Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic Paper
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Taxonomic Paper
Faunistic study of butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea) of Sulaymaniyah Province, Kurdistan-Iraq
expand article info Farhad A. Khudhur ‡, §
‡ University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
§ University of Mendel, Brno, Czech Republic
Open Access

Abstract

Background

This study investigates the butterfly fauna (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea) of Sulaymaniyah Province, in Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Investigations were carried out between April 2016 and April 2021, during which butterfly specimens were collected from 34 different localities throughout Sulaymaniyah Province. The collected butterflies belonged to 103 species within five families: five species of Papilionidae, 19 species of Hesperiidae, 18 species of Pieridae, 25 species of Lycaenidae and 36 species of Nymphalidae.

New information

Eight species, Carcharodus stauderi Reverdin, 1913, Thymelicus hyrax Lederer, 1861, Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus, 1758) Pieris krueperi Staudinger, 1860, Colias erate Esper, 1803, Polyommatus thersites (Cantener, 1835), Brenthis mofidii Wyatt, 1968 and Pseudochazara mamurra Herrich-Schäffer, 1852 have been added as new records to the fauna of Iraqi butterflies.

Keywords

butterflies, Papilionoidea, Lepidoptera, Sulaymaniyah, Iraqi fauna

Introduction

Sulaymaniyah Province is a mountainous area located in the northeast of Iraq and the southeast part of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region. As a part of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region biogeographically, Sulaymaniyah is situated in the Irano-Tauranian in the southeast of the western Palearctic realm (Ararat 2009). The Province mostly lies between 34°50′ to 36°50′ N longitude and 44°70′ to 46°00′ E latitude, elevation ranges 150-2550 m a.s.l. Sulaymaniyah has a diverse topography of mountains, hills, plains, valleys and lakes, with great biodiversity and many diverse habitats (Ararat 2009, Ahmed 2016).

Butterflies belong to a single superfamily, Papilionoidea (Heikkilä et al. 2011, Wiemers and Verovnik 2016). This superfamily consists of seven families; Papilionidae, Hedylidae, Hesperiidae, Pieridae, Riodinidae, Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae (van Nieukerken et al. 2011, Wiemers and Verovnik 2016). In the past, the Lepidopteran faunal compositions have been rarely studied in Iraq in general and, particularly, in Sulaymaniyah. Butterfly recording in Iraq seemed to begin with Peile (1921), who published his notes on 44 species of the butterfly taken from Mesopotamia and another 44 species collected from adjacent highlands of northwest Persia and South Kurdistan. Scott (1929), in his entomological journey to the Sulaymaniyah Province, failed to record any butterfly species. The first and major contribution to the Lepidoptera fauna of Iraq was published by the British Colonel Wiltshire (1957). This work was a compilation of his intensively published articles (Wiltshire 1937a, Wiltshire 1937b, Wiltshire 1939a, Wiltshire 1939b, Wiltshire 1941, Wiltshire 1944). One year later, Higgins (1958), during his visit to Kurdistan, listed notes about 65 species of butterfly and added several new records to the known butterfly fauna of Iraq. During the 1970s, only a single Nymphalid species was recorded in Iraq (Igarashi 1971). There are several other published works considering Lepidoptera fauna in Iraq, which mostly depend on literature linked to Iraqi butterfly fauna (Kemal and Koçak 2011, Kemal and Koçak 2018, Koçak and Kemal 2001). Colonel Wiltshire’s data have been used to map Iraqi butterflies by Tshikolovets et al. (2014) in a book entitled “The butterflies of Iran and Iraq”, in which they studied also some fragmentary data from literature linked to Iraqi butterfly fauna and a few museum specimens. Recently in 2018, three articles have been published dealing with the butterfly fauna of Iraqi Kurdistan. These three studies have added several species to the known Iraqi fauna in the form of new records (Othman et al. 2018, Said et al. 2018, Yakovlev 2018), fifty-five species in the Erbil Province (Othman et al. 2018) and fifty species in the Duhok Province (Said et al. 2018, Yakovlev 2018). Lately, two lycaeniid butterfly species of the genus Polyommatus have been added to the Iraqi's butterfly fauna (Khudhur 2021). Based on literature data, the total recorded number of butterfly species in Iraq is 154 (Wiltshire 1957, Higgins 1958, Igarashi 1971, Othman et al. 2018, Said et al. 2018, Yakovlev 2018, Khudhur 2021).

The current study aims to investigate the butterfly fauna in the Sulaymaniyah Province and to contribute to the knowledge of Papilionoidea species and their distribution in Iraq.

Materials and methods

All butterflies were collected by F. Khudhur between April 2016 and April 2021. The specimens were collected from 34 different sites throughout the Sulaymaniyah Province (Table 1, Fig. 1). Sweeping nets were used for collecting the specimens. Specimens were euthanised with ethyl acetate vapour and were then put into a paper envelope and brought to the laboratory pinned, mounted, labelled and deposited in the Entomology Laboratory, Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah Province, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. The species were identified according to Wiltshire (1957), Higgins (1958), Baytaş (2007), Eckweiler (2011), Tshikolovets et al. (2014), Tikhonov et al. (2020).

Table 1.

Geographical information of investigated localities.

Loc. No. Locality Latitude / Longitude Elevation (m) Visiting Date
1 Sarkapkan 36°21'04"N, 44°46'24"E 791 07.05.2016
20.09.2018
2 Shênê 36°17'00"N, 45°16'01"E 1290 12.08.2020
3 Shanakhsê 35°58'37"N, 45°31'11"E 1060 11.07.2020
4 Dukan 35°56'59"N, 44°57'38"E 515 18.11.2016
15.05.2018
5 Upper Dêrê 35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E 1600

21.06.2020

01.07.2020
6 Galala 35°53'58"N, 45°19'51"E 1170 11.06.2020
7 Qamchukha 35°53'51"N, 45°00'51"E 712 06.09.2016
8 Mawat 35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E 786 30.08.2016
12.04.2020
21.08.2020
9 Little Barê 35°53'02"N, 45°40'07"E 1500 06.09.2020
10 Sargalw 35°52'44"N, 45°09'49"E 930 17.05.2020
11 Goptapa 35°51'00"N, 44°50'07"E 376 02.05.2017
12 Sya Gwez 35°48'37"N, 45°47'33"E 1500 24.08.2016
13 Chami Razan 35°48'03"N, 44°58'38"E 586 12.04.2016
06.09.2016
14 Balkha 35°47'09"N, 45°22'47"E 855 16.08.2017
15 Gollê 35°46'31"N, 45°49'54"E 1117 29.06.2020
16 Zêwê (Piramagroon Mountain) 35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E 1720 15.08.2016
12.09.2018
06.06.2020
10.08.2020
04.05.2021
17 Mokaba 35°45'26"N, 45°25'41"E 841 25.04.2018
09.04.2021
18 Qaiwan 35°42'01"N, 45°25'03"E 1230 21.05.2016
13.05.2017
19 Hawary Shar Park 35°36'41"N, 45°25'48"E 919 28.08.2016
23.10.2016
21.07.2018
20.11.2018
29.05.2020
06.04.2021
20 Penjwin 35°36'09"N, 45°57'48"E 1400 18.04.2019
21 Goyzha 35°34'57"N, 45°28'09"E 1070 27.09.2016
22 Qlyasan 35°34'41"N, 45°22'01"E 756 24.09.2016
09.11.2016
29.03.2017
09.06.2017
25.06.2019
27.06.2020
23 Azady Park 35°34'02"N, 45°25'51"E 845 17.08.2016
29.10.2016
14.04.2021
24 Basak 35°33'30"N, 45°42'57"E 1260 05.05.2016
25 Kani Pan 35°33'03"N, 45°18'00"E 714 05.10.2016
12.10.2016
26 Hazarmerd 35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E 958 03.05.2016
21.04.2017
15.04.2019
05.05.2020
14.05.2020
06.08.2020
13.10.2020
15.04.2021
27 Dêlêzha 35°27'36"N, 45°11'26"E 695 26.04.2016
01.09.2020
28 Nawê 35°24'42"N, 45°57'59"E 656 27.10.2017
29 Zalm 35°18'53"N, 46°05'07"E 843 11.05.2020
30 Sargat 35°17'34"N, 46°06'18"E 1050 16.06.2020
31 Qareh Dagh 35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E 1310 06,05,2017
30.05.2020
01.09.2020

12.09.2020

32 Byara 35°13'47"N, 46°07'13"E 1120 22.09.2016
07.07.2017
14.09.2019
33 Sartak 34°56'45"N, 45°46'32"E 1270 20.05.2017
19.03.2021
34 Awa Khwery 34°53'30"N, 45°33'29"E 311 16.08.2019
Figure 1.  

Map of Sulaymaniyah Province, the sampling localities marked with blue dots.

Data resources

A total of 103 species of butterfly, belonging to five families of the superfamily Papilionoidea, order Lepidoptera, were identified. Of which eight species, previously unrecorded, were added as new species to the Iraqi butterfly fauna; these eight species are marked with an asterisk in the Checklist section. Five species were recorded within Papilionidae, 19 species within Hesperiidae including two new records, 18 species within Pieridae including three new records, 25 species within Lycaenidae with one new record and 36 species within Nymphalidae including two new records. The species of the butterflies were listed according to Wiemers and Verovnik (2016).

Checklist of Butterflies of Sulaymaniyah Province, Kurdista Region, Iraq

Carcharodus alceae (Esper, [1780])

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Pishdar
    ; locality:
    Shênê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°17'00"N, 45°16'01"E
  2. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Upper Dukan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'59"N, 44°57'38"E
  3. county:
    Chamchamal
    ; locality:
    Goptapa Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°51'00"N, 44°50'07"E
  4. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Chami Razan Valley
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°48'03"N, 44°58'38"E
  5. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Qlyasan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'41"N, 45°22'01"E
  6. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E
  7. county:
    Bazyan
    ; locality:
    Dêlêzha
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°27'36"N, 45°11'26"E
  8. county:
    Halabja
    ; locality:
    Byara
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°13'47"N, 46°07'13"E
  9. county:
    Kalar
    ; locality:
    Awa Khwery
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    34°53'30"N, 45°33'29"E

Carcharodus orientalis Reverdin, 1913

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E
  2. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E

* Carcharodus stauderi Reverdin, 1913

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chwarta
    ; municipality:
    Basnê
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E
    ; eventDate:
    21-Jun-20
    ; identifiedBy:
    Farhad A. Khudhur
    ; identificationReferences:
    Tshikolovets et.al. 2014
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  2. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E
    ; eventDate:
    10-Aug-20
    ; identifiedBy:
    Farhad A. Khudhur
    ; identificationReferences:
    Tshikolovets etal. 2014
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
Notes: 
First record for Iraq

Eogenes alcides (Herrich-Schäffer, [1852])

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Qamchukha Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'51"N, 45°00'51"E
  2. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mawat
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E
  3. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Sargalw (Bargalw)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°52'44"N, 45°09'49"E
  4. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Hawary Shar Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'41"N, 45°25'48"E
  5. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Qlyasan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'41"N, 45°22'01"E

Erynnis marloyi (Boisduval, [1834])

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mawat
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E
  2. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E

Erynnis tages (Linnaeus, 1758)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Shanakhsê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°58'37"N, 45°31'11"E
  2. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Galala Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'58"N, 45°19'51"E
  3. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Little Barê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'02"N, 45°40'07"E

Gegenes nostrodamus (Fabricius, 1793)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Qamchukha Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'51"N, 45°00'51"E
  2. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Hawary Shar Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'41"N, 45°25'48"E
  3. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E

Gegenes pumilio (Hoffmannsegg, 1804)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E
  2. county:
    Halabja
    ; locality:
    Sargat Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°17'34"N, 46°06'18"E

Muschampia tessellum (Hb., 1803)

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  1. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E

Muschampia nomas (Lederer, 1855)

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  1. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E

Ochlodes sylvanus (Esper, 1777)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E

Spialia osthelderi (Pfeiffer, 1932)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E

Spialia doris (Walker, 1870)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Pishdar
    ; locality:
    Shênê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°17'00"N, 45°16'01"E
  2. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mawat
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E

Spialia geron (Watson, 1893)

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  1. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Azady Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'02"N, 45°25'51"E

Spialia orbifer (Hübner, [1823])

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Sargalw (Bargalw)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°52'44"N, 45°09'49"E

Thymelicus acteon (Rottemburg, 1775)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Sargalw (Bargalw)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°52'44"N, 45°09'49"E
  2. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E

Thymelicus hyrax (Lederer, 1861)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; municipality:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E
    ; eventDate:
    14-May-20
    ; sex:
    2 males
    ; recordedBy:
    F. A. Khudhur
    ; identifiedBy:
    Farhad A. Khudhur
    ; identificationReferences:
    Tshikolovets et al. 2014 & Baytaş 2007
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
Notes: 
First record for Iraq

Thymelicus lineola (Ochsenheimer, 1808)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Shanakhsê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°58'37"N, 45°31'11"E
  2. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Sargalw (Bargalw)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°52'44"N, 45°09'49"E
  3. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E

Thymelicus sylvestris (Poda, 1761)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Hawary Shar Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'41"N, 45°25'48"E
  2. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Goyzha
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'57"N, 45°28'09"E
  3. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E
  4. county:
    Halabja
    ; locality:
    Zalm Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°18'53"N, 46°05'07"E

Archon apollinaris (Staudinger, [1892])

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Upper Dukan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'59"N, 44°57'38"E
  2. county:
    Chamchamal
    ; locality:
    Goptapa Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°51'00"N, 44°50'07"E
  3. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Chami Razan Valley
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°48'03"N, 44°58'38"E
  4. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E

Zerynthia deyrollei (Oberthür, 1869)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Upper Dukan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'59"N, 44°57'38"E
  2. county:
    Chamchamal
    ; locality:
    Goptapa Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°51'00"N, 44°50'07"E
  3. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Chami Razan Valley
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°48'03"N, 44°58'38"E
  4. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Qlyasan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'41"N, 45°22'01"E
  5. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E

Iphiclides podalirius (Linnaeus, 1758)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Ranya
    ; locality:
    Sarkapkan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°21'04"N, 44°46'24"E
  2. county:
    Pishdar
    ; locality:
    Shênê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°17'00"N, 45°16'01"E
  3. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Shanakhsê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°58'37"N, 45°31'11"E
  4. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E
  5. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Galala Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'58"N, 45°19'51"E
  6. county:
    Penjwen
    ; locality:
    Sya Gwez Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°48'37"N, 45°47'33"E
  7. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E
  8. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E
  9. county:
    Halabja
    ; locality:
    Byara
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°13'47"N, 46°07'13"E

Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, 1758

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Hawary Shar Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'41"N, 45°25'48"E
  2. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Qlyasan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'41"N, 45°22'01"E
  3. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Azady Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'02"N, 45°25'51"E
  4. county:
    Kalar
    ; locality:
    Awa Khwery
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    34°53'30"N, 45°33'29"E

Papilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Galala Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'58"N, 45°19'51"E
  2. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E
  3. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Azady Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'02"N, 45°25'51"E
  4. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E

Anthocharis gruneri (Herrich-Schaffer, [1851])

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Ranya
    ; locality:
    Sarkapkan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°21'04"N, 44°46'24"E

Anthocharis cardamines (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E

Aporia crataegi (Linnaeus, 1758)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chamchamal
    ; locality:
    Goptapa Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°51'00"N, 44°50'07"E
  2. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E
  3. county:
    Bazyan
    ; locality:
    Dêlêzha
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°27'36"N, 45°11'26"E

Belenois aurota (Fabricius, 1793)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Qamchukha Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'51"N, 45°00'51"E
  2. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Qlyasan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'41"N, 45°22'01"E
  3. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Kany Pan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°33'03"N, 45°18'00"E

Colias croceus (Geoffroy, 1785)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Pishdar
    ; locality:
    Shênê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°17'00"N, 45°16'01"E
  2. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Qamchukha Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'51"N, 45°00'51"E
  3. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mawat
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E
  4. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Little Barê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'02"N, 45°40'07"E
  5. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mokaba
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'26"N, 45°25'41"E
  6. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Hawary Shar Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'41"N, 45°25'48"E
  7. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Azady Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'02"N, 45°25'51"E
  8. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E

* Colias erate (Esper, 1805)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E
    ; eventDate:
    12-Sep-20
    ; sex:
    1 male, 2 females
    ; recordedBy:
    F. A. Khudhur
    ; identifiedBy:
    Farhad A. Khudhur
    ; identificationReferences:
    Tshikolovets etal. 2014
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
Notes: 
First record for Iraq

Colias aurorina Herrich-Schäffer, 1850

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Galala Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'58"N, 45°19'51"E
  2. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Hawary Shar Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'41"N, 45°25'48"E

Colotis fausta (Olivier, [1804])

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Qamchukha Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'51"N, 45°00'51"E
  2. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Qlyasan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'41"N, 45°22'01"E
  3. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Kany Pan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°33'03"N, 45°18'00"E
  4. county:
    Darbandikhan
    ; locality:
    Sartak
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    34°56'45"N, 45°46'32"E
  5. county:
    Kalar
    ; locality:
    Awa Khwery
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    34°53'30"N, 45°33'29"E

Euchloe belemia (Esper, 1800)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Penjwen
    ; locality:
    Penjwen
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'09"N, 45°57'48"E

* Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E
    ; eventDate:
    4-May-21
    ; sex:
    2 males
    ; recordedBy:
    F. A. Khudhur
    ; identifiedBy:
    Farhad A. Khudhur
    ; identificationReferences:
    Tshikolovets etal. 2014
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
Notes: 
First record for Iraq

Gonepteryx farinosa (Zeller, 1847)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E
  2. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Galala Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'58"N, 45°19'51"E
  3. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E

Pieris ergane (Geyer, [1828])

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Halabja
    ; locality:
    Sargat Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°17'34"N, 46°06'18"E

* Pieris krueperi Staudinger, 1860

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Said Sadiq
    ; locality:
    Nawê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°24'42"N, 45°57'59"E
    ; eventDate:
    27-Oct-17
    ; sex:
    1 male
    ; recordedBy:
    F. A. Khudhur
    ; identifiedBy:
    Farhad A. Khudhur
    ; identificationReferences:
    Tshikolovets etal. 2014
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
Notes: 
First record for Iraq

Pieris napi (Linnaeus, 1758)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Qlyasan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'41"N, 45°22'01"E
  2. county:
    Halabja
    ; locality:
    Byara
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°13'47"N, 46°07'13"E

Pieris rapae (Linnaeus, 1758)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Ranya
    ; locality:
    Sarkapkan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°21'04"N, 44°46'24"E
  2. county:
    Pishdar
    ; locality:
    Shênê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°17'00"N, 45°16'01"E
  3. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Upper Dukan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'59"N, 44°57'38"E
  4. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mawat
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E
  5. county:
    Chamchamal
    ; locality:
    Goptapa Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°51'00"N, 44°50'07"E
  6. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Chami Razan Valley
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°48'03"N, 44°58'38"E
  7. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mokaba
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'26"N, 45°25'41"E
  8. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Qaiwan Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°42'01"N, 45°25'03"E
  9. county:
    Penjwen
    ; locality:
    Penjwen
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'09"N, 45°57'48"E
  10. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Qlyasan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'41"N, 45°22'01"E
  11. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Kany Pan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°33'03"N, 45°18'00"E
  12. county:
    Bazyan
    ; locality:
    Dêlêzha
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°27'36"N, 45°11'26"E
  13. county:
    Halabja
    ; locality:
    Byara
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°13'47"N, 46°07'13"E

Pontia chloridice (Hübner, [1808-1813])

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Barzinja
    ; locality:
    Basak Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°33'30"N, 45°42'57"E

Pontia glauconome Klug, 1829

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Sargalw (Bargalw)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°52'44"N, 45°09'49"E
  2. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E

Pontia daplidice (Linnaeus, 1758)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Ranya
    ; locality:
    Sarkapkan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°21'04"N, 44°46'24"E
  2. county:
    Pishdar
    ; locality:
    Shênê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°17'00"N, 45°16'01"E
  3. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Galala Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'58"N, 45°19'51"E
  4. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mokaba
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'26"N, 45°25'41"E
  5. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Kany Pan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°33'03"N, 45°18'00"E
  6. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E
  7. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E

Aricia agestis (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mawat
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E
  2. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Qlyasan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'41"N, 45°22'01"E
  3. county:
    Barzinja
    ; locality:
    Basak Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°33'30"N, 45°42'57"E
  4. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Kany Pan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°33'03"N, 45°18'00"E
  5. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E
  6. county:
    Bazyan
    ; locality:
    Dêlêzha
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°27'36"N, 45°11'26"E
  7. county:
    Said Sadiq
    ; locality:
    Nawê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°24'42"N, 45°57'59"E
  8. county:
    Halabja
    ; locality:
    Zalm Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°18'53"N, 46°05'07"E
  9. county:
    Halabja
    ; locality:
    Byara
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°13'47"N, 46°07'13"E

Celastrina (44) argiolus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E

Cigaritis maxima Staudinger, 1901

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mawat
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E

Cigaritis epargyros (Eversmann, 1854)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mawat
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E
  2. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Balkha Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°47'09"N, 45°22'47"E

Favonius quercus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E

Glaucopsyche laetifica subsp. safidensis (Blom, 1979)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mokaba
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'26"N, 45°25'41"E
  2. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E

Lampides boeticus (Linnaeus, 1767)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mawat
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E
  2. county:
    Penjwen
    ; locality:
    Gollê Resort
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°46'31"N, 45°49'54"E
  3. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Goyzha
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'57"N, 45°28'09"E
  4. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Kany Pan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°33'03"N, 45°18'00"E
  5. county:
    Bazyan
    ; locality:
    Dêlêzha
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°27'36"N, 45°11'26"E
  6. county:
    Kalar
    ; locality:
    Awa Khwery
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    34°53'30"N, 45°33'29"E

Chilades trochylus (Freyer, 1845)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Hawary Shar Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'41"N, 45°25'48"E
  2. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Azady Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'02"N, 45°25'51"E
  3. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E

Lachides galba (Lederer, 1855)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Hawary Shar Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'41"N, 45°25'48"E
  2. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Qlyasan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'41"N, 45°22'01"E
  3. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Azady Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'02"N, 45°25'51"E
  4. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Kany Pan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°33'03"N, 45°18'00"E

Lycaena asabinus (Herrich-Schaffer, [1851])

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Pishdar
    ; locality:
    Shênê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°17'00"N, 45°16'01"E
  2. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E

Lycaena phlaeas (Linnaeus, 1761)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Pishdar
    ; locality:
    Shênê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°17'00"N, 45°16'01"E
  2. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mawat
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E
  3. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E
  4. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Qlyasan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'41"N, 45°22'01"E

Lycaena thersamon (Esper, 1784)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E
  2. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Goyzha
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'57"N, 45°28'09"E

Lycaena tityrus (Poda, 1761)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E
  2. county:
    Penjwen
    ; locality:
    Gollê Resort
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°46'31"N, 45°49'54"E

Lycaena thetis Klug, 1834

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mawat
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E

Plebejus zephyrinus (Christoph, 1884)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E
  2. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Hawary Shar Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'41"N, 45°25'48"E
  3. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Goyzha
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'57"N, 45°28'09"E

Polyommatus (Lysandra) bellargus von Rottemburg, 1775

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Shanakhsê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°58'37"N, 45°31'11"E
  2. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E

Polyommatus daphnis (Denis & Schiffermuller, 1775)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Penjwen
    ; locality:
    Sya Gwez Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°48'37"N, 45°47'33"E
  2. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E

Polyommatus icarus (Rottemburg, 1775)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Pishdar
    ; locality:
    Shênê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°17'00"N, 45°16'01"E
  2. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E

* Polyommatus thersites (Cantener, 1835)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Barzinja
    ; locality:
    Basak Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°33'30"N, 45°42'57"E
    ; eventDate:
    5-May-16
    ; sex:
    1 male
    ; recordedBy:
    F. A. Khudhur
    ; identifiedBy:
    Farhad A. Khudhur
    ; identificationReferences:
    Tshikolovets etal. 2014
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
Notes: 
First record for Iraq

Pseudophilotes vicrama (Moore, 1865)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Pishdar
    ; locality:
    Shênê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°17'00"N, 45°16'01"E

Satyrium acaciae (Fabricius 1787).

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E

Satyrium marcidus (Riley, 1921)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Galala Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'58"N, 45°19'51"E
  2. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E

Satyrium abdominalis (Gerhard, 1850)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Sargalw (Bargalw)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°52'44"N, 45°09'49"E
  2. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E

Tarucus balkanicus (Freyer, [1844])

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Pishdar
    ; locality:
    Shênê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°17'00"N, 45°16'01"E
  2. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mawat
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E
  3. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Sargalw (Bargalw)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°52'44"N, 45°09'49"E
  4. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E
  5. county:
    Bazyan
    ; locality:
    Dêlêzha
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°27'36"N, 45°11'26"E
  6. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E

Zizeeria karsandra (Moore, 1865)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Qamchukha Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'51"N, 45°00'51"E
  2. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Azady Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'02"N, 45°25'51"E

Argynnis niobe von Rottemburg, 1775

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E

Argynnis pandora ([Schiffermüller], 1775)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Ranya
    ; locality:
    Sarkapkan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°21'04"N, 44°46'24"E
  2. county:
    Pishdar
    ; locality:
    Shênê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°17'00"N, 45°16'01"E
  3. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E
  4. county:
    Penjwen
    ; locality:
    Sya Gwez Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°48'37"N, 45°47'33"E
  5. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E
  6. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E
  7. county:
    Halabja
    ; locality:
    Byara
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°13'47"N, 46°07'13"E

* Brenthis mofidii Wyatt, 1969

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 45°57'38"E
    ; eventDate:
    21-Jun-20
    ; sex:
    1 male
    ; recordedBy:
    F. A. Khudhur
    ; identifiedBy:
    Farhad A. Khudhur
    ; identificationReferences:
    Tshikolovets etal. 2014
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
Notes: 

First record for Iraq.

Brintesia circe (Fabricius, 1775)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E
  2. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Galala Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'58"N, 45°19'51"E
  3. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Hawary Shar Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'41"N, 45°25'48"E
  4. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E

Chazara briseis (Linnaeus, 1764)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E
  2. county:
    Halabja
    ; locality:
    Sargat Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°17'34"N, 46°06'18"E

Coenonympha pamphilus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E
  2. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Galala Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'58"N, 45°19'51"E
  3. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mawat
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E
  4. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Sargalw (Bargalw)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°52'44"N, 45°09'49"E

Coenonympha saadi Kollar, [1849]

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Little Barê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'02"N, 45°40'07"E
  2. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Sargalw (Bargalw)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°52'44"N, 45°09'49"E
  3. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E
  4. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E
  5. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E

Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Qlyasan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'41"N, 45°22'01"E

Hipparchia fatua (Freyer, 1845)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Hawary Shar Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'41"N, 45°25'48"E

Hipparchia parisatis (Kollar, [1849])

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E
  2. county:
    Halabja
    ; locality:
    Sargat Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°17'34"N, 46°06'18"E
  3. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E

Hipparchia pellucida (Stauder, 1924)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Hawary Shar Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'41"N, 45°25'48"E

Hipparchia syriaca (Staudinger, 1871)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E
  2. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Galala Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'58"N, 45°19'51"E
  3. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mawat
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E
  4. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Little Barê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'02"N, 45°40'07"E
  5. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E
  6. county:
    Penjwen
    ; locality:
    Penjwen
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'09"N, 45°57'48"E
  7. county:
    Halabja
    ; locality:
    Sargat Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°17'34"N, 46°06'18"E
  8. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E
  9. county:
    Halabja
    ; locality:
    Byara
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°13'47"N, 46°07'13"E

Hyponephele lupina (Costa, 1836)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E

Hyponephele lycaon (Rottemburg, 1775)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E

Hyponephele wagneri (Herrich-Schäffer, [1846])

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E

Junonia orithya (Linnaeus, 1758)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Hawary Shar Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'41"N, 45°25'48"E
  2. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Azady Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'02"N, 45°25'51"E

Lasiommata megera (Linnaeus, 1767)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Galala Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'58"N, 45°19'51"E
  2. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Qlyasan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'41"N, 45°22'01"E
  3. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E

Limenitis reducta Staudinger, 1901

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E
  2. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Galala Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'58"N, 45°19'51"E
  3. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mawat
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E
  4. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Little Barê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'02"N, 45°40'07"E
  5. county:
    Penjwen
    ; locality:
    Sya Gwez Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°48'37"N, 45°47'33"E
  6. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E
  7. county:
    Halabja
    ; locality:
    Sargat Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°17'34"N, 46°06'18"E

Maniola jurtina (Linnaeus, 1758)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E
  2. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Sargalw (Bargalw)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°52'44"N, 45°09'49"E
  3. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Kany Pan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°33'03"N, 45°18'00"E

Maniola telmessia (Zeller, 1847)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Pishdar
    ; locality:
    Shênê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°17'00"N, 45°16'01"E
  2. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E
  3. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Galala Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'58"N, 45°19'51"E
  4. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mawat
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E
  5. county:
    Penjwen
    ; locality:
    Sya Gwez Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°48'37"N, 45°47'33"E

Melanargia hylata (Ménétriés, 1832)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Galala Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'58"N, 45°19'51"E
  2. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mawat
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E
  3. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E

Melanargia larissa (Geyer, [1828])

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Hawary Shar Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'41"N, 45°25'48"E
  2. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E
  3. county:
    Halabja
    ; locality:
    Sargat Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°17'34"N, 46°06'18"E

Melitaea arduinna (Esper, 1783)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E

Melitaea cinxia (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E

Melitaea didyma (Esper, 1778)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E

Melitaea gina Higgins, 1941

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Pishdar
    ; locality:
    Shênê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°17'00"N, 45°16'01"E

Nymphalis polychloros (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mokaba
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'26"N, 45°25'41"E

Pararge aegeria (Linnaeus, 1758)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Ranya
    ; locality:
    Sarkapkan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°21'04"N, 44°46'24"E
  2. county:
    Pishdar
    ; locality:
    Shênê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°17'00"N, 45°16'01"E
  3. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mawat
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E
  4. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Sargalw (Bargalw)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°52'44"N, 45°09'49"E
  5. county:
    Penjwen
    ; locality:
    Sya Gwez Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°48'37"N, 45°47'33"E
  6. county:
    Penjwen
    ; locality:
    Penjwen
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'09"N, 45°57'48"E
  7. county:
    Halabja
    ; locality:
    Sargat Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°17'34"N, 46°06'18"E
  8. county:
    Halabja
    ; locality:
    Byara
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°13'47"N, 46°07'13"E

Pararge climene (Esper, 1783)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E

Pararge roxelana (Cramer, [1777])

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Sargalw (Bargalw)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°52'44"N, 45°09'49"E
  2. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E

Polygonia c-album (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mawat
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'10"N, 45°23'59"E

* Pseudochazara mamurra (Herrich-Schäffer, [1846])

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Galala Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'58"N, 45°19'51"E
    ; eventDate:
    11-Jun-20
    ; sex:
    1 female
    ; recordedBy:
    F. A. Khudhur
    ; identifiedBy:
    Farhad A. Khudhur
    ; identificationReferences:
    Eckweiler 2012, Tshikolovets et al. 2014 & Tikhonov et al. 2020
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
  2. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E
    ; eventDate:
    6-Jun-20
    ; sex:
    1 male
    ; recordedBy:
    F. A. Khudhur
    ; identifiedBy:
    Farhad A. Khudhur
    ; identificationReferences:
    Eckweiler 2012, Tshikolovets et al. 2014 & Tikhonov et al. 2020
    ; basisOfRecord:
    PreservedSpecimen
Notes: 

First record for Iraq.

Pseudochazara pelopea (Klug, 1832)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Chuarta
    ; locality:
    Upper Dêrê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'08"N, 44°57'38"E
  2. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E

Pseudochazara thelephassa (Geyer, [1827])

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E
  2. county:
    Qareh Dagh
    ; locality:
    Qareh Dagh Mount.
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°14'27"N, 45°22'12"E

Vanessa atalanta (Linnaeus, 1758)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Upper Dukan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°56'59"N, 44°57'38"E
  2. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Hawary Shar Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'41"N, 45°25'48"E
  3. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Azady Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'02"N, 45°25'51"E
  4. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Hazarmerd
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°29'56"N, 45°18'54"E

Vanessa cardui (Linnaeus, 1758)

Materials    Download as CSV 
  1. county:
    Ranya
    ; locality:
    Sarkapkan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°21'04"N, 44°46'24"E
  2. county:
    Pishdar
    ; locality:
    Shênê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    36°17'00"N, 45°16'01"E
  3. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Qamchukha Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°53'51"N, 45°00'51"E
  4. county:
    Chamchamal
    ; locality:
    Goptapa Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°51'00"N, 44°50'07"E
  5. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Chami Razan Valley
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°48'03"N, 44°58'38"E
  6. county:
    Dukan
    ; locality:
    Zêwê (Piramagroon Mount.)
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'41"N, 45°14'17"E
  7. county:
    Mawat
    ; locality:
    Mokaba
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°45'26"N, 45°25'41"E
  8. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Hawary Shar Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°36'41"N, 45°25'48"E
  9. county:
    Sulyamaniyah
    ; locality:
    Azady Park
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°34'02"N, 45°25'51"E
  10. county:
    Barzinja
    ; locality:
    Basak Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°33'30"N, 45°42'57"E
  11. county:
    Bakrajo
    ; locality:
    Kany Pan
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°33'03"N, 45°18'00"E
  12. county:
    Bazyan
    ; locality:
    Dêlêzha
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°27'36"N, 45°11'26"E
  13. county:
    Said Sadiq
    ; locality:
    Nawê Village
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    35°24'42"N, 45°57'59"E
  14. county:
    Darbandikhan
    ; locality:
    Sartak
    ; verbatimCoordinates:
    34°56'45"N, 45°46'32"E

Discussion

This study is first intensive faunistic study of butterfly in Sulaymaniyah Province. The diverse topography and ecosystems in Sulaymaniyah Province contributes to the richness in its biodiversity (Ararat 2009). In particular, the area has a mixed long border and extended geography with three areas of rich biodiversity: the Zagrosian Provinces of Iran including West Azarbayjan, Kordestan and Kermanshah (Haidari 2012, Kazemi and Hossienzadeh 2020). The results of this study reflect this biodiversity richness. In addition to the 154 species of butterflies that have been documented previously in Iraq (Wiltshire 1957, Higgins 1958, Igarashi 1971, Othman et al. 2018, Said et al. 2018, Yakovlev 2018, Khudhur 2021), 95 species were founded in Sulaymaniyah Province during these investigations. Moreover, this study adds eight new species previously unrecorded to the butterfly fauna of Iraq. Three of these newly-found species within Iraq belong to Pieridae; Pieris krueperi, Gonepteryx rhamni and Colias erate. The five others were two skippers, Carcharodus stauderi and Thymelicus hyrax; two Nymphalids Brenthis mofidii and Pseudochazara mamurra and a lycaenid butterfly Polyommatus thersites. All of these new records were predicted to be found here, since Sulaymaniyah is located near to the known distribution range of these species (Wiltshire 1957, Eckweiler 2012, Tshikolovets et al. 2014, Tikhonov et al. 2020). Several works of literature (Kemal and Koçak 2011, Bozano et al. 2016, Kemal and Koçak 2018) indicated distribution of these mentioned species in Iraq, based on the country position within the range of the Westren Palaearctic Region, while these indications were not supported by referencing to specific preserved specimens from Iraq. More new records of butterflies are likely to be found in this region and neighbouring areas in the future studies. Amongst the visited localities of this study, Piramagroon Mountain (Zêwê Village, locality no.15) was unique and had the richest diversity regarding butterflies with the highest number of species recorded, including the three new records Carcharodus stauderi, Gonepteryx rhamni and Pseudochazara mamurra. Furthermore, several other rarely found species were collected from Piramagroon Mountain, including Favonius quercus, Satyrium gerhardi, Hyponephele wagneri, Hyponephele lupine, Pararge climene and Erynnis marloyi. Therefore, this mountain deserves further investigations and will be the next focus for our future work.

Acknowledgements

My gratitude to Dr. Emad Kaky for his great support and facilities for doing this research by sending me valuable books and articles. I thank my colleague Soran H. Ahmed for accompanying me during a number of field expeditions in 2020. Thanks to my students Avin A, Faeq and Bazyan Rauf for their help in finding two important specimens. English of the final draft was kindly checked by Victoria Nolan, University of Nottingham.

References