Biodiversity Data Journal : Taxonomic Paper
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Taxonomic Paper
New records of fifteen species of Fulgoromorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera) in Bulgaria
expand article info Ilia Gjonov
‡ Sofia University, Faculty of Biology, Sofia, Bulgaria
Open Access

Abstract

Background

Bulgarian planthopper fauna (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) are relatively well studied, with 164 known species from 77 genera and 11 families. Data for some species from previous studies were reported without any localities or were incomplete and need to be updated.

New information

In the present study, 13 species of planthoppers are recorded for the first time in Bulgaria - Hyalesthes mlokosiewiczi Signoret, 1879 (Cixiidae), Delphax armeniacus Anufriev, 1970, Euides speciosa (Boheman, 1845), Eurysula lurida (Fieber, 1866), Florodelphax paryphasma (Flor, 1861), Jassidaeus lugubris (Signoret, 1865), Metropis aris Asche, Drosopoulos & Hoch, 1983, Oncodelphax pullula (Boheman, 1852), Ribautodelphax imitans (Ribaut, 1953), R. pungens (Ribaut, 1953), Stenocranus major (Kirschbaum, 1868) (Delphacidae), Latilica maculipes (Melichar, 1906) and Tshurtshurnella extrema Dlabola, 1980 (Issidae). Species from the following five genera are recorded in Bulgaria for the first time: Euides Fieber, 1866, Eurysula Vilbaste, 1968, Jassidaeus Fieber, 1866, Oncodelphax Wagner, 1963 (Delphacidae) and Latilica Emeljanov, 1971 (Issidae). As a result, the total numbers of known planthopper species and genera in Bulgaria become 177 species and 82 genera. The dataset of all collected specimens presented in this work was provided separately through Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Detailed distribution of the species and comments on those from the European Red Lists are also provided.

Keywords

Fulgoroidea, fauna, the Balkans, Cixiidae, Delphacidae, Issidae, Dictyopharidae

Introduction

Fulgoromorpha (planthoppers) are hemimetabolous insects belonging to the order Hemiptera. They are widespread throughout the world, but most families are richer in the tropics. About 14,000 species of fulgoromorphs have been described worldwide, belonging to 36 families (including fossils) (Bourgoin 2022) and about 730 species from 13 families are known in Europe (Hoch 2013). In Bulgaria, as well as on the Balkan Peninsula as a whole, insects of the infraorder Fulgoromorpha have been insufficiently studied from faunal, taxonomic and biological points of view. Data from older studies are incomplete and often need to be confirmed. There are no faunal lists, monographs, identification keys or other overview publications for Bulgaria. This, as well as the economic importance of the group, necessitates a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the Fulgoromorpha species in Bulgaria.

Materials and methods

The material was collected in Bulgaria between 2003 and 2021 by using sweeping nets and light towers. After collection, they were preserved in dry conditions on cotton mattresses. The specimens were dry-mounted on paper boards after humidification. Dissections were performed when necessary for identification and the dissected genitalia were glued to the boards. Due to the lack of identification keys for Balkan Fulgoromorpha, identification data were used from various publications (Holzinger et al. 2003, Biedermann and Niedringhaus 2009, Emeljanov 2015). The specimens are digitised and stored at the Zoological Collection of Sofia University (BFUS). The dataset of all records presented in this work has been published separately through Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (Gjonov 2022). Each entry of the dataset includes a single collection specimen with individual collection number, geospacial information, date of collecting, storing collection and taxonomic affiliation.

Detailed distribution of the species and comments on those from the European Red Lists are also provided. The following abbreviations concerning conservation status of the species where used: CR - Critically Endangered (IUCN) and category "2" in German Red Lists, EN - Endangered (IUCN) and category "2" in German Red Lists, VU - Vulnerable and category "V" in German Red Lists.

Some species were photographed live by the author with a Canon EOS 70D DSLR camera, Canon MP-E 65 mm macro lens using an Yongnuo YN-24EX twin macro flash or with Olympus E-500 DSLR camera, Sigma 150mm F2.8 APO MACRO DG and Raynox DCR-250 macro lens attached using Bower SFD14C ring flash.

Fulgoromorpha Evans, 1946

Family Cixiidae Spinola, 1839

Genus Hyalesthes Signoret, 1865

Hyalesthes mlokosiewiczi Signoret, 1879

Distribution: 

Greece (Rhodos), Georgia (Melichar 1914), Cyprus, Lebanon, Iraq, Israel as H. mavromoustakisi and H. aither (Dlabola 1959, Hoch 1990), Turkey (Lodos and Kalkandelen 1980, Demir 2007, Demir and Demirsoy 2009, Demirel and Hasbenli 2015), Iran (Dlabola 1981, Mozaffarian and Wilson 2011, Mozaffarian 2018), Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan (Dlabola 1958), Armenia (Lindberg 1960), Azerbaijan, Russia (Krasnodar, Dagestan) (Emeljanov 2015).

Notes: 

First record for Bulgaria. Western Danube Plain: Guljantsi vill., 07.viii.2021, 2♂♂ and 2♀♀ (Fig. 1); Western Rhodopes Mts.:, Djadovci vill., 26.v.2014, 9♂♂ and 4♀♀; Bachkovo vill., 29.v.2021, 1♂; Eastern Rhodopes Mts.: Zimzelen vill., 25.v.2014, 3♂♂ and 1♀; Bjal Gradec vill., 02.vi.2015, 2♂♂ and 1 nymph; Dolno Lukovo vill., 01.vi.2015, 1♂. All specimens were collected on Salix shrubs. Detailed occurrence data: Gjonov (2022).

Figure 1.

Hyalesthes mlokosiewiczi Signoret, 1879 - Bulgaria, Danube Plain.

adorsal view  
bfrontal view  

This species is recorded as a pest in the Caucasus (Emeljanov 2015) and Iran (Mozaffarian 2014, Mozaffarian 2018). Although it is hardly a danger to crops in Bulgaria (being found only on willow bushes), it should be monitored in the future.

Red Lists: No assessment.

Host plant: Polyphagous (Emeljanov 2015).

Family Delphacidae Leach, 1815

Genus Delphax Fabricius, 1789

Delphax armeniacus Anufriev, 1970

Distribution: 

Ukraine (Nast 1987), Greece (Drosopoulos 1982b, Drosopoulos et al. 1983), Armenia (Anufriev 1970), North-western Caucasus, Kazakhstan (Mitjaev 2015).

Notes: 

First record for Bulgaria. Southern Black Sea coast: Sinemorec vill., the mouth of Veleka River, at light, near a marsh, 14.viii.2010, 1♂. Detailed occurrence data: Gjonov (2022).

Red Lists: No assessment.

Host plant: There are no literature data. Although the specimen was collected in light, it is assumed that it came from the nearest Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. plantation, the typical host-plant for Delphax species (Nickel 2003b).

Genus Euides Fieber, 1866

Euides speciosa (Boheman, 1845)

Nomenclature: 

Della Giustina (2019) does not support the synonymy of E. basilinea (Germar, 1821) under E. speciosa proposed by Nast (1986).

Distribution: 

Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia (Karelia) (Söderman et al. 2009), Germany, Austria, Switzerland (Mühlethaler et al. 2018), Luxembourg (Niedringhaus et al. 2010a), as E. basilinea (Germar, 1821). Synonimisation is refuted by Della Giustina (2019) for the North of Europe. France (Della Giustina 2019), Hungary (Asche 1982a), ex-Yugoslavia (Asche 1982b), Belarus (Borodin 2004), Kazakhstan (Mitjaev 1971), Korea (Park and Jung 2020), Japan (Hayashi and Fujinuma 2016).

Notes: 

New record for Bulgaria. Western Danube Plain: Archar vill., 04.v.2015, 1♂; Southern Black Sea coast: Atia vill., 22.viii.2016, 1♂. Detailed occurrence data: Gjonov (2022).

Red Lists: EN: Saxony (Walter et al. 2003); VU: (under the name E. basilinea): Bavaria (Nickel 2003a), Tyrphobionts and Tyrphophils of Hanoverian Moor Geest (Nickel and Gärtner 2009), Watercourses and Springs on the Hoher Trauchberg, Eastern Allgäu/Bavarian Alps (Bückle and Guglielmino 2011) and Germany (Nickel et al. 2016).

Host plant: Phragmites australis (Della Giustina 2019).

Genus Eurysula Vilbaste, 1968

Eurysula lurida (Fieber, 1866)

Distribution: 

Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia (Karelia) (Söderman et al. 2009), Great Britain (Le Quesne and Payne 1981), Ireland, Belgium, France (Della Giustina 2019), Netherlands (Gravestein 1976), Luxembourg (Niedringhaus et al. 2010a, Niedringhaus et al. 2010b), Germany (Nickel and Remane 2002), Poland (Gębicki et al. 2013, Walczak 2016), Ukraine (Logvinenko 1975), Spain (Aguin-Pombo et al. 2007, Aguin-Pombo et al. 2008, Italy (Sicily) (D'Urso 1995), Switzerland (Mühlethaler et al. 2018), Austria (Holzinger 1996a, Holzinger 1996b, Kahapka and Kunz 2011, Kunz and Kahapka 2012, Holzinger et al. 2017), Czech Republic (Malenovský 2006, Malenovský et al. 2011, Malenovský and Lauterer 2012), Hungary (Asche 1982a, Orosz 2008, Orosz 2009), Slovenia (Seljak 2016), Kazakhstan, Mongolia (Mitjaev 2015), ex-Yugoslavia (Asche 1982b).

Notes: 

First record for Bulgaria. Eastern Sub-Balkan Basins: Ajtos, 23.vi.2016, 11♂♂, 1♀ and 4 nymphs; Western Rhodopes Mts: Poljana vill., 28.v.2014, 2♂♂, 2♀♀ and 5 nymphs. Detailed occurrence data: Gjonov (2022).

Red Lists: It is assessed as not endangered in some countries of Central Europe.

Host plant: Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth, C. canescens (Weber ex F.H. Wigg.) Roth (Nickel 2003b).

Genus Florodelphax Vilbaste, 1968

Florodelphax paryphasma (Flor, 1861)

Distribution: 

Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia (Karelia) (Söderman et al. 2009), Luxembourg (Niedringhaus et al. 2010a), Belgium (Baugnée 2004), France (Della Giustina and Remane 2001), Austria (Holzinger and Kunz 2006), Czech Republic (Preisler and Lauterer 2003, Malenovský and Lauterer 2010), Slovenia (Holzinger and Seljak 2001), ex-Yugoslavia (Asche 1982b), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Baikal (Irkutsk) (Mitjaev 2015).

Notes: 

First record for Bulgaria. Sarnena Sredna Gora: Svezhen vill., marsh, 11.viii.2020, 2 ♂♂. Detailed occurrence data: Gjonov (2022).

Red Lists: CR: Saxony (Walter et al. 2003), Austria (Holzinger 2009); Czech Republic (Malenovský and Lauterer 2017); EN: Bavaria (Nickel 2003a), Saxony-Anhalt (Witsack and Nickel 2004), Thuringia (Nickel and Sander 2016).

Host plant: On Carex disticha Huds. (Nickel 2003b).

Genus Jassidaeus Fieber, 1866

Jassidaeus lugubris (Signoret, 1865)

Distribution: 

Belgium, France (Della Giustina 2019), Luxembourg (Niedringhaus et al. 2010a), Germany (Nickel and Remane 2003), Poland (Gębicki et al. 2013), Ukraine (Logvinenko 1975), Russia (European parts) (Emel'yanov 1967, Smirnova and Anufriev 2014), Spain, Portugal (Remane and Fröhlich 1994), Italy (Sicily) (D'Urso 1995), Austria (Holzinger 1996b, Holzinger and Kunz 2006), Czech Republic, Slovakia (Dlabola 1977, Malenovský and Lauterer 2012), Hungary (Asche 1982a, Orosz 2009), Romania (Orosz and Tóth 2016), Greece (Drosopoulos et al. 1983).

In the General Catalogue of the Hemiptera (Metcalf 1943) is probably mistakenly recorded for Ceylon without referring to the literature source.

Notes: 

First record for Bulgaria. Western Pre-Balkan: Rumjancevo vill., 01.x.2016, 1♂; Belasitsa Mt: Varshilo loc., 01.i.2014, 7♂♂ and 4♀♀ (Fig. 2). Detailed occurrence data: Gjonov (2022).

Figure 2.

Jassidaeus lugubris (Signoret, 1865) - Bulgaria, Belasitsa Mt.

amale  
bfemale  

Red Lists: CR: Saxony (Walter et al. 2003), Austria (Holzinger 2009), Turingia (Nickel and Sander 2016), Germany (Nickel et al. 2016); EN: Bavaria (Nickel 2003a), Saxony-Anhalt (Witsack and Nickel 2004); VU: Czech Republic (Malenovský and Lauterer 2017).

Host plant: Festuca ovina L. and perhaps also Stipa capillata L. (Nickel 2003b).

Genus Metropis Fieber, 1866

Metropis aris Asche, Drosopoulos & Hoch, 1983

Distribution: 

Greece (Drosopoulos et al. 1983), Slovenia (Seljak 2004, Seljak 2016)

Notes: 

First record for Bulgaria. Strandzha Mt: Goljamo Bukovo vill., 05.v.2009, 1♂. Detailed occurrence data: Gjonov (2022).

Red Lists: No assessment.

Host plant: Unknown.

Genus Oncodelphax Wagner, 1963

Oncodelphax pullula (Boheman, 1852)

Distribution: 

Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia (Karelia and Leningrad Region) (Söderman et al. 2009), Poland (Gębicki et al. 2013),Germany (Nickel and Remane 2003), Great Britain, Ireland, France, Belgium, Switzerland (Della Giustina 2019), Belarus (Borodin 2004), Austria (Kunz and Plank 2002), Czech Republic (Malenovský et al. 2014), Slovenia (Seljak 2016), Hungary (Asche 1982a), Romania (Orosz and Tóth 2016).

Notes: 

First record for Bulgaria. Strandzha Mt: Goljamo Bukovo vill., 05.v.2009, 10♂♂ and 7♀ (Fig. 3). Detailed occurrence data: Gjonov (2022).

Figure 3.  

Oncodelphax pullula (Boheman, 1852), male - Bulgaria, Strandzha Mt.

Red Lists: EN: Carinthia (Austria) (Holzinger 1999), Bavaria (Nickel 2003a), Saxony (Walter et al. 2003), Saxony-Anhalt (Witsack and Nickel 2004), Austria (Holzinger 2009), Germany (Nickel et al. 2016), Watercourses and Springs on the Hoher Trauchberg, Eastern Allgäu/Bavarian Alps (Bückle and Guglielmino 2011); VU: Czech Republic’s Red List (Malenovský and Lauterer 2017).

Host plant: Mainly Carex nigra (L.) Reichard (Nickel 2003b).

Genus Ribautodelphax Wagner, 1963

Ribautodelphax imitans (Ribaut, 1953)

Distribution: 

Great Britain (Le Quesne and Payne 1981), Belgium (Della Giustina 2019), Netherlands (den Bieman and Mol 2010), Luxembourg (Niedringhaus et al. 2010a), Switzerland (Mühlethaler et al. 2018), Germany (Nickel and Remane 2002), Poland (Gębicki et al. 2013), Spain (Aguin-Pombo et al. 2007), France (den Bieman 1987), Italy (Guglielmino et al. 2005, Guglielmino and Bückle 2008, Carl 2008), Austria (Holzinger 1996b, Holzinger et al. 2020), Czech Republic (Malenovský and Lauterer 2010, Malenovský and Lauterer 2012), Hungary (Györffy et al. 2009), Romania (Orosz and Tóth 2016), Slovenia (Holzinger and Seljak 2001), Croatia (Nast 1987), Greece (den Bieman 1987), Kazakhstan (Mitjaev 2015).

Notes: 

First record for Bulgaria. Sarnena Sredna Gora Mt: Prjaporets vill., 14.viii.2020, 1♂. Detailed occurrence data: Gjonov (2022).

Red Lists: EN: Bavaria (Nickel 2003a); VU: Austria (Holzinger 2009).

Host plant: Festuca arundinacea Schreb. subsp. fenas (Lag.) Arcang. (den Bieman 1987).

Ribautodelphax pungens (Ribaut, 1953)

Distribution: 

Sweden (Söderman et al. 2009), Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, France, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia (Della Giustina 2019), Luxembourg (Niedringhaus et al. 2010a), Poland (Gębicki et al. 2013), Russia (European parts) (Smirnova and Anufriev 2014), Great Britain (Le Quesne and Payne 1981), Switzerland (Mühlethaler et al. 2018), Spain (Aguin-Pombo et al. 2007), France (Corsica) (Bonfils and Della Giustina 1978), Italy (Guglielmino et al. 2005, Guglielmino and Bückle 2008), Austria (Holzinger 1996b, Kunz and Plank 2002), Czech Republic (Malenovský 2006, Malenovský et al. 2011), Hungary (Orosz 2009), Greece (den Bieman 1988).

Notes: 

First record for Bulgaria. Sarnena Sredna Gora: Prjaporets vill., 14.viii.2020, 1♂; Eastern Rhodopes: Kokiche vill., 06.v.2003, 1♂; Strandzha Mt: Izgrev vill., Marina reka loc., 08.v.2009, 2♂♂ and 2♀♀. Detailed occurrence data: Gjonov (2022).

Red Lists: EN: Saxony (Walter et al. 2003).

Host plant: different Brachypodium species (den Bieman 1987); monophagous on Brachypodium pinnatum (L.) P. Beauv (Nickel 2003b).

Genus Stenocranus Fieber, 1866

Stenocranus major (Kirschbaum, 1868)

Distribution: 

Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Latvia (Söderman et al. 2009), Ireland, Great Britain, Belgium, Switzerland, Ukraine, Spain, France (Della Giustina 2019), Netherlands (den Bieman 1993, den Bieman et al. 2021), Russia (European parts) (Anufriev and Bayanov 2002, Söderman et al. 2009), Belarus (Borodin 2004), Luxembourg (Niedringhaus et al. 2010a), Poland (Gębicki et al. 2013), Czech Republic (Dlabola 1954), Germany (Nickel and Remane 2003), Italy (D'Urso 1995, Guglielmino et al. 2005), Austria (Holzinger 1996b, Kunz 2010), Hungary (Asche 1982a), Romania (Popa and Popa 2002), Slovenia (Holzinger and Seljak 2001), ex-Yugoslavia (Asche 1982b), Serbia (Cvrković et al. 2010, Cvrković et al. 2011), Iran (Mozaffarian and Wilson 2011), Kyrgyzstan (Anufriev 2002), Malaysia (Bartlett 2009).

Notes: 

First record for Bulgaria. Western Pre-Balkan: Belgradchishki Skali, 03.v.2015, 1♂; Western Stara Planina: Slivnitsa vill., Aldomirovsko Blato, 18.iii.2017, 3♂♂ and 10♀♀; same location, 10.vii.2011, 1♂; Middle Stara Planina: Divchovoto vill., 08.v.2015, 1♂ and 1♀. Detailed occurrence data: Gjonov (2022).

Red Lists: It is assessed as not endangered in some countries of Central Europe.

Host plant: Phalaris arundinacea L. (Nickel 2003b).

Genus Tropidocephala Stal, 1853

Tropidocephala andropogonis Horváth, 1895

Distribution: 

Slovakia (Dlabola 1950), Hungary (Horváth 1895), Czech Republic (Dlabola 1977), ex-Yugoslavia (Nast 1972), Bulgaria (Asche 1982b), Greece (Drosopoulos 1982a, Drosopoulos 1982b), Turkey (Dlabola 1981).

Notes: 

First exact locality data for Bulgaria. Lozenska Mt: Dolni Pasarel vill., 16.vi.2014, 2♂; Vlahina Mt: above Boboshevo, Jana hut, 11.v.2010, 1♂; Eastern Rhodopes: Valkovich vill., 24.v.2014, 4♀♀ (Fig. 4). Strandzha Mt: Goljamo Bukovo vill., 05.v.2009, 1♂; Izgrev vill., 09.v.2012, 1♂ and 2♀. Detailed occurrence data: Gjonov (2022).

Figure 4.

Tropidocephala andropogonis Horváth, 1895 - Bulgaria, Eastern Rhodope Mts.

amale  
bfemale  

Red Lists: No assessment.

Host plant: Chrysopogon gryllus (L.) Trin., 1820 (Horváth 1895, Drosopoulos et al. 1983), also rcorded on Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng (Drosopoulos 1982a).

Family Dictyopharidae Spinola, 1839

Genus Dictyophara Germar, 1833

Dictyophara pannonica (Germar, 1830)

Distribution: 

Italy (doubtful) (D'Urso 1995, Lessio and Alma 2008), Slovakia (Dlabola 1977), Hungary (Guglielmino et al. 2013), Romania (Orosz and Tóth 2016), Bulgaria (Nast 1987), Russia (South European Russia, Western Siberia), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia (Mitjaev 2015), Ukraine (Logvinenko 1975), Georgia (Dlabola 1958), Turkey (Dlabola 1957), NW China (Song and Liang 2008).

Notes: 

First exact locality data for Bulgaria. Kozhuh Hill: Rupite vill., 11.ix.2021, 2♀♀ (Fig. 5); Western Rhodopes: Novo selo vill., Besaparski Hills, 24.vii.2010, 2♂; same place, 07.vii.2012, 1 nymph; same place, 14.vii.2018, 1♂, 1♀ and 1 nymph; Eastern Rhodopes: Pastrook vill., 04.iv.2012, 1♀. Detailed occurrence data: Gjonov (2022).

Figure 5.

Dictyophara pannonica (Germar, 1830) - Bulgaria, Kozhuh hill.

alateral view  
bdorsal view  

Red Lists: No assessment.

Host plant: Polyphagous (Emel'yanov 1967).

Family Issidae Spinola, 1839

Genus Latilica Emeljanov, 1971

Latilica maculipes (Melichar, 1906)

Distribution: 

Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, France, Greece, Israel, Italy including the islands, Palestine, Russia (South European parts), Slovenia, Turkey, Crimea (Gnezdilov et al. 2014), Hungary (Korányi et al. 2018), Corsica (Albre and Gibernau 2019).

Notes: 

First record for Bulgaria. Northern Black Sea coast: Varna, Morska gradina, 04.viii.2016, 2♂♂ and 1♀; Aksakovo vill., Pobiti kamani loc., 03.viii.2016, 5♂♂, 3♀♀ and 1 nymph; Southern Black Sea coast: Sinemorec vill., the mouth of Veleka River, 15.viii.2010, 1♂; Atia vill., 22.viii.2016, 1♂; Strandzha Mt: Pismenovo vill., 12.viii.2021, 1♂ (Fig. 6). Detailed occurrence data: Gjonov (2022).

Figure 6.  

Latilica maculipes (Melichar, 1906) - Bulgaria, Varna

Red Lists: No assessment.

Host plant: Polyphagous, arboreal (Korányi et al. 2018).

Genus Tshurtshurnella Kusnezov, 1927

Tshurtshurnella extrema Dalbola, 1980

Distribution: 

Turkey, near Ankara (Dlabola 1980, Kartal 1985) and Sinop (Tanyeri and Zeybekoğlu 2021)

Notes: 

First record for Bulgaria and Europe. Eastern Sub-Balkan Basins: Ajtos, 01.viii.2016, 2♂♂, 2♀♀ and 3 nymphs; (Fig. 7) on or near Astracantha arnacantha subsp. aitosensis (Ivan.) Reer & Podlech. Detailed occurrence data: Gjonov (2022).

Figure 7.

Tshurtshurnella extrema Dlabola, 1980 - Bulgaria, Ajtos

alateral view  
bdorsal view of the head  

Red Lists: No assessment.

Host plant: Poaceae (Dlabola 1980). All specimens reported here were collected on Astracantha arnacantha subsp. aitosensis or near it.

Discussion

In the current study, a list of 13 Fulgoromorpha species recorded for the first time for Bulgaria has been compiled. They are members of the families Cixiidae (one species) - Hyalesthes mlokosiewiczi, Delphacidae (10 species) - Delphax armeniacus, Euides speciosa, Eurysula lurida, Florodelphax paryphasma, Jassidaeus lugubris, Metropis aris, Oncodelphax pullula, Ribautodelphax imitans, R. pungens, Stenocranus major and Issidae (two species) - Latilica maculipes and Tshurtshurnella extrema. Additionally, the first exact localities for two species, Tropidocephala andropogonis (Delphacidae) and Dictyophara pannonica (Dictyopharidae), are reported for Bulgaria. Species of the following five genera have not been previously known in Bulgaria: Euides, Eurysula, Jassidaeus, Oncodelphax (Delphacidae) and Latilica (Issidae).

As a result of the study, the total numbers of known planthopper species, genera and families in Bulgaria are now 177, 82 and 13, respectively. Although the diverse Fulgoromorpha fauna in Bulgaria has been reported so far, at least fifteen more species are expected to be discovered.

The new data significantly expand the known ranges of several species, such as H. mlokosiewichi, O. pullula, D. armenicaus and T. extrema. The easternmost distribution of H. mlokosiewichi (which has been found for the first time on the Balkan Peninsula) and the southernmost distribution of O. pullula have been established. The species D. armenicaus, which has been found mainly in Central Asia and the Caucasus, but is also known in Greece, is found on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. T. extrema was first recorded outside of Anatolia, along with the first data on its host plant.

Seven of the listed species have conservation status in Central Europe, where such assessments have been carried out. The conservation status of most of the other species has never been evaluated as they are not spread in the countries where such assessments were carried out. This emphasises the need to assess the conservation status of Fulgoromorpha in Bulgaria.

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the National Science Fund, Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Bulgaria, Grant KP-06-M31/4. Sincere thanks are due to Prof. Vladimir Gnezdilov (Institute of Zoology, RAS, Saint Petersburg, Russia) for help in the identification of Tshurtshurnella extrema Dlabola, 1980 and to Prof. Alexandr Emeljanov (Institute of Zoology, RAS, Saint Petersburg, Russia) and Kees den Bieman (Ulvenhout, The Netherlands) for the literature provided. I am indebted to the reviewers Charles Bartlett, Thierry Bourgoin and Jacek Szwedo and the editor J. Adilson Pinedo-Escatel for providing helpful comments, improvements and linguistic assistance.

References