Biodiversity Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
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Data Paper (Biosciences)
Spatial and temporal distribution dataset of benthic macroalgae during the 2015-2016 tropical monsoonal cycle in Malaysia
expand article infoNur Farah Ain Zainee, Mohammad Rozaimi
‡ Department of Earth Sciences and Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia
Open Access

Abstract

Background

The effects of small-scale disturbances, such as monsoon, are understudied in tropical regions. The storms associated with monsoon events not only modify the local macroalgal community structure, but also reveal the continuation of short-term recolonisation. Thus, this study aims to determine the variation in species, assemblage and cover of macroalgae during the monsoonal cycle from 2015 to 2016. This paper presents data on the spatial and temporal distribution of benthic macroalgae along the coastline of Johor, Malaysia. The information is presented as raw and partially-processed data, which summarises the cover and frequency of macroalgae at the respective study sites. This paper describes an important set of data that can be used further for in-situ experiments on the effects of environmental disturbances towards pioneer and climax species in tropical areas.

New information

This study provides a description of the east coast shore of Peninsular Malaysia, specifically in Johor coast in 2015-2016. The spatial and temporal distribution and abundance of a total of 41 taxa were assessed at four monsoon-exposed locations. These data provide a comprehensive baseline against disturbance and recolonisation of macroalgal community can be effectively and objectively evaluated.

Keywords

abundance, occurrence, seaweed, specimen

Introduction

Environmental stress, such as disturbance, occurs over a short period of time and results in significant changes in the ecosystem. Many ecosystems and species evolve in response to particular environmental disturbances that create patches of disturbed habitat and play a significant role in controlling such things as life cycles, food, nutrient supply and habitat availability (Kroeker et al. 2020). Community structure in the disturbed area creates variability at spatial and temporal scales, including in terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems (Turner 2010). In Malaysia, monsoonal storms are the primary annual storms associated with local changes in rainfall, wave, current and wind speed intensities (Satari et al. 2015). Monsoonal storm activities, such as wave impact, heavy winds and strong currents affect the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia, specifically Johor which is located in the southern region of Peninsular Malaysia. The coastline features vary from being very exposed to very sheltered and, therefore, impact the delicate marine macrophytes that reside along the coastline, such as macroalgae (Lindenmayer and Fischer 2007).

The existence of macroalgae is usually species-specific as most species require specific conditions for colonising their respective habitats (Zainee et al. 2019b). Dominant macroalgal species can be found attached to any available substrate including in water puddles on the surface of artificial substrate, such as sea wall rocks (Zainee et al. 2019a). However, the effect of monsoon reduces the macroalgal productivity through modification and destruction of their habitat (Kim et al. 2017). These events will not only pull away the early coloniser, fleshy and delicate macroalgal (such as Chaetomorpa spp.), but also affect the climax macroalgal community that have strongly-attached holdfasts, such as Sargassum (Zainee and Rozaimi 2020). Once the actual disturbance event is finished, the succession process begins and favours those that are opportunistic in nature (e.g. Suding et al. 2004), which may eventually produce a similar ecosystem to the one that existed prior to the monsoon disturbance. Some of the disturbances events relating to macroalgal community are those related to small scale environmental events in general (e.g. Kendrick et al. 2004, Kim et al. 2017, Prathep et al. 2008), whereas others are specific to large scale disturbances such as hurricane and tsunami (Prathep et al. 2008, Wilson et al. 2020). Therefore, more comprehensive studies are needed to obtain data on the impacts of monsoons on the macroalgal community.

Thus, this data paper presents the dataset on the immediate impact of monsoon on the eastern coast of Johor. The temporal and spatial data include the changes in cover and frequency of benthic macroalgae in the area, demonstrating variation in macroalgae diversity over the 14-months study period. Such data allow further in-situ experiments on the effect of environmental disturbances towards pioneer and climax species. Besides, substratum- and habitat-specificity of the macroalgae species is presented, which allows insights into assessing macroalgal abundances. In conclusion, the data serve as part of a larger assessment effort and the dataset synthesises the results of macroalgal diversity work done in the eastern coastal waters of Johor (Malaysia).

Project description

Title: 

Spatial and temporal distribution dataset of benthic macroalgae during the 2015-2016 tropical monsoonal cycle in Malaysia

Sampling methods

Study extent: 

Sampling activity was conducted in four locations in the eastern Johor coastline: Pantai Pasir Lanun, Pulau Mawar, Telok Gorek and Tanjung Lompat (Fig. 1). Pantai Pasir Lanun is located at the tip of a foreland with a relatively straight coastline, predominantly featuring hard substrates composed of large areas of coral rubble and boulders. Pulau Mawar is characterised by a shallow-elevated sandy terrain with small patches of mangrove trees and coral rubble. Telok Gorek is located within an indented bay, covered with mangrove trees and sheltered from the foreland. Tanjung Lompat consists of a foreland and an extensive bay, characterised by boulder-pebbles on the foreland and a shallow sandy bay.

Figure 1.  

Locations of collected macroalgae along the Johor coast: (1) Pantai Pasir Lanun; (2) Pulau Mawar; (3) Telok Gorek; and (4) Tanjung Lompat.

Sampling description: 

Sampling was undertaken from January 2015 until February 2016 during the lowest tide of the month (Table 1). Transects were placed randomly, taken to represent the macroalgae cover and frequency at each site. The quadrats were placed alternately at every 1 metre of the 25-metre transect line. Initially, the macroalgae that were found inside the quadrat were recorded, identified and inventoried according to the type of species, percentage of cover and percentage of frequency (Suppl. material 1). The types of substratum attached by macroalgae were noted as representing the habitat specificity of the macroalgae (Table 2). The raw data of cover and frequency were calculated by multiplying the vertical count of every species to the five levels of multiplier and the total number of sub-quadrat from the nine transect lines with a total of 234 quadrats (Suppl. materials 2, 3, 4, 5). The cover of every species of macroalgae was then analysed by summing the percentage cover value of prostrate and erect parts of the macroalgae in each sub-quadrat (10 cm × 10 cm) after Saito and Atobe (1970) (Suppl. material 6). The percentage frequency of macroalgae was obtained by calculating the total number of squares (qn) in which the species occurred, divided by the total number of small squares in the quadrat (= 25) and multiplied by 100 (Suppl. materials 2, 3, 4, 5). A pre-analytical view of the percentage cover and frequency data of macroalgae is visualised in Fig. 2.

Table 1.

Coordinate, types of shore, coastline feature, types of vegetation and date of sampling of every study site.

Descriptions

Tanjung Lompat

Telok Gorek

Pulau Mawar

Pantai Pasir Lanun

Latitude, Longitude

1°36'10"N, 104°15'17"E

2°18' 37"N, 103°57'31"E

2°37'08"N, 103°47'01"E

2°38'52"N, 103°45'29"E

Types of shore

sandy, rocky

sandy

sandy

sandy, rocky

Coastline feature

bay

foreland

foreland

foreland

Vegetation

-

mangrove

mangrove

-

Date of sampling

10-Jan-15

21-Jan-15

22-Jan-15

23-Jan-15

8-Feb-15

19-Feb-15

20-Feb-15

21-Feb-15

10-Mar-15

20-Mar-15

21-Mar-15

22-Mar-15

8-Apr-15

19-Apr-15

20-Apr-15

21-Apr-15

8-May-15

19-May-15

20-May-15

21-May-15

8-Jun-15

17-Jun-15

18-Jun-15

19-Jun-15

6-Jul-15

31-Jul-15

31-Jul-15

31-Jul-15

29-Aug-15

30-Aug-15

30-Aug-15

31-Aug-15

1-Aug-15

14-Sep-15

14-Sep-15

15-Sep-15

26-Oct-15

27-Oct-15

28-Oct-15

29-Oct-15

14-Nov-15

25-Nov-15

26-Nov-15

27-Nov-15

15-Dec-15

26-Dec-15

27-Dec-15

28-Dec-15

14-Jan-16

26-Jan-16

27-Jan-16

28-Jan-16

13-Feb-16

24-Feb-16

25-Feb-16

26-Feb-16

Table 2.

Life form of macroalgae and mode of substrate attachment (1 indicates the life-form of each species; N = natural substratum; A = artificial substratum; a = epilithic; b = epipsamonic; c = epizoic; d = epipelic; e = epiphytic; f = ropes; g = gunny fibres; h = fishing net).

Species list

N_a

N_b

N_c

N_d

N_e

A_f

A_g

A_h

Green algae

Caulerpa racemosa

1

1

Cladophoropsis membranacea

1

1

1

1

Chaetomorpha aerea

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

C. crassa

1

C. ligustica

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

C. linum

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

C. minima

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Cladophora stimpsonii

1

C. vagabunda

1

Valonia aegagropila

1

Acetabularia acetabulum

1

Ulva clathrata

1

1

1

U. intestinalis

1

1

Brown algae

Dictyopteris delicatula

1

Canistrocarpus cervicornis

1

1

Dictyota mertensii

1

D. dichotoma

1

Padina australis

1

1

P. boergesenii

P. minor

1

1

Sargassum oligocystum

1

1

S. paniculatum

1

1

S. polycystum

1

S. microcystum

1

S. tenerrimum

1

Red algae

Acanthophora muscoides

1

A. spicifera

1

Polysiphonia coacta

1

Amphiroa fragilissima

1

1

Jania adhaerens

1

Pterocladiella caloglossoides

1

1

Chondrus crispus

1

Hypnea cervicornis

1

1

H. spinella

1

Gracilaria arcuata

1

1

1

G. blodgetti

1

1

G. bursa-pastoris

1

1

Crassiphycus changii

1

G. coronopifolia

1

1

1

G. salicornia

1

1

Galaxaura rugosa

1

Ceratodictyon intricatum

1

1

1

Figure 2.  

Pre-analytical view of percentage (a) cover and (b) frequency of macroalgae observed at the eastern coast of Johor during 2015-2016 observations.

Quality control: 

All scientific names are morphologically identified according to Ismail (1995), Trono and Ganzon-Fortes (1988), Zainee et al. (2018) and Zainee et al. (2019a) and are standardised according to Guiry and Guiry (2021) and WoRMS Editorial Board (2021).

Step description: 
  1. In-situ identification of species and destructive collection for first-time observed samples and preservation in formaldehyde,
  2. Non-destructive sampling (except for filamentous algae that need microscopic observation in the laboratory) at four study sites,
  3. Photography, sorting, cleaning and preparation of herbarium specimens,
  4. Conversion of paper-based records from the field and laboratory into an electronic data format (Excel spreadsheets),
  5. Organising the datasets into a standardised format,
  6. Standardisation of taxonomy using the World Register of Marine Species and AlgaeBase,
  7. Export of data as a DarwinCore Archive and
  8. Generation of dataset-level metadata.

Geographic coverage

Description: 

Sampling was undertaken along four major shore stretches of the entire coast of east Johor, covering approximately 180 km from Desaru to Mersing. The eastern coast of Johor extends approximately 175 km from Teluk Lipat (i.e. Lipat Bay) to the north and Teluk Ramunia to the south.

Coordinates: Pantai Pasir Lanun (02°38'52"N, 103°45'29"E), Pulau Mawar (02°37'08"N, 103°47'01"E), Telok Gorek (02°18'37"N, 103°57'31"E), Tanjung Lompat (01°36'10"N, 104°15'17"E).

Coordinates: 

1.197 and 2.757 Latitude; 102.48 and 104.546 Longitude.

Taxonomic coverage

Description: 

We report the identification of marine algae species from rhodophytes, chlorophytes and phaeophytes.

Taxa included:
Rank Scientific Name
class Ulvophyceae
class Phaeophyceae
class Florideophyceae
order Bryopsidales
order Cladophorales
order Dasycladales
order Ulvales
order Dictyotales
order Fucales
order Ceramiales
order Corallinales
order Gelidiales
order Gigartinales
order Gracilariales
order Nemaliales
order Rhodymeniales
family Rhodomelaceae
family Lithophyllaceae
family Corallinaceae
family Pterocladiaceae
family Gigartinaceae
family Galaxauraceae
family Gracilariaceae
family Cystocloniaceae
family Lomentariaceae
family Dictyotaceae
family Sargassaceae
family Polyphysaceae
family Caulerpaceae
family Cladophoraceae
family Boodleaceae
family Ulvaceae
family Valoniaceae
species Caulerpa racemosa
species Cladophoropsis membranacea
species Chaetomorpha aerea
species Chaetomorpha crassa
species Chaetomorpha ligustica
species Chaetomorpha linum
species Chaetomorpha minima
species Cladophora stimpsonii
species Cladophora vagabunda
species Valonia aegagropila
species Acetabularia acetabulum
species Ulva clathrata
species Ulva intestinalis
species Dictyopteris delicatula
species Canistrocarpus cervicornis
species Dictyota mertensii
species Dictyota dichotoma
species Padina australis
species Padina boergesenii
species Padina minor
species Sargassum oligocystum
species Sargassum paniculatum
species Sargassum polycystum
species Sargassum microcystum
species Sargassum tenerrimum
species Acanthophora muscoides
species Acanthophora spicifera
species Polysiphonia coacta
species Amphiroa fragilissima
species Jania adhaerens
species Pterocladiella caloglossoides
species Chondrus crispus
species Hypnea cervicornis
species Hypnea spinella
species Gracilaria arcuata
species Gracilaria bursa-pastoris
species Crassiphycus changii
species Gracilaria coronopifolia
species Gracilaria salicornia
species Galaxaura rugosa
species Ceratodictyon intricatum

Temporal coverage

Notes: 

2015-01-10 through 2016-02-26

Collection data

Collection name: 
Plantae
Specimen preservation method: 
dried and pressed, microscopic preparation

Usage licence

Usage licence: 
Open Data Commons Attribution License
IP rights notes: 

To the extent possible under law, the publisher has waived all rights to these data and has dedicated them to the Open Data Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and sources are credited.

Data resources

Data package title: 
Spatial and temporal distribution dataset of benthic macroalgae during the 2015-2016 tropical monsoonal cycle in Malaysia
Number of data sets: 
1
Data set name: 
Spatial and temporal distribution dataset of benthic macroalgae during the 2015-2016 tropical monsoonal cycle in Malaysia
Data format: 
Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A)
Data format version: 
1.5
Description: 

This data paper presents the dataset on the inventory of macroalgae during the monsoonal storm cycle of 2015-2016 at the selected sites along the eastern coast of Johor, Malaysia. In particular, we focused on recording the occurrence of every species at the selected sites over the 14-months study period. Besides, substratum- and habitat-specificity of the macroalgae species is presented, which allows insights into assessing macroalgal abundances. In conclusion, the data serve as part of a larger assessment effort and the dataset synthesises the results of macroalgal diversity work done in the eastern coastal waters of Johor (Malaysia).

Column label Column description
id Same as OccurrenceID.
type The nature or genre of the resource.
language A language of the resource.
datasetName The name identifying the dataset from which the record was derived.
basisofRecord The specific nature of the data record.
occurenceID An identifier for the Occurrence (as opposed to a particular digital record of the occurrence).
recordedBy A list of names of peoples responsible for recording the original Occurrence.
individualCount The number of individuals present at the time of the Occurrence.
organismQuantity A number or enumeration value for the quantity of organisms.
organismQuantityType The type of quantification system used for the quantity of organisms.
behaviour The behaviour shown by the subject at the time the Occurrence was recorded.
occurenceStatus A statement about the presence or absence of a Taxon at a Location.
preparations A list (concatenated and separated) of preparations and preservation methods for a specimen.
disposition The current state of a specimen with respect to the collection identified in collectionCode or collectionID.
occurenceRemarks Comments or notes about the Occurrence.
eventDate The date-time or interval during which an Event occurred.
habitat A category or description of the habitat in which the Event occurred.
sampling protocol The names of, references to, or descriptions of the methods or protocols used during an Event.
sampleSizeValue A numeric value for a measurement of the size (time duration, length, area or volume) of a sample in a sampling event.
sampleSizeUnit The unit of measurement of the size (time duration, length, area or volume) of a sample in a sampling event.
samplingEffort The amount of effort expended during an Event.
eventRemarks Comments or notes about the Event.
waterBody The name of the water body in which the Location occurs.
country The name of the country or major administrative unit in which the Location occurs.
stateProvince The name of the next smaller administrative region than country (state, province, canton, department, region etc.) in which the Location occurs.
locality The specific description of the place.
locationRemarks Comments or notes about the Location.
decimalLatitude The geographic latitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic centre of a Location.
decimalLongitude The geographic longitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic centre of a Location.
geodeticDatum The ellipsoid, geodetic datum or spatial reference system (SRS) upon which the geographic coordinates given in decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude are based.
coordinateUncertainty in metres The horizontal distance (in metres) from the given decimalLatitude and decimalLongitude describing the smallest circle containing the whole of the Location.
identifiedBy A list (concatenated and separated) of names of people, groups or organisations who assigned the Taxon to the subject.
dateIdentified The date on which the subject was determined as representing the Taxon.
identificationReferences A list of references (publication, global unique identifier, URI) used in the Identification.
identificationRemarks Comments or notes about the Identification.
acceptedNameUsageID An identifier for the name usage (documented meaning of the name according to a source) of the currently valid (zoological) or accepted (botanical) taxon.
scientificName The full scientific name, with authorship and date information, if known.
parentNameUsage The full name, with authorship and date information, if known, of the direct, most proximate higher-rank parent taxon (in a classification) of the most specific element of the scientificName.
kingdom The full scientific name of the kingdom in which the taxon is classified.
phylum The full scientific name of the phylum or division in which the taxon is classified.
class The full scientific name of the class in which the taxon is classified.
order The full scientific name of the order in which the taxon is classified.
family The full scientific name of the family in which the taxon is classified.
taxonRank The taxonomic rank of the most specific name in the scientificName.
scientificNameAuthorship The authorship information for the scientificName formatted according to the conventions of the applicable nomenclaturalCode.
taxonomicStatus The status of the use of the scientificName as a label for a taxon.
lifeStage The age class or life stage of the Organisms at the time the Occurrence was recorded.
reproductiveCondition The reproductive condition of the biological individuals is represented in Occurrence.

Additional information

A total of 41 taxa were identified: three Groups (Rhodophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Clorophyceae), 17 Family (Rhodomelaceae, Lithophyllaceae, Corallinaceae, Pterocladiaceae, Gigartinaceae, Galaxauraceae, Gracilariaceae, Cystocloniaceae, Lomentariaceae, Dictyotaceae, Sargassaceae, Polyphysaceae, Caulerpaceae, Cladophoraceae, Boodleaceae, Ulvaceae and Valoniaceae) (Zainee and Rozaimi 2020). A description of number of taxa of each Order is presented in Suppl. material 7. Overall, our study sites in Tanjung Lompat had a higher number of species (31 species) per sites, followed by Telok Gorek (nine species) and Pantai Pasir Lanun (eight species). Pulau Mawar had the lowest number of species, five species (Zainee and Rozaimi 2020). Our findings presented significant changes in species composition due to the effects of the monsoon event.

Acknowledgements

We thank Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmad Ismail, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Asmida Ismail and Mr. Mohamed Effendi Taip for assistance during research and the staff of Marine Ecosystem Research Centre, EKOMAR UKM for providing facilities for the research. Data curation and manuscript preparation were supported through the grant number DPK-2021-009. Fieldwork, laboratory work and initial data processing was funded by the research university grant GUP-2016-055 and MyBrain Scholarship awarded to the first author by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. Final data curation and manuscript preparation were funded by the grant DIP-2021-021.

Author contributions

Nur Farah Ain Zainee: Conceptualisation; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Validation; Writing - original draft & editing.

Mohammad Rozaimi: Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Project administration; Supervision; Validation; Roles/Writing - original draft, review & editing.

References

Supplementary materials

Suppl. material 1: Percent cover and frequency of macroalgae along the eastern coast of Johor 
Authors:  Zainee, N.F.A. and Rozaimi, M.
Data type:  abundance
Brief description: 

Percent cover and frequency of macroalgae along the eastern coast of Johor were recorded from January 2015 to February 2016. The sub-ranges from 1-25 m refer to the points along the transect line (%C: percentage of cover; %F : percentage of frequency; NF: species not found along the replicate lines). This Table presents the spatial and temporal abundance of macroalgae from four different localities in the east coast of Johor, Malaysia. Percentage of cover and frequency of every species were recorded along the 25 m line transect which is grouped into 5 m intervals.

Suppl. material 2: Raw data of cover and frequency of macroalgae recorded at Pantai Pasir Lanun 
Authors:  Zainee, N.F.A. and Rozaimi, M.
Data type:  raw data - abundance
Brief description: 

Raw data of cover and frequency of macroalgae recorded at Pantai Pasir Lanun from January 2015 to February 2016 (TL1-TL9: transect numbers 1 to 9; NF: species not found along the replicate lines). This Table presents raw data of recorded species using five categories of multiplier, along the 25 m line transect and nine replications of transect line.

Suppl. material 3: Raw data of cover and frequency of macroalgae recorded at Pulau Mawar 
Authors:  Zainee, N.F.A. and Rozaimi, M.
Data type:  raw data - abundance
Brief description: 

Raw data of cover and frequency of macroalgae recorded at Pulau Mawar from January 2015 to February 2016 (TL1-TL9: transect number 1 to 9; NF: species not found along the replicate lines). This Table presents raw data of every species using five categories of multiplier, along the 25 m line transect and nine replications of transect line.

Suppl. material 4: Raw data of cover and frequency of macroalgae recorded at Telok Gorek 
Authors:  Zainee, N.F.A. and Rozaimi, M.
Data type:  raw data - abundance
Brief description: 

Raw data of cover and frequency of macroalgae recorded at Telok Gorek from January 2015 to February 2016 (TL1-TL9: transect number 1 to 9; NF: species not found along the replicate lines). This Table presents raw data of every species using five categories of multiplier, along the 25 m line transect and nine replications of transect line.

Suppl. material 5: Raw data of cover and frequency of macroalgae recorded at Tanjung Lompat 
Authors:  Zainee, N.F.A. and Rozaimi, M.
Data type:  raw data - abundance
Brief description: 

Raw data of cover and frequency of macroalgae recorded at Tanjung Lompat from January 2015 to February 2016 (TL1-TL9: transect number 1 to 9; NF: species not found along the replicate lines). This Table presents raw data of every species using five categories of multiplier, along the 25 m line transect and nine replications of transect line.

Suppl. material 6: The 5 categories of multiplier used by Saito and Atobe (1970) 
Authors:  Zainee, N.F.A. and Rozaimi, M.
Data type:  calculation for percent cover and frequency
Brief description: 

The 5 categories of multiplier used by Saito and Atobe (1970) to represent surface area covered by macroalgal species on a small sub-quadrat. This Table illustrates the calculation of the percentage of cover and frequency of macroalgae.

Suppl. material 7: Taxonomic literature of marine macroalgae found in the eastern coast of Johor, Malaysia 
Authors:  Zainee, N.F.A. and Rozaimi, M.
Data type:  taxonomic literature
Brief description: 

This Table presents the taxonomy hierarchy of every macroalgae species found in the east coast of Johor, Malaysia.