darker on dorsal surface or pedicel darker apically. Anterior pronotal lobe yellowish-brown to brown, collar and setal tracts darker, some specimens with dark brown spot on pro-episternum. Posterior pronotal lobe yellowish-brown to brown. Pleura yellowish-brown. Sternites yellowish-brown; meso-sternum with dark brown area anterior to meso-coxa. Scutellum yellowish-brown to brown, apex lighter. Legs yellowish-brown, many specimens with dark brown raised spots or bands on femora and tibiae (see "Taxon Discussion" below). Corium and clavus reddish-brown, veins yellowish-brown; membrane yellowish-brown. Dorsum of abdomen yellowish, reddish, or dark brown; connexival margins and ventral surface yellowish-brown. Pygophore yellowish-brown; some specimens with medial process apically reddish-brown or brown. VESTITURE: Moderately setose. Pubescence of short recumbent and short to long erect setae. Anteocular lobe with short recumbent and erect setae over entire surface, more dense dorsally; postocular lobe with short to moderate recumbent and moderate to long erect setae, erect setae more dense posteriorly. With short to moderate recumbent setae over entire surface, confined to setal tracts on dorsum of anterior pronotal lobe, longer erect setae on lateral surface; scutellum with short recumbent and short to moderate semi-erect and erect setae over surface. Legs with short to long semi-erect to erect setae. Corium and clavus with short, recumbent setae. Abdomen with short recumbent and some short to moderate erect setae over ventral and lateral surfaces. Exposed surface of pygophore with short recumbent and short to long erect setae; short to moderately stiff erect setae on apical half of parameres. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 2.83. Postocular lobe moderately long; in dorsal view anteriorly gradually narrowing, posterior portion constant, slightly narrower. Eye moderately sized; lateral margin only slightly wider than postocular lobe; dorsal and ventral margins removed from surfaces of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1.0: 2.0: 0.5. Basiflagellomere diameter larger than that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterolateral angle bearing small projection; medial longitudinal sulcus evident only on posterior 1/2, deepening anterior to transverse sulcus of pronotum. Posterior pronotal lobe with finely rugulose surface; disc slightly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle armed, with dentate projection. Scutellum long; apex angulate, not projected. Legs: Slender. Hemelytron: Slightly surpassing apex of abdomen, not more than length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell small, elongate; Cu and M of cubital cell subparallel. GENITALIA: (Fig. 49) Pygophore: Ovoid. Medial process cylindrical; slender; long; laterally somewhat compressed; erect; nearly straight; basally without protrusion; apex in posterior view modified, hooklike. Paramere: Cylindrical; moderately long, achieving apex of medial process; directed toward medial process; basally narrower; curved dorsad; apical part enlarged. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite shield-shaped; lateral margin recurved dorsad; apical portion of phallothecal sclerite gradually tapering, flat, lateral margin recurved; apex rounded, medially emarginate; posterior margin of foramen broadly concave. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically missing. Basal plate arm moderately robust; basally fused; in lateral view basally strongly curved; bridge short; extension of basal plate small, marginally expanded onto arm.

Female: (Fig. 48d, e, f) Similar to male, except for the following. Larger than male, total length 12.89–15.26 mm (mean 14.25 mm, Suppl. material 2). Basiflagellomere subequal in diameter to pedicel. Central 1/3 of mesofemur slightly swollen, pro- and meso-femoral diameters subequal, about 1.3–1.4x diameter of metafemur.

Diagnosis

The rather slender body form makes this species easy to separate from other species that occur in the same geographic region. Males can also be recognized by the paramere apically greatly enlarged; the medial process apically curved ventrad, hooklike; the lateral margin of the dorsal phallothecal sclerite recurved. Zelus cervicalis is most similar to Z. renardii and the two share a number putatively synapomorphic characters of structures of male genitalia. The more slender body separates both sexes of Z. cervicalis from Z. renardii. Males of Z. cervicalis also have the apex of medial process not bent as strongly as that in Z. renardii.

Distribution

South Atlantic and Gulf Coast states of the United States, southeastern Arizona, most of Mexico, Central America and Northern Colombia (Fig. 50). Countries with records: Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, USA.

Taxon discussion

Hart (1986) stated that, based on male genitalic characters and pilosity, Z. cervicalis and Z. renardii are closely related species, and we agree with that view. We also corroborate, using a larger specimen sample, the western and eastern parapatric distribution pattern for Z. renardii and Z. cervicalis found by Hart. Based mainly on the coloration of the legs, Hart (1986) delimited two populations of Z. cervicalis, i.e., a South Atlantic and Gulf Coast population and a Mexico-Central America population, the latter also extending to southeastern Arizona and northern Colombia. Most individuals of the South Atlantic and Gulf Coast population have unicolorous legs, or, at most, only a few brownish to reddish spots. Specimens of the Mexico-Central America population have heavily spotted or banded legs. This pattern is also recovered in the current study. However, contrary to Hart's claim that "occasional specimens from either population may occur that do not conform to the normal pattern for that population", we found that all specimens of the Mexico-Central America population have spotted or banded legs. This condition also appears in a small number of specimens in other populations (e.g., UCR_ENT 00016129, UCR_ENT 00039079, UCR_ENT 00042740, UCR_ENT 00042741, UCR_ENT 39522, UCR_ENT 00039519, UCR_ENT 00039531, UCR_ENT 00039525, UCR_ENT 00039561, UCR_ENT 00039560, UCR_ENT 00039559, UCR_ENT 00039557, and more specimens from Texas). We also observed that compared to populations in other US states, specimens from southern Texas tend to have spotted legs, but the density of spots is lower than that in the Mexico-Central America population. By examining previously unstudied Mexican specimens from southern Sonora and northern Sinaloa, we also support Hart's second theory that the Arizona specimens are in continuity with the remainder of the population. The male genitalia are also variable in a number of respects between the two populations (Fig. 49), mainly in the shape of the paramere, the elevation of the lateral margins of the dorsal phallothecal sclerite near the base, and the relative massiveness of the basal plate arms. Hart remarked that the Mexico-Central American specimens show more similarities to the Gulf Coast specimens as one proceeds southward through Central America.

The images of the lectotype of Z. cervicalis are available on the 'Types of Heteroptera' website of the Swedish Museum of Natural History.

Zelus chamaeleon Stål, 1872

Nomenclature

Zelus chamaeleon Stål, 1872, p. 90–91, orig. descr. and cat. (subgenus Diplodus); Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 151, cat.; Champion, 1898, p. 260, note; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 48–49, checklist; Maldonado, 1990, p. 326, cat.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Lectotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus chamaeleon
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Stål, 1872
    ; country:
    COLOMBIA
    ; stateProvince:
    Cundinamarca
    ; locality:
    Bogota
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -75.16833
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    Date not provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00041001
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Lectotype of Zelus chamaeleon Stål, 1872. (New designation by Zhang, Hart & Weirauch, 2016). Verbatim label info: Bogota. / Lindig / v. niger Stal / designated by E.R.Hart / Lectotype Zelus chamaeleon Stal / NHRS-GULI 000000322
    ; recordedBy:
    Lindig
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    NHRS-GULI 000000322
    ; dateIdentified:
    2012
    ; institutionCode:
    NHRS
Allolectotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus chamaeleon
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Stål, 1872
    ; country:
    COLOMBIA
    ; stateProvince:
    Cundinamarca
    ; locality:
    Bogota
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -75.16833
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    Date not provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    None
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Allolectotype of Zelus chamaeleon Stål, 1872. (New designation by Zhang, Hart & Weirauch, 2016). Labels: Bogota / Lindig / Typus / v. fasciativentris Stal.
    ; recordedBy:
    Lindig
    ; institutionCode:
    NHRS
Paralectotypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus chamaeleon
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Stål, 1872
    ; country:
    COLOMBIA
    ; stateProvince:
    Cundinamarca
    ; locality:
    Bogota
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -75.16833
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    Date not provided
    ; sex:
    Adult sex unknown
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00041002
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paralectotype of Zelus chamaeleon Stål, 1872 (New designation by Zhang, Hart & Weirauch, 2016). Verbatim label info: Lindig / Bogota. / Paralectotype Zelus chamaeleon Stal / designated by E.R.Hart / NHRS-GULI 000000323
    ; recordedBy:
    Lindig
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    NHRS-GULI 000000323
    ; dateIdentified:
    2012
    ; institutionCode:
    NHRS
  2. scientificName:
    Zelus chamaeleon
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Stål, 1872
    ; country:
    COLOMBIA
    ; stateProvince:
    Cundinamarca
    ; locality:
    Bogota
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -75.16833
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    Date not provided
    ; sex:
    Adult sex unknown
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00041003
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paralectotype of Zelus chamaeleon Stål, 1872 (New designation by Zhang, Hart & Weirauch, 2016). Verbatim label info: Lindig / Bogota. / v. mainticollis[?] Stal / Paralectotype Zelus chamaeleon Stal / designated by E.R.Hart / Typus / NHRS-GULI 000000327
    ; recordedBy:
    Lindig
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    NHRS-GULI 000000327
    ; dateIdentified:
    2012
    ; institutionCode:
    NHRS
  3. scientificName:
    Zelus chamaeleon
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Stål, 1872
    ; country:
    COLOMBIA
    ; stateProvince:
    Cundinamarca
    ; locality:
    Bogota
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -75.16833
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    Date not provided
    ; sex:
    Adult sex unknown
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00041013
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paralectotype of Zelus chamaeleon Stål, 1872 (New designation by Zhang, Hart & Weirauch, 2016). Verbatim label info: Bogota / Lindig / Paratypus / Lectotype Zelus chamaeleon Stal / designated by E.R.Hart / NHRS-GULI 0000003958
    ; recordedBy:
    Lindig
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    NHRS-GULI 0000003958
    ; dateIdentified:
    2012
    ; institutionCode:
    NHRS

Description

Figs 51, 52, 53

Figure 51.

Zelus chamaeleon Stål, 1872, habitus

aZelus chamaeleon Stål, 1872, male, dorsal view (UCR_ENT 00022985, Cundinamarca, Colombia)
bZelus chamaeleon Stål, 1872, male, lateral view (UCR_ENT 00022985, Cundinamarca, Colombia)
cZelus chamaeleon Stål, 1872, female, dorsal view (UCR_ENT 00025243, Cundinamarca, Colombia)
dZelus chamaeleon Stål, 1872, female, lateral view (UCR_ENT 00025243, Cundinamarca, Colombia)
Figure 52.

Zelus chamaeleon Stål, 1872, male genitalic structures

aZelus chamaeleon Stål, 1872, pygophore, lateral and posterior views
bZelus chamaeleon Stål, 1872, phallus, dorsal view
Figure 53.

Zelus chamaeleon Stål, 1872, specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 51a, b) Medium-sized, total length 12.50–14.06 mm (mean 13.45 mm, Suppl. material 2); robust. COLORATION: Usually entire surface of body black, some specimen with white posterior margin of posterior pronotal lobe, some with posterior pronotal lobe uniformly orangish-brown. Scape with or without band. Profemur with single pale brown band, protibia without band; meso- and metafemora with two or three bands, tibiae with single band. VESTITURE: Sparsely setose. Dorsum of head with dense, short, stout, recumbent, black setae and sparse, long, fine, erect setae, as long as width of eye in dorsal view; ventral surface with moderately dense, short, recumbent, fine setae and spare, moderately long, erect setae. Moderately dense, short, stout, recumbent setae on pronotum; anterior lobe also with sparse, long, erect setae; scutelum with dense, short to long, semi-erect setae; pleura with short to long, semi-erect or erect setae; sternites with dense, long, erect setae. Corium and clavus with short, recumbent setae. Abdomen with moderately dense, short, recumbent to sub-adpressed setae, intermixed with long, erect setae. With dense, short, adpressed setae, mixed with sparse, very long, moderately stout, semi-erect setae; apical half with dense, moderately long, stout, semi-erect setae. STRUCTURE: Head: Somewhat globular, L/W = 1.93. Postocular lobe short; in dorsal view narrowing till abrupt posterior constriction, very short behind constriction. Eye moderately sized; lateral margin much wider than postocular lobe; dorsal and ventral margins removed from surfaces of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 1.6: 0.4. Basiflagellomere diameter slightly larger than that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterolateral angle with inconspicuous subtuberculate projection; medial longitudinal sulcus evident only on posterior 1/2, deepening anterior to transverse sulcus of pronotum. Posterior pronotal lobe with rugulose surface; disc distinctly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle armed, with spinous processes. Scutellum moderately long; apex angulate, slightly projected upward in some specimens. Legs: Slender. Hemelytron: Surpassing apex of abdomen by about twice length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell moderately large; Cu and M of cubital cell converging towards R. GENITALIA: (Fig. 52) Pygophore: Ovoid; mid-lateral fold adjacent to paramere insertion; expanded laterally near base of paramere in dorsal view. Medial process triangular; short, shorter than paramere; erect; straight; apex in posterior view acute, with hooklike projection extending towards downward, ending as transverse bridge. Paramere: Cylindrical; short, not reaching apex of medial process; directed posteriad, slightly curved towards medial process; basally narrower; slightly curved ventrad; apical part enlarged. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite shield-shaped; lateral ridge-like dorsad expansion continuous with basal arm; apical portion of phallothecal sclerite gradually tapering, convex, medially keeled; apex truncate; posterior margin of foramen deeply concave. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, connected by bridge; basally separate. Basal plate arm robust; separate; converging; in lateral view slightly curved; bridge short; extension of basal plate expanded onto arm.

Female: (Fig. 51c, d) Similar to male, except for the following. Larger than male, total length 13.45–15.02 mm (mean 14.39 mm, Suppl. material 2). More variable than in male. Dorsum of postocular lobe always black; pale, slender, medial longitudinal stripe; anteocular lobe usually black, if with part of surface red, clypeus always black. Dorsum of anterior pronotal lobe almost always black, collar sometimes red, lateral surface black or mixed with red. Dorsal surface of posterior pronotal lobe of four major color patterns: entirely black, entirely red or orange, anterior portion red and posteriorly black, mostly black with medial red circular patch; last pattern most common (eight out of fourteen); lateral surface always red or orange (when dorsal surface is orange). Variable amounts of black and red on pleura. Corium and clavus brownish-black or yellowish-brown; membrane always dark brown. Abdomen segment usually red, anterior black stripe; entirely black in some specimens. Hemelytron slightly surpassing apex of abdomen.

Diagnosis

Can be recognized by the following combination of characters: the long, erect, fine setae on head, anterior pronotal lobe, pleura and sternites; the stout and short head and the nearly hemispherical postocular lobe; the short paramere, not exceeding medial process; the medial process short and triangular, apex as hooklike process, extending ventrally as transverse ridge; and the apical surface of dorsal phallothecal sclerite medially with keel-like elevation.

Distribution

South America (Fig. 53). Known only from Colombia.

Zelus championi Zhang & Hart, sp. n.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus championi
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    PANAMA
    ; stateProvince:
    Chiriqui
    ; locality:
    Bugaba
    ; verbatimElevation:
    457 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    8.4833
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -82.6167
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    No date provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00048759
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Verbatim label info: B.C.A.Rhyn.II. Zelus inconstans Ch. / Bugaba, 800-1,500 ft. Champion. / Holotype Zelus championi Hart / [genitalia vial]
    ; recordedBy:
    G.C. Champion
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    BMNH
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus championi
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    ECUADOR
    ; stateProvince:
    Napo
    ; locality:
    10 km W Cosanga
    ; verbatimElevation:
    2114 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    0.59094
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -77.88086
    ; eventDate:
    2005-03-10
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00004770
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Drake Collection
    ; recordedBy:
    Unknown
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    UCR
  2. scientificName:
    Zelus championi
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    Costa Rica
    ; stateProvince:
    Cartago
    ; locality:
    Monumento Nacional Guayabo, Turrialba
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1100 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    9.97159
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -83.69072
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1903-01-04
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00014406
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Additional information on label: L N 217200_570300
    ; recordedBy:
    G. Fonseca
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    INBIO CRI002 040338
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    INBio

Description

Figs 54, 55, 56

Figure 54.

Zelus championi, Zhang & Hart, sp. n., habitus

aZelus championi, Zhang & Hart, male, dorsal view (UCR_ENT 00004770)
bZelus championi, Zhang & Hart, male, lateral view (UCR_ENT 00004770)
Figure 55.

Zelus championi, Zhang & Hart, sp. n., pygophore, lateral and posterior views

aZelus championi, Zhang & Hart, sp. n., pygophore, lateral and posterior views
bZelus championi, Zhang & Hart, sp. n., phallus, dorsal view
Figure 56.

Zelus championi, Zhang & Hart, sp. n., specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 54) Medium-sized, total length 10.85–12.29 mm (mean 11.79 mm, Suppl. material 2); slender. COLORATION: Head, pronotum and hemelytron black; postocular lobe with light yellowish-brown mid-dorsal line; abdomen brightly red; pygophore black. VESTITURE: Densely setose. Dorsal surface of head with short, spine-like setae, pubescence of remainder of surface consisting of erect and recumbent setae. Pronotum with short, spine-like setae dorsally and laterally. Abdomen with scattered, erect setae of varying lengths. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 2.00. Postocular lobe short; in dorsal view narrowing till abrupt posterior constriction, very short behind constriction. Eye smallish; lateral margin only slightly wider than postocular lobe; dorsal and ventral margins removed from surfaces of head. Labium: I: II: III=1: 1.4: 0.5. Basiflagellomere diameter larger than that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterolateral angle of collar rounded, without projection; medial longitudinal sulcus of anterior lobe shallow at collar, deepening posteriorly. Posterior pronotal lobe with rugulose surface; disc distinctly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle rounded, without projection. Scutellum short; apex blunt, not projected. Legs: Moderately robust. Femoral diameters subequal. Hemelytron: Greatly surpassing apex of abdomen by about 3x length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell large and broad; Cu and M of cubital cell subparallel. GENITALIA: (Fig. 55) Pygophore: Ovoid; slightly expanded laterally near base of paramere in dorsal view; mid-lateral fold adjacent to paramere insertion. Medial process robust; tapering to apex; moderately long; laterally compressed towards apex; posteriorly directed; straight; apex in posterior view pointed, without modification or ornamentation. Paramere: Cylindrical; moderately long, nearly reaching apex of medial process; directed posteriad; narrower basally; slightly curved ventrad towards; apical portion not enlarged. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite elongated; apical portion of phallothecal sclerite gradually tapering, slightly convex, laterally rounded, not forming angle; apex rounded, medially emarginate; angular processes arising near base, posterior margin of foramen deeply concave. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, connected by bridge. Basal plate arm slender; separate; somewhat converging; in lateral view very slightly curved; bridge moderately long; extension of basal plate small, laterally not greatly expanded onto arm.

Female: Unknown.

Diagnosis

The strongly contrasting black dorsal surface and red abdomen is distinctive of this species. The features of the genitalia are rather similar to those of other species in the Zelus vagans species group (Fig. 11), but the apex of the medial process is more strongly bent ventrad. Other diagnostic characters shared with members of the Zelus vagans species group and the Zelus longipes species group include the unarmed rounded humeral angle and the spine-like setae on pronotum.

Etymology

This species epithet is a patronym, in honor of entomologist George C. Champion (1851-1927), who authored several volumes on Rhyncophora (Heteroptera) in the Biologia Centrali Americana series.

Distribution

Central and South America (Fig. 56). Countries with records: Costa Rica, Ecuador and Panama

Ecology

No natural history or ecological knowledge is known, but we hypothesize that the strikingly contrasting black and red coloration is at the same time cryptic and aposematic, and may also be mimetic. Based on observations of other species, we know that low vegetation is a common habitat of members of this genus. In a dense forest, predators from above may confuse the black dorsum of Z. championi with dark forest background, while the strong contrast formed by black and red colors is highly visible to predators (e.g., lizards) at the same level or approaching from below. Like many assassin bugs, species of Zelus may inflict a painful bite when attacked. Besides, harpactorines, including Zelus spp., emit a foul odor when handled. We do not know if vertebrate predators are deterred by this odor, but it is strong enough to be detected by a human even meters away. Hence Z. championi may be well defended against predators and the contrasting coloration serves as a signal for unpalatability. Of course, many other species of Zelus are dull colored, but expected to have the same kind of physical or chemical defense. There may be other ecological factors that determine the coloration of Z. championi. We suspect that mimicry is one. Many other unpalatable insects show similar contrasting bright red and black color patterns. Zelus championi may participate in Müllerian mimicry with those species.

Taxon discussion

The type specimen of this species was originally described as the male of Z. inconstans, a species very similar in general form to Z. championi. On the basis of pubescence, pronotal armature and whitish exudation, Champion himself questioned the conspecificity of this male with the three females of the original type series. As more material was available for the present work, his doubts have been substantiated, the male of Z. inconstans identified and this particular specimen found to be a male of a new species. The two species belong to different species groups, as verified by pubescence and genitalic characters.

Zelus cognatus (Costa, 1864)

Nomenclature

Diplodus cognatus Costa, 1864, p. 81, orig. descr.; Uhler, 1886, p. 24, checklist; Walker, 1873, p. 125, cat.

Zelus cognatus: Stål, 1872, p. 91, cat. (subgenus Diplodus); Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 151, cat.; Champion, 1898, p. 259–260, junior syn. of Z. exsanguis Stål. stat. rev. (current study).

Material    Download as CSV 

Description

The following is a translation of the original description:

"Closely related to the preceding species [Z. ambulans]; differing in that the spines of the humeral angle of the pronotum are conspicuously directed obliquely upward; dorsal surface of the head black, longitudinal line and transverse sulcus yellowish; first and second antennal segments testaceous, apex black. -- length 15 mm."

Taxon discussion

This species was originally described from a single specimen from Mexico. The original description did not indicate its sex. Champion’s synonymy was apparently based on the description and not upon examination of the specimen. Attempts to locate the holotype were unsuccessful. From the above original description it is impossible to determine whether this species may be synonymous with Z. exsanguis or is a separate species. It is reasonably certain, however, that it belongs to the Zelus luridus species group, as the comparison with Z. ambulans precludes any similarity to other reduviid genera or even groups in this genus within Mexico.

Zelus conjungens (Stål, 1860)

Nomenclature

Diplodus conjungens Stål, 1860, p. 75, orig. descr.; Mayr, 1866, p. 138–139, junior syn. of Z. armillatus; Walker, 1873, p. 125, cat.

Zelus conjungens: Stål, 1872, p. 90, cat. (subgenus Diplodus); Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 151, junior syn. of Z. armillatus; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 49, checklist. stat. rev. (current study).

Zelus atripes Champion, 1898, p. 259, Tab. XV. fig. 22, orig. descr. and fig.; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 48, checklist; Maldonado, 1990, p. 326, cat. syn. nov. (current study).

Materials    Download as CSV 
Lectotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus conjungens
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Stål, 1860)
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Rio de Janeiro
    ; locality:
    unknown
    ; verbatimElevation:
    NHRS-GULI 000000320
    ; eventDate:
    No date provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00041000
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Lectotype of Zelus conjungens (Stål, 1860). (New Designation by Zhang, Hart & Weirauch, 2016). Verbatim label info: Rio Jan / Stal / Lectotype Zelus conjungens (Stal) / designated by E.R.Hart / NHRS-GULI 000000320
    ; recordedBy:
    Stal
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    NHRS
Paralectotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus conjungens
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Stål, 1860)
    ; country:
    BRAZIL
    ; stateProvince:
    Rio de Janeiro
    ; locality:
    unknown
    ; eventDate:
    No date provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00041000
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paralectotype of Zelus conjungens (Stål, 1860). (New Designation by Zhang, Hart & Weirauch, 2016). Verbatim label info: Rio Jan / Stal / Lectotype Zelus conjungens (Stal) / designated by E.R.Hart / NHRS-GULI 000000320
    ; recordedBy:
    Stal
    ; institutionCode:
    NHRS
Other material:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus conjungens
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Stål, 1860)
    ; country:
    PANAMA
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Holotype of Zelus atripes Champion, 1898 (junior synonym of Zelus conjungens). Bears the following labels: Type / Panama (Bouchard) / Zelus atripes Ch. / B.C.A. Sp. figured
    ; recordedBy:
    Boucard
    ; institutionCode:
    BMNH

Description

Figs 57, 58, 59

Figure 57.

Zelus conjungens (Stål, 1860), habitus

aZelus conjungens (Stål, 1860), male, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00047657, Santa Catarina, Brazil)
bZelus conjungens (Stål, 1860), male, lateral (UCR_ENT 00047657, Santa Catarina, Brazil)
cZelus conjungens (Stål, 1860), male, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00047100, Meta, Colombia)
dZelus conjungens (Stål, 1860), female, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00030295, Santa Catarina, Brazil)
eZelus conjungens (Stål, 1860), female, lateral (UCR_ENT 00047609, Santa Catarina, Brazil)
fZelus conjungens (Stål, 1860), female, dorsal (UCR_ENT 00017733, Sau Paulo, Brazil)
Figure 58.

Zelus conjungens (Stål, 1860), male genitalic structures

aZelus conjungens (Stål, 1860), pygophore, lateral and posterior views
bZelus conjungens (Stål, 1860), phallus, dorsal view
Figure 59.

Zelus conjungens (Stål, 1860), specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 57a, b, c) Large, total length 16.64–19.80 mm (mean=18.34 mm, Suppl. material 2); robust. COLORATION: Variably yellowish-brown to brownish-black. Dorsal surface of head brown, mixed brownish-black; ventral surface brown. Anterior pronotal lobe variably brown to brownish-black, nearly entirely brownish-black in some specimens, never entirely yellowish-brown, with at least brownish-black spots. Posterior pronotal lobe usually brownish-black in center, margins yellowish-brown, entirely yellowish-brown in occasional specimens. Corium and clavus with proximal portion brownish-black, distal portion yellowish-brown, entire surface yellowish-brown in some specimens. Legs with or without bands. Lateral and ventral surfaces varying from most yellowish-brown with brownish-black spots to nearly entirely brownish-black. VESTITURE: Moderately setose. Very similar to that in Z. armillatus; adpressed setae more sparse. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 2.29. Postocular lobe long; in dorsal view anteriorly gradually narrowing, posterior portion constant, slightly narrower. Eye smallish; lateral margin only slightly wider than postocular lobe; dorsal and ventral margins removed from surfaces of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 1.4: 0.4. Basiflagellomere diameter smaller than that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterolateral angle bearing small projection; medial longitudinal sulcus shallow near collar, deepening posteriorly. Posterior pronotal lobe with finely rugulose surface; disc slightly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle armed, with short tuberculate processes. Scutellum moderately long; apex blunt, very slightly projected upward. Legs: Robust. Hemelytron: Slightly surpassing apex of abdomen, not more than length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell large and broad; Cu and M of cubital cell converging towards R. GENITALIA: (Fig. 58) Pygophore: Ovoid; slightly expanded laterally near base of paramere in dorsal view; posteriorly expanded sac-like sclerite between paramere and medial process. Medial process robust; broad; short; posteriorly directed; basally slightly protruding; apex in posterior view truncate, with very inconspicuous lateral prongs. Paramere: Cylindrical; moderately long, not reaching apex of medial process; directed posteriad; slightly curved dorsad; apical part not enlarged. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite shield-shaped; lateral expansion arising close to base; apical portion of phallothecal sclerite not distinctly tapered, flat, laterally angulate; apex rounded; posterior margin of foramen broadly concave. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, connected by bridge; basally separate. Basal plate arm moderately robust; separate; converging; in lateral view slightly curved; bridge moderately long; extension of basal plate expanded onto arm.

Female: (Fig. 57d, e, f) Similar to male, except for the following. Larger than male, total length 20.74–22.64 mm (mean 21.68 mm, Suppl. material 2). Mesofemur swollen.

Diagnosis

Among species of the Zelus armillatus species group, the medial process in Z. conjungens is the broadest, being more than 2x the diameter of paramere and more than 1.5x the diameter of ocellus. Other characters helpful for identification may include the lateral processes on apex of medial process minute, inconspicuous. Most similar to Z. armillatus, but can be separated by characters aforementioned, and also the lateral expansion on dorsal phallothecal sclerite close to basal arm not as sharp process. In females the mesofemur is swollen nearly throughout, much thicker than profemur, which will serve as a basis for separation from the females of Z. armillatus.

Distribution

Southern Central America, northern South America and Southern Brazil (Fig. 59). Countries with specimen records: Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela and Brazil.

Taxon discussion

Mayr (1866) synonymized Z. conjungens with Z. armillatus, the former as the junior synonym. We here resurrect this species on the basis of the characters described in the diagnosis. Two disjunct populations are recognized for this species, one in Southern Brazil and another in Central America and Northern South America. The latter represents a species formerly described by Champion, Z. atripes, which is here considered conspecific with Z. conjungens, as in both species the females show a swollen femur and the medial processes of males are broad. However, male genitalia of the two populations are somewhat different and may warrant a further closer examination. In any area in which the species occurs there is apparently a great range of color and pattern variations, but there does seem to be a general trend toward the lighter colorations in Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama.

Van der Heyden et al. (2014) reported this species as Z. armillatus when it was first discovered from Costa Rica. That identification is incorrect and should have been Z. atripes, which is now a synonym of Z. conjungens. Zelus armillatus does not occur in Central America.

Zelus cordazulus Zhang & Hart, sp. n.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus cordazulus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    PERU
    ; stateProvince:
    Huanuco
    ; locality:
    Divisoria, Cordillera Azul
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1300 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -9.215
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -75.846
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1947-05-01
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00046973
    ; recordedBy:
    Wygodzinsky
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    AMNH
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus cordazulus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    PERU
    ; stateProvince:
    Huanuco
    ; locality:
    Divisoria, Cordillera Azul
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1300 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -9.215
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -75.846
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1947-05-01
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00009529
    ; recordedBy:
    Ranile
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  2. scientificName:
    Zelus cordazulus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    PERU
    ; stateProvince:
    Junin
    ; locality:
    Chanchamayo
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -11.125
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -75.357
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    no date provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00023701
    ; recordedBy:
    Unknown
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    RMNH
  3. scientificName:
    Zelus cordazulus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    PERU
    ; stateProvince:
    Huanuco
    ; locality:
    Divisoria, Cordillera Azul
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1300 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -9.215
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -75.846
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1947-05-01
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00026168
    ; recordedBy:
    Ranile
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  4. scientificName:
    Zelus cordazulus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    PERU
    ; stateProvince:
    Cusco
    ; locality:
    S. Amer, Santa Isabel, Valley of River Ccosnipata
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -13
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -71.3
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1952-01-02
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00029354
    ; recordedBy:
    F. Woytkowski
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  5. scientificName:
    Zelus cordazulus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    PERU
    ; stateProvince:
    San Martin
    ; locality:
    15 kms SE of Moyobamba
    ; verbatimElevation:
    890 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -6.09796
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -76.8605
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1947-08-10
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00029355
    ; recordedBy:
    F. Woytkowski
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  6. scientificName:
    Zelus cordazulus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    PERU
    ; stateProvince:
    Huanuco
    ; locality:
    Divisoria (Cordillera Azul)
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1500 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -9.219
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -75.829
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1905-04-25
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00071256
    ; recordedBy:
    Weyrauch
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    TAMU

Description

Figs 60, 61, 62

Figure 60.

Zelus cordazulus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., habitus

aZelus cordazulus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, dorsal view (UCR_ENT 00023701, Junin, Peru)
bZelus cordazulus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, lateral view (UCR_ENT 00023701, Junin, Peru)
cZelus cordazulus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., female, dorsal view (UCR_ENT 00029354, Cusco, Peru)
dZelus cordazulus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., female, lateral view (UCR_ENT 00029354, Cusco, Peru)
Figure 61.

Zelus cordazulus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male genitalic structures

aZelus cordazulus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., pygophore, lateral and posterior views
bZelus cordazulus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., phallus, dorsal view
Figure 62.

Zelus cordazulus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 60a, b) Medium-sized, total length 14.80–15.07 mm (mean 14.94 mm, Suppl. material 2); slender. COLORATION: Head dark brown; yellowish patch between eye and ocellus; yellow, medial, longitudinal stripe on postocular lobe; ventral surface pale brown, lighter than dorsum. Pronotum and scutellum dark brown. Inconspicuous bands on legs. VESTITURE: Sparsely setose. Dorsum with moderately dense, short, recumbent setae and sparse, short, erect, somewhat spine-like setae; ventral surface with moderately dense, short, recumbent setae and few moderately long, erect, fine setae. Pronotum with very sparse, short, erect setae over dorsal surface, some setae curved apically, appearing recumbent; moderately dense, short to moderately long, recumbent setae on lateral surface and pleura, intermixed with semi-erect or erect setae; scutellum with sparse, semi-erect and recumbent setae. Legs with sparse setation on femora and moderately dense setation on tibiae. Corium and clavus with short, recumbent setae. Abdomen with moderately dense, short recumbent setae, intermixed with sparse, short to long, erect setae. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 2.23. Postocular lobe long; in dorsal view distinctly narrowing through anterior 2/3, posterior 1/3 constant, tube-like. Eye prominent; lateral margin much wider than postocular lobe; dorsal margin attaining postocular transverse groove, ventral margin removed from ventral surface of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 1.8: 0.3. Basiflagellomere diameter larger than that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterolateral angle with inconspicuous subtuberculate projection; medial longitudinal sulcus evident throughout, deepening posteriorly. Posterior pronotal lobe with rugulose surface; disc distinctly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle armed, with spinous processes. Scutellum moderately long; apex angulate, not projected. Legs: Slender. Hemelytron: Surpassing apex of abdomen by about length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell small and slender; Cu and M of cubital cell subparallel. GENITALIA: (Fig. 61) Pygophore: Elongate ovoid; lightly sclerotized expansion below paramere; not expanded laterally in dorsal view. Medial process cylindrical; slender; long, much longer than paramere; laterally compressed towards apex; anterior surface towards apex ridged; minute spicules on posterior surface; semi-erect; curved at middle; apex in posterior view acute, with small hooklike projection. Paramere: Cylindrical; short, not reaching medial process; directed posteriad; basally narrower; slightly curved ventrad; apical part very slightly enlarged. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite shield-shaped; sclerotization reduced (yet not absent) on dorsal surface close to posterior margin of foramen; expansion of lateral margin at about mid-portion pronounced, covering lateral side of endosoma; apical portion of phallothecal sclerite gradually tapering, distinctly keeled medially, laterally flat, not forming angle; apex truncate; posterior margin of foramen broadly concave. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, connected by bridge; basally separate. Basal plate arm moderately robust; separate; converging; in lateral view slightly curved; bridge short; extension of basal plate expanded laterally onto arm, covering more than 1/2 of arm, curved.

Female: (Fig. 60c, d) Similar to male, except for the following. Larger than male, total length 15.56–18.20 mm (mean 16.82 mm, Suppl. material 2). Dorsum nearly uniformly brown, lateral and ventral surfaces and legs yellowish; single dark spot on each abdominal segment.

Diagnosis

The nearly uniform brown dorsal coloration; the dorsum with short, erect, somewhat spine-like setae; and the posterior margin of the pronotum smoothly convex. The paramere short, broad; the apical part of medial process laterally compressed and ridged on the anterior surface; the posterolateral rim of pygophore with lightly sclerotized expansion below paramere; and the basal plate arm separate, not fused. In females the dorsum is nearly uniformly brown, the lateral and ventral surfaces yellowish, the legs apically reddish-brown, not conspicuously banded and the abdominal segment with single dark spot.

Etymology

Named after the type locality "Cordillera" in Peru.

Distribution

South America (Fig. 62). Known only from Peru.

Zelus couturieri

Nomenclature

Iquitozelus couturieri Bérenger, 2003, p. 23, orig. descr. and fig.

Zelus couturieri (Bérenger, 2003), comb. nov. (current study).

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus couturieri
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Berenger, 2003)
    ; country:
    Peru
    ; stateProvince:
    Loreto
    ; locality:
    Iquitos
    ; eventDate:
    1992-07-20
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Host plant: Psidium guajava
    ; recordedBy:
    Couturier, G
    ; institutionCode:
    Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus couturieri
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Berenger, 2003)
    ; country:
    Peru
    ; stateProvince:
    Loreto
    ; locality:
    Iquitos
    ; eventDate:
    1992-07-20
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Host plant: Psidium guajava
    ; recordedBy:
    Couturier, G
    ; institutionCode:
    Museo de Entomologia, Universidad Agraria La Molina, Lima
  2. scientificName:
    Zelus couturieri
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Berenger, 2003)
    ; country:
    Peru
    ; stateProvince:
    Loreto
    ; locality:
    Iquitos
    ; eventDate:
    1992-07-20
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Host plant: Psidium guajava
    ; recordedBy:
    Couturier, G
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  3. scientificName:
    Zelus couturieri
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Berenger, 2003)
    ; country:
    Peru
    ; stateProvince:
    Loreto
    ; locality:
    Iquitos
    ; eventDate:
    1992-07-20
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Host plant: Psidium guajava
    ; recordedBy:
    Couturier, G
    ; institutionCode:
    Jean-Michel Berenger Collection

Description

Figs 63, 64

Figure 63.

Zelus couturieri (Berenger, 2003), Habitus images

aZelus couturieri (Berenger, 2003), female, dorsal view
bZelus couturieri (Berenger, 2003), female, lateral view
Figure 64.

Zelus couturieri (Berenger, 2003), specimen record map.

Diagnosis

The connexivum segment VI with foliaceous expansion is unique among all females of Zelus spp.

Distribution

South America (Fig. 64). Known only from Peru.

Taxon discussion

Bérenger (2003) described a new species of Harpactorini from Iquitos, Peru, and erected a new genus, Iquitozelus to accommodate this species. We here transfer I. couturieri to Zelus for reasons aforementioned. This species shows a great deal of resemblance to three other species of Zelus, Z. amblycephalus, Z. umbraculus and Z. umbraculoides, all newly described in the current study. In these species, the head, legs and pronotum are more or less uniformly greenish-brown. There are a number of differences. The posterior pronotal lobe disc in Z. couturieri appears to be only slightly above and nearly continuous with humeral angle. In the other three species, the discs are clearly above humeral angle. The posterior margin of the posterior pronotal lobe in Z. couturieri is not developed, whereas it is well defined in other species. Furthermore, the lateral process of the humeral angle is conspicuously darkened, also unique to Z. couturieri. Based the foregoing observations, it is likely that Z. couturieri represents a distinct a species, and not the female of Z. umbraculoides or Z. umbraculus. The specimens were not physically examined as Bérenger (2003) has provided a detailed description of this species.

Zelus errans Fabricius, 1803

Nomenclature

Zelus errans Fabricius, 1803, p. 282, orig. descr.; Stål, 1868, p.108, descr., note and senior syn. of Z. cursitans; Stål, 1872, p.88, cat.; Walker, 1873, p. 135, cat.; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 49, checklist; Maldonado, 1990, p. 326, cat.

Zelus cursitans Fabricius, 1803, p. 284, orig. descr.; Blanchard, 1840, p. 101, descr.; Stål, 1868,p. 108, junior syn. of Z. errans.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Lectotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus errans
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fabricius, 1803
    ; country:
    unknown
    ; stateProvince:
    unknown
    ; locality:
    Habitat in America meridionali
    ; eventDate:
    No date provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Lectotype of Zelus errans Fabricius, 1803 (New designation by Zhang, Hart & Weirauch, 2016). Labels: Z. errans in Am. mer. Schmidt / Type
    ; recordedBy:
    Dom. Smidt
    ; institutionCode:
    ZMUC
Paralectotypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus errans
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fabricius, 1803
    ; country:
    unknown
    ; stateProvince:
    unknown
    ; locality:
    Habitat in America meridionali
    ; eventDate:
    No date provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paralectotype of Zelus errans Fabricius, 1803 (New designation by Zhang, Hart & Weirauch, 2016). Labels: Z. errans in Am. mer. Schmidt / Type
    ; recordedBy:
    Dom. Smidt
    ; institutionCode:
    ZMUC
  2. scientificName:
    Zelus errans
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fabricius, 1803
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Paralectotype of Zelus errans Fabricius, 1803 (New designation by Zhang, Hart & Weirauch, 2016). Label: errans
    ; institutionCode:
    ZMUC

Description

Figs 65, 66, 67

Figure 65.

Zelus errans Fabricius, 1803, habitus

aZelus errans Fabricius, 1803, male, dorsal view
bZelus errans Fabricius, 1803, male, lateral view
cZelus errans Fabricius, 1803, female, dorsal view (UCR_ENT 00017742, El Beni, Bolivia)
dZelus errans Fabricius, 1803, female, lateral view (UCR_ENT 00017742, El Beni, Bolivia)
eZelus errans Fabricius, 1803, female, dorsal view (UCR_ENT 00017743, Parana, Brazil)
Figure 66.

Zelus errans Fabricius 1803, male genitalic structures

aZelus errans Fabricius 1803, pygophore, lateral and posterior views
bZelus errans Fabricius 1803, phallus, dorsal view
Figure 67.

Zelus errans Fabricius 1803, specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 65a, b) Medium-sized, total length 13.62–17.91 mm (mean 14.10 mm, Suppl. material 2); slender. COLORATION: Many specimens with wasp-like habitus, with alternating black and yellow areas; anterior pronotal lobe usually dark brown, posterior lobe and proximal portion of corium yellowish; some specimens with nearly entire dorsal surface dark. Legs vary from nearly uniformly yellow or blackish-brown to yellow-brown banded. VESTITURE: Densely setose. Head with dark, erect, spine-like setae dorsally and light, recumbent setae ventrally. Anterior pronotal lobe with short, dark, spine-like setae, confined to setal tracts; posterior pronotal lobe with short, spine-like setae dorsally, fine, recumbent and erect setae on lateral surfaces. Abdomen with sparse, short, semi-erect setae. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 2.28. Postocular lobe long; in dorsal view distinctly narrowing through anterior 2/3, posterior 1/3 constant, tube-like. Eye prominent; lateral margin much wider than postocular lobe; dorsal margin removed from postocular transverse groove, ventral margin attaining ventral surface of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 1.6: 0.4. Basiflagellomere diameter larger than that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterolateral angle rounded, without projection; medial longitudinal sulcus evident only on posterior 1/2, deepening anterior to transverse sulcus of pronotum. Posterior pronotal lobe with smooth surface; disc distinctly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle rounded, without projection. Scutellum long; apex angulate, not projected. Legs: Very slender. Hemelytron: Greatly surpassing apex of abdomen by about 3x length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell large and broad; Cu and M of cubital cell subparallel. GENITALIA: (Fig. 66) Pygophore: Ovoid; mid-lateral fold adjacent to paramere insertion; not expanded laterally in dorsal view. Medial process cylindrical; extremely slender; moderately long; semi-erect; apex in posterior view blunt, slightly folded posteriad. Paramere: Cylindrical; long, surpassing medial process; directed posteriad, slightly curved towards medial process; slightly curved ventrad; apical part very slightly enlarged. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite elongated; apical portion of phallothecal sclerite not distinctly tapered, convex, laterally indistinctly angulate; apex truncate, medially emarginate; posterior margin of foramen deeply concave. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, connected by bridge; basally almost completely fused. Basal plate arm slender; separate; converging; in lateral view very slightly curved; bridge moderately long; extension of basal plate small, marginally expanded onto arm.

Female: (Fig. 65c, d, e) Similar to male, except for the following. Larger than male, total length 18.30–20.18 mm (mean 18.97 mm, Suppl. material 2). Coloration pattern more variable than in male.

Diagnosis

May be confused with Z. vespiformis and Z. gracilipes, species that have similar appearances. Distinguished from Z. vespiformis by the more elongated body; the longer medial process (Fig. 10), the Cu and Pcu of quadrate cell subparallel, and the Cu-Pcu2 (posterior cross vein) less than 1/2x length of Cu. Males of Z. errans can be separate from Z. gracilipes by features of the genitalia, the latter belonging to a different species group. Females typically have the anterior membrane of the hemelytron semi-translucent, whereas the entire membrane is colored or opaque in Z. gracilipes.

Distribution

South America (Fig. 67). Countries with specimen records: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela.

Taxon discussion

Zelus errans is quite closely related to Z. vespiformis, and they are possibly sister species. These two species appear to be allopatric, with their boundaries roughly lying across central Colombia and southern Venezuela.

Zelus erythrocephalus Fabricius, 1803

Nomenclature

Zelus erythrocephalus Fabricius, 1803, p. 283, orig. descr.; Blanchard, 1840, p. 101, cat. (erytrocephalus sic.); Stål, 1872, p. 92, cat. (subgenus Diplodus); Bergroth, 1893, p. 63, note; Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 152, cat.; Champion, 1898, p. 257, note; Brindley, 1931, p. 137, 151, list and note; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 49, checklist; Zimsen, 1964, p. 338, list; Maldonado, 1990, p. 327, cat.

Euagoras erythrocephalus: Burmeister, 1835, p. 227, list.

Diplodus erythrocephalus: Stål, 1868, p. 283, descr.; Walker, 1873, p. 125, cat.; Van Duzee, 1901, p. 351, note.

Material    Download as CSV 
Lectotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus erythrocephalus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Fabricius, 1803
    ; country:
    unknown
    ; stateProvince:
    unknown
    ; locality:
    Habitat in America meridionali
    ; eventDate:
    No date provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00075109
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Lectotype of Zelus erythrocephalus Fabricius, 1803 (New Designation by Zhang, Hart & Weirauch, 2016). Bears labels: Type /Z. erythrocephalus in Am. mer. Schmidt
    ; recordedBy:
    Dom. Smidt
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2012
    ; institutionCode:
    ZMUC

Description

Figs 68, 69, 70

Figure 68.

Zelus erythrocephalus Fabricius, 1803, habitus

aZelus erythrocephalus Fabricius, 1803, male, dorsal view (UCR_ENT 00023652, Suriname)
bZelus erythrocephalus Fabricius, 1803, male, lateral view (UCR_ENT 00023652, Suriname)
cZelus erythrocephalus Fabricius, 1803, female, dorsal view (UCR_ENT 00023659, Suriname)
dZelus erythrocephalus Fabricius, 1803, female, lateral view (UCR_ENT 00023659, Suriname)
Figure 69.

Zelus erythrocephalus Fabricius, 1803, male genitalic structures

aZelus erythrocephalus Fabricius, 1803, pygophore, lateral and posterior views
bZelus erythrocephalus Fabricius, 1803, phallus, dorsal view
Figure 70.

Zelus erythrocephalus Fabricius, 1803, specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 68a, b) Medium-sized, total length 12.07–12.77 mm (mean 12.49 mm, Suppl. material 2); slender. COLORATION: Head reddish-brown, anterior to antennal insertion and posterior third of postocular lobe lighter. Rest of surface of body nearly uniformly blackish-brown; area around humeral angle lighter, somewhat reddish. Membrane with blue, purple iridescence. VESTITURE: Moderately setose. Dark, moderately dense, short, erect, spine-like setae on dorsum of head, curved on postocular lobe; ventral surface with sparse, short, erect and recumbent setae, few long setae. Pronotal dorsum nearly glabrous, very sparse, short, erect, spine-like setae; lateral surface with sparse, erect to recumbent, spine-like setae; setal tracts on anterior lobe very reduced. Pleura with very sparse, spine-like setae and recumbent setae. Corium and clavus with sparse, short, recumbent setae. Abdomen with sparse, short, erect setae, intermixed with few long setae. Pygophore with sparse, short to long, semi-erect setae. Paramere apical 1/2 with dense, long setae, nearly as long as medial process. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 2.29. Postocular lobe long; in dorsal view distinctly narrowing through anterior 2/3, posterior 1/3 constant, tube-like. Eye prominent; lateral margin much wider than postocular lobe; dorsal margin removed from postocular transverse groove, ventral margin attaining ventral surface of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 2.0: 0.4. Basiflagellomere diameter larger than that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterolateral angle bearing small projection; medial longitudinal sulcus shallow near collar, deepening posteriorly. Posterior pronotal lobe with rugulose surface; disc distinctly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle armed, with dentate projection. Scutellum moderately long; apex angulate, very slightly projected upward. Legs: Very slender. Hemelytron: Surpassing apex of abdomen by about length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell small, relatively broad; Cu and M of cubital cell subparallel. GENITALIA: (Fig. 69) Pygophore: Ovoid; mid-lateral fold adjacent to paramere insertion inconspicuous; not expanded laterally in dorsal view. Medial process cylindrical; very slender; long; erect; straight; apex in posterior view acute, with subapical hooklike lateral processes. Paramere: Cylindrical; long, surpassing medial process; curved ventrad at mid-point, apex recurved. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite shield-shaped, sclerite absent laterad to basal arms; lateral longitudinal blade-like heavy sclerotization, elevated, surpassing apical margins; apical portion of phallothecal sclerite not distinctly tapered, flat, lateral margin narrowly angulate, angulation ending anteriorly in sharp, dorsad projection; apex with small medial emargination; posterior margin of foramen broadly concave. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, connected by bridge; basally fused. Basal plate arm robust; basally fused; in lateral view strongly curved at midpoint; bridge extremely short; extension of basal plate expanded onto arm.

Female: (Fig. 68c, d) Similar to male, except for the following. Larger than male, total length 16.85–19.06 mm (mean 17.92 mm, Suppl. material 2). Spinous process on humeral angle long.

Diagnosis

Recognized by the following combination of characters: the dorsal coloration nearly uniformly dark brown, the head reddish-brown, and the membrane with indistinct iridescence. Most similar to Z. paracephalus and Z. russulumus; can be distinguished from both by the rather slender medial process. Females of Z. erythrocephalus, Z. paracephalus and Z. russulumus are difficult to separate.

Distribution

South America (Fig. 70). Countries with records: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Suriname.

Taxon discussion

Zelus erythrocephalus and two other species in the same species group, Z. paracephalus and Z. russulumus superficially resemble Z. panamensis, a species in a different group. All have a orange, reddish head and a uniformly dark dorsum. These can be separated from Z. panamensis based on male genitalia and iridescence on membrane.

Zelus exsanguis Stål, 1862

Nomenclature

Zelus exsanguis Stål, 1862, p. 452, orig. descr.; Stål, 1872, p. 91, cat. (subgenus Diplodus); Walker, 1873, p. 124, cat.; Uhler, 1894, p. 283, list; Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 152, cat.; Champion, 1898, p. 259–260, senior syn. of Z. luridus Stål, Z. ambulans Stål and Z. cognatus Costa; Banks, 1910, p. 16, cat.; Fracker, 1913, p- 239, 240, 241, key, list and note (subgenus Diplodus); Van Duzee, 1916, p, 30, checklist (subgenus Diplodus); Van Duzee, 1917, p. 260, cat. (subgenus Diplodus); Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 49, checklist; Hart, 1986, p. 539, redescription, lectotype desig., note, fig. and key; Maldonado, 1990, p. 327, cat.

Diplodus exsanguis: Uhler, 1886, p. 24, checklist.

Material    Download as CSV 
Lectotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus exsanguis
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Stål, 1862
    ; country:
    MEXICO
    ; stateProvince:
    unknown
    ; locality:
    unknown
    ; eventDate:
    No date provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00075071
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Lectotype of Zelus exsanguis Stål, 1862, designated by Hart (1986). Verbatim label info: Mexico coll. Signoret / exsanguis det. Stal / B.C.A. Rhyn.II. Zelus exsanguis St. / Lectotype Zelus exsanguis Stal / designated by E. R. Hart / Lectotypus Zelus exsanguis STAL, 1862 etik. Hecher 1996 REDV. 470/1
    ; recordedBy:
    Signoret
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2012
    ; institutionCode:
    NHMW

Description

Figs 71, 72, 73

Figure 71.

Zelus exsanguis Stål, 1862, habitus

aZelus exsanguis Stål, 1862, male, dorsal view (UCR_ENT 00037113, Chiriqui, Panama)
bZelus exsanguis Stål, 1862, male, lateral view (UCR_ENT 00037113, Chiriqui, Panama)
cZelus exsanguis Stål, 1862, female, dorsal view (UCR_ENT 00037115, Veracruz, Mexico)
dZelus exsanguis Stål, 1862, female, lateral view (UCR_ENT 00037115, Veracruz, Mexico)
Figure 72.

Zelus exsanguis Stål, 1862, male genitalic structures

aZelus exsanguis Stål 1862, southern population, pygophore, lateral and posterior views
bZelus exsanguis Stål 1862, northern population, pygophore, lateral and posterior views
cZelus exsanguis Stål 1862, southern population, phallus, dorsal view
dZelus exsanguis Stål 1862, northern population, phallus, dorsal view
Figure 73.

Zelus exsanguis Stål 1862, specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 71a, b) Medium-sized, total length 13.79–16.41 mm (mean 14.98 mm, Suppl. material 2); slender. COLORATION: Anteocular lobe reddish-brown, most specimens with central dorsal area darker reddish-brown and with lighter mid-dorsal line, dark areas between compound eyes and antennal insertions. Postocular lobe yellowish-brown to reddish-brown, dorsal surface dark brown to brownish-black with mid-dorsal and circumocellar areas yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. Rostrum yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. Antennae reddish-brown, flagellomeres darker, base and apex of scape and pedicel dark brown. Anterior pronotal lobe yellowish-brown to reddish-brown, some specimens with dark brown areas on longitudinal medial sulcus and anterolateral margins. Posterior lobe reddish-brown dorsally with yellowish-brown lateral and posterior margins, lateral surfaces yellowish-brown, dark brown areas at anterior or dorsolateral margins and humeral angle. Scutellum yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. Legs yellowish-brown, most specimens with wide reddish-brown to brownish-black band at apices of femora and small dark area at apices of tibiae. Hernelytron brown with costal margin and veins of corium yellowish-brown. Abdomen venter reddish-brown. VESTITURE: Moderately setose. Anteocular lobe with short recumbent setae dorsally and laterally, short to moderately long erect setae on ventral surface. Postocular lobe with short, recumbent setae on dorsal and lateral surfaces, moderately erect setae scattered over surface, long, fine setae laterally. Anterior pronotal lobe with short, recumbent setae confined to setal tracts, long silky erect setae laterally. Posterior pronotal lobe with recumbent and sparse, erect setae. Meso- and metapleural surfaces with long silky erect setae. Scutellum with silky, erect setae. Clavus and corium of hemelytron with recumbent setae. Dorsum of abdomen with short erect setae, remainder of surface with short recumbent and short to moderately long erect setae, margin of connexivum fringed with erect setae. Exposed surface of pygophore with short to long erect setae. Apex of paramere with long erect setae. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 2.31. Postocular lobe moderately long; in dorsal view anteriorly gradually narrowing, posterior portion constant, slightly narrower. Eye smallish; lateral margin only slightly wider than postocular lobe; in lateral view margins removed from dorsal and ventral surfaces of head. Ocellus noticeably elevated. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 1.8: 0.5. Basiflagellomere diameter about 1.4x as large as that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterolateral angle with inconspicuous, rounded projection; medial longitudinal sulcus shallow near collar, deepening posteriorly. Posterior pronotal lobe with finely rugulose surface; humeral angle armed, with spinous process, raised to level of and nearly continuous with disc. Scutellum moderately long; apex slightly produced into short fingerlike process. Legs: Slender. Femoral diameters subequal. Hemelytron: Surpassing apex of abdomen by about length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell small; Cu and M of cubital cell subparallel. GENITALIA: (Fig. 72) Pygophore: Elongate ovoid. Medial process triangular, broad, moderately long, arising from extended posterior margin, erect, straight, apex slightly curving, blunt, without modification. Paramere: Cylindrical; moderately long, slightly exceeding medial process; slightly curved ventrad; apical part enlarged, compressed. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite somewhat squarish; medially slightly constricted; Dorsal phallothecal sclerite flat; apex truncate, medially emarginate; apical portion with transverse furrows; posterior margin of foramen broadly inversely V-shaped. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, connected by bridge; fused basally. Basal plate arm slender to moderate; separate; converging; in lateral view nearly straight, only very slightly curved; bridge short; extension of basal plate small and confined to apex of basal plate arm.

Female: (Fig. 71c, d) Similar to male, except for the following. Larger than male, total length 15.12–19.36 mm (mean 17.00 mm, Suppl. material 2). Coloration rather similar to that in male; more uniform on head. Lateral process on humeral angle spinous, usually longer. Pro- and mesofemoral diameters larger than that of metafemur. Basiflagellomere not swollen basally. Hemelytron slightly surpassing apex of abdomen.

Diagnosis

As with some species of the Zelus luridus species group, Z. exsanguis has a rather uniform greenish-brown coloration. Can be distinguished from most other species of the same species group by the humeral angle elevated to same level of and nearly continuous with disc. This is also seen in Z. ambulans, but the two species can be easily separated on the basis of coloration (Figs 22, 71). Males can be distinguished from species of the Zelus luridus species group by the greatly enlarged apical part of the paramere (Fig. 72a, b), the medial process moderately broad, and the apex of the medial process somewhat narrowed.

Distribution

Mexico to Panama (Fig. 73). Countries with records: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama.

Taxon discussion

Hart (1986) discussed the confusion over the use of the name Z. exsanguis. As this species appears highly similar to several other species, incorrect identification is common in museum specimens. Almost without exceptions specimens from the US identified as Z. exsanguis are actually Z. luridus. Champion (1898) incorrectly synonymized Z. luridus and Z. ambulans with Z. exsanguis. Zelus exsanguis also appears to prefer mountainous areas, all observed specimens being from moderate to high altitudes.

Zelus fasciatus Champion, 1899

Nomenclature

Zelus fasciatus Champion, 1899, p. 257, Tab. XV. fig. 18, orig. descr. and fig.; Kuhlgatz, 1902, p. 266, note; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 49, checklist; Maldonado, 1990, p. 327, cat.

Material    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus fasciatus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Champion, 1899
    ; country:
    PANAMA
    ; stateProvince:
    Chiriqui
    ; locality:
    Bugaba
    ; verbatimElevation:
    457 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    8.4833
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -82.6167
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    No date provided
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00048758
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Verbatim label info: Type / B.C.A.Rhyn.II. Zelus fasciatus Ch. / Sp. figured. / Bugaba, 800-1,500 ft. Champion. / Holotype Sel. E.R. Hart letter II.iii.76
    ; recordedBy:
    G.C. Champion
    ; institutionCode:
    BMNH

Description

Figs 74, 75

Figure 74.

Zelus fasciatus Champion, 1899, habitus

aZelus fasciatus Champion, 1899, female, dorsal view (UCR_ENT 00017227, Colon, Panama)
bZelus fasciatus Champion, 1899, female, lateral view (UCR_ENT 00017227, Colon, Panama)
Figure 75.

Zelus fasciatus Champion, 1899, specimen records

Male: unknown.

Female: (Fig. 74) Medium-sized, total length 14.92–15.56 mm (mean 15.25 mm, Suppl. material 2); slender. COLORATION: Yellow and black. Yellow areas usually on posterior pronotal lobe, corium, lateral surfaces and abdomen. VESTITURE: Sparsely setose. Anteocular lobe with short, erect and recumbent setae; postocular lobe with short, erect and recumbent setae. Anterior pronotal lobe with short, inconspicuous, recumbent setae dorsally, some short to moderate, erect setae laterally; posterior pronotal lobe with short, inconspicuous, erect and recumbent setae. Abdomen with short to moderately long, erect setae and inconspicuous, short, recumbent setae. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 2.46. Postocular lobe very long; in dorsal view distinctly narrowing through anterior 1/2, posterior 1/2 constant, tube-like. Eye moderately sized; lateral margin much wider than postocular lobe; dorsal and ventral margins removed from surfaces of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 2.0: 0.3. Thorax: Anterolateral angle rounded, without projection; medial longitudinal sulcus distinct throughout. Posterior pronotal lobe with finely rugulose surface; disc distinctly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle armed, with spinous processes. Scutellum long; apex angulate. Legs: Slender. Hemelytron: Slightly surpassing apex of abdomen, not more than length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell moderately sized; Cu and M of cubital cell converging towards R.

Diagnosis

The rather unique dorsal color pattern easily distinguishes this species from all other species in the genus.

Distribution

Southern Central America and northern South America (Fig. 75). Countries with specimen records: Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama.

Zelus filicauda Bergroth, 1893

Nomenclature

Zelus filicauda Bergroth, 1893, p. 63, orig. descr.; Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 152, cat.; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 49, checklist; Maldonado, 1990, p. 327, cat.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus filicauda
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Bergroth, 1893
    ; country:
    ECUADOR
    ; stateProvince:
    Loja
    ; locality:
    Loja
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -4.003057
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -79.207349
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; recordedBy:
    G. Fallou
    ; otherCatalogNumbers:
    259-95
    ; identifiedBy:
    ER Hart
    ; dateIdentified:
    1972
    ; institutionCode:
    Muséum national d'histoire naturelle
Other material:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus filicauda
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Bergroth, 1893
    ; country:
    ECUADOR
    ; stateProvince:
    Tungurahua
    ; locality:
    13 mi W. Mera, Napo-Pastaza
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -1.4628
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -78.28538
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Google Earth
    ; eventDate:
    1955-02-12
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00019043
    ; recordedBy:
    E. I. Schlinger & E. S. Ross
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2012
    ; institutionCode:
    CAS

Description

Figs 76, 77, 78

Figure 76.

Zelus filicauda Bergroth, 1893, habitus

aZelus filicauda Bergroth, 1893, male, dorsal view (UCR_ENT 00019043, Tungurahua, Ecuador)
bZelus filicauda Bergroth, 1893, male, lateral view (UCR_ENT 00019043, Tungurahua, Ecuador)
Figure 77.

Zelus filicauda Bergroth, 1893, male genitalic structures

aZelus filicauda Bergroth, 1893, pygophore, lateral and posterior views
bZelus filicauda Bergroth, 1893, phallus, dorsal view
Figure 78.

Zelus filicauda Bergroth, 1893, specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 76) Medium-sized, total length 12.71 mm (n=1, Suppl. material 2); slender. COLORATION: Nearly uniformly dark brown. Head dark brown; yellowish patch between eye and ocellus; inconspicuous, slender, medial yellow area on postocular lobe; ventral surface very slightly lighter than dorsal. Anterior pronotal lobe dark brown; posterior lobe slightly lighter than anterior lobe, somewhat reddish-brown; remainder of body surface and legs dark reddish-brown. VESTITURE: Sparsely setose. Head with moderately dense, short, recumbent on entire surface; dorsum also with short, spine-like setae, denser on anteocular lobe; ventral surface also with sparse, long, erect setae. Pronotum dorsal and lateral surfaces, pleura and sternites with short, recumbent setae and short to long, erect setae; recumbent setae dense on lateral surface of pronotum and pleuron; scutellum with sparse setation. Legs with sparse setation on femora and moderately dense setation on tibiae. Corium and clavus with sparse, short, recumbent setae. Abdomen with moderately dense, short, recumbent setae, intermixed with sparse, short to long, erect setae. Apical half of dorsal surface of paramere with moderately dense, medium-length, semi-erect setae. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 2.03. Postocular lobe long; in dorsal view distinctly narrowing through anterior 2/3, posterior 1/3 constant, tube-like. Eye prominent; lateral margin much wider than postocular lobe; dorsal margin attaining postocular transverse groove, ventral margin removed from ventral surface of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 1.7: 0.3. Thorax: Anterolateral angle bearing small projection; medial longitudinal sulcus evident throughout, deepening posteriorly. Posterior pronotal lobe with rugulose surface; disc distinctly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle armed, with spinous processes. Scutellum moderately long; apex angulate, slightly projected upward. Legs: Slender. Hemelytron: Slightly surpassing apex of abdomen, not more than length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell small and slender; Cu and M of cubital cell subparallel. GENITALIA: (Fig. 77) Pygophore: Elongate ovoid; lightly sclerotized expansion below paramere; not expanded laterally in dorsal view. Medial process cylindrical; slender; long, longer than paramere; laterally compressed towards apex; anterior surface towards apex ridged; minute spicules on posterior surface; posteriorly directed; curved at middle; apex in posterior view acute, with small hooklike projection. Paramere: Cylindrical; moderately long, not reaching medial process; directed posteriad; basally slightly constricted; curved ventrad; apical part very slightly enlarged, apex rounded, somewhat truncate. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite shield-shaped; expansion of lateral margin at about mid-portion pronounced; apical portion of phallothecal sclerite gradually tapering, distinctly keeled medially, laterally flat, not forming angle; apex acute; posterior margin of foramen concave. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, connected by bridge; basally separate throughout. Basal plate arm moderately robust; separate; converging; in lateral view slightly curved; bridge extremely short; extension of basal plate expanded laterally onto arm, covering more than 1/2 of arm, curved.

Female: Unknown.

Diagnosis

Recognized by the entire body dark brown, the posterior pronotal lobe slightly lighter and somewhat reddish, the legs without bands; the humeral angle projected into spinous process. Distinguished among species of the Zelus panamensis species group by the curved medial process (Fig. 12).

Distribution

South America (Fig. 78). Known only from Ecuador.

Zelus fuliginatus Zhang & Hart, sp. n.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus fuliginatus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    COLOMBIA
    ; stateProvince:
    Quindio
    ; locality:
    Salento
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1895 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    4.6375
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -75.57028
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Gazetteer
    ; eventDate:
    1939-07-14
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00007997
    ; recordedBy:
    Richter
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
Paratypes:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus fuliginatus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    COLOMBIA
    ; stateProvince:
    Santander
    ; locality:
    Rio Suarez
    ; decimalLatitude:
    6.76667
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -73.26667
    ; georeferenceSources:
    GeoLocate Software
    ; eventDate:
    1946-01-16
    ; sex:
    Adult Female
    ; catalogNumber:
    UCR_ENT 00009462
    ; occurrenceRemarks:
    Previously designated as 'allotype' of his manuscript name Zelus fuliginatus by Hart, a type status not used in the formal publication of this name (Zhang et al.)
    ; recordedBy:
    Richter
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    USNM
  2. scientificName:
    Zelus fuliginatus
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    Ecuador
    ; stateProvince:
    Napo
    ; locality:
    W bank of Rio Quijos
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1750 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    0.43333
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -77.88333
    ; georeferenceSources:
    Label
    ; eventDate:
    2006-03-03
    ; sex:
    Adult Male
    ; catalogNumber:
    AMNH_PBI 00218883
    ; recordedBy:
    J.S. Miller & E. Tapia
    ; identifiedBy:
    G. Zhang
    ; dateIdentified:
    2013
    ; institutionCode:
    UCR

Description

Figs 79, 80, 81

Figure 79.

Zelus fuliginatus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., habitus

aZelus fuliginatus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, dorsal view (UCR_ENT 00007997, Colombia)
bZelus fuliginatus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male, lateral view (UCR_ENT 00007997, Colombia)
cZelus fuliginatus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., female, dorsal view (UCR_ENT 00009462, Santander, Colombia)
dZelus fuliginatus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., female, lateral view (UCR_ENT 00009462, Santander, Colombia)
Figure 80.
Zelus fuliginatus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., male genitalic structures
aZelus fuliginatus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., pygophore, lateral and posterior views
bZelus fuliginatus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., phallus, dorsal view
Figure 81.

Zelus fuliginatus Zhang & Hart, sp. n., specimen record map

Male: (Fig. 79a, b) Medium-sized, total length 12.08–13.76 mm (mean 12.92 mm, Suppl. material 2); slender. COLORATION: Entire surface, including antenna, labium and legs, black, except for yellowish abdominal segments 2–7 and very slender, medial longitudinal stripe on postocular lobe. VESTITURE: Densely setose. Anteocular with dense, short, spine-like setae, intermixed with short, recumbent, fine setae; dorsum of postocular with moderately dense, short to long, spine-like setae; ventral surface of head with sparse, long setae, varying from fine to spine-like, also with recumbent setae. Pronotum with dense, short, spine-like setae over entire surface; lateral surface of anterior pronotal lobe and pleura with both short and long, spine-like setae; scutellum with dense, short to long, spine-like setae. Legs with sparse setation. Corium and clavus with dense, recumbent, stout setae. Abdomen with moderately dense, short to long, semi-erect setae. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 1.96. Postocular lobe short; in dorsal view anteriorly gradually narrowing, posterior portion constant, slightly narrower. Eye moderately sized; lateral margin only slightly wider than postocular lobe; dorsal and ventral margins removed from surfaces of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 1.5: 0.4. Basiflagellomere diameter larger than that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterolateral angle rounded, without projection; medial longitudinal sulcus evident throughout, deepening posteriorly. Disc distinctly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle rounded, without projection. Scutellum long; apex angulate, not projected. Legs: Moderately robust. Hemelytron: Greatly surpassing apex of abdomen by about 3x length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell large and broad; Cu and M of cubital cell subparallel. GENITALIA: (Fig. 80) Pygophore: Elongate ovoid; mid-lateral fold adjacent to paramere insertion; slightly expanded laterally near base of paramere in dorsal view. Medial process somewhat cone-shaped; tapering to apex; long; posteriorly directed; basally slightly curved; apex in posterior view blunt. Paramere: Cylindrical, apically compressed; moderately long, nearly reaching apex of medial process; directed posteriad; basally constricted; not distinctly curved; apical part enlarged. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite elongated; apical 1/3 of phallothecal sclerite tapering to apex, strong convex, laterally rounded, not forming angle; apex with small medial emargination; posterior margin of foramen broadly concave. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, connected by bridge. Basal plate arm moderately robust; separate; subparallel; in lateral view very slightly curved; bridge short; extension of basal plate expanded onto arm.

Female: (Fig. 79c, d) Similar to male, except for the following. Larger than male, total length 17.68–18.13 mm (mean 17.91 mm, Suppl. material 2).

Diagnosis

Recognized by the strongly contrasting black dorsum and yellow abdomen, the rather short postocular lobe, and the Sc not reaching apex of cubital cell. Other diagnostic characters shared with members of the Zelus vagans species group and the Zelus longipes species group include the unarmed rounded humeral angle and the spine-like setae on pronotum. Males can also be separated from other species of the Zelus vagans species group by the medial process apically tapered, somewhat pointed (Fig. 11).

Etymology

The species epithet means 'soot' or painted black, referring to the black dorsal coloration of this species.

Distribution

Northern South America (Fig. 81). Countries with records: Colombia and Ecuador.

Zelus gilboventris Zhang & Hart, sp. n.

Materials    Download as CSV 
Holotype:
  1. scientificName:
    Zelus gilboventris
    ; family:
    Reduviidae
    ; genus:
    Zelus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Zhang & Hart, 2016
    ; country:
    BOLIVIA
    ; stateProvince:
    Cochabamba
    ; locality:
    Villa Tunari, Chapare
    ; verbatimElevation:
    500 m
    ; decimalLatitude:
    -16.91666
    ; decimalLongitude:
    -65.36667
    ; eventDate: