Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic paper
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Taxonomic paper
The "Martian" flora: new collections of vascular plants, lichens, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria from the Mars Desert Research Station, Utah
expand article infoPaul C. Sokoloff, Colin E. Freebury, Paul B. Hamilton, Jeffery M. Saarela
‡ Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Canada
Open Access
Abstract

The Mars Desert Research Station is a Mars analog research site located in the desert outside of Hanksville, Utah, U.S.A. Here we present a preliminary checklist of the vascular plant and lichen flora for the station, based on collections made primarily during a two-week simulated Mars mission in November, 2014. Additionally, we present notes on the endolithic chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and the identification of a fungal genus also based on these collections. Altogether, we recorded 38 vascular plant species from 14 families, 13 lichen species from seven families, six algae taxa including both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and one fungal genus from the station and surrounding area. We discuss this floristic diversity in the context of the ecology of the nearby San Rafael Swell and the desert areas of Wayne and Emery counties in southeastern Utah.

Keywords

Analog Research; Floristics; Astrobiology

Introduction

"Hell yeah I'm a botanist! Fear my botany powers!" - Mark Watney (The Martian, by Andy Weir).

The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) (http://mdrs.marssociety.org/) is a Mars analog research site located in the desert approximately 9 km outside of Hanksville, in Wayne County, Utah, U.S.A. at 38°24'23.12"N, 110°47'30.94"W (Figs 1, 2). The station is located 5 km north of Utah State Route 24 along Cow Dung Road, which continues north for another 5 km to the Burpee Dinosaur Quarry, a recently described bone bed from the Jurassic Morrison Formation (Mathews et al. 2009).

Figure 1.

The Mars Desert Research Station near Hanksville, Utah. The large white building on the left is the primary living and working structure (commonly known as the "hab"). To the right of the hab is the station's greenhouse (the "GreenHab"). This photo shows the original GreenHab, burned down on December 29th, 2014, and has since been replaced. The white building to the right is the Musk Observatory. Photo by P.C. Sokoloff. Photo taken on November 16th, 2014.

Figure 2.

Location of the Mars Desert Research Station habitat and our study area, including 11 collection sites (orange dots, ten are from 2014, one is from 2015), northwest of Hanksville, Utah, U.S.A. Inset map of Utah at top right indicates extent of map (smaller white outlined area). Map data courtesy of Google, SIO, NOAA, U.S. Navy, NGA, GEBCO, and Landsat.

Constructed by the Mars Society (http://www.marssociety.org/) in 2002 and operated continuously ever since, MDRS, and its Arctic counterpart, the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) (http://fmars.marssociety.org/), on Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada, are designed as testbeds for future manned missions to Mars (Bamsey et al. 2009). Visiting crews from multiple scientific and engineering disciplines conduct research at the stations on how to live and work on Mars without having to leave Earth.

Astrobiology, the study of the evolution and distribution of life throughout the universe (including Earth), is a field increasingly represented at MDRS. Professionals in the field seek to refine techniques to detect life on other worlds, and to answer outstanding questions about the origins of life here on Earth (Thiel et al. 2011). At MDRS, astrobiologists have conducted studies ranging from the detection of biomarkers (Martins et al. 2011) and extremophiles (Direito et al. 2011) in the local soils, to the automated detection of life using computer algorithms (Gross et al. 2009), and more. This search for life in extreme environments on Earth is an excellent analog to the search for life on Mars. During their studies, astrobiologists, soil specialists, geologists and other scientists working at MDRS frequently come across, or seek out, vascular plants, lichens, algae, cyanobacteria, and fungi while conducting field research.

Utah is a floristically diverse state, with some 2995 vascular plant species and infrataxa distributed in diverse ecosystems (Welsh et al. 1993). The cool deserts of southeastern Utah, where MDRS is located, possess diverse vascular plant (Andersen 1996) and biological soil crust communities (Belnap 2002). The distribution of these communities is determined primarily by the underlying geology, elevation, and moisture, all of which vary across the deserts of the region (Coles et al. 2009).

There is a long history of floristic work in southeastern Utah. Complete vascular plant inventories exist for two ecologically similar areas close to MDRS: Capitol Reef National Park (Heil et al. 1993, Fertig 2009) and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (Hill and Ayers 2009). The latter location contains the Orange Cliffs, which have a well-studied vascular plant flora (Shultz et al. 1987). Fertig (2009) presents a comprehensive overview of previous vascular plant collection efforts throughout the region. The closest and best studied flora near MDRS is that of the San Rafael Swell, approximately 23 km northwest of the station. Harris (1983) compiled a vascular plant inventory, including 478 species, for this large geological feature that dominates southeastern Utah.

The inventories of vascular plants from the San Rafael Swell and Capitol Reef National Park provide a useful comparison to our own study region at MDRS. All three sites share common geological characteristics, notably the Mancos Shale and Morrison Formation (Coles et al. 2009, Direito et al. 2011, Gilluly 1929). These locations also share many common vascular plant communities based on this underlying geology.

For example, the vascular plant communities of the desert flats immediately surrounding MDRS correspond well to the description of the "Salt Desert Shrub Zone" in Harris (1983), which is characteristic of the Mancos Shale (Coles et al. 2009). The vegetation found on nearby sandstone outcrops and plateaus relate to the "Mixed Desert Shrub Zone" (Harris 1983). The alkaline clay soils of the station area are dominated by Achnatherum hymenoides, Atriplex sp., Eriogonum inflatum, and Kali tragus, while the sandstone outcrops support communities of Artemisia sp., Ephedra viridis, and Dasyochloa pulchella. Where these two ecological zones meet north of MDRS near Kent's Reservoir (a small pond immediately west of Cow Dung Road at 38°25'27.70"N, 110°47'17.01"W), there is an ecological gradient, including water-intensive stands of Tamarix ramosissima on wet alkaline soils of the Salt Desert Zone, mixed with Artemesia and Ericameria nauseosa, both characteristic of the Mixed Desert zone (Harris 1983). Further north along Cow Dung Road, the floodplains of a seasonally wet creek support healthy stands of Sarcobatus vermiculatus and other species that are known from the floodplains of the Salt Desert Zone (Harris 1983). This wide variety of habitat types, all differentiated by water availability and geological substrate, support a diverse vascular plant flora around MDRS.

The lichen flora of eastern Wayne County, in which MDRS is located, and adjacent eastern Emery County includes approximately 61 species. This is an estimate based on a catalogue of the lichens of Utah (St. Clair et al. 1991), notes on the state's lichen flora (Newberry and St. Clair 1991, St. Clair et al. 1995), and a flora of the terricolous lichens of the San Rafael Swell (Rajvanshi et al. 1998). A large part of this regional flora was found on soil (28) or rock (26). Of the total, seven species from Capitol Reef National Park in Wayne Co. were collected on either Juniperus, which was not observed in the study area, or on wood (e.g., dead shrubs), which was not examined for lichens during this study. The number of 61 reported lichen species for the reference region is dated and therefore likely a conservative estimate of the potential number of species to be found in the study area.

Given the diverse local flora, and the increasing prevalance of biological studies at MDRS, our primary objective for this study was to collect and identify the vascular plants, lichens, fungi, and endolithic cyanobacteria and algae (sub-surface photosynthetic life) at MDRS. These endolithic taxa are of particular interest to astrobiologists as model systems in the search for life on Mars (Direito et al. 2011). A secondary objective of our fieldwork was to practice and evaluate the techniques needed to collect biological samples during simulated Martian fieldwork.

Materials and methods

Fieldwork

From November 15–30, 2014, Paul Sokoloff participated in MDRS Expedition 143 (http://mdrs.marssociety.org/home/crew-143) as Crew Biologist, and was part of a six-person crew staying at MDRS for an 11-day simulated mission to Mars. Over the course of five extra-vehicular activities (EVAs: all activities that take place outside the "hab" while in simulation), representing approximately 20 hours of collecting time, all vascular plant, lichen, fungi, and endolithic cyanobacteria and algae species encountered (except for completely dead, unidentifiable vascular plants), were collected by Paul Sokoloff with the assistance of other crew members (typically one other crew member per trip). In each area visited, as many microhabitats as possible were explored for unique plants and lichens. EVA teams wore simulated spacesuits, consisting of overalls, hiking boots with gaiters, thick gloves, a backpack containing a fan (the simulated oxygen supply), and a clear bubble helmet. These simulated suits let field teams practice standard field work activities while having to cope with restricted vision and movement, both obstacles that would have to be overcome on a real mission to Mars (Fig. 3).

Figure 3.

MDRS Expedition 143 Commander Paul Knightly walking through stands of Ericameria nauseosa (Sokoloff 284, large yellow shrubs) and Ephedra viridis (wiry green shrub at centre of photo) at Kent's Reservoir while wearing a simulated spacesuit. Photo by P.C. Sokoloff.

While on EVAs we used standard collection techniques: plant samples were dug out at the roots or clipped from larger trunks, crustose lichens and cyanobacteria were chiseled away from rocky substrates, material was placed in numbered sample bags, coordinates were logged using a standard GPS receiver, and collection site notes were recorded. Owing to their fragile nature and the requirement for special collecting techniques, no effort was made to collect any of the soil crust lichens that might be found at MDRS. Specimens were pressed and processed as appropriate inside the lab at MDRS (where simulated spacesuits were not required).

Where possible, photographs of the specimen in situ and of the habitat were taken at the time of collection. These photos are included in the species accounts below. Photos by C.E. Freebury, P.B. Hamilton, and those in Figures 8 and 10 by P.C. Sokoloff were taken under laboratory conditions in Ottawa. All other photographs were taken in the field. Photographs of vouchered lichen and vascular plant specimens include the collection number, while photographs of plants that were not collected include the location at which the photo was taken and the date.

In total, we collected 46 vascular plant specimens, 18 lichen samples (some of which were subdivided upon return to Ottawa), three rock samples containing endolithic cyanobacteria and algae, and one fungus from 10 collection sites during Expedition 143 (Fig. 2). These collection sites were chosen based on satellite images and topographical maps as representatives of the common habitat types around MDRS, so as to maximize the number of different species collected. The Mars Desert Research Station is situated in the southwest corner of this study area: our furthest north (five km from the "hab") and east (two km from the "hab") collection sites delimit an approximately 10 km2 area covered by this study.

A follow-up visit was made to the study area from September 19–20, 2015, during which Paul Sokoloff collected three additional vascular plant specimens from one existing and one new collection site, and photo-documented one vascular plant species. These activities were not carried out under simulated Martian conditions.

Vascular Plant and Lichen Identification

With the exception of the fungus specimen, which was sent to the National Mycological Herbarium at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (DAOM) in Ottawa, the entire set of 71 specimens was deposited at the National Herbarium of Canada (CAN - vascular plants, CANL - lichens, CANA - algae), Canadian Museum of Nature. A duplicate set of 50 specimens was deposited at the Intermountain Herbarium at Utah State University (UTC).

All authors identified a subset of the collections reported here, as noted in the collection data for each specimen. Where appropriate, species accounts include analysis and discussion for each taxon. Vascular plant species were identified using the Flora of North America (chapters cited in species accounts), A Utah Flora (Welsh et al. 1993), and various primary literature sources cited in the species accounts below. For each vascular plant species we report whether or not the species is recorded in the nearby, well-studied San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983).

Lichen species were identified using the methods and keys provided in Lichens of North America Brodo et al. (2001) and Brodo et al. (2016). One lichen specimen (Sokoloff 307) was not identifiable, and is not treated here. All mounted and processed vascular plant and lichen specimens at CAN and CANL were scanned and/or photographed, and are presented here as supplemental files, as cited in the species descriptions.

Algae and Cyanobacteria Identification

Selected fractured rock samples (Sokoloff 249, 290, 301) were examined at the Canadian Museum of Nature lab with an Olympus SZX12 dissecting microscope. Observed zones of endolithic algae and cyanobacteria were sampled by selectively isolating the algae from associated granular stone particles. Stone fragments with algae and/or cyanobacteria were picked and either cultured or placed on a microscope slide and squashed for direct examination. Culturing was conducted using 5 ml of sterile BBM Medium in 50 ml falcon tubes held at 22°C under natural and ambient light during the day. After two weeks the cultures were examined. Compound microscope examinations of original and cultured squash samples were initiated after stone fragments were removed from the slides before a semi-permanent slide mount was prepared. A Leica DMR HC microscope with differential interference contrast (DIC), phase contrast and bright field optics was used with a 100x Plan Apo (NA 1.35) objective for all microscopic examinations. Identifications were primarily based on the taxonomic treatments of Komárek and Anagnostidis (1999) and Ettl and Gärtner (2014).

Algae and Cyanobacteria Collections

Phylum Chlorophyta and Phylum Cyanobacteria

Material    Download as CSV 
Notes: 

Six taxa of endolithic and endophytic algae and cyanobacteria were identified in this study. Two taxa independently (Trebouxia sp. 1 & Gloeocapsa sp.) formed a mixed layer (predominantly Gloeocapsa sp.) 1–4 mm below the surface within one sandstone sample (Sokoloff 290, Figs 4, 5). In a quartz sample (Sokoloff 301), Gloeocapsa sp. was the dominant taxon growing on the underside of a quartz rock found embedded in desert sand, along with an unknown chlorophyte (Chaetophorales) within crevices of the rock. In another sample, Trebouxia sp. 1 was also observed as a distinct layer 1–4 mm below the sandstone surface (Sokoloff 249). On average, there was 1–6 sand grains of varying shapes, sizes and orientation between the outer surface and the endolith. The algae layer varied from 0.5 to 1.5 mm in thickness and ranged from disrupted to continuous. In the three samples collected, the expanse of these layers ranged from 0.5 cm2 to 2.5 cm2. In two samples (Sokoloff 249, 290) lichens (Lecanora cf. garovaglii, Acarospora strigata) were scattered across the surface with subsurface expansions of the fungi into the sandstone (Fig. 6d, Fig. 7). Scattered fungi were also observed within the endolithic algae layers (Fig. 5). In two lichen samples examined for photobionts, Heteroplacidium compactum (Sokoloff 296) and Placidium acarosporoides (Sokoloff 305), the alga Myrmecia sp. was observed within the lichens.

Figure 4.

Endolithic algae from sandstone. Scale bar = 20 μm. Photos by P.B. Hamilton.

aTrebouxia sp. 1. Endolithic cells from sandstone.
bTrebouxia sp. 1. Cultured spherical cells showing single and colony forming cells.
cTrebouxia sp. 1. Cultured single cell showing lobed chloroplast plate with central pyrenoid.
dTrebouxia sp. 4. Two cells grouped together.
eTrebouxia sp. 4. Single cell showing lobed chloroplast with one to 5+ pyrenoids.
fTrebouxia sp. 4. Fungal hyphae associated with cells.
Figure 5.

Endolithic cyanobacteria from sandstone. Scale bar = 20 μm. Photos by P.B. Hamilton.

aGloeocapsa sp. Compact rectangular to sub-rectangular colonies with scattered single cells.
bGloeocapsa sp. Small colonies less than or equal to 4 cells. Wall sheath thick.
cGloeocapsa sp. Single cell and small colony showing thick sheath.
Figure 6.

Sandstones showing endolithic and epilithic algae, with associated lichens. Photos by P.B. Hamilton.

aEndolithic subsurface layer of Trebouxia sp. 1 (Sokoloff 249, arrow). Scale bar = 5 mm.
bEndolithic subsurface layer of Gloeocapsa sp. 1 (Sokoloff 290, arrow). Scale bar = 2.5 mm.
cExposed Trebouxia sp. Scale bar = 2.5 mm.
dLecanora garovaglii with residual fungal hyphae (arrow). Scale bar = 5 mm.
eLichen, Verrucariaceae family, scattered squamules. Scale bar = 2.5 mm.
fPartial unidentified lichen ball (single arrow). Fine residual hyphae, identity unknown (double arrow). Scale bar = 2.5 mm.
Figure 7.

Photobionts (algae). a-d: Trebouxia sp. 2 within Acarospora strigata. e-f: Trebouxia sp. 2 within Lecanora cf. garovaglii. Scale bar = 20 μm. Photos by P.B. Hamilton.

aCell squash highlighting Trebouxia sp. 2 with solid flattened chloroplast plates extending across the cell. Pyrenoid present in 6 cells. Cell wall <0.8 μm thick.
bChloroplast poorly discoid or a flattened plate. Pyrenoid present in a few cells. Cell wall up to 1 μm in thickness.
cCultured cells showing larger size, single cells and colony with pie-shaped cells.
dColonial form within the lichen, cells with flattened plate-like chloroplast and thick cell walls.
eSquash showing single cells with a solid chloroplast and thin cell walls.
fTrebouxia sp. 2 with hyphae of Lecanora cf. garovaglii.

Phylum Chlorophyta

Material    Download as CSV 

Trebouxia sp. 1

Nomenclature: 

[T. cf. anticipata Ahm./ T. cf. gelatinosa Ahm./ T. cf. aggregata (Arch.) Gärtner]

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Chlorophyta
    ; class:
    Trebouxiophyceae
    ; order:
    Trebouxiales
    ; family:
    Trebouxiaceae
    ; genus:
    Trebouxia
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station, Hanksville, Utah, 500 m radius of "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'23.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'31.1"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 17, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandstone
    ; recordNumber:
    249
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Hamilton, Paul B.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2016
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANA 117864
    ; collectionCode:
    CANA, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Dried Specimen
Notes: 

Cells spherical to weakly elliptical, 8–15.0 μm in diameter (Fig. 4 a-c; Fig. 6 a). In culture cells were spherical, up to 19 μm in diameter, the cell wall sheath <0.5 μm. Chloroplast plate-like, sometimes lobed, covering most of the cell. One pyrenoid present, at times difficult to distinguish. In the natural population the cell wall sheath was thick, up to 1.5 μm. Colonies of daughter cells tightly packed, forming wedge-shaped colonies in spherical to elliptical clusters. Endolithic, forming a fine linear layer (flake-like) 0.1–0.4 mm below surface of sandstone.

Trebouxia sp. 2

Nomenclature: 

[T. cf. gelatinosa Ahm./ T. cf. aggregata (Arch.) Gärtner]

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Chlorophyta
    ; class:
    Trebouxiophyceae
    ; order:
    Trebouxiales
    ; family:
    Trebouxiaceae
    ; genus:
    Trebouxia
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station, Hanksville, Utah 500 m, radius of "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'23.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'31.1"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 17, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandstone
    ; recordNumber:
    249
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Hamilton, Paul B.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2016
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANA 117864
    ; collectionCode:
    CANA, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Dried Specimen
  2. kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Chlorophyta
    ; class:
    Trebouxiophyceae
    ; order:
    Trebouxiales
    ; family:
    Trebouxiaceae
    ; genus:
    Trebouxia
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    "Comm check" hill, 1.7 km north of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.15"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'54.59"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandstone at crest of Artemisia and Ephedra dominated hilltop
    ; recordNumber:
    290
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Hamilton, Paul B.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2016
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANA 117865
    ; collectionCode:
    CANA
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Dried Specimen
Notes: 

Cells elliptical to spherical, 7–21.0 μm in diameter (Fig. 7 a-f). In culture cells were spherical, up to 19–22 μm in diameter and the cell wall sheath was <0.5 μm. Chloroplast large, plate-like to lobed, covering most of the cell. One pyrenoid present, at times difficult to distinguish. In the natural population, the cell wall sheath was <1.5 μm. Colonies of daughter cells tightly packed, forming wedge-shaped colonies in spherical to elliptical clusters. This was found in two lichen species (Acarospora strigata and Lecanora cf. garovaglii) forming a fine linear layer 5–100 μm thick, approximately 75–100 μm below the lichen surface.

Trebouxia sp. 3

Nomenclature: 

[T. cf. gelatinosa Ahm./ T. cf. aggregata (Arch.) Gärtner]

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Chlorophyta
    ; class:
    Trebouxiophyceae
    ; order:
    Trebouxiales
    ; family:
    Trebouxiaceae
    ; genus:
    Trebouxia
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    "Comm check" hill, 1.7 km north of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.15"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'54.59"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandstone at crest of Artemisia and Ephedra dominated hilltop
    ; recordNumber:
    290
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Hamilton, Paul B.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2016
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANA 117865
    ; collectionCode:
    CANA
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Dried Specimen
Notes: 

Cells spherical to weakly elliptical, 7.0–15.0 μm in diameter (Fig. 8 a-c). Chloroplast plate-like, covering most of the cell. Culturing of this taxon was not successful. Pyrenoid difficult to distinguish. Cell wall sheath 1–2+ μm thick. Small clusters of cells, or colonies of daughter cells. Endophytic within an unidentified lichen (brown-black spheres) from the Verrucariaceae family (Fig. 8).

Figure 8.

Trebouxia sp. 3 within an unidentified lichen. Scale bar = 20 μm. Photos by P.B. Hamilton.

aSquash showing single cells of small colonies.
bSquash showing single cells of small colonies.
cCells with a broad flattened plate and very thick sheath (>1.5 μm).

Trebouxia sp. 4

Nomenclature: 

[T. cf. usneae (Hildreth & Ahm.) Gärtner/ T. cf. potteri Ahm. ex. Gärtner]

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Chlorophyta
    ; class:
    Trebouxiophyceae
    ; order:
    Trebouxiales
    ; family:
    Trebouxiaceae
    ; genus:
    Trebouxia
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    "Comm check" hill, 1.7 km north of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.15"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'54.59"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandstone at crest of Artemisia and Ephedra dominated hilltop
    ; recordNumber:
    290
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Hamilton, Paul B.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2016
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANA 117865
    ; collectionCode:
    CANA
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Dried Specimen
Notes: 

Cells spherical to weakly elliptical, 12–15.0 μm in diameter (Fig. 4 e-f). Chloroplast lobed, covering most of the cell. One to many pyrenoids present, at times difficult to distinguish. In the natural population the cell wall sheath was thin <0.8 μm. Small colonies of daughter cells tightly packed in forming broad wedge-shaped colonies in spherical to elliptical clusters. Endolithic, scattered with Gloeocapsa sp. 0.1–0.4 mm below the sandstone surface.

Myrmecia sp.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Chlorophyta
    ; class:
    Trebouxiophyceae
    ; order:
    Trebouxiales
    ; family:
    Trebouxiaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Myrmecia
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Roadside along ATV trail 2 km east of Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1348 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'53.8"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'18"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 23 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandstone rubble and sandy plains.
    ; recordNumber:
    296
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Hamilton Paul B.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127964
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Dried Specimen
  2. kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Chlorophyta
    ; class:
    Trebouxiophyceae
    ; order:
    Trebouxiales
    ; family:
    Trebouxiaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Myrmecia
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Alluvial plain and dry creekbed directly opposite turnoff to Mars Desert Research Station on Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1357 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'19.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'20"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 24 2014
    ; habitat:
    Calcareous sandstone
    ; recordNumber:
    305
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Hamilton Paul B
    ; dateIdentified:
    2016
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127965
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Cells elliptical, length 6.5–15.5 μm, width 5–12 μm (Fig. 9). Chloroplast plate-like (1-many), covering most of the cell. Pyrenoid absent. Cell mucilage 0.5–1.5 μm thick. Endophytic, within two species of lichen in family Verrucariaceae (Fig. 9). Earlier descriptions of M. biatorellae indicated a broad range in cell size, however a more recent treatment of the genus (Ettl and Gärtner 2014) suggests that cells of M. biatorellae are larger than the cells observed here.

Figure 9.

Photobionts (algae). Scale bars = 20 um. Photos by P.B. Hamilton.

aMyrmecia sp. in Heteroplacidium compactum.
bMyrmecia sp. in Heteroplacidium compactum.
cMyrmecia sp. in Heteroplacidium compactum.
dMyrmecia sp. in Placidium acarosporoides.
eMyrmecia sp. in Placidium acarosporoides.
fMyrmecia sp. in Placidium acarosporoides.

Phylum Cyanobacteria

Material    Download as CSV 

Gloeocapsa sp.

Nomenclature: 

[G. cf. coracina Kütz.]

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. kingdom:
    Eubacteria
    ; phylum:
    Cyanobacteria
    ; class:
    Cyanophyceae
    ; order:
    Chroococcales
    ; family:
    Microcystaceae
    ; genus:
    Gloeocapsa
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    "Comm check" hill, 1.7 km north of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.15"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'54.59"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandstone at crest of Artemisia and Ephedra dominated hilltop
    ; recordNumber:
    290
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Hamilton, Paul B.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2016
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANA 117865
    ; collectionCode:
    CANA
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Dried Specimen
  2. kingdom:
    Eubacteria
    ; phylum:
    Cyanobacteria
    ; class:
    Cyanophyceae
    ; order:
    Chroococcales
    ; family:
    Microcystaceae
    ; genus:
    Gloeocapsa
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Alluvial plain and dry creekbed directly opposite turnoff to Mars Desert Research Station on Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1357 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'19.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'20"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 24 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandstone rubble and sandy plains
    ; recordNumber:
    301
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Hamilton, Paul B.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2016
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANA 117866
    ; collectionCode:
    CANA
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Dried Specimen
Notes: 

Cells small ovals, found as single cells, two cell clusters or in small clusters of daughter cells within thin firm colourless sheaths. Length 2.5–5(6) μm by 1.5–3 μm wide, cell wall sheath thickness 0.8–1.6 μm. Mats of cells form as a collection of single cells or clusters of daughter cells closely packed together. Layer occurring 0.1–0.4 mm below the sandstone surface, or on the underside of quartzite rocks (Fig. 10).

Figure 10.

Gloeocapsa sp (Sokoloff 301). A blue-green layer of cyanobacteria (and an unknown chorophyte) growing on the underside of quartzite stone (stone has been flipped and the surface previously exposed is at the bottom of this photograph). Photo by P.C. Sokoloff.

Fungus Collections

Family Agaricaceae

Material    Download as CSV 

Tulostoma sp.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Basidiomycota
    ; class:
    Agaricomycetes
    ; order:
    Agaricales
    ; family:
    Agaricaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Genus
    ; genus:
    Tulostoma
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Sandstone plateau immediately southwest of Mars Desert Research Station, alongside ATV trail
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1412 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'22.4"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'40.3"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 24, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Dry conglomerate sandstone
    ; recordNumber:
    308
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Redhead, Scott
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    AAFC
    ; collectionCode:
    DAOM
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This is a diverse woody mushroom genus common in deserts of the southwestern United States (Hernandez Caffot et al. 2011). This specimen was found growing on sandy soils on top of the plateau immediately southwest of MDRS. Unfortunately, the specimen was too old and degraded for anything other than a generic determination (Scott A. Redhead, personal communication) (Fig. 11).

Figure 11.

Tulostoma sp. (Sokoloff 308). Photo by P.C. Sokoloff.

Lichen Collections

Family Acarosporaceae

Material    Download as CSV 

Acarospora peliscypha Th. Fr.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Acarospora peliscypha Th. Fr.
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Lecanoromycetes
    ; order:
    Acarosporales
    ; family:
    Acarosporaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Acarospora
    ; specificEpithet:
    peliscypha
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Th. Fr.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    "Comm check" hill, 1.7 km north of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.15"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'54.59"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Conglomerate sandstone hilltop dominated by Artemisia and Ephedra
    ; recordNumber:
    286
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, Colin E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; identificationRemarks:
    Additional specimens examined: Utah: Grand County, Sharnoff & Sharnoff 1635.01 (CANL), on partially calcareous sandstone. Colorado: Boulder County, Shushan & Weber S3363 (CANL), on acidic sandstone.
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127960
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Acarospora peliscypha is an epruinose species; the whitish material on this specimen, as shown on the right side of Fig. 12, is not pruina but represents an accumulation of necrotic material. Although we were unable to find previous published reports of this species from Utah, we did examine one previous collection from that state. This species has been described from the Sonoran Desert as growing on granite only (Knudsen 2007), however we found the species on partially calcareous sandstone.

Figure 12.

Acarospora peliscypha (Sokoloff 286). Habit. On partially calcareous sandstone. Photo by C.E. Freebury.

Supplemental File: CANL 127960 (Suppl. material 1).

Acarospora rosulata (Th. Fr.) H. Magn.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Acarospora rosulata (Th. Fr.) H. Magn.
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Lecanoromycetes
    ; order:
    Acarosporales
    ; family:
    Acarosporaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Acarospora
    ; specificEpithet:
    rosulata
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Th. Fr.) H. Magn.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Alluvial plain and dry creekbed directly opposite turnoff to Mars Desert Research Station on Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1357 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'19.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'20"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 24, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandstone rubble on sandy plain
    ; recordNumber:
    303
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, Colin E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; identificationReferences:
    Knudsen et al. (2010)
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127968
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Medulla KC+ pink, C+ pink (gyrophoric acid); on limestone. Acarospora rosulata has been previously reported from Utah as Acarospora bullata by Newberry and St. Clair (1991) (Sevier County), Leavitt and St. Clair (2008) (Wayne County) and Knudsen et al. (2010) (San Juan County and Sevier County).

Supplemental File: CANL 127968 (Suppl. material 2).

Acarospora stapfiana (Müll. Arg.) Hue

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Acarospora stapfiana (Müll. Arg.) Hue
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Lecanoromycetes
    ; order:
    Acarosporales
    ; family:
    Acarosporaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Acarospora
    ; specificEpithet:
    stapfiana
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Müll. Arg.) Hue
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Dry streambed approx 500 m northeast of Mars Desert Research Station "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'27.7"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'20"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 20, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Rock-strewn hill with bird-perch boulder
    ; recordNumber:
    270
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, Colin E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; identificationRemarks:
    Parasitic on C. trachyphylla
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127958
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This lichen was encountered growing on sandstone and parasitically on Caloplaca trachyphylla (Fig. 13) in the shade of a large rock due northeast of MDRS. Acarospora stapfiana has been previously reported from Capitol Reef National Park (St. Clair et al. 1995).

Figure 13.

Acarospora stapfiana. Photos by P.C. Sokoloff.

aHabit, growing on sandstone and parasitic on Caloplaca trachyphylla (orange lichen). Vicinity of Mars Desert Research Station, November 20, 2014.
bThallus detail (Sokoloff 270).

Supplemental File: CANL 127958 (Suppl. material 3).

Acarospora strigata (Nyl.) Jatta

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Acarospora strigata (Nyl.) Jatta
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Lecanoromycetes
    ; order:
    Acarosporales
    ; family:
    Acarosporaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Acarospora
    ; specificEpithet:
    strigata
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Nyl.) Jatta
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station, Hanksville, Utah, 500 m radius of "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'23.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'31.1"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 17, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Conglomerate sandstone hilltop
    ; recordNumber:
    248
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, Colin E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127953
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
  2. scientificName:
    Acarospora strigata (Nyl.) Jatta
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Lecanoromycetes
    ; order:
    Acarosporales
    ; family:
    Acarosporaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Acarospora
    ; specificEpithet:
    strigata
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Nyl.) Jatta
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    "Comm check" hill, 1.7 km north of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.15"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'54.59"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Conglomerate sandstone hilltop dominated by Artemisia and Ephedra
    ; recordNumber:
    288
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, Colin E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; institutionCode:
    CANL 127962
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
  3. scientificName:
    Acarospora strigata (Nyl.) Jatta
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Lecanoromycetes
    ; order:
    Acarosporales
    ; family:
    Acarosporaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Acarospora
    ; specificEpithet:
    strigata
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Nyl.) Jatta
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Alluvial plain and dry creekbed directly opposite turnoff to Mars Desert Research Station on Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1357 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'19.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'20"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 24, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandstone rubble on sandy plain
    ; recordNumber:
    304
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, Colin E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127969
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
  4. scientificName:
    Acarospora strigata (Nyl.) Jatta
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Lecanoromycetes
    ; order:
    Acarosporales
    ; family:
    Acarosporaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Acarospora
    ; specificEpithet:
    strigata
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Nyl.) Jatta
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Sandstone plateau immediately southwest of Mars Desert Research Station, alongside ATV trail
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1412 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'22.4"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'40.3"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 24, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Rock-strewn hill
    ; recordNumber:
    306
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, Colin E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127952
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This greyish-white crustose lichen was commonly encountered growing on sandstone rocks surrounding MDRS (Fig. 14). The species was previously reported from eastern Wayne County by St. Clair et al. (1991).

Figure 14.

Acarospora strigata (Sokoloff 248). Photos by P.C. Sokoloff (A) and C.E. Freebury (B).

aHabitat on sandstone.
bHabit.

Supplemental Files: CANL 127953 (Suppl. material 4), CANL 127962 (Suppl. material 5), CANL 127969 (Suppl. material 6), CANL 127966 (Suppl. material 7).

Polysporina gyrocarpa (H. Magn.) N. S. Golubk.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Polysporina gyrocarpa (H. Magn.) N. S. Golubk.
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Lecanoromycetes
    ; order:
    Acarosporales
    ; family:
    Acarosporaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Polysporina
    ; specificEpithet:
    gyrocarpa
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (H. Magn.) N. S. Golubk.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station, Hanksville, Utah, 500 m radius of "hab".
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'23.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'31.1"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 17, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandstone rubble on sandy plain
    ; recordNumber:
    247
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, Colin E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; identificationReferences:
    Knudsen and Kocourková (2009)
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127952
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
  2. scientificName:
    Polysporina gyrocarpa (H. Magn.) N. S. Golubk.
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Lecanoromycetes
    ; order:
    Acarosporales
    ; family:
    Acarosporaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Polysporina
    ; specificEpithet:
    gyrocarpa
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (H. Magn.) N. S. Golubk.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station, Hanksville, Utah, 500 m radius of "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'23.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'31.1"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 17, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandstone rubble on sandy plain
    ; recordNumber:
    250
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, Colin E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127954
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
  3. scientificName:
    Polysporina gyrocarpa (H. Magn.) N. S. Golubk.
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Lecanoromycetes
    ; order:
    Acarosporales
    ; family:
    Acarosporaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Polysporina
    ; specificEpithet:
    gyrocarpa
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (H. Magn.) N. S. Golubk.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    "Comm check" hill, 1.7 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.15"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'54.59"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Conglomerate sandstone hilltop dominated by Artemisia and Ephedra
    ; recordNumber:
    286b
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, Colin E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127970
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
  4. scientificName:
    Polysporina gyrocarpa (H. Magn.) N. S. Golubk.
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Lecanoromycetes
    ; order:
    Acarosporales
    ; family:
    Acarosporaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Polysporina
    ; specificEpithet:
    gyrocarpa
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (H. Magn.) N. S. Golubk.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Along Cow Dung Road north of the Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'19.35"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'5.4"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Moist desert flats
    ; recordNumber:
    289
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, Colin E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127963
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This species was commonly encountered growing on sandstone rocks and outcrops surrounding MDRS; the black, dot-like apothecia stand out well on tan-coloured sandstone (Fig. 15). Polysporina gyrocarpa was previously reported from Wayne County as Sarcogyne oligospora H. Magn. (St. Clair et al. 1991) and as Polysporina oligospora (H. Magn.) K. Knudsen (Knudsen and Lendemer 2005), and from the San Rafael Swell (Knudsen and Kocourková 2009).

Figure 15.

Polysporina gyrocarpa (Sokoloff 247). Habit. Photo by P.C. Sokoloff.

Supplemental Files: CANL 127952 (Suppl. material 8), CANL 127954 (Suppl. material 9), CANL 127963 (Suppl. material 10), CANL 127970 (Suppl. material 11).

Family Candelariaceae

Material    Download as CSV 

Candelariella rosulans (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Candelariella cf. rosulans (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Lecanoromycetes
    ; order:
    Candelariales
    ; family:
    Candelariaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Candelariella
    ; specificEpithet:
    rosulans
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Mull. Arg.) Zahlbr.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station, Hanksville, Utah, 500 m radius of "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'23.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'31.1"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 17, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Rocky soil
    ; reproductiveCondition:
    without fruiting bodies
    ; recordNumber:
    251
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, Colin E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; identificationQualifier:
    cf.
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127955
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
  2. scientificName:
    Candelariella rosulans (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Lecanoromycetes
    ; order:
    Candelariales
    ; family:
    Candelariaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Candelariella
    ; specificEpithet:
    rosulans
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Mull. Arg.) Zahlbr.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    "Comm check" hill, 1.7 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.15"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'54.59"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Conglomerate sandstone hilltop dominated by Artemisia and Ephedra
    ; recordNumber:
    288b
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, Colin E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; identificationReferences:
    Westberg (2007)
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127971
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Asci 8-spored, ascospores narrowly ellipsoid to oblong, 13-15 × (4-)5(-6) µm. This yellow lichen species (Fig. 16) is known from throughout much of western North America (Westberg 2007). It was previously reported from Wayne County by Westberg (2007) and Leavitt and St. Clair (2008).

Figure 16.

Candelariella rosulans (Sokoloff 288b). Habit. Scale bar = 1 mm. Photo by C.E. Freebury.

Supplemental Files: CANL 127955 (Suppl. material 12), CANL 127971 (Suppl. material 13).

Family Collemataceae

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Enchylium tenax (Sw.) Gray

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  1. scientificName:
    Enchylium tenax (Sw.) Gray
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Lecanoromycetes
    ; order:
    Lecanorales
    ; family:
    Collemataceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; vernacularName:
    Soil jelly lichen
    ; genus:
    Enchylium
    ; specificEpithet:
    tenax
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Sw.) Gray
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Alluvial plain and dry creekbed directly opposite turnoff to Mars Desert Research Station on Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1357 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'19.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'20"W
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 24, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandstone rubble on sandy plain
    ; reproductiveCondition:
    Apothecia absent
    ; recordNumber:
    305b
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Brodo, I. M.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2016
    ; identificationRemarks:
    Additional specimen examined: Utah: Emery County, San Rafael Swell; on soil. S. & S.D. Sharnoff 1181.21 (CANL).
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127973
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Small sample, ca. 2 cm diam.; on sandy soil. Enchylium tenax (syn. Collema tenax (Sw.) Ach.) (Otálora et al. 2013) is a cosmopolitan species that is widely variable in terms of habit, color and isidia (Schultz et al. 2004). This particular specimen (Fig. 17) has somewhat ascending lobes and lacks apothecia. The species was previously reported as Collema tenax from the San Rafael Swell by Rajvanshi et al. (1998).

Figure 17.

Enchylium tenax (Sokoloff 305b). Habit. Scale bar = 3 mm. Photo by C.E. Freebury.

Supplemental File: CANL 127937 (Suppl. material 14.

Family Lecanoraceae

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Lecanora garovaglii (Körber) Zahlbr.

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  1. scientificName:
    Lecanora garovaglii (Körber) Zahlbr.
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Lecanoromycetes
    ; order:
    Lecanorales
    ; family:
    Lecanoraceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Lecanora
    ; specificEpithet:
    garovaglii
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Körber) Zahlbr.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    "Comm check" hill, 1.7 km north of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.15"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'54.59"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Conglomerate sandstone hilltop dominated by Artemisia and Ephedra
    ; recordNumber:
    287
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, Colin E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; identificationRemarks:
    Additional specimen examined: Utah: Carbon County, B. D. Ryan 18077, on sandstone (CANL).
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127961
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Cortex KC+ gold (usnic & isousnic acids). Lecanora garovaglii (Fig. 18) is common throughout the semi-arid regions of central North America (Brodo et al. 2001). It has been previously reported from Boulder Mt. Plateau, Wayne County by Leavitt and St. Clair (2008).

Figure 18.

Lecanora garovaglii (Sokoloff 287). Habit. Scale bar = 1 cm. Photo by C.E. Freebury.

Supplemental File: CANL 127961 (Suppl. material 15).

Family Physicaceae

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Buellia abstracta (Nyl.) H. Olivier

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  1. scientificName:
    Buellia abstracta (Nyl.) H. Olivier
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Lecanoromycetes
    ; order:
    Teloschistales
    ; family:
    Physciaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Buellia
    ; specificEpithet:
    abstracta
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Nyl.) H. Olivier
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Dry streambed approx 500 m northeast of Mars Desert Research Station "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'27.7"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'20"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 20, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Hills with scattered sandstone boulders
    ; recordNumber:
    271
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, Colin E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127959
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Buellia abstracta has sometimes been treated incorrectly as Buellia sequax (Nyl.) Zahlbr. (Bungartz et al. 2007, Giralt et al. 2011), and it has been reported as such from southwestern Utah (Bungartz et al. 2004). We have been unable to find reports of the species from the San Rafael Swell or other nearby areas.

Supplemental File: CANL 127959 (Suppl. material 16).

Family Teloschistaceae

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Caloplaca trachyphylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Caloplaca trachyphylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Lecanoromycetes
    ; order:
    Teloschistales
    ; family:
    Teloschistaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Caloplaca
    ; specificEpithet:
    trachyphylla
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station, Hanksville, Utah, 500 m radius of "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'23.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'31.1"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 17, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Rocks on soil within a covered passageway
    ; recordNumber:
    252
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, Colin E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127956
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
  2. scientificName:
    Caloplaca trachyphylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Lecanoromycetes
    ; order:
    Teloschistales
    ; family:
    Teloschistaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Caloplaca
    ; specificEpithet:
    trachyphylla
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Tuck.) Zahlbr.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Dry streambed approx. 500 m northeast of Mars Desert Research Station "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'27.7"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'20"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 20, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Hilltop sandstone boulder, a bird perch
    ; recordNumber:
    269
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, Colin E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127957
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This species was one of the most conspicuous lichens encountered on EVAs (Fig. 19). One specimen (Sokoloff 252) was collected on a rock inside the passageway connecting the MDRS "hab" with the Musk Observatory. Though we follow Brodo et al. (2001) in treating this species as a member of Caloplaca, some authors treat this species as Xanthomendoza trachyphylla (Tuck.) Frödén, Arup & Søchting (Arup et al. 2013). Caloplaca trachyphylla is common in western North America (Brodo et al. 2001).

Figure 19.

Caloplaca trachyphylla. Photos by P.C. Sokoloff.

aHabitat, rock-strewn hill northeast of the Mars Desert Research Station (visible at right), November 20, 2014.
bHabit (Sokoloff 252).

Supplemental Files: CANL 127956 (Suppl. material 17), CANL 127957 (Suppl. material 18).

Family Verrucariaceae

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Heteroplacidium compactum (A. Massal.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux

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  1. scientificName:
    Heteroplacidium compactum (A. Massal.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Eurotiomycetes
    ; order:
    Verrucariales
    ; family:
    Verrucariaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Heteroplacidium
    ; specificEpithet:
    compactum
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (A. Massal.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Roadside along ATV trail 2 km east of Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1348 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'53.8"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'18"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 23, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandstone rubble on sandy plain
    ; recordNumber:
    296
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, Colin E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; identificationReferences:
    Breuss, O. (2007)
    ; identificationRemarks:
    Additional specimen examined: Saskatchewan: Grasslands National Park: Freebury 1335, independent on sandstone, parasitically on Verrucaria inficiens (CANL).
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127964
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Heteroplacidium compactum is widely distributed worldwide. It was previously reported from Utah as Catapyrenium compactum (A. Massal.) R. Sant. by St. Clair et al. (1991). This lichen begins as a parasite on other lichens, and then grows independently. Fig. 20 shows our specimen growing partly scattered among and likely parasitic on Caloplaca trachyphylla.

Figure 20.

Heteroplacidium compactum (arrows) (Sokoloff 296), growing among Caloplaca trachyphylla (orange). The whitish (pruinose) lichen is Acarospora stapfiana, which is also a facultative parasite. Photo by C.E. Freebury.

Supplemental File: CANL 127964 (Suppl. material 19).

Placidium acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) Breuss

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Placidium acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) Breuss
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Eurotiomycetes
    ; order:
    Verrucariales
    ; family:
    Verrucariaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Placidium
    ; specificEpithet:
    acarosporoides
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Zahlbr.) Breuss
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Alluvial plain and dry creekbed directly opposite turnoff to Mars Desert Research Station on Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1357 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'19.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'20"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 24, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandstone rubble on sandy plain
    ; recordNumber:
    305
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, C.E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; identificationReferences:
    Breuss (2002), Thomson (1987)
    ; identificationRemarks:
    Additional specimen examined: California: Riverside Co., Mojave Desert: S. & S.D. Sharnoff 1598.25, on granitic rock (CANL).
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127965
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Placidium acarosporoides was found growing on calcareous sandstone in the vicinity of MDRS (Fig. 21). It has been reported previously from eastern Wayne County by Thomson (1987) as Catapyrenium acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) J.W. Thomson.

Figure 21.

Placidium acarosporoides. Photos by P.C. Sokoloff (A) and C.E. Freebury (B).

aHabit. Vicinity of Mars Desert Research Station, Utah, November 29, 2014.
bConvex squamules forming an areolate-looking thallus (Sokoloff 305). Scale bar = 1 mm.

Supplemental File: CANL 127965 (Suppl. material 20).

Placidium lachneum (Ach.) Breuss

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  1. scientificName:
    Placidium lachneum (Ach.) Breuss
    ; kingdom:
    Fungi
    ; phylum:
    Ascomycota
    ; class:
    Eurotiomycetes
    ; order:
    Verrucariales
    ; family:
    Verrucariaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Placidium
    ; specificEpithet:
    lachneum
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Ach.) Breuss
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Alluvial plain and dry creekbed directly opposite turnoff to Mars Desert Research Station on Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1357 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'19.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'20"W
    ; geodeticDatum:
    WGS84
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 24, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandstone rubble on sandy plain
    ; recordNumber:
    305c
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Freebury, Colin E.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CANL 127972
    ; collectionCode:
    CANL
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This soil crust lichen is common in the Great Basin desert shrub lands and on the Colorado Plateau (St. Clair et al. 1991). The lower cortex is comprised of a distinct layer of globular cells, 20-70 μm high, with the lowermost cells brown to black. Breuss (2002) describes the lower cortex with angular cells in distinct vertical columns. McCune and Rosentreter (2007) provide a photo that shows +/- globular cells in a non-aligned pattern. Brodo et al. (2016) describe the cells of the lower cortex as spherical and sometimes in vertical columns, which corresponds well with our specimen (Fig. 20b). Other key characteristics of Placidium lachneum include the presence of marginal pycnidia and hyphal wefts that help to attach the lichen to the soil, as shown in Fig. 22c.

Figure 22.

Placidium lachneum (Sokoloff 305c). Photos by C.E. Freebury.

aSquamule section showing distinct lower cortex and hyphal weft (arrow).
bLower cortex cells in +/- vertical alignment. Scale bar = 10 µm.
cHyphal weft incorporating soil granules. Scale bar = 20 µm.

Supplemental File: CANL 127972 (Suppl. material 21).

Vascular Plant Collections

Family Amaranthaceae

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Atriplex confertifolia (Torr. & Frém.) S. Watson

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Atriplex confertifolia (Torr. & Frém.) S. Watson
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Caryophyllales
    ; family:
    Amaranthaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Atriplex
    ; specificEpithet:
    confertifolia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Torr. & Frém.) S. Watson
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Sandstone plateau immediately southwest of Mars Desert Research Station, alongside ATV trail
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1412 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'22.4"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'40.3"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 24, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Dry conglomerate sandstone
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    313
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607477
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Common on dry saline soils (Welsh 2003), Atriplex confertifolia was abundant along a seasonally wet streambed north of MDRS. This widely distributed species readily hybridizes with other congeneric taxa, including Atriplex corrugata and A. gardneri (Stutz 1978), both of which are found in the study area. This species is known from the nearby San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983​).

Supplemental File: CAN 607477 (Suppl. material 22).

Atriplex corrugata S. Watson

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  1. scientificName:
    Atriplex corrugata S. Watson
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Caryophyllales
    ; family:
    Amaranthaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Atriplex
    ; specificEpithet:
    corrugata
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    S. Watson
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Seasonally wet stream crossing on Cow Dung Road, 1.6 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'55.39"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'30.2"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Desert slopes
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    273
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607503
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Common on the Mancos shale formation of eastern Utah and western Colorado (Welsh 2003), Atriplex corrugata was abundant at a seasonally wet streambed north of MDRS. This species was previously reported in the nearby San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983).

Supplemental File: CAN 607503 (Suppl. material 23).

Atriplex gardneri var. cuneata (A. Nelson) S.L. Welsh

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Atriplex gardneri (Moq.) D. Dietr. var. cuneata (A. Nelson) S.L. Welsh
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Caryophyllales
    ; family:
    Amaranthaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Variety
    ; genus:
    Atriplex
    ; specificEpithet:
    gardneri
    ; infraspecificEpithet:
    cuneata
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (A. Nelson) S.L. Welsh
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station, Hanksville, Utah, 500 m radius of "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'23.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'31.1"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 17, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandy washes and outcrops surrounding MDRS
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    256
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607507
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
  2. scientificName:
    Atriplex gardneri (Moq.) D. Dietr. var. cuneata (A. Nelson) S.L. Welsh
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Caryophyllales
    ; family:
    Amaranthaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Variety
    ; genus:
    Atriplex
    ; specificEpithet:
    gardneri
    ; infraspecificEpithet:
    cuneata
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (A. Nelson) S.L. Welsh
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station, Hanksville, Utah, 500 m radius of "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'23.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'31.1"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 17, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandy washes and outcrops surrounding MDRS
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    259
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607505
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
  3. scientificName:
    Atriplex gardneri (Moq.) D. Dietr. var. cuneata (A. Nelson) S.L. Welsh
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Caryophyllales
    ; family:
    Amaranthaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Variety
    ; genus:
    Atriplex
    ; specificEpithet:
    gardneri
    ; infraspecificEpithet:
    cuneata
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (A. Nelson) S.L. Welsh
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Dry streambed approx 500 m northeast of Mars Desert Research Station "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'27.7"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'20"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 20, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Silty dry streambed
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    266
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607506
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This was one of the most commonly encountered species in the vicinity of MDRS (Fig. 23), and was seen on sandy desert flats throughout the study area. This species displays a great deal of phenotypic plasticity throughout its range, and hybridizes readily wth other sympatric species of Atriplex, complicating taxonomic delimitation (Stutz 1978). Previously recorded in the nearby San Rafael Swell as Atriplex cuneata A. Nelson (Harris 1983), here we follow Welsh (2003) in treating this taxon at the subspecies level.

Figure 23.

Atriplex gardneri var. cuneata. Photos by P.C. Sokoloff.

aHabit (Sokoloff 266).
bDesert flats dominated by Atriplex gardneri var. cuneata and grasses. Northeast of Mars Desert Research Station, Utah, November 23, 2014.

Supplemental Files: CAN 607507 (Suppl. material 24), CAN 607505 (Suppl. material 25), CAN 607506 (Suppl. material 26).

Halogeton glomeratus (M. Bieb.) C.A. Mey.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Halogeton glomeratus (M. Bieb.) C.A. Mey.
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Caryophyllales
    ; family:
    Amaranthaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Halogeton
    ; specificEpithet:
    glomeratus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (M. Bieb.) C.A. Mey.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station, Hanksville, Utah, 500 m radius of "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'23.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'31.1"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 17, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandy washes and outcrops surrounding MDRS
    ; recordNumber:
    254
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607484
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
  2. scientificName:
    Halogeton glomeratus (M. Bieb.) C.A. Mey.
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Caryophyllales
    ; family:
    Amaranthaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Halogeton
    ; specificEpithet:
    glomeratus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (M. Bieb.) C.A. Mey.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Dry streambed approx 500 m northeast of Mars Desert Research Station "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'27.7"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'20"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 20, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Rocky sandstone desert
    ; recordNumber:
    267
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607485
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This introduced species is highly invasive in the western United States, flourishing in disturbed habitats and alkaline soils (Holmgren 2003). It was commonly encountered along Cow Dung Road, and has flourished in the disturbed areas immediately surrounding MDRS (Fig. 24). This species was previously recorded for the nearby San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983).

Figure 24.

Halogeton glomeratus. Photos by P.C. Sokoloff.

aHabit. Vicinity of Mars Desert Research Station, Utah, September 20, 2015.
bHalogeton glomeratus and Atriplex gardneri var. cuneata habitat (foreground) immediately east of the Mars Desert Research Station, Utah, November 26, 2014.

Supplemental Files: CAN 607484 (Suppl. material 27), CAN 607485 (Suppl. material 28).

Kali tragus (L.) Scop.

Material    Download as CSV 
Notes: 

This species was observed and photographed on a sandstone outcrop approximately 1 km northeast of MDRS on September 20, 2015 (Fig. 25), however this plant was not collected due to time and equipment constraints. Common on sandy plateaus and Guterriezia-Bromus dominated scrub near MDRS, this species is a noxious weed found throughout the southwestern United States (Welsh et al. 1993). This species was previously reported for the nearby San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983) as Salsola iberica Sennen & Pau, which was later synonymized under Salsola tragus L. (Mosyakin 2003). Further phylogenetic work has transferred this species to the genus Kali (Akhani et al. 2007), now placed in the expanded Amaranthaceae (APG III 2009)

Figure 25.

Kali tragus. Vicinity of Mars Desert Research Station, Utah, September 20, 2015. Photos by P.C. Sokoloff.

aInflorescence.
bHabit.

Family Asteraceae

Material    Download as CSV 

Artemisia filifolia Torr.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Artemisia filifolia Torr.
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Asterales
    ; family:
    Asteraceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Artemisia
    ; specificEpithet:
    filifolia
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Torr.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    "Comm check" hill, 1.7 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.15"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'54.59"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Conglomerate sandstone hilltop dominated by Artemisia and Ephedra
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    282
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607478
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Common on the plateau just west of the MDRS (Fig. 26) this species is abundant on sandy substrates of the region (Shultz 2006), and was previously reported for the nearby San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983).

Figure 26.

Artemisia filifolia. Habit. Vicinity of Mars Desert Research Station, Utah, September 19, 2015. Photo by P.C. Sokoloff.

Supplemental File: CAN 607478 (Suppl. material 29).

Chaenactis douglasii var. douglasii (Hook.) Hook. & Arn.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Chaenactis douglasii (Hook.) Hook. & Arn. var. douglasii
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Asterales
    ; family:
    Asteraceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Variety
    ; genus:
    Chaenactis
    ; specificEpithet:
    douglasii
    ; infraspecificEpithet:
    douglasii
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Hook.) Hook. & Arn.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Approx. 200 m past fork on Cow Dung Road, down eastern fork, 1.9 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1381 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'29.7"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 23, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Artemisia-dominated desert scrub
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    291
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607472
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Found in desert shrub communities alongside the ATV trails north of MDRS, this widespread species was not recorded previously for the nearby San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983), though it is known to occur in nearby Capitol Reef National Park (Coles et al. 2009), and in the Four Corners region further southeast (Heil and O'Kane 2003). Though Welsh et al. (1993) did not recognize varieties, our specimen would be considered C. douglasii var. douglasii following Morefield (2006).

Supplemental File: CAN 607472 (Suppl. material 30).

Dieteria canescens var. canescens (Pursh) Nutt.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Dieteria canescens (Pursh) Nutt. var. canescens
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Asterales
    ; family:
    Asteraceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Variety
    ; genus:
    Dieteria
    ; specificEpithet:
    canescens
    ; infraspecificEpithet:
    canescens
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Pursh) Nutt.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Parking lot of Burpee Dinosaur Quarry, end of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1377 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°27'8.24"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'27.384"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    September 19, 2015
    ; habitat:
    Dry sandstone bluffs
    ; recordNumber:
    366
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607522
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This species was recorded for the nearby San Rafael Swell as Machaeranthera canescens (Pursh) Gray (Harris 1983); the currently accepted name for this taxon is Dieteria canecens (Morgan 2006) based on molecular analysis and reclassification of the polyphyletic genus Machaeranthera (Morgan et al. 2009​).

Supplemental File: CAN 607552 (Suppl. material 31).

Ericameria nauseosa (Pall. ex Pursh) G.L. Nesom & G.I. Baird

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Ericameria nauseosa (Pall. ex Pursh) G.L. Nesom & G.I. Baird
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Asterales
    ; family:
    Asteraceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Ericameria
    ; specificEpithet:
    nauseosa
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Pall. ex Pursh) G.L. Nesom & G.I. Baird
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Kent's Reservoir, 1.14 km north of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'28.4"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'17.29"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Moist desert flats
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    284
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; identificationRemarks:
    Unable to determine to variety as no stigmatic appendages present
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607481
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Ericameria nauseosa was abundant along Cow Dung Road due north of MDRS, in the lowlands between rocky outcrops between MDRS and the Burpee Dinosaur Quarry (Fig. 27). Welsh et al. (1993) treats this species as Chrysothamnus nauseous (Pallas ex Pursh) Britton, with 14 varieties in Utah. Four of these varieties (C. nauseous var. consimilis (Greene) Hall, C. nauseous var. gnaphaloides (Greene) Hall, C. nauseous var. junceus (Greene) Hall, and C. nauseous var. leiospermus (Gray) Hall) were previously reported for the nearby San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983). Urbatshc et al. (2006), whose treatment we follow here, accept 21 varieties in North America; however we were unable to identify our specimen to variety as the diagnostic phyllaries were missing.

Figure 27.

Ericameria nauseosa (Sokoloff 284). Photos by P.C. Sokoloff.

aDesert lowland habitat dominated by Ericameria nauseosa (large yellow shrub in centre and bottom-right of photo), Atriplex sp., Achnatherum hymenoides, and Halogeton glomeratus.
bHabit.

Supplemental File: CAN 607481 (Suppl. material 32).

Gaillardia spathulata A. Gray

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Gaillardia spathulata A. Gray
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Asterales
    ; family:
    Asteraceae
    ; genus:
    Gaillardia
    ; specificEpithet:
    spathulata
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    A. Gray
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Sandstone plateau immediately southwest of Mars Desert Research Station, alongside ATV trail
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1412 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'22.4"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'40.3"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    September 19, 2015
    ; habitat:
    Dry sandy soil
    ; recordNumber:
    367
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607524
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
Notes: 

A common plant of sandy desert soils (Strother 2006a), this species was abundant on the plateau immediately southwest of MDRS. This species was previously recorded for the nearby San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983).

Supplemental File: CAN 607524 (Suppl. material 33).

Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britton & Rusby

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britton & Rusby
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Asterales
    ; family:
    Asteraceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Gutierrezia
    ; specificEpithet:
    sarothrae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Pursh) Britton & Rusby
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station, Hanksville, Utah, 500 m radius of "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'23.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'31.1"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 17, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandy washes and outcrops surrounding MDRS
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    253
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607462
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
  2. scientificName:
    Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britton & Rusby
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Asterales
    ; family:
    Asteraceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Gutierrezia
    ; specificEpithet:
    sarothrae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Pursh) Britton & Rusby
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station, Hanksville, Utah, 500 m radius of "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'23.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'31.1"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 17, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandy washes and outcrops surrounding MDRS
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    257
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607469
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
  3. scientificName:
    Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britton & Rusby
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Asterales
    ; family:
    Asteraceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Gutierrezia
    ; specificEpithet:
    sarothrae
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Pursh) Britton & Rusby
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Sandstone plateau immediately southwest of Mars Desert Research Station, alongside ATV trail
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1412 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'22.4"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'40.3"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 24, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Dry conglomerate sandstone
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    311
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607463
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Abundant on the rocky outcrops, desert shrub communities (Fig. 28), and plateaus surrounding MDRS, this species is well adapted to disturbance in Utah's desert rangelands (Welsh et al. 1993). Gutierrezia sarothrae was previously reported from the nearby San Rafael Swell as Xanthocephalum sarothrae (Pursh) Shinners (Harris 1983). Gutierrezia is now segregated into a distinct genus (Nesom 2006).

Figure 28.

Gutierrezia sarothrae. Habit. Vicinity of Mars Desert Research Station, Utah, September 19, 2015. Photo by P.C. Sokoloff.

Supplemental Files: CAN 607462 (Suppl. material 34), CAN 607469 (Suppl. material 35), CAN 607463 (Suppl. material 36).

Hymenoxys cooperi (A. Gray) Cockerell

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Hymenoxys cooperi (A. Gray) Cockerell
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Asterales
    ; family:
    Asteraceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Hymenoxys
    ; specificEpithet:
    cooperi
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (A. Gray) Cockerell
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Sandstone plateau immediately southwest of Mars Desert Research Station, alongside ATV trail
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1412 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'22.4"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'40.3"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 24, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Dry conglomerate sandstone
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    312
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607483
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This species, collected on the plateau west of MDRS, was not recorded in the previous floristic survey of the nearby San Rafael Swell Harris (1983) but there is a record of this species occurring in the Glen Canyon Recreational Area to the south (Hill and Ayers 2009). A shorter form with fewer heads is sometimes recognized as H. cooperi var. canescens (D.C. Eaton) K. F. Parker; however Welsh et al. (1993) did not recognize varieties in Utah, and Bierner (2006) did not recognize varieties in this species whatsoever.

Supplemental File: CAN 607483 (Suppl. material 37).

Scabrethia scabra (Hook.) W.A. Weber

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  1. scientificName:
    Scabrethia scabra (Hook.) W.A. Weber
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Asterales
    ; family:
    Asteraceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Scabrethia
    ; specificEpithet:
    scabra
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Hook.) W.A. Weber
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    "Comm check" hill, 1.7 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.15"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'54.59"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Conglomerate sandstone hilltop dominated by Artemisia and Ephedra
    ; recordNumber:
    280
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; identificationRemarks:
    Unable to determine to subspecies, as no phyllaries present
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607479
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Previously reported for the nearby San Rafael Swell as Wyethia scabra Hook. (Harris 1983), we follow Weber (2006), who had previously placed this species in Scabrethia (Weber 1998). We were unable to identify this specimen to subspecies as the diagnostic phyllaries were missing (Fig. 29)​.

Figure 29.

Scabrethia scabra (Sokoloff 280). Photos by P.C. Sokoloff.

aHabit.
bHabitat.

Supplemental File: CAN 607479 (Suppl. material 38).

Thelesperma subnudum A. Gray

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Thelesperma subnudum A. Gray
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Asterales
    ; family:
    Asteraceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Thelesperma
    ; specificEpithet:
    subnudum
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    A. Gray
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    "Comm check" hill, 1.7 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.15"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'54.59"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Conglomerate sandstone hilltop dominated by Artemisia and Ephedra
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    281
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607470
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Common on sandstone bluffs in the region (Fig. 30) this species was previously reported for the nearby San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983​). Welsh et al. (1993) described several varieties of this species in Utah, all of which have been subsumed under the broadly circumscribed T. subnudum of Strother (2006b).

Figure 30.

Thelesperma subnudum. Basal leaves. Vicinity of Mars Desert Research Station, Utah, September 20, 2015. Photo by P.C. Sokoloff.

Supplemental File: CAN 607470 (Suppl. material 39).

Family Boraginaceae

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Cryptantha humilis (Greene) Payson

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  1. scientificName:
    Cryptantha humilis (Greene) Payson
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; family:
    Boraginaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Cryptantha
    ; specificEpithet:
    humilis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Greene) Payson
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Sandstone plateau immediately southwest of Mars Desert Research Station, alongside ATV trail
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1412 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'22.4"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'40.3"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 24, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Dry conglomerate sandstone
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    314
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607504
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This species was previously recorded for the nearby San Rafael Swell as Cryptantha humilis var. nana (Eastw.) L.C. Higgins (Harris 1983). Welsh et al. (1993) suggests that while var. humilisnana might be applied to plants from the Uinta Basin (north of the study area), however they assert that variation of intraspecific diagnostic characters from across the range of C. humilis does not support the treatment of varieties.

Supplemental File: CAN 607504 (Suppl. material 40).

Family Brassicaceae

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Lepidium montanum Nutt.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Lepidium montanum Nutt.
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Brassicales
    ; family:
    Brassicaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Lepidium
    ; specificEpithet:
    montanum
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Nutt.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station, Hanksville, Utah, 500 m radius of "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'23.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'31.1"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 17, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandy washes and outcrops surrounding MDRS
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    261
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607467
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
  2. scientificName:
    Lepidium montanum Nutt.
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Brassicales
    ; family:
    Brassicaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Lepidium
    ; specificEpithet:
    montanum
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Nutt.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Dry streambed approx 500 m northeast of Mars Desert Research Station "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'27.7"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'20"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 20, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Rocky sandstone desert
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    263
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607471
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This species was commonly encountered in the sandy washes immediately surrounding MDRS (Fig. 31). Widely variable across its range, Welsh et al. (1993) report nine named varieties in Utah, and Harris (1983) reports L. montanum var. jonesii (Rydb.) C.L. Hitch. from the nearby San Rafael Swell. Al-Shebaz and Gaskin (2010) subsume these varieties into L. montanum sensu lato pending a thorough study of infraspecific delimitation; we follow their treatment here.

Figure 31.

Lepidium montanum. Photos by P.C. Sokoloff.

aHabit (Sokoloff 261).
bFruits. Vicinity of Mars Desert Research Station, Utah, September 20, 2015
cHabitat. Vicinity of Cow Dung Road, Utah, November 24, 2014.

Supplemental Files: CAN 607467 (Suppl. material 41), CAN 607471 (Suppl. material 42).

Family Cactaceae

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Opuntia basilaris var. basilaris Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow

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  1. scientificName:
    Opuntia basilaris Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow var. basilaris
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Caryophyllales
    ; family:
    Cactaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Variety
    ; genus:
    Opuntia
    ; specificEpithet:
    basilaris
    ; infraspecificEpithet:
    basilaris
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Seasonally wet stream crossing on Cow Dung Road, 1.6 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'55.39"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'30.2"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Desert slopes
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    272
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607488
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

​ This species was common along the banks of a seasonally wet stream crossing due northeast of MDRS (Fig. 32). This species was previously recorded from the nearby San Rafael Swell as Opuntia basilaris (without infraspecific rank) (Harris 1983). Morphological variability and hybridization have hindered infraspecific delineation in this species, and many named varieties appear in the literature, including four in Welsh et al. (1993), and a different set of four in Pinkava (2003); here we follow the latter treatment.

Figure 32.

Opuntia basilaris var. basiliaris (Sokoloff 272). Habit. Photo by P.C. Sokoloff.

Supplemental File: CAN 607488 (Suppl. material 43).

Opuntia polyacantha var. polyacantha Haw.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Opuntia polyacantha Haw. var. polyacantha
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Caryophyllales
    ; family:
    Cactaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Variety
    ; genus:
    Opuntia
    ; specificEpithet:
    polyacantha
    ; infraspecificEpithet:
    polyacantha
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Haw.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Approx. 200 m past fork on Cow Dung Road, down eastern fork, 1.9 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1381 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'29.7"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 23, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Artemisia-dominated desert scrub
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    293
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607489
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Opuntia polyacantha was the more common of the two Opuntia species recorded near the station, and was frequently encountered in the Ephedra-Atriplex-Achnatherum shrubland deserts north of MDRS (Fig. 33). Like O. basilaris, O. polyacantha is morphologically variable and hybridizes readily. This has resulted in a proliferation of variety names in O. polyacantha, including four in Welsh et al. (1993). We follow Pinkava (2003) here, who delineates O. polyacantha into five varieties across its range. This species was previously recorded for the nearby San Rafael Swell as Opuntia polyacantha (without infraspecific rank) (Harris 1983).

Figure 33.

Opuntia polyacantha var. polyacantha (Sokoloff 293). Habitat. Photo by P.C. Sokoloff.

Supplemental File: CAN 607489 (Suppl. material 44).

Family Ephedraceae

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Ephedra viridis Colville

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Ephedra viridis Colville
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Gnetophyta
    ; class:
    Gnetopsida
    ; order:
    Ephedrales
    ; family:
    Ephedraceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Ephedra
    ; specificEpithet:
    viridis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Colville
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    "Comm check" hill, 1.7 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.15"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'54.59"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Conglomerate sandstone hilltop dominated by Artemisia and Ephedra
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    275
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607468
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
  2. scientificName:
    Ephedra viridis Colville
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Gnetophyta
    ; class:
    Gnetopsida
    ; order:
    Ephedrales
    ; family:
    Ephedraceae
    ; genus:
    Ephedra
    ; specificEpithet:
    viridis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Colville
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Parking lot of Burpee Dinosaur Quarry, end of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1377 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°27'8.24"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'27.384"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    September 19, 2015
    ; habitat:
    Dry sandstone bluffs
    ; recordNumber:
    365
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607523
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

A common species of dry hills and desert slopes (Stevensen 1993), we collected this species along mesa tops and desert scrub communities north of MDRS along Cow Dung Road (Fig. 34). This species was previously reported for the nearby San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983​).

Figure 34.

Ephedra viridis. Habit. Vicinity of Mars Desert Research Station, Utah, September 19, 2015. Photo by P.C. Sokoloff.

Supplemental File: CAN 607468 (Suppl. material 45), CAN 607523 (Suppl. material 46).

Family Euphorbiaceae

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Euphorbia fendleri Torr. & A. Gray

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  1. scientificName:
    Euphorbia fendleri Torr. & A. Gray
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Malpighiales
    ; family:
    Euphorbiaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Euphorbia
    ; specificEpithet:
    fendleri
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Torr. & A. Gray
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    "Comm check" hill, 1.7 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.15"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'54.59"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Conglomerate sandstone hilltop dominated by Artemisia and Ephedra
    ; recordNumber:
    279
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607464
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Widespread throughout Utah (Welsh et al. 1993); a sometimes-used combination exists for this species in Chamaesyce (Chamaesyce fendleri (Torr. & A. Gray) Small), however molecular evidence firmly places this species within Euphorbia (Yang and Berry 2011). This species was previously reported for the nearby San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983).

Supplemental File: CAN 607464 (Suppl. material 47).

Family Fabaceae

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Astragalus amphioxys A. Gray

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  1. scientificName:
    Astragalus amphioxys A. Gray
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Fabales
    ; family:
    Fabaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Astragalus
    ; specificEpithet:
    amphioxys
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    A. Gray
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    "Comm check" hill, 1.7 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.15"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'54.59"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Conglomerate sandstone hilltop dominated by Artemisia and Ephedra
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    276
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607473
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
  2. scientificName:
    Astragalus amphioxys A. Gray
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Fabales
    ; family:
    Fabaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Astragalus
    ; specificEpithet:
    amphioxys
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    A. Gray
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Approx. 200 m past fork on Cow Dung Road, down eastern fork, 1.9 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1381 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'29.7"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 23, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Artemisia-dominated desert scrub
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    292
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607474
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This species was common on sandy soil in Atriplex-Ephedra communities due north of MDRS (Fig. 35). Harris (1983) reported two varieties of this species from the nearby San Rafael Swell: Astragalus amphioxys var. amphioxys and Astragalus amphioxys var. vespertinus (E. Sheld.) M.E. Jones. Both varieties are recognized in Barneby (1964) and Welsh (2006), which follow a nearly identical taxonomy, however we were unable to determine these collections to variety as the plants were neither flowering nor fruiting.

Figure 35.

Astragalus amphioxys (Sokoloff 276). Habit. Photo by P.C. Sokoloff.

Supplemental Files: CAN 607473 (Suppl. material 48), CAN 607474 (Suppl. material 49).

Astragalus desperatus M.E. Jones

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Astragalus desperatus M.E. Jones
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Fabales
    ; family:
    Fabaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Astragalus
    ; specificEpithet:
    desperatus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    M.E. Jones
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Roadside along ATV trail 2 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1348 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'53.8"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'18"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 23, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandstone rubble and sandy plains
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    295
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607476
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Harris (1983) reported two varieties of this species from the nearby San Rafael Swell: Astragalus desperatus var. desperatus and Astragalus desperatus var. petrophilus M.E. Jones. Both varieties are accepted in Welsh (2006). Barneby (1964) treats this species as containing var. desperatus and var. conspectus Barneby, the later of which is synonymous with Welsh's Astragalus barnebyi S.L. Welsh & N.D. Atwood (Welsh 2006). As our collection was vegetative, we were unable to identify it to variety.

Supplemental File: CAN 607476 (Suppl. material 50).

Astragalus lentiginosus Douglas

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Astragalus lentiginosus Douglas
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Fabales
    ; family:
    Fabaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Astragalus
    ; specificEpithet:
    lentiginosus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Douglas
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Roadside along ATV trail 2 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1348 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'53.8"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'18"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 23, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Dry sandy streambed, grass-dominated community
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    299
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607475
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This species was only encountered once in the MDRS vicinity, due northwest of MDRS (Fig. 36). Harris (1983) reported two varieties of this species from the nearby San Rafael Swell: Astragalus lentiginosus var. araneosus (E. Sheld.) Barneby and Astragalus lentiginosus var. palans (M.E. Jones) M.E. Jones. Both of these varieties are accepted in both Barneby (1964) and Welsh (2006) however, we were unable to determine our collection to variety as this specimen was vegetative.

Figure 36.

Astragalus lentiginosus (Sokoloff 299). Habit. Photo by P.C. Sokoloff

Supplemental File: CAN 607475 (Suppl. material 51).

Family Juncaceae

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Juncus bufonius L.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Juncus bufonius L.
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Monocots
    ; order:
    Poales
    ; family:
    Juncaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Juncus
    ; specificEpithet:
    bufonius
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    L.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Dry streambed approx 500 m northeast of Mars Desert Research Station "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'27.7"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'20"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 20, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Summit of rocky hill
    ; recordNumber:
    265
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607487
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Harris (1983) did not record this species within the nearby San Rafael Swell, but it is reported for both the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (Hill and Ayers 2009), and Capitol Reef National Park (Fertig 2009). Though common throughout North America (Brooks and Clemants 2000), it is seemingly uncommon in the vicinity of MDRS; this species was only encountered on one low dune directly northeast of the station.

Supplemental File: CAN 607487 (Suppl. material 52).

Family Malvaceae

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Sphaeralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb.

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  1. scientificName:
    Sphaeralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb.
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Malvales
    ; family:
    Malvaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Sphaeralcea
    ; specificEpithet:
    coccinea
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Nutt.) Rydb.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station, Hanksville, Utah, 500 m radius of "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'23.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'31.1"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 17, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandy washes and outcrops surrounding MDRS
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    260
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607480
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Common in Atriplex-Ephedra communities (Welsh et al. 1993), this species was found growing in the disturbed sandy areas immediately surrounding MDRS (Fig. 37). This species was previously recorded in the nearby San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983).

Figure 37.

Sphaeralcea coccinea (Sokoloff 260). Photos by P.C. Sokoloff.

aHabit.
bHabitat.

Supplemental File: CAN 607480 (Suppl. material 53).

Sphaeralcea parviflora A. Nelson

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Sphaeralcea parviflora A. Nelson
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Malvales
    ; family:
    Malvaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Sphaeralcea
    ; specificEpithet:
    parviflora
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    A. Nelson
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Approx. 200 m past fork on Cow Dung Road, down eastern fork, 1.9 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1381 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'29.7"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 23, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Artemisia-dominated desert scrub
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    294
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607482
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This species was previously reported for the nearby San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983​), and is common in desert shrub communities (Welsh et al. 1993).

Supplemental File: CAN 607482 (Suppl. material 54).

Family Onagraceae

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Oenothera cespitosa var. navajoensis (W.L. Wagner, Stockh. & W.M. Klein) Cronquist

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Oenothera cespitosa Nutt. var. navajoensis (W.L. Wagner, Stockh. & W.M. Klein) Cronquist
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Myrtales
    ; family:
    Onagracaeae
    ; taxonRank:
    Variety
    ; genus:
    Oenothera
    ; specificEpithet:
    cespitosa
    ; infraspecificEpithet:
    navajoensis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (W.L. Wagner, Stockh. & W.M. Klein) Cronquist
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station, Hanksville, Utah, 500 m radius of "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'23.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'31.1"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 17, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandy washes and outcrops surrounding MDRS
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    258
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607493
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
  2. scientificName:
    Oenothera cespitosa Nutt. var. navajoensis (W.L. Wagner, Stockh. & W.M. Klein) Cronquist
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Myrtales
    ; family:
    Onagracaeae
    ; taxonRank:
    Variety
    ; genus:
    Oenothera
    ; specificEpithet:
    cespitosa
    ; infraspecificEpithet:
    navajoensis
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (W.L. Wagner, Stockh. & W.M. Klein) Cronquist
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    "Comm check" hill, 1.7 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.15"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'54.59"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Desert plains
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    283
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607499
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Common on disturbed sands and desert shrub communities in the vicinity of MDRS (Fig. 38), this species was previously recorded in the nearby San Rafael Swell as Oenothera caespitosa Nutt. (Harris 1983). Here we follow Welsh et al. (1993) and treat these specimens as var. navajoensis, based on the characteristic fringe of trichomes on the leaf margin.

Figure 38.

Oenothera cespitosa var. navajoensis. Habit. Vicinity of Mars Desert Research Station, Utah, September 20, 2015. Photo by P.C. Sokoloff.

Supplemental Files: CAN 607493 (Suppl. material 55), CAN 607499 (Suppl. material 56).

Family Poaceae

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Achnatherum hymenoides (Roem. & Schult.) Barkworth

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Achnatherum hymenoides (Roem. & Schult.) Barkworth
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Monocots
    ; order:
    Poales
    ; family:
    Poaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Achnatherum
    ; specificEpithet:
    hymenoides
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Roem. & Schult.) Barkworth
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    "Comm check" hill, 1.7 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road.
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1381 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.15"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'54.59"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Desert plains
    ; recordNumber:
    277
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Saarela, Jeffery M.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607491
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Recorded from the nearby San Rafael Swell as Oryzopsis hymenoides (Roem. & Schult.) Ricker ex Piper (Harris 1983), and treated as Stipa hymenoides Roem. & Schult in Welsh et al. (1993) here we follow Barkworth (2007) who recognize the taxon in Achnatherum. Common across our study area, we encountered this species throughout the deserts surrounding MDRS (Fig. 39).

Figure 39.

Achnatherum hymenoides. Vicinity of Mars Desert Research Station, Utah, September 20, 2015. Photos by P.C. Sokoloff.

aHabit.
bInflorescence.
cHabitat.

Supplemental File: CAN 607491 (Suppl. material 57).

Aristida purpurea var. longiseta (Steud.) Vasey

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Aristida purpurea var. longiseta (Steud.) Vasey
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Monocots
    ; order:
    Poales
    ; family:
    Poaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Variety
    ; genus:
    Aristida
    ; specificEpithet:
    purpurea
    ; infraspecificEpithet:
    longiseta
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Steud.) Vasey
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Sandstone plateau immediately southwest of Mars Desert Research Station, alongside ATV trail
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1412 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'22.4"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'40.3"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 24, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Dry conglomerate sandstone
    ; recordNumber:
    310
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Saarela, Jeffery M.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607496
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This species was previously reported for the nearby San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983​). While Welsh et al. (1993) did not recognize subspecies of this taxon in Utah, following Allred (2003) our specimen is identifiable as var. longiseta.

Supplemental File: CAN 607496 (Suppl. material 58).

Bouteloua barbata var. barbata Lag.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Bouteloua barbata Lag. var. barbata
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Monocots
    ; order:
    Poales
    ; family:
    Poaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Variety
    ; genus:
    Bouteloua
    ; specificEpithet:
    barbata
    ; infraspecificEpithet:
    barbata
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Lag.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Roadside along ATV trail 2 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1348 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'53.8"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'18"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 23, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Dry sandy streambed, grass-dominated community
    ; recordNumber:
    300
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Saarela, Jeffery M.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607492
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Though not previously reported in a survey of the nearby San Rafael Swell flora (Harris 1983​), this species was recorded for nearby Capitol Reef National Park (Fertig 2009). This species was collected once in an old, dried wash northeast of MDRS, and photographed in the vicinity of the Burpee Dinosaur quarry at the northern end of Cow Dung Road (Fig. 40). Varieties in B. barbata are recognized by both Wipff (2005) and Welsh et al. 1993. The latter treatment asserts that all Utah plants to belong to var. barbata.

Figure 40.

Bouteloua barbata var. barbata. Habit. Vicinity of Mars Desert Research Station, Utah, September 19, 2015. Photo by P.C. Sokoloff.

Supplemental File: CAN 607492 (Suppl. material 59).

Bromus tectorum L.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Bromus tectorum L.
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Monocots
    ; order:
    Poales
    ; family:
    Poaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Bromus
    ; specificEpithet:
    tectorum
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    L.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Roadside along ATV trail 2 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1348 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'53.8"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'18"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 23, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Dry sandy streambed, grass-dominated community
    ; recordNumber:
    297
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Saarela, Jeffery M.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607495
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

A noxious weed common throughout the southwestern United States (Pavlick and Anderton 2007), this species was previously reported for the nearby San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983​), and was common in the immediate vicinity of MDRS.

Supplemental File: CAN 607495 (Suppl. material 60).

Dasyochloa pulchella (Kunth) Willd. ex Rydb.

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  1. scientificName:
    Dasyochloa pulchella (Kunth) Willd. ex Rydb.
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Monocots
    ; order:
    Poales
    ; family:
    Poaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Dasyochloa
    ; specificEpithet:
    pulchella
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Kunth) Willd. ex Rydb.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Sandstone plateau immediately southwest of Mars Desert Research Station, alongside ATV trail
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1412 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'22.4"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'40.3"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 24, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Dry conglomerate sandstone
    ; recordNumber:
    309
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Saarela, Jeffery M.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607497
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This species was commonly encountered on the plateau immediately southwest of MDRS. Previously reported for the nearby San Rafael Swell as Erioneuron pulchellum (Kunth) Tateoka (Harris 1983), recent work has placed this species in the monotypic genus Dasyochloa (Caro 1981, Valdés-Reyna 2003).

Supplemental File: CAN 607497 (Suppl. material 61).

Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth.
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Monocots
    ; order:
    Poales
    ; family:
    Poaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Hilaria
    ; specificEpithet:
    jamesii
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Torr.) Benth.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station, Hanksville, Utah, 500 m radius of "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'23.2"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'31.1"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 17, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Sandy washes and outcrops surrounding MDRS
    ; recordNumber:
    255
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Saarela, Jeffery M.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607498
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This desert grass is endemic to the southwestern United States (Barkworth 2005), and was common in the vicinity of MDRS (Fig. 41). This species was previously reported for the nearby San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983).

Figure 41.

Hilaria jamesii. Vicinity of Mars Desert Research Station, Utah, September 20, 2015. Photos by P.C. Sokoloff.

aHabit.
bInflorescence.

Supplemental File: CAN 607498 (Suppl. material 62).

Sporobolus airoides (Torr.) Torr.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Sporobolus airoides (Torr.) Torr.
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Monocots
    ; order:
    Poales
    ; family:
    Poaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Sporobolus
    ; specificEpithet:
    airoides
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Torr.) Torr.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Roadside along ATV trail 2 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1348 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'53.8"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'18"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 23, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Dry sandy streambed, grass-dominated community
    ; recordNumber:
    298
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Saarela, Jeffery M.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607494
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This species was previously reported for the San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983​), and was encountered on sandy soils north of MDRS (Fig. 42). Welsh et al. (1993) recognize two varieties in S. airoides, however Peterson et al. (2003) do not. We follow the latter treatment here.

Figure 42.

Sporobolus airoides. Habit. Vicinity of Mars Desert Research Station, Utah, September 20, 2015. Photo by P.C. Sokoloff.

Supplemental File: CAN 607494 (Suppl. material 63).

Sporobolus contractus Hitchc.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Sporobolus contractus Hitchc.
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Monocots
    ; order:
    Poales
    ; family:
    Poaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Sporobolus
    ; specificEpithet:
    contractus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Hitchc.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Dry streambed approx 500 m northeast of Mars Desert Research Station "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'27.7"N
    ; verbatimCoordinateSystem:
    110°47'20"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 20, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Rocky sandstone desert
    ; recordNumber:
    264
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Saarela, Jeffery M.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607501
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
  2. scientificName:
    Sporobolus contractus Hitchc.
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Monocots
    ; order:
    Poales
    ; family:
    Poaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Sporobolus
    ; specificEpithet:
    contractus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Hitchc.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    "Comm check" hill, 1.7 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1381 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'3.15"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°46'54.59"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Conglomerate sandstone hilltop dominated by Artemisia and Ephedra
    ; recordNumber:
    278
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Saarela, Jeffery M.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607500
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Common in the desert shrub communities near MDRS (Fig. 43), and typical of sandy soils and salt deserts (Peterson et al. 2003), this species was previously reported for the nearby San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983​).

Figure 43.

Sporobolus contractus (Sokoloff 264). Photos by P.C. Sokoloff.

aHabit.
bInflorescence.

Supplemental Files: CAN 607501 (Suppl. material 64), CAN 607500 (Suppl. material 65).

Family Polygonaceae

Material    Download as CSV 

Eriogonum inflatum Torr. & Frém.

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Eriogonum inflatum Torr. & Frém.
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Caryophyllales
    ; family:
    Polygonaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Eriogonum
    ; specificEpithet:
    inflatum
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Torr. & Frém.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Dry streambed approx 500 m northeast of Mars Desert Research Station "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'27.7"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'20"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 20, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Eroded elbows of dry streambeds
    ; recordNumber:
    262
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607465
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
  2. scientificName:
    Eriogonum inflatum Torr. & Frém.
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Caryophyllales
    ; family:
    Polygonaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Eriogonum
    ; specificEpithet:
    inflatum
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Torr. & Frém.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Dry streambed approx 500 m northeast of Mars Desert Research Station "hab"
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'27.7"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'20"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 20, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Silty dry streambed
    ; recordNumber:
    268
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607486
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This species is known from the nearby San Rafael Swell as two varieties: Eriogonum inflatum var. inflatum and Erigonum inflatum var. fusiforme (Small) Reveal (Harris 1983). These two varieties have been differentiated by substrate (fine textured shales on the Colorado Plateau in var. fusiforme, vs. coarse sandstone in var. inflatum), root and caudex size, and annual vs. perennial life history (Harris 1983). Reveal (2005), who we follow here, ascribe var. fusiforme to an "annual phase", and do not recognize these varieties. Eriogonum inflatum was common in the deserts surrounding MDRS (Fig. 44).

Figure 44.

Eriogonum inflatum (Sokoloff 262). Habit. Photo by P.C. Sokoloff.

Supplemental Files: CAN 607465 (Suppl. material 66), CAN 607486 (Suppl. material 67).

Eriogonum shockleyi S. Watson

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Eriogonum shockleyi S. Watson
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Caryophyllales
    ; family:
    Polygonaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Eriogonum
    ; specificEpithet:
    shockleyi
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    S. Watson
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Sandstone plateau immediately southwest of Mars Desert Research Station, alongside ATV trail
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1412 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°24'22.4"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'40.3"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 24, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Dry conglomerate sandstone
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    315
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607502
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

This prostrate plant was encountered on the plateau immediately southwest of MDRS (Fig. 45). This species was previously recorded for the nearby San Rafael Swell as Eriogonum shockleyi var. longilobum (M.E. Jones) S. Stokes (Harris 1983), though varieties are not recognized in later treatments (Welsh et al. 1993, Reveal 2005).

Figure 45.

Eriogonum shockleyi (Sokoloff 315). Habit. Photo by P.C. Sokoloff.

Supplemental File: CAN 607502 (Suppl. material 68).

Family Sarcobataceae

Material    Download as CSV 

Sarcobatus vermiculatus (Hook.) Torr.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Sarcobatus vermiculatus (Hook.) Torr.
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Caryophyllales
    ; family:
    Sarcobataceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Sarcobatus
    ; specificEpithet:
    vermiculatus
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    (Hook.) Torr.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Seasonally wet stream crossing on Cow Dung Road, 1.6 km northeast of Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'55.39"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'30.2"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Desert slopes
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    274
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607490
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

A common species on alkaline habitats (Hils et al. 1993), Sarcobatus vermiculatus was found in greatest abundance along the banks of a seasonally wet stream crossing due northeast of MDRS (Fig. 46). Previously placed within the Chenopodiaceae, Sarcobatus is now recognized as the sole genus within the Sarcobataceae (Behnke 1997; APG III 2009). This species was previously recorded for the nearby San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983).

Figure 46.

Sarcobatus vermiculatus (Sokoloff 274). Habit. Photo by P.C. Sokoloff

Supplemental File: CAN 607490 (Suppl. material 69).

Family Tamaricaceae

Material    Download as CSV 

Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb.

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. scientificName:
    Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb.
    ; kingdom:
    Plantae
    ; phylum:
    Angiosperms
    ; class:
    Eudicots
    ; order:
    Caryophyllales
    ; family:
    Tamaricaceae
    ; taxonRank:
    Species
    ; genus:
    Tamarix
    ; specificEpithet:
    ramosissima
    ; scientificNameAuthorship:
    Ledeb.
    ; continent:
    North America
    ; country:
    United States of America
    ; countryCode:
    USA
    ; stateProvince:
    Utah
    ; county:
    Wayne County
    ; municipality:
    Hanksville
    ; locality:
    Mars Desert Research Station
    ; verbatimLocality:
    Kent's Reservoir, 1.14 km north of Mars Desert Research Station, just west of Cow Dung Road
    ; verbatimElevation:
    1371 m
    ; verbatimLatitude:
    38°25'28.4"N
    ; verbatimLongitude:
    110°47'17.29"W
    ; coordinateUncertaintyInMeters:
    50
    ; verbatimEventDate:
    November 22, 2014
    ; habitat:
    Moist desert flats
    ; preparations:
    Silica gel collection
    ; recordNumber:
    285
    ; recordedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; identifiedBy:
    Sokoloff, Paul C.
    ; dateIdentified:
    2015
    ; institutionID:
    CMN
    ; collectionID:
    CAN 607466
    ; collectionCode:
    CAN, UTC
    ; basisOfRecord:
    Preserved Specimen
Notes: 

Tamarix chinensis and Tamarix ramosissima are both highly invasive within the western U.S.A. (Gaskin and Kazmer 2009). Tamarix ramosissima is often treated as a synonym of T. chinensis (Welsh et al. 1993), however genetic evidence supports their treatment as distinct species, albeit with extensive introgression and hybridization across its introduced range in the United States (Gaskin and Kazmer 2009). Plants sampled previously from southeastern Utah have been identified as either back-crossed T. ramosissima or F2 hybrids (Gaskin and Kazmer 2009); it seems extremely likely that our material would possess a similar genotype.

This species has previously been reported for the nearby San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983). Only one population was encountered in the vicinity of MDRS, consisting of three shrubby trees and multiple seedlings, around Kent's Reservoir - a pond on the west side of Cow Dung Road north of MDRS (Fig. 47).

Figure 47.

Tamarix ramosissima (Sokoloff 285). Habit and habitat. The large shub to the centre-right of the photo is Tamarix ramosissima, the yellow shrubs to the left are Ericamerica nauseosa. Photo by P.C. Sokoloff.

Supplemental File: CAN 607466 (Suppl. material 70).

Analysis

Based on our 2014 and 2015 collections, we recorded 38 vascular plant species from 14 families, 13 lichen species from seven families, five chlorophytes, one cyanobacterium, and one fungus from the MDRS study area (Table 1).

Summary of terrestrial algae (chlorophyta), cyanobacteria, fungi, lichens, and vascular plant species collected at the Mars Desert research Station (MDRS) for the current study. For the vascular plant taxa, presence at one of three nearby, well collected sites (the San Rafael Swell, Capitol Reef National Park, and Glen Canyon Recreational Area) is noted with an x. x1: expected to occur within Glen Canyon Recreational Area, but no voucher was located during the study.

Higher taxon

Family

Species recorded for the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) study area

Present in the San Rafael Swell (Harris 1983)

Present at Capitol Reef National Park (Fertig 2009)

Present at Glen Canyon Recreational Area (Hill et al. 2009)

Chlorophyta

Trebouxiaceae

Trebouxia sp. 1

-

-

-

Trebouxia sp. 2

-

-

-

Trebouxia sp. 3

-

-

-

Trebouxia sp. 4

-

-

-

Myrmecia sp.

-

-

-

Cyanobacteria

Microcystaceae

Gloeocapsa sp.

-

-

-

Fungi

Agaricaceae

Tulostoma sp.

-

-

-

Lichen

Acarosporaceae

Acarospora peliscypha Th. Fr.

-

-

-

Acarospora rosulata (Th. Fr.) H. Magn.

-

-

-

Acarospora stapfiana (Müll. Arg.) Hue

-

-

-

Acarospora strigata (Nyl.) Jatta

-

-

-

Polysporina gyrocarpa (H. Magn.) N. S. Golubk.

-

-

-

Candelariaceae

Candelariella rosulans (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.

-

-

-

Collemataceae

Enchylium tenax (Sw.) Gray

-

-

-

Lecanoraceae

Lecanora garovaglii (Körber) Zahlbr.

-

-

-

Physicaceae

Buellia abstracta (Nyl.) H. Olivier

-

-

-

Teloschistaceae

Caloplaca trachyphylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr.

-

-

-

Verrucariaceae

Heteroplacidium compactum (A. Massal.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux

-

-

-

Placidium acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) Breuss

-

-

-

Placidium lachneum (Ach.) Breuss

-

-

-

Vascular Plant

Amaranthaceae

Atriplex confertifolia (Torr. & Frém.) S. Watson

x

x

x

Atriplex corrugata S. Watson

x

x

x

Atriplex gardneri (Moq.) D. Dietr. var. cuneata (A. Nelson) S.L. Welsh

x

x

x

Halogeton glomeratus (M. Bieb.) C.A. Mey.

x

x

x

Kali tragus (L.) Scop.

x

x

x

Asteraceae

Artemisia filifolia Torr.

x

x

x

Chaenactis douglasii (Hook.) Hook. & Arn. var. douglasii

x

Dieteria canescens (Pursh) Nutt. var. canescens

x

x

x

Ericameria nauseosa (Pall. ex Pursh) G.L. Nesom & G.I. Baird

x

x

x

Gaillardia spathulata A. Gray

x

x

x1

Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britton & Rusby

x

x

x

Hymenoxys cooperi (A. Gray) Cockerell

x

x

Scabrethia scabra (Hook.) W.A. Weber

x

x

x

Thelesperma subnudum A. Gray

x

x

x

Boraginaceae

Cryptantha humilis (Greene) Payson

x

x

x

Brassicaceae

Lepidium montanum Nutt.

x

x

x

Cactaceae

Opuntia basilaris Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow var. basilaris

x

x

x

Opuntia polyacantha Haw. var. polyacantha

x

x

x

Ephedraceae

Ephedra viridis Colville

x

x

x

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia fendleri Torr. & A. Gray

x

x

x

Fabaceae

Astragalus amphioxys A. Gray

x

x

x

Astragalus desperatus M.E. Jones

x

x

x

Astragalus lentiginosus Douglas

x

x

x

Juncaceae

Juncus bufonius L.

x

x

Malvaceae

Sphaeralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb.

x

x

x

Sphaeralcea parviflora A. Nelson

x

x

x

Onagraceae

Oenothera cespitosa Nutt. var. navajoensis (W.L. Wagner, Stockh. & W.M. Klein) Cronquist

x

x

x

Poaceae

Achnatherum hymenoides (Roem. & Schult.) Barkworth

x

x

x

Aristida purpurea var. longiseta (Steud.) Vasey

x

x

x

Bouteloua barbata Lag. var. barbata

x

x

Bromus tectorum L.

x

x

x

Dasyochloa pulchella (Kunth) Willd. ex Rydb.